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Obesity Science & Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392937/reduced-lpl-and-subcutaneous-lipid-storage-capacity-are-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-postmenopausal-women-with-obesity
#1
M C Serra, A S Ryan, A P Goldberg
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the hypothesis that lower adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and a limited capacity for subcutaneous adipocyte expansion will be associated with metabolic syndrome (MSyn) in postmenopausal women who are overweight and obese. METHODS: Women (N = 150; age 60 ± 1 year; BMI: 31.5 ± 0.3 kg m(-2); mean ± standard errors of the means [SEM]) with and without MSyn had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for total body fat, CT scans for visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue areas, lipid and glucose metabolic profiles, and abdominal and gluteal fat aspirations for subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; N = 150) and LPL activity (N = 100)...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392936/25-oh-d-status-effect-of-d3-supplement
#2
J M Lukaszuk, P E Luebbers
BACKGROUND: Excess adipose tissue may lead to sequestrating of vitamin D, making it less available for use in the body. OBJECTIVE: This study determined if overweight or obese individuals (BMI > 25 kg m(-2)) had insufficient (<30 ng mL(-1)) levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and, if so, would serum levels respond to exogenous supplementation. METHODS: Sixty-three women who were overweight/obese (BMI = 31.07 ± 5...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392935/measurement-of-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-early-after-the-bypass-of-the-proximal-small-bowel-in-humans
#3
A D Miras, R Herring, A Vusirikala, F Shojaee-Moradi, N C Jackson, S Chandaria, S N Jackson, A P Goldstone, N Hakim, A G Patel, A M Umpleby, C W Le Roux
OBJECTIVE: Unlike gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy procedures, intestinal bypass procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in particular, lead to rapid improvements in glycaemia early after surgery. The bypass of the proximal small bowel may have weight loss and even caloric restriction-independent glucose-lowering properties on hepatic insulin sensitivity. In this first human mechanistic study, we examined this hypothesis by investigating the early effects of the duodeno-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL; GI Dynamics, USA) on the hepatic insulin sensitivity by using the gold standard euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp methodology...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392934/evaluation-of-a-web-based-weight-loss-intervention-in-overweight-cancer-survivors-aged-50%C3%A2-years-and-younger
#4
S M Lynch, C T Stricker, J C Brown, J M Berardi, D Vaughn, S Domchek, S Filseth, A Branas, E Weiss-Trainor, K H Schmitz, D B Sarwer
PURPOSE: Half of adult cancer survivors under age 50 years are obese. Excess body weight is associated with cancer recurrence, and effective weight loss interventions for younger cancer survivors are needed. Commercially available, online weight loss programmes are readily accessible, but few have been studied in this population. This study employed a single-arm, pre-post intervention (baseline-6 month/baseline-12 month comparisons) to preliminarily explore feasibility, efficacy and safety of an online, commercially available weight loss programme in breast (n = 30) and testicular (n = 16) cancer survivors under age 50 years...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392933/improved-parental-dietary-quality-is-associated-with-children-s-dietary-intake-through-the-home-environment
#5
K R Flórez, A S Richardson, M B Ghosh-Dastidar, R Beckman, C Huang, L Wagner, T Dubowitz
BACKGROUND: Improving access to supermarkets has been shown to improve some dietary outcomes, yet there is little evidence for such effects on children. Relatedly, there is a dearth of research assessing the impact of a structural change (i.e. supermarket in a former food desert) on the home environment and its relationship with children's diet. OBJECTIVE: Assess the relative impact of the home environment on children's diet after the introduction of a new supermarket in a food desert...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392932/delay-discounting-and-utility-for-money-or-weight-loss
#6
Y Y Sze, E M Slaven, W K Bickel, L H Epstein
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is related to a bias towards smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. This bias is typically examined by studying single commodity discounting. However, weight loss often involves choices among multiple commodities. To our knowledge, no research has examined delay discounting of delayed weight loss compared with other commodities. METHODS: We examined single commodity discounting of money and cross commodity discounting of money and weight loss in a sample of 84 adults with obesity or overweight statuses interested in weight loss...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392931/associations-between-weight-related-teasing-and-psychosomatic-symptoms-by-weight-status-among-school-aged-youth
#7
T Warkentin, M M Borghese, I Janssen
