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Obesity Science & Practice

S T Rashid, N J Haywood, N Y Yuldasheva, J Smith, A Aziz, D J A Scott, M T Kearney, S B Wheatcroft
Introduction: Preservation of structural integrity of the endothelial monolayer and maintenance of endothelial cell function are of critical importance in preventing arterial thrombosis, restenosis and atherosclerosis. Obesity has been intimately linked with endothelial dysfunction, and reports of reduced abundance and functional impairment of circulating progenitor cells in obesity have led to the suggestion that defective endothelial repair contributes to obesity-related cardiovascular disease...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
A Migdal, S Comte, M Rodgers, B Heineman, E M Flier, M Herman, J Dushay
Objective: Fructose consumption is a risk factor for metabolic disease. We recently demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a metabolic hormone involved in lipid and glucose metabolism, is acutely stimulated in humans by 75 g oral fructose, with peak levels occurring 2 h after consumption. This study reports on the dose dependency and reproducibility of the FGF21 response to fructose. Methods: Lean, healthy adults drank either five different doses of fructose dissolved in water, each separated by 2 weeks, or the same dose on three occasions, each separated by 1 week...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Toshio Itani, Tomoaki Ishihara
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is characterized by insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and often prediabetes or diabetes. Canagliflozin, a selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, is a new oral anti-diabetic drug that reduces hyperglycaemia by promoting urinary glucose excretion. Glycosuria produced by canagliflozin is associated with weight loss, mainly due to reduced fat volume and improve insulin resistance...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
F Akram, D Fuchs, M Daue, G Nijjar, A Ryan, M E Benros, O Okusaga, E Baca-Garcia, L A Brenner, C A Lowry, K A Ryan, M Pavlovich, B D Mitchell, S Snitker, T T Postolache
Objectives: Plasma nitrite is a metabolite of nitric oxide and reflects endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Although plasma nitrites were previously linked with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS), the direction of association remains inconsistent, possibly due to sample heterogeneity. In a relatively homogeneous population, we hypothesized that nitrite levels will be positively associated with overweight/obesity and MetS. Methods: Fasting nitrite levels were measured in 116 Old Order Amish (78% women)...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
A Cremona, C O'Gorman, A Cotter, J Saunders, A Donnelly
Background/aim: Exercise can be used as a strategy to attenuate hyperglycaemia experienced during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To maximize its use for clinical management, the most effective modality should be identified. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the most effective modality of exercise on insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control in pregnant women with or at risk of GDM. Methods: A search was undertaken in MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase and the Maternity & Infant Healthcare Database...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
B M Huibregtse, J D Boardman
Objective: Poor patient-provider interactions due to provider bias are associated with worse physiological and behavioural health outcomes for patients. Prior research has shown that patients with obesity perceive less favourable interactions compared with those with lower weights. This paper explores whether this association depends on patients' cumulative polygenic score with respect to genes linked to obesity (i.e. a single variable quantifying the individual's genome-wide risk factors for high body mass index [BMI] or genetic liability) and whether providers react differentially to patients whose obesity is more genetic in nature compared with patients with diabetes caused by environmental factors...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
V Lee, R Blew, M Hetherington-Rauth, D Blew, J-P Galons, T Hagio, J Bea, T Lohman, S Going
Objectives: Accumulation of visceral fat (VF) in children increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and measurement of VF in children using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is expensive. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) may provide a low-cost alternative. This study aims to determine if DXA VF estimates can accurately estimate VF in young girls, determine if adding anthropometry would improve the estimate and determine if other DXA fat measures, with and without anthropometry, could be used to estimate VF in young girls...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
H Borgeraas, L H Barstad, R Størdal Lund, J M Fredheim, J K Hertel, J Hjelmesæth
Objectives: Early obesity onset is a risk factor for specific comorbidities in adulthood, but whether this relationship is present in men and women with severe obesity is unknown. This study aimed to examine whether obesity onset in childhood or adolescence, as compared with adulthood, is associated with higher odds of comorbidities in men and women with severe obesity. Methods: A cross-sectional study of treatment-seeking men and women with severe obesity attending a tertiary care centre in Norway, from 2006 to 2017, was performed...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
R Apple, L R Samuels, C Fonnesbeck, D Schlundt, S Mulvaney, M Hargreaves, D Crenshaw, K A Wallston, W J Heerman
Objective: There are conflicting data regarding the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), especially among certain population subgroups and for mental and physical health domains. Methods: This study analysed the relationship between BMI and HRQoL (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System mental and physical health scales) using ordinary least squares regression. Each model allowed for the possibility of a non-linear relationship between BMI and the outcome, adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, diet and physical activity...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
C W le Roux, B Chubb, E Nørtoft, A Borglykke
Background/Objectives: The economic burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) rises with increasing prevalence. This study estimates the association between obesity, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and associated costs in individuals with/without T2D. Subjects/Methods: This observational cohort study used the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink data. Between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2015, total HCRU costs and individual component costs (hospitalizations, general practitioner contacts, prescriptions) were calculated for individuals linked to the Hospital Episodes Statistics database with/without T2D with normal weight, overweight, class I, II, III obesity...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J Fouhse, K Yang, J Li, E Mills, T Ju, C S Alvarado, C B Chan, B P Willing
