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Obesity Science & Practice

M Koda, I Kitamura, T Okura, R Otsuka, F Ando, H Shimokata
Objective: This study aimed to assess the relationship between weight gain from early adulthood and visceral fat accumulation. Methods: The participants were 549 men aged 42 to 64 years who were randomly selected from the local resident registry for the National Institute for Longevity Sciences' neighbourhood. They were asked to recall their weight at 18 years of age, and then, post-18 weight-change values were calculated for each participant (their current weight minus their weight at 18)...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M R Jospe, R C Brown, S M Williams, M Roy, K A Meredith-Jones, R W Taylor
Objectives: Although monitoring is considered a key component of effective behaviour change, the development of apps has allowed consumers to constantly evaluate their own diet, with little examination of what this might mean for eating behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-monitoring of diet using the app MyFitnessPal or daily self-weighing increases the reported occurrence of eating disorders in adults with overweight/obesity following a weight loss programme...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
K M Ross, T M Leahey, M Kiernan
Objective: Accurate assessment of physical activity (PA) in public health and healthcare settings remains a challenge given limitations of existing brief assessment tools. The Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat), a single item with six categories, has previously demonstrated excellent reliability and adequate validity relative to pedometer steps. However, pedometers cannot assess key dimensions of PA intensity or duration. Methods: We evaluated the L-Cat's criterion validity and sensitivity to change relative to objectively measured Sensewear armband activity monitors among 76 adults with overweight/obesity (mean age 50...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
I Iwuchukwu, N Mahale, J Ryder, B Hsieh, B Jennings, D Nguyen, K Cornwell, R Beyl, J Zabaleta, M Sothern
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the role of obesity and race in intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) outcomes. Methods: The Get with the guideline-Stroke database was queried for all admitted patients with spontaneous ICH. Secondary causes of ICH were excluded. Body mass index (BMI) was classified using the Center for Disease Control guidelines. Race was classified as White or non-White. Demographics, clinical, imaging data were retrieved. Outcome measures were hematoma expansion at 24 h and discharge disposition...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
D L Gill, K S Fasczewski, E J Reifsteck, S M Rothberger, P G Davis
Objective: Exercise programmes typically are evaluated with fitness assessments and psychological survey measures but seldom include participants' insights. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits, facilitators and barriers of a 12-week exercise programme for post-bariatric surgery patients from the participants' perspective. Method: Over a 2-year period, 20 patients recently having undergone bariatric surgery completed a 12-week programme that included participation in structured exercise and in focus groups designed to supplement standard evaluation data and provide insight into participants' views...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M R Goldring, S Persky
Background: Women with overweight experience stigma in clinical interactions. Emerging evidence suggests that one near-term approach to offset the negative consequences of weight stigma could be to capitalize on benefits of patient-physician weight concordance. However, it is likely that patient attitudes towards physicians with overweight are complicated and multifaceted and may include stigmatization of providers with overweight. Methods: Two-hundred ninety-eight women with overweight completed an online questionnaire and indicated preference for a physician who is 'overweight', 'not overweight', or indicated no preference...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
H M Espel-Huynh, A F Muratore, M R Lowe
Introduction: The term 'hedonic hunger' refers to one's preoccupation with and desire to consume foods for the purposes of pleasure and in the absence of physical hunger. The Power of Food Scale (PFS) was developed as a quantitative measure of this construct in 2009. Since then, over 50 published studies have used the PFS to predict appetite-related outcomes including neural, cognitive, behavioural, anthropometric and clinical measures. Objective: This narrative review evaluates how closely the PFS captures the construct it was originally presumed to assess and to more clearly define hedonic hunger itself...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J-P Chaput, J D Barnes, M S Tremblay, M Fogelholm, G Hu, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, C Tudor-Locke, P T Katzmarzyk
Objective: Studies examining associations between movement behaviours (i.e. physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep duration) and obesity focus on average values of these movement behaviours, despite important within-country and between-country variability. A better understanding of movement behaviour inequalities is important for developing public health policies and behaviour-change interventions. The objective of this ecologic analysis at the country level was to determine if inequality in movement behaviours is a better correlate of obesity than average movement behaviour volume in children from all inhabited continents of the world...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
R Murphy, A W Stewart, R J Hancox, C R Wall, I Braithwaite, R Beasley, E A Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Economic wealth and income inequality may impact on childhood BMI distribution by affecting overconsumption of food and sedentary forms of transportation and entertainment across the whole or some of the population. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether BMI distribution of children differs by gross national income (GNI) per capita and Gini index derived from World Bank data. METHODS: Secondary analysis of largely self-reported height and weight data from a multi-country, cross-sectional study (ISAAC), of 77,963 children aged 6-7 (from 19 countries) and 205,388 adolescents aged 13-14 (from 36 countries), were used to examine underweight vs obesity prevalence and BMI distribution skewness, median and dispersion...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
C K Fox, A M Kaizer, J R Ryder, K D Rudser, A S Kelly, S Kumar, A C Gross
