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Nature Reviews. Disease Primers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213943/hepatorenal-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Pere Ginès, Elsa Solà, Paolo Angeli, Florence Wong, Mitra K Nadim, Patrick Kamath
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a form of kidney function impairment that characteristically occurs in cirrhosis. Recent changes in terminology have led to acute HRS being referred to as acute kidney injury (AKI)-HRS and chronic HRS as chronic kidney disease (CKD)-HRS. AKI-HRS is characterized by a severe impairment of kidney function owing to vasoconstriction of the renal arteries in the absence of substantial abnormalities in kidney histology. Pathogenetic mechanisms involve disturbances in circulatory function due to a marked splanchnic arterial vasodilation, which triggers the activation of vasoconstrictor factors...
September 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213935/hepatorenal-syndrome
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190489/wilson-disease
#3
REVIEW
Anna Członkowska, Tomasz Litwin, Petr Dusek, Peter Ferenci, Svetlana Lutsenko, Valentina Medici, Janusz K Rybakowski, Karl Heinz Weiss, Michael L Schilsky
Wilson disease (WD) is a potentially treatable, inherited disorder of copper metabolism that is characterized by the pathological accumulation of copper. WD is caused by mutations in ATP7B, which encodes a transmembrane copper-transporting ATPase, leading to impaired copper homeostasis and copper overload in the liver, brain and other organs. The clinical course of WD can vary in the type and severity of symptoms, but progressive liver disease is a common feature. Patients can also present with neurological disorders and psychiatric symptoms...
September 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190465/wilson-disease
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166534/rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166532/rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Yves Dauvilliers, Carlos H Schenck, Ronald B Postuma, Alex Iranzo, Pierre-Herve Luppi, Giuseppe Plazzi, Jacques Montplaisir, Bradley Boeve
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is characterized by loss of muscle atonia during REM sleep (known as REM sleep without atonia, or RSWA) and abnormal behaviours occurring during REM sleep, often as dream enactments that can cause injury. RBD is categorized as either idiopathic RBD or symptomatic (also known as secondary) RBD; the latter is associated with antidepressant use or with neurological diseases, especially α-synucleinopathies (such as Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy) but also narcolepsy type 1...
August 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30154473/publisher-correction-alcoholic-liver-disease
#7
Helmut K Seitz, Ramon Bataller, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Bin Gao, Antoni Gual, Carolin Lackner, Philippe Mathurin, Sebastian Mueller, Gyongyi Szabo, Hidekazu Tsukamoto
The originally published article contained an error in figure 8 part a, in which cut off values for F3 fibrosis, cirrhosis, and screening for oesophageal varices and HCC were incorrectly presented as <8 kPa, <12.5 kPa and <20 kPa, respectively. These cut off values have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the manuscript to >8 kPa for F3 fibrosis, >12.5 kPa for cirrhosis and >20 kPa for screening for oesophageal varices and HCC.
August 28, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115923/alcoholic-liver-disease
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115921/alcoholic-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
Helmut K Seitz, Ramon Bataller, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Bin Gao, Antoni Gual, Carolin Lackner, Philippe Mathurin, Sebastian Mueller, Gyongyi Szabo, Hidekazu Tsukamoto
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent type of chronic liver disease worldwide. ALD can progress from alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) to alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), which is characterized by hepatic inflammation. Chronic ASH can eventually lead to fibrosis and cirrhosis and in some cases hepatocellular cancer (HCC). In addition, severe ASH (with or without cirrhosis) can lead to alcoholic hepatitis, which is an acute clinical presentation of ALD that is associated with liver failure and high mortality...
August 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093694/schistosomiasis
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093684/schistosomiasis
#11
REVIEW
Donald P McManus, David W Dunne, Moussa Sacko, Jürg Utzinger, Birgitte J Vennervald, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic flatworms (blood flukes) of the genus Schistosoma, with considerable morbidity in parts of the Middle East, South America, Southeast Asia and, particularly, in sub-Saharan Africa. Infective larvae grow in an intermediate host (fresh-water snails) before penetrating the skin of the definitive human host. Mature adult worms reside in the mesenteric (Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum) or pelvic (Schistosoma haematobium) veins, where female worms lay eggs, which are secreted in stool or urine...
August 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093627/omega-3-fatty-acids-are-a-potential-therapy-for-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#12
LETTER
Ahmed Daak, Adrian Rabinowicz, Kebreab Ghebremeskel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072792/cryoglobulinaemia
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072738/cryoglobulinaemia
#14
REVIEW
Dario Roccatello, David Saadoun, Manuel Ramos-Casals, Athanasios G Tzioufas, Fernando C Fervenza, Patrice Cacoub, Anna Linda Zignego, Clodoveo Ferri
Cryoglobulinaemia refers to the serum presence of cryoglobulins, which are defined as immunoglobulins that precipitate at temperatures <37 °C. Type I cryoglobulinaemia consists of only one isotype or subclass of monoclonal immunoglobulin, whereas type II and type III are classified as mixed cryoglobulinaemia because they include immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Many lymphoproliferative, infectious and autoimmune disorders have been associated with mixed cryoglobulinaemia; however, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the aetiologic agent in most patients...
August 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026533/endometriosis
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026507/endometriosis
#16
REVIEW
Krina T Zondervan, Christian M Becker, Kaori Koga, Stacey A Missmer, Robert N Taylor, Paola Viganò
Endometriosis is a common inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of tissue outside the uterus that resembles endometrium, mainly on pelvic organs and tissues. It affects ~5-10% of women in their reproductive years - translating to 176 million women worldwide - and is associated with pelvic pain and infertility. Diagnosis is reliably established only through surgical visualization with histological verification, although ovarian endometrioma and deep nodular forms of disease can be detected through ultrasonography and MRI...
July 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002421/vibrio-spp-infections
#17
REVIEW
Craig Baker-Austin, James D Oliver, Munirul Alam, Afsar Ali, Matthew K Waldor, Firdausi Qadri, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza
Vibrio is a genus of ubiquitous bacteria found in a wide variety of aquatic and marine habitats; of the >100 described Vibrio spp., ~12 cause infections in humans. Vibrio cholerae can cause cholera, a severe diarrhoeal disease that can be quickly fatal if untreated and is typically transmitted via contaminated water and person-to-person contact. Non-cholera Vibrio spp. (for example, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus) cause vibriosis - infections normally acquired through exposure to sea water or through consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood...
July 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002373/vibrio-spp-infections
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977059/ewing-sarcoma
#19
REVIEW
Thomas G P Grünewald, Florencia Cidre-Aranaz, Didier Surdez, Eleni M Tomazou, Enrique de Álava, Heinrich Kovar, Poul H Sorensen, Olivier Delattre, Uta Dirksen
Ewing sarcoma is the second most frequent bone tumour of childhood and adolescence that can also arise in soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma is a highly aggressive cancer, with a survival of 70-80% for patients with standard-risk and localized disease and ~30% for those with metastatic disease. Treatment comprises local surgery, radiotherapy and polychemotherapy, which are associated with acute and chronic adverse effects that may compromise quality of life in survivors. Histologically, Ewing sarcomas are composed of small round cells expressing high levels of CD99...
July 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976985/ewing-sarcoma
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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