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Obesity Science & Practice

J Fouhse, K Yang, J Li, E Mills, T Ju, C S Alvarado, C B Chan, B P Willing
Objective: Rising worldwide prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases in children has accentuated the importance of developing prevention and management strategies. The objective of this study was to establish a model for childhood obesity using high-fat feeding of adolescent pigs, as pigs have a longer developmental period and are physiologically more similar to humans than rodents. Methods: Crossbred pigs were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet ( n  = 6/treatment) from postnatal day 49 to 84...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S Ponce, M A Allison, K Swett, J Cai, A A Desai, B E Hurwitz, A Ni, N Schneiderman, S J Shah, D M Spevack, G A Talavera, C J Rodriguez
Objective: The objective of this study is to determine associations between anthropometry and echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function in Hispanic/Latinos. Methods: A total of 1,824 participants from ECHO-SOL were included. We evaluated associations between echocardiographic measures of left ventricular structure and function and anthropometric measures using multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
W S Chan
Objectives: Prior studies have shown that individuals with shorter sleep duration and later sleep timing consume more highly palatable food (HPF). It is unclear if this relationship exists at the within-individual level, e.g. if sleeping less or later on one night is associated with greater HPF consumption in the following day in naturalistic environments. This study examined the daily associations between naturalistic sleep and HPF consumption. Methods: Data were obtained from 78 healthy young adults (age = 20...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S Hassan, T Ojo, D Galusha, J L Martinez-Brockman, O P Adams, R Maharaj, C Nazario, M Nunez, M Nunez-Smith
Objective: Prior studies have suggested that weight misperception - underestimating one's actual weight - may be associated with reduced engagement in weight loss programmes, decreasing the success of initiatives to address obesity and obesity-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors associated with weight misperception among Eastern Caribbean adults and its influence on engagement in weight control behaviour. Methods: Data from the Eastern Caribbean Health Outcomes Research Network (ECHORN) Cohort Study were analysed (adults aged 40 and older, residing in the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Barbados and Trinidad)...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
K J Speaker, R D Sayer, J C Peters, H N Foley, Z Pan, H R Wyatt, M R Flock, R Mukherjea, J O Hill
Objective: This 12-month randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial sought to determine the impact of consuming soy protein as part of an energy-restricted, high-protein diet on weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic health. Methods: Seventy-one adults (58 female) with overweight or obesity (body mass index: 32.9 ± 3.6 kg m-2 ) were randomly assigned to consume three servings of soy (S) or non-soy (NS) protein foods per day for 12 months. All participants completed a group-based behavioural weight loss program lasting 4 months (M4), and follow-up assessments were completed at month 12 (M12)...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M A B Veldhorst, S C A T Verbruggen, D van Harskamp, A Vermes, H Schierbeek, J B van Goudoever, E L T van den Akker
Objective: The objective of this research is to study effects of a 4-week high-protein (HP) diet on energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), protein turnover and body composition in children with obesity. Methods: In this randomized placebo-controlled single-blind crossover study, children with obesity ( n  = 14; mean age: 10.1 years ± 1.2 standard deviation; body mass index-standard deviation score [BMI-SDS]: 2.8 ± 0.5) received an ad libitum HP (+50 g protein per day) or normal-protein (NP) diet for 4 weeks with a washout period of ≥2 weeks...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S M Phelan, B A Lynch, K D Blake, D Blanch-Hartigan, R Hardeman, P Wilson, M Branda, L J Finney Rutten
Objective: Patient-provider communication has been found to be less patient centred, on average, with patients who are members of stigmatized or minority groups. Obesity is a stigmatized condition, and thus, people with obesity may experience less patient-centred communication (PCC). The objective of this study was to assess the association between patient body mass index (BMI) and self-reported quality of PCC experienced over a 12-month period and whether that relationship differed for men and women...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
C E Pulker, L E Thornton, G S A Trapp
Objective: Food environments can influence food selection and hold the potential to reduce obesity, non-communicable diseases and their inequalities. 'Consumer nutrition environments' describe what consumers encounter within a food retail outlet, including products, price, promotion and placement. This study aimed to summarize the attributes that have been examined in existing peer-reviewed studies of Australian consumer nutrition environments, identify knowledge gaps and provide recommendations for future research...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S L Filipp, M Cardel, J Hall, R Z Essner, D J Lemas, D M Janicke, S R Smith, J Nadglowski, W Troy Donahoo, R M Cooper-DeHoff, D R Nelson, W R Hogan, E A Shenkman, M J Gurka
Introduction: With obesity rates and obesity-related healthcare costs increasing, policy makers must understand the scope of obesity across populations. Objective: This study sought to characterize adult obesity using electronic health records (EHRs) available from a statewide clinical data research network, the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium, which contains claims and EHR data from over 12 million patients in Florida. The primary aim was to compare EHR-based Florida obesity rates with those rates obtained from the Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J L Thomson, M H Goodman, L M Tussing-Humphreys, A S Landry
Objective: Multicomponent lifestyle modification interventions designed for gestational and early postnatal periods may be key to preventing obesity in children. The primary objective of the study was to determine if infant growth outcomes differed between treatment arms of an 18-month, maternal, infant and early childhood home visiting project. Methods: Pregnant women at least 18 years of age, less than 19 weeks pregnant and residing in a lower Mississippi Delta county were recruited between March 2013 and December 2014...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M Koda, I Kitamura, T Okura, R Otsuka, F Ando, H Shimokata
