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Obesity Science & Practice

S Ito, Y Sano, K Nagasawa, N Matsuura, Y Yamada, A Uchinaka, T Murohara, K Nagata
INTRODUCTION: n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are abundant in fish oil, have been shown to delay the onset of cardiovascular events. We previously established DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a model of metabolic syndrome. This study has now explored the influence of highly purified EPA on cardiac and adipose tissue pathophysiology in this animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DS/obese rats were administered EPA (300 or 1,000 mg kg(-1) d(-1), per os) or vehicle from age 9 to 13 weeks...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
H Zhao, J Shen, D Djukovic, C Daniel-MacDougall, H Gu, X Wu, W-H Chow
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms linking metabolic profiles and weight gain are largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we used semi-targeted metabolomics to assay 156 metabolites selected from 25 key metabolic pathways in plasma samples from 300 non-smoking healthy women identified from Mano-A-Mano, the Mexican American Cohort study. The study subjects were randomly divided into two cohorts: training (N = 200) and testing (N = 100) cohorts...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
S Sonomtseren, Y Sankhuu, J D Warfel, D L Johannsen, C M Peterson, B Vandanmagsar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a weight loss intervention in Mongolian adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and with BMIs ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2). METHODS: Eighty participants (33 men/47 women) aged 32-56 years old received education sessions to improve nutritional habits and increase physical activity. Participants were counselled in-person on two occasions with regular follow-up by phone to eat less (reduce calorie intake by 30-40% and consume fewer fatty foods), shift food intake to earlier in a day and increase physical activity such as walking, jogging, running and biking...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
B A Alhamdan, A Garcia-Alvarez, A H Alzahrnai, J Karanxha, D R Stretchberry, K J Contrera, A F Utria, L J Cheskin
BACKGROUND: Alternate-day-fasting (ADF) has been proposed as an effective dieting method. Studies have found that it also can increase life span in rodents, and reduce inflammation in humans. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the efficacy of ADF compared to very-low-calorie dieting (VLCD) in terms of weight loss, and reduction of fat mass and fat-free mass. METHODS: Systematic review: PubMed literature searches were performed. Fixed review procedures were applied...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
D L Ellsworth, N S Costantino, H L Blackburn, R J M Engler, M Kashani, M N Vernalis
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type-2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to determine if clinical lifestyle interventions differing in scope and intensity improve IR, defined by the lipoprotein IR (LPIR) score, in individuals differing in the severity of metabolic dysfunction. METHODS: Subjects with diagnosed type-2 diabetes, CAD or significant risk factors participated in one of two clinical lifestyle modification interventions: (i) intensive non-randomized programme with a strict vegetarian diet (n = 90 participants, 90 matched controls) or (ii) moderate randomized trial following a Mediterranean-style diet (n = 89 subjects, 58 controls)...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
Sílvia M Almeida, José M Furtado, Paulo Mascarenhas, Maria E Ferraz, Luís R Silva, José C Ferreira, Mariana Monteiro, Manuel Vilanova, Fernando P Ferraz
OBJECTIVE: To develop and cross-validate predictive models for percentage body fat (%BF) from anthropometric measurements [including BMI z-score (zBMI) and calf circumference (CC)] excluding skinfold thickness. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out in 3,084 pre-pubertal children. Regression models and neural network were developed with %BF measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) as the dependent variables and age, sex and anthropometric measurements as independent predictors...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
Christine Petrin, Scott Kahan, M Turner, C Gallagher, W H Dietz
INTRODUCTION: Rates of obesity pharmacotherapy use, bariatric surgery and intensive behavioural counselling have been extremely low. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to survey healthcare provider beliefs, practice and knowledge regarding obesity management. METHODS: Primary care physicians (PCPs), OB-GYN physicians and nurse practitioners (NPs) responded to a web-based survey related to drug therapy practice, bariatric surgery referral and reimbursement coding practice...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
L M Delahanty, M Riggs, S S Klioze, R D Chew, R D England, A Digenio
OBJECTIVE: High-attrition rates have been observed in long-term clinical trials of weight loss agents. We evaluated the impact of an innovative retention programme on 1-year retention. METHODS: Three Phase 3 global multicentre clinical trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of a CB1 receptor antagonist in subjects with BMI ≥ or = 27 kg/m(2). The impact of a multifaceted retention programme including a dietitian screening interview, a comprehensive culturally adapted lifestyle modification programme, and a dietitian support system to maximize lifestyle adherence, was evaluated in 4,410 subjects from four subpopulations (non-US English-speaking, non-English-speaking, US-without dietitian screening and US-with dietitian screening) comprising 208 centres from 15 countries...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
K Rupp, S E Taverno Ross, W Lang, J M Jakicic
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss, physical activity, fitness and diet changes in response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adults with self-reported juvenile onset (n = 61) or adult onset (n = 116) obesity. METHODS: Participants (n = 177; 43.0 ± 8.6 years; body mass index [BMI] = 33.0 ± 3.4 kg m(-2)) engaged in an 18-month standard behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants were randomized into three different intervention groups as part of the larger parent trial...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
N M Reily, C P Herman, L R Vartanian
OBJECTIVE: Large portions of food are often blamed for rising rates of obesity. We tested the possibility that people who are heavier may tend to select or prefer larger portions than do people who are lighter. METHODS: Participants (total N = 798) were asked to choose between a small and larger portion of pasta for a hypothetical meal (Studies 1, 2 and 4), to indicate their ideal portion from a range of portion-size options (Study 2), or to select their preferred portion size from each of 28 portion pairs (Study 3)...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
E A Fletcher, S A McNaughton, K E Lacy, D W Dunstan, V Carson, J Salmon
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that TV viewing is associated with body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. However, it is unclear whether dietary intake mediates these relationships. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in adolescents (12-19 years) participating in the 2003-2006 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. BMI z scores (zBMI) (n = 3,161) and MetS (n = 1,379) were calculated using age- and sex-specific criteria for adolescents...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
David B Sarwer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
E de Toledo Baldi, V C Dias Bóbbo, M H Melo Lima, L A Velloso, E Pereira de Araujo
BACKGROUND: Obesity has emerged as major public health problem leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies indicate that in many regions of the world, children and teenagers are increasingly affected by obesity, which contributes for a pessimistic projection for the near future. Maternal obesity has been implicated in metabolic disorders of the offspring, but there are no biological markers that can be detected early on life that predict the development of obesity in the offspring...
