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Obesity Science & Practice

T Nakamura, H Tanimoto, Y Mizuno, M Okamoto, M Takeuchi, Y Tsubamoto, H Noda
Objective: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to confirm the anti-obesity effects of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor antagonist, SKL-14959, on diet-induced obesity mice. Method: Diet-induced obesity mice at 20 weeks of age were administered with or without SKL-14959 for 96 d. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
A-M Elbe, P Elsborg, S Dandanell, J W Helge
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weight loss during and after a unique type of weight loss intervention, namely, a residential intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), and participants' obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) several years after the intervention. In the residential ILI under investigation, participants attended a 10- to 12-week long course away from their daily living environment, namely, at Ubberup Folk High School located in Denmark...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
T Zulfiqar, L Strazdins, C Banwell, H Dinh, C D'Este
Objective: Children of immigrants from low-and-middle-income countries show excess overweight/obesity risk relative to host populations, possibly due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study was conducted to estimate overweight/obesity prevalence and its association with the family socioeconomic-position in 2-11-year-old Australian-born children of immigrants and Australian-mothers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 10-year data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children was undertaken...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M W Seward, J P Block, A Chatterjee
Objective: To assess student perceptions of traffic-light labels (TLLs) in college cafeterias. Design: Cross-sectional, mixed-methods study. Setting: One northeastern US college. Participants: A total of 1,294 survey respondents; 57 focus group participants. Interventions: Seven-week traffic-light labelling (green = 'nutrient-rich', yellow = 'less nutrient-rich', red = 'more nutrient-rich choice in green or yellow') intervention at two college cafeterias...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
N Alhalel, S M Schueller, M J O'Brien
Objective: This study examined changes in mental health symptoms and weight during weight loss treatment. It was hypothesized that worsening mental health would negatively impact weight loss. Methods: Data were analyzed from a trial of 92 Hispanic women with overweight/obesity and prediabetes, who were randomized to receive intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), metformin 1,700 mg daily, or standard care. Depression, anxiety and perceived stress were assessed at 0, 6 and 12 months...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
A Halseth, K Shan, K Gilder, M Malone, L Acevedo, K Fujioka
Objective: This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial examined weight-related quality of life, control over eating behaviour and sexual function after 26 weeks of treatment with either 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR plus a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program (NB + CLI, N = 153) or usual care (UC, N = 89), which included minimal lifestyle intervention. Methods: Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite, Binge Eating Scale and Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale were assessed at baseline (BL) and weeks 16 and 26...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J A Barber, V Ivezaj, R D Barnes
Objective: Differential participation in physical activity (PA) may partially explain the health discrepancies between individuals with or without binge-eating disorder (BED). Yet, little is known about the PA habits of individuals with overweight/obesity and how those patterns may differ based on BED status. PA patterns and exercise self-efficacy were examined in individuals with overweight/obesity, with and without BED. Design: Ninety-seven participants with overweight/obesity self-reported their PA via the Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire and the Paffenbarger PA Questionnaire...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
B M King, V M Cespedes, G K Burden, S K Brady, L R Clement, E M Abbott, K S Baughman, S E Joyner, M M Clark, C L S Pury
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between under-reporting of body weight and social desirability as is found with self-reports of energy intake. Methods: Twenty-seven lean individuals (mean body mass index ± standard deviation = 21.6 ± 2.0 kg m-2 ) and 26 individuals with obesity (mean body mass index = 35.4 ± 4.8 kg m-2 ) were e-mailed a questionnaire on which they had to state their body weight and conduct a home food inventory...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J J VanWormer, R F Pereira, A Sillah, A C Sidebottom, G A Benson, R Lindberg, C Winters, J L Boucher
Objective: Excess body weight negatively impacts health, but there are few evaluations of low-intensity weight management challenge programs in defined populations. This study examined weight change in adults who participated in the LOSE IT to WIN IT (LIWI) health challenge in a US community. The community-level impact on body mass index was also explored. Methods: Body weight was analysed over 1 year in the cohort of LIWI enrolees, stratified by participants who were healthy weight or overweight/obese at baseline...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S L Leung, J A Barber, A Burger, R D Barnes
Objective: Most Americans spend an average of 8 hours per day in the workplace. Current understanding of eating behaviours in the workplace and their association with overweight, obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) is limited. Workplace eating behaviours and weight-related self-efficacy were examined in a sample of 98 individuals with overweight or obesity, with or without BED. Design: Participants completed the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Worker's Perception of Environmental Factors, and a Workplace Questionnaire...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Y K Hayakawa, H Sasaki, H Takao, T Yoshikawa, N Hayashi, H Mori, A Kunimatsu, S Aoki, K Ohtomo
