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Nature Reviews. Disease Primers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205574/neuropathic-pain
#1
REVIEW
Luana Colloca, Taylor Ludman, Didier Bouhassira, Ralf Baron, Anthony H Dickenson, David Yarnitsky, Roy Freeman, Andrea Truini, Nadine Attal, Nanna B Finnerup, Christopher Eccleston, Eija Kalso, David L Bennett, Robert H Dworkin, Srinivasa N Raja
Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system, including peripheral fibres (Aβ, Aδ and C fibres) and central neurons, and affects 7-10% of the general population. Multiple causes of neuropathic pain have been described and its incidence is likely to increase owing to the ageing global population, increased incidence of diabetes mellitus and improved survival from cancer after chemotherapy. Indeed, imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory somatosensory signalling, alterations in ion channels and variability in the way that pain messages are modulated in the central nervous system all have been implicated in neuropathic pain...
February 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205570/neuropathic-pain
#2
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179689/narcolepsy
#3
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179647/narcolepsy
#4
REVIEW
Birgitte R Kornum, Stine Knudsen, Hanna M Ollila, Fabio Pizza, Poul J Jennum, Yves Dauvilliers, Sebastiaan Overeem
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder that has a typical onset in adolescence and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, which can have severe consequences for the patient. Problems faced by patients with narcolepsy include social stigma associated with this disease, difficulties in obtaining an education and keeping a job, a reduced quality of life and socioeconomic consequences. Two subtypes of narcolepsy have been described (narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2), both of which have similar clinical profiles, except for the presence of cataplexy, which occurs only in patients with narcolepsy type 1...
February 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179635/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#5
Thomas J Kipps, Freda K Stevenson, Catherine J Wu, Carlo M Croce, Graham Packham, William G Wierda, Susan O'Brien, John Gribben, Kanti Rai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150698/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Mary M Robertson, Valsamma Eapen, Harvey S Singer, Davide Martino, Jeremiah M Scharf, Peristera Paschou, Veit Roessner, Douglas W Woods, Marwan Hariz, Carol A Mathews, Rudi Črnčec, James F Leckman
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by several motor and phonic tics. Tics usually develop before 10 years of age, exhibit a waxing and waning course and typically improve with increasing age. A prevalence of approximately 1% is estimated in children and adolescents. The condition can result in considerable social stigma and poor quality of life, especially when tics are severe (for example, with coprolalia (swearing tics) and self-injurious behaviours) or when GTS is accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or another neuropsychiatric disorder...
February 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150696/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102226/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#8
REVIEW
Thomas J Kipps, Freda K Stevenson, Catherine J Wu, Carlo M Croce, Graham Packham, William G Wierda, Susan O'Brien, John Gribben, Kanti Rai
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5(+) B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all...
19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102205/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#9
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079115/kidney-stones
#10
Saeed R Khan, Margaret S Pearle, William G Robertson, Giovanni Gambaro, Benjamin K Canales, Steeve Doizi, Olivier Traxer, Hans-Göran Tiselius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079113/congenital-hearing-loss
#11
REVIEW
Anna M H Korver, Richard J H Smith, Guy Van Camp, Mark R Schleiss, Maria A K Bitner-Glindzicz, Lawrence R Lustig, Shin-Ichi Usami, An N Boudewyns
Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss...
12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079105/congenital-hearing-loss
#12
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004764/sheehan-syndrome
#13
Züleyha Karaca, Bashir A Laway, Hatice S Dokmetas, Hulusi Atmaca, Fahrettin Kelestimur
Sheehan syndrome or postpartum hypopituitarism is a condition characterized by hypopituitarism due to necrosis of the pituitary gland. The initial insult is caused by massive postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), leading to impaired blood supply to the pituitary gland, which has become enlarged during pregnancy. Small sella turcica size, vasospasms (caused by PPH) and/or thrombosis (associated with pregnancy or coagulation disorders) are predisposing factors; autoimmunity might be involved in the progressive worsening of pituitary functions...