Objective: Rising worldwide prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases in children has accentuated the importance of developing prevention and management strategies. The objective of this study was to establish a model for childhood obesity using high-fat feeding of adolescent pigs, as pigs have a longer developmental period and are physiologically more similar to humans than rodents. Methods: Crossbred pigs were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet ( n  = 6/treatment) from postnatal day 49 to 84...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S Ponce, M A Allison, K Swett, J Cai, A A Desai, B E Hurwitz, A Ni, N Schneiderman, S J Shah, D M Spevack, G A Talavera, C J Rodriguez
Objective: The objective of this study is to determine associations between anthropometry and echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function in Hispanic/Latinos. Methods: A total of 1,824 participants from ECHO-SOL were included. We evaluated associations between echocardiographic measures of left ventricular structure and function and anthropometric measures using multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
W S Chan
Objectives: Prior studies have shown that individuals with shorter sleep duration and later sleep timing consume more highly palatable food (HPF). It is unclear if this relationship exists at the within-individual level, e.g. if sleeping less or later on one night is associated with greater HPF consumption in the following day in naturalistic environments. This study examined the daily associations between naturalistic sleep and HPF consumption. Methods: Data were obtained from 78 healthy young adults (age = 20...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S Hassan, T Ojo, D Galusha, J L Martinez-Brockman, O P Adams, R Maharaj, C Nazario, M Nunez, M Nunez-Smith
Objective: Prior studies have suggested that weight misperception - underestimating one's actual weight - may be associated with reduced engagement in weight loss programmes, decreasing the success of initiatives to address obesity and obesity-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors associated with weight misperception among Eastern Caribbean adults and its influence on engagement in weight control behaviour. Methods: Data from the Eastern Caribbean Health Outcomes Research Network (ECHORN) Cohort Study were analysed (adults aged 40 and older, residing in the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Barbados and Trinidad)...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
K J Speaker, R D Sayer, J C Peters, H N Foley, Z Pan, H R Wyatt, M R Flock, R Mukherjea, J O Hill
Objective: This 12-month randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial sought to determine the impact of consuming soy protein as part of an energy-restricted, high-protein diet on weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic health. Methods: Seventy-one adults (58 female) with overweight or obesity (body mass index: 32.9 ± 3.6 kg m-2 ) were randomly assigned to consume three servings of soy (S) or non-soy (NS) protein foods per day for 12 months. All participants completed a group-based behavioural weight loss program lasting 4 months (M4), and follow-up assessments were completed at month 12 (M12)...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M A B Veldhorst, S C A T Verbruggen, D van Harskamp, A Vermes, H Schierbeek, J B van Goudoever, E L T van den Akker
Objective: The objective of this research is to study effects of a 4-week high-protein (HP) diet on energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), protein turnover and body composition in children with obesity. Methods: In this randomized placebo-controlled single-blind crossover study, children with obesity ( n  = 14; mean age: 10.1 years ± 1.2 standard deviation; body mass index-standard deviation score [BMI-SDS]: 2.8 ± 0.5) received an ad libitum HP (+50 g protein per day) or normal-protein (NP) diet for 4 weeks with a washout period of ≥2 weeks...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S M Phelan, B A Lynch, K D Blake, D Blanch-Hartigan, R Hardeman, P Wilson, M Branda, L J Finney Rutten
Objective: Patient-provider communication has been found to be less patient centred, on average, with patients who are members of stigmatized or minority groups. Obesity is a stigmatized condition, and thus, people with obesity may experience less patient-centred communication (PCC). The objective of this study was to assess the association between patient body mass index (BMI) and self-reported quality of PCC experienced over a 12-month period and whether that relationship differed for men and women...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
C E Pulker, L E Thornton, G S A Trapp
Objective: Food environments can influence food selection and hold the potential to reduce obesity, non-communicable diseases and their inequalities. 'Consumer nutrition environments' describe what consumers encounter within a food retail outlet, including products, price, promotion and placement. This study aimed to summarize the attributes that have been examined in existing peer-reviewed studies of Australian consumer nutrition environments, identify knowledge gaps and provide recommendations for future research...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S L Filipp, M Cardel, J Hall, R Z Essner, D J Lemas, D M Janicke, S R Smith, J Nadglowski, W Troy Donahoo, R M Cooper-DeHoff, D R Nelson, W R Hogan, E A Shenkman, M J Gurka
Introduction: With obesity rates and obesity-related healthcare costs increasing, policy makers must understand the scope of obesity across populations. Objective: This study sought to characterize adult obesity using electronic health records (EHRs) available from a statewide clinical data research network, the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium, which contains claims and EHR data from over 12 million patients in Florida. The primary aim was to compare EHR-based Florida obesity rates with those rates obtained from the Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J L Thomson, M H Goodman, L M Tussing-Humphreys, A S Landry
Objective: Multicomponent lifestyle modification interventions designed for gestational and early postnatal periods may be key to preventing obesity in children. The primary objective of the study was to determine if infant growth outcomes differed between treatment arms of an 18-month, maternal, infant and early childhood home visiting project. Methods: Pregnant women at least 18 years of age, less than 19 weeks pregnant and residing in a lower Mississippi Delta county were recruited between March 2013 and December 2014...
August 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
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