Objective: This study aimed to assess the relationship between weight gain from early adulthood and visceral fat accumulation. Methods: The participants were 549 men aged 42 to 64 years who were randomly selected from the local resident registry for the National Institute for Longevity Sciences' neighbourhood. They were asked to recall their weight at 18 years of age, and then, post-18 weight-change values were calculated for each participant (their current weight minus their weight at 18)...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M R Jospe, R C Brown, S M Williams, M Roy, K A Meredith-Jones, R W Taylor
Objectives: Although monitoring is considered a key component of effective behaviour change, the development of apps has allowed consumers to constantly evaluate their own diet, with little examination of what this might mean for eating behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-monitoring of diet using the app MyFitnessPal or daily self-weighing increases the reported occurrence of eating disorders in adults with overweight/obesity following a weight loss programme...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
K M Ross, T M Leahey, M Kiernan
Objective: Accurate assessment of physical activity (PA) in public health and healthcare settings remains a challenge given limitations of existing brief assessment tools. The Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat), a single item with six categories, has previously demonstrated excellent reliability and adequate validity relative to pedometer steps. However, pedometers cannot assess key dimensions of PA intensity or duration. Methods: We evaluated the L-Cat's criterion validity and sensitivity to change relative to objectively measured Sensewear armband activity monitors among 76 adults with overweight/obesity (mean age 50...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
I Iwuchukwu, N Mahale, J Ryder, B Hsieh, B Jennings, D Nguyen, K Cornwell, R Beyl, J Zabaleta, M Sothern
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the role of obesity and race in intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) outcomes. Methods: The Get with the guideline-Stroke database was queried for all admitted patients with spontaneous ICH. Secondary causes of ICH were excluded. Body mass index (BMI) was classified using the Center for Disease Control guidelines. Race was classified as White or non-White. Demographics, clinical, imaging data were retrieved. Outcome measures were hematoma expansion at 24 h and discharge disposition...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
D L Gill, K S Fasczewski, E J Reifsteck, S M Rothberger, P G Davis
Objective: Exercise programmes typically are evaluated with fitness assessments and psychological survey measures but seldom include participants' insights. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits, facilitators and barriers of a 12-week exercise programme for post-bariatric surgery patients from the participants' perspective. Method: Over a 2-year period, 20 patients recently having undergone bariatric surgery completed a 12-week programme that included participation in structured exercise and in focus groups designed to supplement standard evaluation data and provide insight into participants' views...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M R Goldring, S Persky
Background: Women with overweight experience stigma in clinical interactions. Emerging evidence suggests that one near-term approach to offset the negative consequences of weight stigma could be to capitalize on benefits of patient-physician weight concordance. However, it is likely that patient attitudes towards physicians with overweight are complicated and multifaceted and may include stigmatization of providers with overweight. Methods: Two-hundred ninety-eight women with overweight completed an online questionnaire and indicated preference for a physician who is 'overweight', 'not overweight', or indicated no preference...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
H M Espel-Huynh, A F Muratore, M R Lowe
Introduction: The term 'hedonic hunger' refers to one's preoccupation with and desire to consume foods for the purposes of pleasure and in the absence of physical hunger. The Power of Food Scale (PFS) was developed as a quantitative measure of this construct in 2009. Since then, over 50 published studies have used the PFS to predict appetite-related outcomes including neural, cognitive, behavioural, anthropometric and clinical measures. Objective: This narrative review evaluates how closely the PFS captures the construct it was originally presumed to assess and to more clearly define hedonic hunger itself...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J-P Chaput, J D Barnes, M S Tremblay, M Fogelholm, G Hu, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, C Tudor-Locke, P T Katzmarzyk
Objective: Studies examining associations between movement behaviours (i.e. physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep duration) and obesity focus on average values of these movement behaviours, despite important within-country and between-country variability. A better understanding of movement behaviour inequalities is important for developing public health policies and behaviour-change interventions. The objective of this ecologic analysis at the country level was to determine if inequality in movement behaviours is a better correlate of obesity than average movement behaviour volume in children from all inhabited continents of the world...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
R Murphy, A W Stewart, R J Hancox, C R Wall, I Braithwaite, R Beasley, E A Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Economic wealth and income inequality may impact on childhood BMI distribution by affecting overconsumption of food and sedentary forms of transportation and entertainment across the whole or some of the population. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether BMI distribution of children differs by gross national income (GNI) per capita and Gini index derived from World Bank data. METHODS: Secondary analysis of largely self-reported height and weight data from a multi-country, cross-sectional study (ISAAC), of 77,963 children aged 6-7 (from 19 countries) and 205,388 adolescents aged 13-14 (from 36 countries), were used to examine underweight vs obesity prevalence and BMI distribution skewness, median and dispersion...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
C K Fox, A M Kaizer, J R Ryder, K D Rudser, A S Kelly, S Kumar, A C Gross
Background: Although obesity affects approximately one in five youths, only a fraction is treated in pediatric weight management clinics. Characteristics distinguishing youth with obesity who seek weight management treatment from those who do not are largely unknown. Yet identification of specific health characteristics which differentiate treatment-seeking from non-treatment seeking youth with obesity may shed light on underlying motivations for pursuing treatment. Objectives: Compare the cardiometabolic profiles of an obesity treatment-seeking sample of youth to a population-based sample of youth with obesity, while controlling for body mass index (BMI)...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
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