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Nature Reviews. Disease Primers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770793/pulmonary-embolism
#1
REVIEW
Menno V Huisman, Stefano Barco, Suzanne C Cannegieter, Gregoire Le Gal, Stavros V Konstantinides, Pieter H Reitsma, Marc Rodger, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf, Frederikus A Klok
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is caused by emboli, which have originated from venous thrombi, travelling to and occluding the arteries of the lung. PE is the most dangerous form of venous thromboembolism, and undiagnosed or untreated PE can be fatal. Acute PE is associated with right ventricular dysfunction, which can lead to arrhythmia, haemodynamic collapse and shock. Furthermore, individuals who survive PE can develop post-PE syndrome, which is characterized by chronic thrombotic remains in the pulmonary arteries, persistent right ventricular dysfunction, decreased quality of life and/or chronic functional limitations...
May 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770792/pulmonary-embolism
#2
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749393/correction-paraneoplastic-autoimmune-multiorgan-syndrome-and-paraneoplastic-pemphigus-describe-the-same-spectrum-of-disease-pathology
#3
Aimee S Payne, Michael Kasperkiewicz, Christoph T Ellebrecht, Hayato Takahashi, Jun Yamagami, Detlef Zillikens, Masayuki Amagai
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrdp.2018.13.
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749387/invasive-candidiasis
#4
REVIEW
Peter G Pappas, Michail S Lionakis, Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Bart Jan Kullberg
Invasive candidiasis is an important health-care-associated fungal infection that can be caused by several Candida spp.; the most common species is Candida albicans, but the prevalence of these organisms varies considerably depending on geographical location. The spectrum of disease of invasive candidiasis ranges from minimally symptomatic candidaemia to fulminant sepsis with an associated mortality exceeding 70%. Candida spp. are common commensal organisms in the skin and gut microbiota, and disruptions in the cutaneous and gastrointestinal barriers (for example, owing to gastrointestinal perforation) promote invasive disease...
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749385/invasive-candidiasis
#5
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722353/epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722352/epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Orrin Devinsky, Annamaria Vezzani, Terence J O'Brien, Nathalie Jette, Ingrid E Scheffer, Marco de Curtis, Piero Perucca
Epilepsy affects all age groups and is one of the most common and most disabling neurological disorders. The accurate diagnosis of seizures is essential as some patients will be misdiagnosed with epilepsy, whereas others will receive an incorrect diagnosis. Indeed, errors in diagnosis are common, and many patients fail to receive the correct treatment, which often has severe consequences. Although many patients have seizure control using a single medication, others require multiple medications, resective surgery, neuromodulation devices or dietary therapies...
May 3, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695824/postpartum-psychiatric-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Louise M Howard, Veerle Bergink, Simone Vigod, Ian Jones, Trine Munk-Olsen, Simone Honikman, Jeannette Milgrom
Pregnancy is a complex and vulnerable period that presents a number of challenges to women, including the development of postpartum psychiatric disorders (PPDs). These disorders can include postpartum depression and anxiety, which are relatively common, and the rare but more severe postpartum psychosis. In addition, other PPDs can include obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and eating disorders. The aetiology of PPDs is a complex interaction of psychological, social and biological factors, in addition to genetic and environmental factors...
April 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695819/postpartum-psychiatric-disorders
#9
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671414/non-variceal-upper-gi-bleeding
#10
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671413/non-variceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#11
REVIEW
Angel Lanas, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Richard H Hunt, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, James M Scheiman, Ian M Gralnek, Helen E Campbell, Alaa Rostom, Càndid Villanueva, Joseph J Y Sung
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is bleeding that develops in the oesophagus, stomach or proximal duodenum. Peptic ulcers, caused by Helicobacter pylori infection or use of NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin (LDA), are the most common cause. Although the incidence and mortality associated with NVUGIB have been decreasing owing to considerable advances in the prevention and management of NVUGIB over the past 20 years, it remains a common clinical problem with an annual incidence of ∼67 per 100,000 individuals in the United States in 2012...
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644995/autoimmune-hepatitis
#12
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644994/autoimmune-hepatitis
#13
REVIEW
Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, Albert J Czaja, Michael P Manns, Edward L Krawitt, John M Vierling, Ansgar W Lohse, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe liver disease that affects children and adults worldwide. The diagnosis of AIH relies on increased serum transaminase and immunoglobulin G levels, presence of autoantibodies and interface hepatitis on liver histology. AIH arises in genetically predisposed individuals when a trigger, such as exposure to a virus, leads to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed against liver autoantigens; this immune response is permitted by inadequate regulatory immune control leading to a loss of tolerance...
April 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620056/haemochromatosis
#14
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620054/haemochromatosis
#15
REVIEW
Pierre Brissot, Antonello Pietrangelo, Paul C Adams, Barbara de Graaff, Christine E McLaren, Olivier Loréal
Haemochromatosis is defined as systemic iron overload of genetic origin, caused by a reduction in the concentration of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, or a reduction in hepcidin-ferroportin binding. Hepcidin regulates the activity of ferroportin, which is the only identified cellular iron exporter. The most common form of haemochromatosis is due to homozygous mutations (specifically, the C282Y mutation) in HFE, which encodes hereditary haemochromatosis protein. Non-HFE forms of haemochromatosis due to mutations in HAMP, HJV or TFR2 are much rarer...
April 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565029/hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Suzanne Oparil, Maria Czarina Acelajado, George L Bakris, Dan R Berlowitz, Renata Cífková, Anna F Dominiczak, Guido Grassi, Jens Jordan, Neil R Poulter, Anthony Rodgers, Paul K Whelton
Systemic arterial hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fewer than half of those with hypertension are aware of their condition, and many others are aware but not treated or inadequately treated, although successful treatment of hypertension reduces the global burden of disease and mortality. The aetiology of hypertension involves the complex interplay of environmental and pathophysiological factors that affect multiple systems, as well as genetic predisposition...
March 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565028/hypertension
#17
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542731/sickle-cell-disease
#18
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542687/sickle-cell-disease
#19
REVIEW
Gregory J Kato, Frédéric B Piel, Clarice D Reid, Marilyn H Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R Smith, Julie A Panepinto, David J Weatherall, Fernando F Costa, Elliott P Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system...
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517048/bipolar-disorders
#20
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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