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Nature Reviews. Disease Primers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929101/hookworm-infection
#1
Alex Loukas, Peter J Hotez, David Diemert, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, James S McCarthy, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, John Croese, Jeffrey M Bethony
Hookworms are soil-transmitted nematode parasites that can reside for many years in the small intestine of their human hosts; Necator americanus is the predominant infecting species. Adult worms feed on the blood of a host and can cause iron deficiency anaemia, especially in high-risk populations (children and women of childbearing age). Almost 500 million people in developing tropical countries are infected, and simulation models estimate that hookworm infection is responsible for >4 million disability-adjusted life years lost annually...
December 8, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929029/hookworm-infection
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905473/carcinogenic-human-papillomavirus-infection
#3
Mark Schiffman, John Doorbar, Nicolas Wentzensen, Silvia de Sanjosé, Carole Fakhry, Bradley J Monk, Margaret A Stanley, Silvia Franceschi
Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are common and transmitted by direct contact. Although the great majority of infections resolve within 2 years, 13 phylogenetically related, sexually transmitted HPV genotypes, notably HPV16, cause - if not controlled immunologically or by screening - virtually all cervical cancers worldwide, a large fraction of other anogenital cancers and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. The carcinogenicity of these HPV types results primarily from the activity of the oncoproteins E6 and E7, which impair growth regulatory pathways...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905405/carcinogenic-hpv-infection
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883004/psoriasis
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883001/psoriasis
#6
Jacqueline E Greb, Ari M Goldminz, James T Elder, Mark G Lebwohl, Dafna D Gladman, Jashin J Wu, Nehal N Mehta, Andrew Y Finlay, Alice B Gottlieb
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder with cutaneous and systemic manifestations and substantial negative effects on patient quality of life. Psoriasis has a strong, albeit polygenic, genetic basis. Whereas approximately half of the accountable genetic effect of psoriasis maps to the major histocompatibility complex, >70 other loci have been identified, many of which implicate nuclear factor-κB, interferon signalling and the IL-23-IL-23 receptor axis. Psoriasis pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and immune cell infiltration in the dermis and epidermis involving the innate and adaptive immune systems, with important roles for dendritic cells and T cells, among other cells...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853154/traumatic-brain-injuries
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#8
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830765/neuroblastoma
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830764/neuroblastoma
#10
Katherine K Matthay, John M Maris, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Akira Nakagawara, Crystal L Mackall, Lisa Diller, William A Weiss
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour occurring in childhood and has a diverse clinical presentation and course depending on the tumour biology. Unique features of these neuroendocrine tumours are the early age of onset, the high frequency of metastatic disease at diagnosis and the tendency for spontaneous regression of tumours in infancy. The most malignant tumours have amplification of the MYCN oncogene (encoding a transcription factor), which is usually associated with poor survival, even in localized disease...
November 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808261/community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#11
Diederik van de Beek, Matthijs Brouwer, Rodrigo Hasbun, Uwe Koedel, Cynthia G Whitney, Eelco Wijdicks
Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma (nosocomial bacterial meningitis). Despite advances in treatment and vaccinations, community-acquired bacterial meningitis remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causative bacteria and are associated with high mortality and morbidity; vaccines targeting these organisms, which have designs similar to the successful vaccine that targets Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis, are now being used in many routine vaccination programmes...
November 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808260/community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784898/tuberculosis
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784885/tuberculosis
#14
Madhukar Pai, Marcel A Behr, David Dowdy, Keertan Dheda, Maziar Divangahi, Catharina C Boehme, Ann Ginsberg, Soumya Swaminathan, Melvin Spigelman, Haileyesus Getahun, Dick Menzies, Mario Raviglione
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Although primarily a pulmonary pathogen, M. tuberculosis can cause disease in almost any part of the body. Infection with M. tuberculosis can evolve from containment in the host, in which the bacteria are isolated within granulomas (latent TB infection), to a contagious state, in which the patient will show symptoms that can include cough, fever, night sweats and weight loss. Only active pulmonary TB is contagious...
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775730/mitochondrial-diseases
#15
Gráinne S Gorman, Patrick F Chinnery, Salvatore DiMauro, Michio Hirano, Yasutoshi Koga, Robert McFarland, Anu Suomalainen, David R Thorburn, Massimo Zeviani, Douglass M Turnbull
Mitochondrial diseases are a group of genetic disorders that are characterized by defects in oxidative phosphorylation and caused by mutations in genes in the nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that encode structural mitochondrial proteins or proteins involved in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial diseases are the most common group of inherited metabolic disorders and are among the most common forms of inherited neurological disorders. One of the challenges of mitochondrial diseases is the marked clinical variation seen in patients, which can delay diagnosis...
October 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775729/mitochondrial-diseases
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734845/osteoarthritis
#17
Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Andrew J Barr, Flavia M Cicuttini, Philip G Conaghan, Cyrus Cooper, Mary B Goldring, Steven R Goldring, Graeme Jones, Andrew J Teichtahl, Jean-Pierre Pelletier
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder, is associated with an increasing socioeconomic impact owing to the ageing population and mainly affects the diarthrodial joints. Primary OA results from a combination of risk factors, with increasing age and obesity being the most prominent. The concept of the pathophysiology is still evolving, from being viewed as cartilage-limited to a multifactorial disease that affects the whole joint. An intricate relationship between local and systemic factors modulates its clinical and structural presentations, leading to a common final pathway of joint destruction...
October 13, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734844/osteoarthritis
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654570/primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#19
Robert N Weinreb, Christopher K S Leung, Jonathan G Crowston, Felipe A Medeiros, David S Friedman, Janey L Wiggs, Keith R Martin
Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy that is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the optic nerve, leading to visual impairment. Glaucoma is the main cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, but typically remains asymptomatic until very severe. Open-angle glaucoma comprises the majority of cases in the United States and western Europe, of which, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type. By contrast, in China and other Asian countries, angle-closure glaucoma is highly prevalent. These two types of glaucoma are characterized based on the anatomic configuration of the aqueous humour outflow pathway...
September 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629598/major-depressive-disorder
#20
Christian Otte, Stefan M Gold, Brenda W Penninx, Carmine M Pariante, Amit Etkin, Maurizio Fava, David C Mohr, Alan F Schatzberg
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease that is characterized by depressed mood, diminished interests, impaired cognitive function and vegetative symptoms, such as disturbed sleep or appetite. MDD occurs about twice as often in women than it does in men and affects one in six adults in their lifetime. The aetiology of MDD is multifactorial and its heritability is estimated to be approximately 35%. In addition, environmental factors, such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse during childhood, are strongly associated with the risk of developing MDD...
September 15, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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