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Nature Reviews. Disease Primers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345251/cancer-associated-cachexia
#1
REVIEW
Vickie E Baracos, Lisa Martin, Murray Korc, Denis C Guttridge, Kenneth C H Fearon
Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells...
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345250/cancer-associated-cachexia
#2
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321641/antiphospholipid-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Karen Schreiber, Savino Sciascia, Philip G de Groot, Katrien Devreese, Soren Jacobsen, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastroza, Jane E Salmon, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Ora Shovman, Beverley J Hunt
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, such as lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies. APS can present with a variety of clinical phenotypes, including thrombosis in the veins, arteries and microvasculature as well as obstetrical complications. The pathophysiological hallmark is thrombosis, but other factors such as complement activation might be important. Prevention of thrombotic manifestations associated with APS includes lifestyle changes and, in individuals at high risk, low-dose aspirin...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321639/antiphospholipid-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300005/food-allergy
#5
REVIEW
Harald Renz, Katrina J Allen, Scott H Sicherer, Hugh A Sampson, Gideon Lack, Kirsten Beyer, Hans C Oettgen
Food allergies manifest in a variety of clinical conditions within the gastrointestinal tract, skin and lungs, with the most dramatic and sometimes fatal manifestation being anaphylactic shock. Major progress has been made in basic, translational and clinical research, leading to a better understanding of the underlying immunological mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of clinical and immunological tolerance against food antigens, which can result in either immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reactions or non-IgE-mediated reactions...
January 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300004/food-allergy
#6
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265110/rickets
#7
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265106/rickets
#8
REVIEW
Thomas O Carpenter, Nick J Shaw, Anthony A Portale, Leanne M Ward, Steven A Abrams, John M Pettifor
Rickets is a bone disease associated with abnormal serum calcium and phosphate levels. The clinical presentation is heterogeneous and depends on the age of onset and pathogenesis but includes bowing deformities of the legs, short stature and widening of joints. The disorder can be caused by nutritional deficiencies or genetic defects. Mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in vitamin D metabolism or action, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) production or degradation, renal phosphate handling or bone mineralization have been identified...
December 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239347/chronic-constipation
#9
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Alexander C Ford, Gary M Mawe, Phil G Dinning, Satish S Rao, William D Chey, Magnus Simrén, Anthony Lembo, Tonia M Young-Fadok, Lin Chang
Chronic constipation is a prevalent condition that severely impacts the quality of life of those affected. Several types of primary chronic constipation, which show substantial overlap, have been described, including normal-transit constipation, rectal evacuation disorders and slow-transit constipation. Diagnosis of primary chronic constipation involves a multistep process initiated by the exclusion of 'alarm' features (for example, unintentional weight loss or rectal bleeding) that might indicate organic diseases (such as polyps or tumours) and a therapeutic trial with first-line treatments such as dietary changes, lifestyle modifications and over-the-counter laxatives...
December 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239346/correction-anxiety-disorders
#10
Michelle G Craske, Murray B Stein, Thalia C Eley, Mohammed R Milad, Andrew Holmes, Ronald M Rapee, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrdp.2017.24.
December 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219151/familial-hypercholesterolaemia
#11
REVIEW
Joep C Defesche, Samuel S Gidding, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Robert A Hegele, Raul D Santos, Anthony S Wierzbicki
Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common inherited disorder characterized by abnormally elevated serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from birth, which in time can lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most cases are caused by autosomal dominant mutations in LDLR, which encodes the LDL receptor, although mutations in other genes coding for proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism or LDLR function and processing, such as APOB and PCSK9, can also be causative, although less frequently...
December 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219145/familial-hypercholesterolaemia
#12
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188797/rabies
#13
REVIEW
Anthony R Fooks, Florence Cliquet, Stefan Finke, Conrad Freuling, Thiravat Hemachudha, Reeta S Mani, Thomas Müller, Susan Nadin-Davis, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Henry Wilde, Ashley C Banyard
Rabies is a life-threatening neglected tropical disease: tens of thousands of cases are reported annually in endemic countries (mainly in Africa and Asia), although the actual numbers are most likely underestimated. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with viruses of the Lyssavirus genus, which are transmitted via the saliva of an infected animal. Dogs are the most important reservoir for rabies viruses, and dog bites account for >99% of human cases. The virus first infects peripheral motor neurons, and symptoms occur after the virus reaches the central nervous system...
November 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188794/rabies
#14
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168475/chronic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Paola Romagnani, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Richard Glassock, Adeera Levin, Kitty J Jager, Marcello Tonelli, Ziad Massy, Christoph Wanner, Hans-Joachim Anders
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by persistent urine abnormalities, structural abnormalities or impaired excretory renal function suggestive of a loss of functional nephrons. The majority of patients with CKD are at risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease and death. For those who progress to end-stage renal disease, the limited accessibility to renal replacement therapy is a problem in many parts of the world. Risk factors for the development and progression of CKD include low nephron number at birth, nephron loss due to increasing age and acute or chronic kidney injuries caused by toxic exposures or diseases (for example, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus)...
November 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154369/hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Nassim Kamar, Jacques Izopet, Nicole Pavio, Rakesh Aggarwal, Alain Labrique, Heiner Wedemeyer, Harry R Dalton
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis as well as to extrahepatic manifestations such as neurological and renal disease; it is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Four genotypes are responsible for most infection in humans, of which HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are obligate human pathogens and HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are mostly zoonotic. Until quite recently, HEV was considered to be mainly responsible for epidemics of acute hepatitis in developing regions owing to contamination of drinking water supplies with human faeces...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143807/urinary-incontinence-in-women
#17
Yoshitaka Aoki, Heidi W Brown, Linda Brubaker, Jean Nicolas Cornu, J Oliver Daly, Rufus Cartwright
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrdp.2017.42.
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143806/hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#18
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119972/rotavirus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Sue E Crawford, Sasirekha Ramani, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Lennart Svensson, Marie Hagbom, Manuel A Franco, Harry B Greenberg, Miguel O'Ryan, Gagandeep Kang, Ulrich Desselberger, Mary K Estes
Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age. Despite the global introduction of vaccinations for rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system...
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119965/rotavirus-infection
#20
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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