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Nature Reviews. Disease Primers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300188/alopecia-areata
#1
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300084/alopecia-areata
#2
REVIEW
C Herbert Pratt, Lloyd E King, Andrew G Messenger, Angela M Christiano, John P Sundberg
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder characterized by transient, non-scarring hair loss and preservation of the hair follicle. Hair loss can take many forms ranging from loss in well-defined patches to diffuse or total hair loss, which can affect all hair-bearing sites. Patchy alopecia areata affecting the scalp is the most common type. Alopecia areata affects nearly 2% of the general population at some point during their lifetime. Skin biopsies of affected skin show a lymphocytic infiltrate in and around the bulb or the lower part of the hair follicle in the anagen (hair growth) phase...
March 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276444/renal-cell-carcinoma
#3
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276433/renal-cell-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
James J Hsieh, Mark P Purdue, Sabina Signoretti, Charles Swanton, Laurence Albiges, Manuela Schmidinger, Daniel Y Heng, James Larkin, Vincenzo Ficarra
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) denotes cancer originated from the renal epithelium and accounts for >90% of cancers in the kidney. The disease encompasses >10 histological and molecular subtypes, of which clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is most common and accounts for most cancer-related deaths. Although somatic VHL mutations have been described for some time, more-recent cancer genomic studies have identified mutations in epigenetic regulatory genes and demonstrated marked intra-tumour heterogeneity, which could have prognostic, predictive and therapeutic relevance...
March 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276432/tuberculosis-drugs-in-the-2016-development-pipeline
#5
Barbara E Laughon, Carol A Nacy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252637/hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Michael P Manns, Maria Buti, Ed Gane, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky, Homie Razavi, Norah Terrault, Zobair Younossi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic RNA virus that causes progressive liver damage, which might result in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Globally, between 64 and 103 million people are chronically infected. Major risk factors for this blood-borne virus infection are unsafe injection drug use and unsterile medical procedures (iatrogenic infections) in countries with high HCV prevalence. Diagnostic procedures include serum HCV antibody testing, HCV RNA measurement, viral genotype and subtype determination and, lately, assessment of resistance-associated substitutions...
March 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252634/hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#7
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230149/neurofibromatosis-type-1
#8
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230061/neurofibromatosis-type-1
#9
REVIEW
David H Gutmann, Rosalie E Ferner, Robert H Listernick, Bruce R Korf, Pamela L Wolters, Kimberly J Johnson
Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a complex autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutations in the NF1 tumour suppressor gene. Nearly all individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 develop pigmentary lesions (café-au-lait macules, skinfold freckling and Lisch nodules) and dermal neurofibromas. Some individuals develop skeletal abnormalities (scoliosis, tibial pseudarthrosis and orbital dysplasia), brain tumours (optic pathway gliomas and glioblastoma), peripheral nerve tumours (spinal neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours), learning disabilities, attention deficits, and social and behavioural problems, which can negatively affect quality of life...
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205574/neuropathic-pain
#10
REVIEW
Luana Colloca, Taylor Ludman, Didier Bouhassira, Ralf Baron, Anthony H Dickenson, David Yarnitsky, Roy Freeman, Andrea Truini, Nadine Attal, Nanna B Finnerup, Christopher Eccleston, Eija Kalso, David L Bennett, Robert H Dworkin, Srinivasa N Raja
Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system, including peripheral fibres (Aβ, Aδ and C fibres) and central neurons, and affects 7-10% of the general population. Multiple causes of neuropathic pain have been described and its incidence is likely to increase owing to the ageing global population, increased incidence of diabetes mellitus and improved survival from cancer after chemotherapy. Indeed, imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory somatosensory signalling, alterations in ion channels and variability in the way that pain messages are modulated in the central nervous system all have been implicated in neuropathic pain...
February 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205570/neuropathic-pain
#11
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179689/narcolepsy
#12
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179647/narcolepsy
#13
REVIEW
Birgitte R Kornum, Stine Knudsen, Hanna M Ollila, Fabio Pizza, Poul J Jennum, Yves Dauvilliers, Sebastiaan Overeem
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder that has a typical onset in adolescence and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, which can have severe consequences for the patient. Problems faced by patients with narcolepsy include social stigma associated with this disease, difficulties in obtaining an education and keeping a job, a reduced quality of life and socioeconomic consequences. Two subtypes of narcolepsy have been described (narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2), both of which have similar clinical profiles, except for the presence of cataplexy, which occurs only in patients with narcolepsy type 1...
February 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179635/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#14
Thomas J Kipps, Freda K Stevenson, Catherine J Wu, Carlo M Croce, Graham Packham, William G Wierda, Susan O'Brien, John Gribben, Kanti Rai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150698/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Mary M Robertson, Valsamma Eapen, Harvey S Singer, Davide Martino, Jeremiah M Scharf, Peristera Paschou, Veit Roessner, Douglas W Woods, Marwan Hariz, Carol A Mathews, Rudi Črnčec, James F Leckman
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by several motor and phonic tics. Tics usually develop before 10 years of age, exhibit a waxing and waning course and typically improve with increasing age. A prevalence of approximately 1% is estimated in children and adolescents. The condition can result in considerable social stigma and poor quality of life, especially when tics are severe (for example, with coprolalia (swearing tics) and self-injurious behaviours) or when GTS is accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or another neuropsychiatric disorder...
February 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150696/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102226/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#17
REVIEW
Thomas J Kipps, Freda K Stevenson, Catherine J Wu, Carlo M Croce, Graham Packham, William G Wierda, Susan O'Brien, John Gribben, Kanti Rai
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5(+) B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all...
January 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102205/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#18
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079115/kidney-stones
#19
Saeed R Khan, Margaret S Pearle, William G Robertson, Giovanni Gambaro, Benjamin K Canales, Steeve Doizi, Olivier Traxer, Hans-Göran Tiselius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079113/congenital-hearing-loss
#20
REVIEW
Anna M H Korver, Richard J H Smith, Guy Van Camp, Mark R Schleiss, Maria A K Bitner-Glindzicz, Lawrence R Lustig, Shin-Ichi Usami, An N Boudewyns
Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss...
January 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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