OBJECTIVE: Weight-related teasing (WT) is associated with poor mental health. This study examined whether weight status moderates the relationship between WT and psychosomatic symptoms within a representative sample of school-aged youth. METHODS: Data are from the Canadian 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, a nationally representative sample of youth in Grades 6-10. WT, psychosomatic symptoms and body mass index (BMI) were self-reported. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 20,277 youth (mean age = 14...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392930/overweight-or-about-right-a-norm-comparison-explanation-of-perceived-weight-status
#8
E Robinson, I Kersbergen
OBJECTIVES: Body-weight norms may explain why personal evaluations of weight status are often inaccurate. Here, we tested a 'norm comparison' explanation of weight status perceptions, whereby personal evaluations of weight status are biased by perceived body-weight norms. METHODS: Study 1 examined whether perceptions of how one's own body weight compares to an average person predict personal evaluations of weight status. Study 2 examined whether manipulating perceptions of how one's own body weight compares to an average person influences whether or not a person identifies their own weight status as being overweight...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392929/missing-the-target-including-perspectives-of-women-with-overweight-and-obesity-to-inform-stigma-reduction-strategies
#9
R M Puhl, M S Himmelstein, A A Gorin, Y J Suh
OBJECTIVE: Pervasive weight stigma and discrimination have led to ongoing calls for efforts to reduce this bias. Despite increasing research on stigma-reduction strategies, perspectives of individuals who have experienced weight stigma have rarely been included to inform this research. The present study conducted a systematic examination of women with high body weight to assess their perspectives about a broad range of strategies to reduce weight-based stigma. METHODS: Women with overweight or obesity (N = 461) completed an online survey in which they evaluated the importance, feasibility and potential impact of 35 stigma-reduction strategies in diverse settings...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392928/cost-of-intervention-delivery-in-a-lifestyle-weight-loss-trial-in-type-2-diabetes-results-from-the-look-ahead-clinical-trial
#10
J Rushing, R Wing, T A Wadden, W C Knowler, M Lawlor, M Evans, T Killean, M Montez, M A Espeland, P Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial was a randomized controlled clinical trial to compare the effects of 10 years of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) with a control condition of diabetes support and education (DSE) on health outcomes in over 5,000 participants with type 2 diabetes. The ILI had significantly greater weight losses than DSE throughout the trial. The goal of this analysis is to describe the cost of delivering the intervention. METHODS: The ILI was designed to promote weight loss and increase physical activity...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392927/liraglutide-for-weight-management-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#11
A Mehta, S P Marso, I J Neeland
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy, safety, and clinical applicability of liraglutide for weight management from phase III clinical trials. METHODS: A search of the English language literature was performed using PubMed search terms: "liraglutide", "glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist", and "randomized clinical trial". Articles and bibliographies relevant to the subject were reviewed and additional references known to the authors were included. RESULTS: Five randomized, placebo-controlled trials of liraglutide for weight management were identified...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090354/what-weight-loss-treatment-options-do-geriatric-patients-with-overweight-and-obesity-want-to-consider
#12
M MacMillan, K Cummins, K Fujioka
INTRODUCTION: Since the 1990s, a number of weight loss medications have been removed from the USA and or European market because of adverse events associated with these medications. These medications include fenfluramine (heart valve thickening), sibutramine (cardiovascular risk) and rimonabant (depression). This history may affect a patient's desire to consider weight loss medications as an option for weight management. OBJECTIVE: This descriptive study was designed to observe what treatment options the geriatric patient (age 65 or higher) seeking weight loss would like to consider, as well as the reasons they felt they struggled with overweight or obesity...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090353/leptin-acylcarnitine-metabolites-and-development-of-adiposity-in-the-rhea-mother-child-cohort-in-crete-greece
#13
W Perng, E Oken, T Roumeliotaki, D Sood, A P Siskos, G Chalkiadaki, E Dermitzaki, M Vafeiadi, S Kyrtopoulos, M Kogevinas, H C Keun, L Chatzi
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate relations of serum leptin at age 4 with development of adiposity and linear growth during 3 years of follow-up among 75 Greek children and to identify serum metabolites associated with leptin at age 4 and to characterize their associations with adiposity gain and linear growth. METHODS: Linear regression models that accounted for maternal age, education and gestational weight gain and child's age and sex were used to examine associations of leptin and leptin-associated metabolites measured at age 4 with indicators of adiposity and linear growth at age 7...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090352/prevalence-of-obesity-in-malta
#14
REVIEW