Objective: Previous work has shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with low grey matter volume. However, evidence on the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and brain volume is relatively scarce. Moreover, the influence of mild obesity (as indexed by WC and BMI) on brain volume remains unclear. This study explored the relationships between WC and BMI and grey matter volume in a large sample of Japanese adults. Methods: The participants were 792 community-dwelling adults (523 men and 269 women)...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
K Boeta-Lopez, J Duran, D Elizondo, E Gonzales, A Rentfro, A E Schwarzbach, S Nair
Objective: The objective of the study is to investigate the association of interleukin-6 (IL6) promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1800797 (-597 G/A) and rs1800796 (-572 G/C) with obesity or metabolic syndrome in Mexican-Americans. Methods: The rs1800797 and rs1800796 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in Mexican-Americans (n = 437) from South Texas, and results were correlated with measures of obesity and metabolic syndrome including body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, liver enzymes, plasma IL6 and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
K L Gonzales, G E Garcia, M M Jacob, C Muller, L Nelson, S M Manson
Objective: The objective of this study was to examine patient-provider relationships among American Indians and Alaska Native (AI/AN) patients by examining associations between patient activation, perceived provider weight bias and working alliance. Patient activation is generally defined as having the knowledge, skills and confidence to manage one's health. Methods: Among a sample of 87 AI/AN adults presenting for general medical care at an urban clinic in the north-west region of the USA, ordinary least squares regression analysis was completed to examine associations...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
C L Alick, C Samuel-Hodge, D Ward, A Ammerman, C Rini, D F Tate
Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, participation, preliminary efficacy and retention in a couples-based weight loss intervention among Black men. Design setting participants: Two-arm pilot randomized clinical trial in an academic clinical setting. Forty self-identified Black men and their female cohabitating partners (n = 80) aged 18 to 65 years with body mass index from 25 to 45 kg/m2 were randomized using computer generated tables to allocate treatments...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
D H Ryan, C G Parkin, W Longley, J Dixon, C Apovian, B Bode
Objective: Minimal risk weight loss tools are needed. This study's objective was to confirm Food and Drug Administration submissions of the SmartByte™ System's safety and efficacy. Methods: This 16-week, prospective, single-arm, four-centre, observational study assessed the oral device in combination with a video-delivered lifestyle programme in adults aged 18-49 years with body mass index 27 to <35 kg m-2 . Results: Seventy-six subjects received the device and video lifestyle instruction...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
A G Tsai, T Histon, T K Kyle, N Rubenstein, W T Donahoo
Background: Experience suggests that some physicians view obesity as a purely lifestyle condition rather than a chronic metabolic disease. Physicians may not be aware of the role of biological factors in causing weight regain after an initial weight loss. Methods: A questionnaire was administered at continuing medical education conferences, both primary care and obesity-specific. The questionnaire included items about biological and behavioral factors that predispose to weight regain and general items about treatment of obesity...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
E Nørtoft, B Chubb, A Borglykke
Objectives: To estimate the differences between individuals with and without obesity on healthcare resource utilization using two large electronic medical record databases. Methods: Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and US General Electric Centricity database of adults (≥18 years) with registration date before 01/01/2010. Differences between individuals with and without obesity on 5-year rates of Primary Care Physician (PCP) contacts, prescriptions and hospitalizations were analysed...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M Oldham, E Robinson
Objectives: The weight status of men with overweight and obesity tends to be visually underestimated, but visual recognition of female overweight and obesity has not been formally examined. The aims of the present studies were to test whether people can accurately recognize both male and female overweight and obesity and to examine a visual norm-based explanation for why weight status is underestimated. Methods: The present studies examine whether both male and female overweight and obesity are visually underestimated (Study 1), whether body size norms predict when underestimation of weight status occurs (Study 2) and whether visual exposure to heavier body weights adjusts visual body size norms and results in underestimation of weight status (Study 3)...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
B L James, L S Roe, E Loken, B J Rolls
Objective: Identifying early predictors of weight loss is key for developing personalized treatment. However, few individual factors have been identified that predict weight loss during intervention, other than early weight loss itself. Methods: Women with overweight or obesity (n = 186, mean ± SD age 50.0 ± 10.6 years, body mass index 34.0 ± 4.2 kg m-2 ) participated in the Portion-Control Strategies Trial, a 1-year randomized controlled weight-loss trial with three intervention groups...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
A Drewnowski, J Buszkiewicz, A Aggarwal, A Cook, A V Moudon
Objective: The aim of this study is to map obesity prevalence in Seattle King County at the census block level. Methods: Data for 1,632 adult men and women came from the Seattle Obesity Study I. Demographic, socioeconomic and anthropometric data were collected via telephone survey. Home addresses were geocoded, and tax parcel residential property values were obtained from the King County tax assessor. Multiple logistic regression tested associations between house prices and obesity rates...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
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