Background: Although obesity affects approximately one in five youths, only a fraction is treated in pediatric weight management clinics. Characteristics distinguishing youth with obesity who seek weight management treatment from those who do not are largely unknown. Yet identification of specific health characteristics which differentiate treatment-seeking from non-treatment seeking youth with obesity may shed light on underlying motivations for pursuing treatment. Objectives: Compare the cardiometabolic profiles of an obesity treatment-seeking sample of youth to a population-based sample of youth with obesity, while controlling for body mass index (BMI)...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
T Nakamura, H Tanimoto, Y Mizuno, M Okamoto, M Takeuchi, Y Tsubamoto, H Noda
Objective: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to confirm the anti-obesity effects of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor antagonist, SKL-14959, on diet-induced obesity mice. Method: Diet-induced obesity mice at 20 weeks of age were administered with or without SKL-14959 for 96 d. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
A-M Elbe, P Elsborg, S Dandanell, J W Helge
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weight loss during and after a unique type of weight loss intervention, namely, a residential intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), and participants' obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) several years after the intervention. In the residential ILI under investigation, participants attended a 10- to 12-week long course away from their daily living environment, namely, at Ubberup Folk High School located in Denmark...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
T Zulfiqar, L Strazdins, C Banwell, H Dinh, C D'Este
Objective: Children of immigrants from low-and-middle-income countries show excess overweight/obesity risk relative to host populations, possibly due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study was conducted to estimate overweight/obesity prevalence and its association with the family socioeconomic-position in 2-11-year-old Australian-born children of immigrants and Australian-mothers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 10-year data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children was undertaken...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M W Seward, J P Block, A Chatterjee
Objective: To assess student perceptions of traffic-light labels (TLLs) in college cafeterias. Design: Cross-sectional, mixed-methods study. Setting: One northeastern US college. Participants: A total of 1,294 survey respondents; 57 focus group participants. Interventions: Seven-week traffic-light labelling (green = 'nutrient-rich', yellow = 'less nutrient-rich', red = 'more nutrient-rich choice in green or yellow') intervention at two college cafeterias...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
N Alhalel, S M Schueller, M J O'Brien
Objective: This study examined changes in mental health symptoms and weight during weight loss treatment. It was hypothesized that worsening mental health would negatively impact weight loss. Methods: Data were analyzed from a trial of 92 Hispanic women with overweight/obesity and prediabetes, who were randomized to receive intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), metformin 1,700 mg daily, or standard care. Depression, anxiety and perceived stress were assessed at 0, 6 and 12 months...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
A Halseth, K Shan, K Gilder, M Malone, L Acevedo, K Fujioka
Objective: This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial examined weight-related quality of life, control over eating behaviour and sexual function after 26 weeks of treatment with either 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR plus a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program (NB + CLI, N = 153) or usual care (UC, N = 89), which included minimal lifestyle intervention. Methods: Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite, Binge Eating Scale and Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale were assessed at baseline (BL) and weeks 16 and 26...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J A Barber, V Ivezaj, R D Barnes
Objective: Differential participation in physical activity (PA) may partially explain the health discrepancies between individuals with or without binge-eating disorder (BED). Yet, little is known about the PA habits of individuals with overweight/obesity and how those patterns may differ based on BED status. PA patterns and exercise self-efficacy were examined in individuals with overweight/obesity, with and without BED. Design: Ninety-seven participants with overweight/obesity self-reported their PA via the Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire and the Paffenbarger PA Questionnaire...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
B M King, V M Cespedes, G K Burden, S K Brady, L R Clement, E M Abbott, K S Baughman, S E Joyner, M M Clark, C L S Pury
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between under-reporting of body weight and social desirability as is found with self-reports of energy intake. Methods: Twenty-seven lean individuals (mean body mass index ± standard deviation = 21.6 ± 2.0 kg m-2 ) and 26 individuals with obesity (mean body mass index = 35.4 ± 4.8 kg m-2 ) were e-mailed a questionnaire on which they had to state their body weight and conduct a home food inventory...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J J VanWormer, R F Pereira, A Sillah, A C Sidebottom, G A Benson, R Lindberg, C Winters, J L Boucher
Objective: Excess body weight negatively impacts health, but there are few evaluations of low-intensity weight management challenge programs in defined populations. This study examined weight change in adults who participated in the LOSE IT to WIN IT (LIWI) health challenge in a US community. The community-level impact on body mass index was also explored. Methods: Body weight was analysed over 1 year in the cohort of LIWI enrolees, stratified by participants who were healthy weight or overweight/obese at baseline...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S L Leung, J A Barber, A Burger, R D Barnes
Objective: Most Americans spend an average of 8 hours per day in the workplace. Current understanding of eating behaviours in the workplace and their association with overweight, obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) is limited. Workplace eating behaviours and weight-related self-efficacy were examined in a sample of 98 individuals with overweight or obesity, with or without BED. Design: Participants completed the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Worker's Perception of Environmental Factors, and a Workplace Questionnaire...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
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