S Cuschieri, J Vassallo, N Calleja, R Camilleri, A Borg, G Bonnici, Y Zhang, N Pace, J Mamo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global epidemic with the Mediterranean island of Malta being no exception. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified Malta as one of the European countries with the highest obesity prevalence. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted (2014-2016) under the auspices of the University of Malta. The prevalence of overweight-obesity in Malta was calculated and then age stratified for comparisons with previous studies. RESULTS: The study identified 69...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090351/the-prevalence-and-practice-impact-of-weight-bias-amongst-australian-dietitians
#15
T M Diversi, R Hughes, K J Burke
OBJECTIVES: This study explored weight bias amongst Australian Accredited Practising Dietitians (APDs) and the effect of client weight status on dietetic practice. METHODS: Participants were 201 APDs, recruited using purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire, the fat phobia scale (FPS), was completed to assess explicit weight bias. Participants were then randomized to receive either a female within the healthy weight range or female with obesity, accompanied by an identical case study for a condition unrelated to weight...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090350/longitudinal-quality-of-life-improvement-in-underserved-rural-youth-with-obesity
#16
S Engebretsen, R Sorrells, J P Yi-Frazier, K Briggs Early
OBJECTIVE: ACT! (Actively Changing Together) is a family- and community-based intervention targeting youth with obesity. The objective of this study was to establish the longitudinal impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) as well as the relationship with anthropometric and demographic factors. METHODS: Youth (n = 75) aged 8-14 years meeting criteria for overweight or obesity were referred to the programme. Twelve, 90-min classes in English and Spanish were held at the YMCA...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090349/the-association-between-parental-separation-during-childhood-and-obesity-in-adulthood-a-danish-twin-study
#17
J D Petersen, K O Kyvik, B L Heitmann, M E Vámosi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine if parental separation during childhood is associated with obesity in adulthood. METHODS: A co-twin case-control study of 146 adult same-sexed twin pairs with discordant body mass index (BMI) (i.e. one of the twins should have a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2), and the co-twin's BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) was selected from Danish Twin Registry (DTR). In total of 236 eligible twin individuals participated in the study. Childhood parental separation (defined as separation from one of the biological parents, regardless of the reason for separation) for at least one year prior to age 17 was self-reported...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090348/changes-in-hba1c-and-circulating-and-adipose-tissue-androgen-levels-in-overweight-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-response-to-electroacupuncture
#18
E Stener-Victorin, M Maliqueo, M Soligo, V Protto, L Manni, E Jerlhag, M Kokosar, A Sazonova, C J Behre, M Lind, C Ohlsson, K Højlund, A Benrick
AIM: Insulin sensitivity is ~40% lower in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in controls. We tested the hypothesis that 5 weeks of electroacupuncture treatment improves glucose regulation and androgen levels in overweight/obese women with PCOS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen women with PCOS, aged 18 to 38 years, with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2) and diagnosed with PCOS were included in this experimental and feasibility study and subjected to five weeks of electroacupuncture treatments three times/week...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090347/depressive-symptoms-in-women-s-midlife-in-relation-to-their-body-weight-before-during-and-after-childbearing-years
#19
M Bliddal, A Pottegård, H Kirkegaard, J Olsen, T I A Sørensen, E A Nohr
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine how weight and weight changes related to pregnancy were associated with depressive symptoms 11-16 years after childbirth. METHOD: We followed 16,998 first-time mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort up till 16 years after birth and estimated associations between depressive symptoms and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (kg m(-2)), weight changes in different time periods, and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 years after birth (WCBMI, cm)...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090346/a-gwas-follow-up-of-obesity-related-snps-in-sypl2-reveals-sex-specific-association-with-hip-circumference
#20
J de Toro-Martín, F Guénard, A Tchernof, Y Deshaies, L Pérusse, S Biron, O Lescelleur, L Biertho, S Marceau, M-C Vohl
OBJECTIVE: A novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with morbid obesity was recently identified by exome sequencing. The purpose of this study was to follow up this low-frequency coding SNP located within the SYPL2 locus and associated with body mass index in order to reveal novel associations with obesity-related traits. METHODS: The body mass index-associated SNP (rs62623713 A>G [chr1:109476817/hg19]) and two tagging SNPs within the SYPL2 locus, rs9661614 T>C (chr1:109479215) and rs485660 G>A (chr1:109480810), were genotyped in the obesity (n = 3,017) and the infogene (n = 676) cohorts, which were further combined, leading to a larger cohort of 3,693 individuals...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
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