December 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929101/hookworm-infection
#14
Alex Loukas, Peter J Hotez, David Diemert, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, James S McCarthy, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, John Croese, Jeffrey M Bethony
Hookworms are soil-transmitted nematode parasites that can reside for many years in the small intestine of their human hosts; Necator americanus is the predominant infecting species. Adult worms feed on the blood of a host and can cause iron deficiency anaemia, especially in high-risk populations (children and women of childbearing age). Almost 500 million people in developing tropical countries are infected, and simulation models estimate that hookworm infection is responsible for >4 million disability-adjusted life years lost annually...
December 8, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905473/carcinogenic-human-papillomavirus-infection
#15
Mark Schiffman, John Doorbar, Nicolas Wentzensen, Silvia de Sanjosé, Carole Fakhry, Bradley J Monk, Margaret A Stanley, Silvia Franceschi
Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are common and transmitted by direct contact. Although the great majority of infections resolve within 2 years, 13 phylogenetically related, sexually transmitted HPV genotypes, notably HPV16, cause - if not controlled immunologically or by screening - virtually all cervical cancers worldwide, a large fraction of other anogenital cancers and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. The carcinogenicity of these HPV types results primarily from the activity of the oncoproteins E6 and E7, which impair growth regulatory pathways...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883001/psoriasis
#16
Jacqueline E Greb, Ari M Goldminz, James T Elder, Mark G Lebwohl, Dafna D Gladman, Jashin J Wu, Nehal N Mehta, Andrew Y Finlay, Alice B Gottlieb
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder with cutaneous and systemic manifestations and substantial negative effects on patient quality of life. Psoriasis has a strong, albeit polygenic, genetic basis. Whereas approximately half of the accountable genetic effect of psoriasis maps to the major histocompatibility complex, >70 other loci have been identified, many of which implicate nuclear factor-κB, interferon signalling and the IL-23-IL-23 receptor axis. Psoriasis pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and immune cell infiltration in the dermis and epidermis involving the innate and adaptive immune systems, with important roles for dendritic cells and T cells, among other cells...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#17
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830764/neuroblastoma
#18
Katherine K Matthay, John M Maris, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Akira Nakagawara, Crystal L Mackall, Lisa Diller, William A Weiss
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour occurring in childhood and has a diverse clinical presentation and course depending on the tumour biology. Unique features of these neuroendocrine tumours are the early age of onset, the high frequency of metastatic disease at diagnosis and the tendency for spontaneous regression of tumours in infancy. The most malignant tumours have amplification of the MYCN oncogene (encoding a transcription factor), which is usually associated with poor survival, even in localized disease...
November 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808261/community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#19
Diederik van de Beek, Matthijs Brouwer, Rodrigo Hasbun, Uwe Koedel, Cynthia G Whitney, Eelco Wijdicks
Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma (nosocomial bacterial meningitis). Despite advances in treatment and vaccinations, community-acquired bacterial meningitis remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causative bacteria and are associated with high mortality and morbidity; vaccines targeting these organisms, which have designs similar to the successful vaccine that targets Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis, are now being used in many routine vaccination programmes...
November 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784885/tuberculosis
#20
Madhukar Pai, Marcel A Behr, David Dowdy, Keertan Dheda, Maziar Divangahi, Catharina C Boehme, Ann Ginsberg, Soumya Swaminathan, Melvin Spigelman, Haileyesus Getahun, Dick Menzies, Mario Raviglione
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Although primarily a pulmonary pathogen, M. tuberculosis can cause disease in almost any part of the body. Infection with M. tuberculosis can evolve from containment in the host, in which the bacteria are isolated within granulomas (latent TB infection), to a contagious state, in which the patient will show symptoms that can include cough, fever, night sweats and weight loss. Only active pulmonary TB is contagious...
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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