June 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
Yaeko Fukushima, Satoshi Kurose, Hiromi Shinno, Ha Cao Thi Thu, Atsuko Tamanoi, Hiromi Tsutsumi, Takaaki Hasegawa, Toshiaki Nakajima, Yutaka Kimura
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Irisin is a skeletal muscle myokine that causes the brown coloration of white fat, promotes fat burning, inhibits weight gain and may be useful for treatment of obesity. Irisin is also related to glucose/lipid metabolism and may prevent onset of diabetes, but a consensus on irisin secretion has not been reached. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between serum irisin levels and physical factors in untreated Japanese men and women with obesity...
June 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
A A Gibson, R V Seimon, J Franklin, T P Markovic, N M Byrne, E Manson, I D Caterson, A Sainsbury
OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Finding effective solutions to curb the obesity epidemic is a great global public health challenge. The need for long-term follow-up necessitates weight loss trials conducted in real-world settings, outside the confines of tightly controlled laboratory or clinic conditions. Given the complexity of eating behaviour and the food supply, this makes the process of designing a practical dietary intervention that stands up to scientific rigor difficult. Detailed information about the dietary intervention itself, as well as the process of developing the final intervention and its underlying rationale, is rarely reported in scientific weight management publications but is valuable and essential for translating research into practice...
June 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
M R Lent, S S Vander Veur, J C Peters, S J Herring, H R Wyatt, C Tewksbury, A C Wojtanowski, J O Hill, G D Foster
OBJECTIVE: Nearly 20 years ago, participants in behavioural weight loss programmes reported goals that greatly exceeded the amount of weight typically produced by these programmes. Whether having unrealistic weight loss goals impacts weight loss or attrition is unclear. The intent of the current study was to revisit current weight loss goals and examine whether goals impact outcomes. METHODS: Adults (N = 308, BMI = 33.7 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) participated in a 12-month behavioural weight management programme and completed questionnaires about their goals...
June 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
K C Nesbit, J A Low, S B Sisson
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectories associated with weight classification, and to examine demographic characteristics and clusters of obesogenic behaviours in adolescents with these trajectories. METHODS: Data were extracted from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 1,006, Grades 5-8). The independent variables were physical activity (accelerometer and child report), sports participation, television/video watching time and recreational computer use...
June 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
Shumin Zhang, Sudhakar Manne, Jennifer Lin, Jiao Yang
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of real-world patients potentially eligible for adjunctive pharmacotherapy for weight loss. METHODS: Patients from the GE Centricity electronic medical record database were selected if they had body mass index (BMI) ≥30 or ≥27 to <30 kg m(-2) with ≥1 obesity-associated comorbidity (hypertension, dyslipidemia, or type 2 diabetes) from 2002-2011; were aged ≥18 years and had ≥12 months of continuous enrollment before and after the date of first eligible BMI recorded (index date)...
June 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
A AlBlooshi, S Shaban, M AlTunaiji, N Fares, L AlShehhi, H AlShehhi, A AlMazrouei, A-K Souid
BACKGROUND: The remarkable socioeconomic changes in United Arab Emirates (UAE) necessitate regular monitoring of obesity in our population. This study explored the epidemiology of obesity in a large cohort of UAE students. METHODS: This population-based study investigated the prevalence of obesity in 44,942 students attending governmental schools in Ras Al-Khaimah. Body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated in 15,532 children (4-12 y) in 2013-2014, and in 29,410 children (3-18 y) in 2014-2015...
June 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
K Asao, A E Rothberg, L Arcori, M Kaur, C E Fowler, W H Herman
OBJECTIVE: Medical weight loss could change sweet taste threshold and preferences. The decrease in sweet taste preferences may, in turn, help in the maintenance of weight loss. This study examined the association between sweet taste preferences at baseline and weight change during a medical weight management programme and the impact of diet-induced weight loss on sweet taste preferences. METHODS: Adult patients with body mass index ≥32 kg m(-2) were recruited from a medical weight management clinic...
June 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
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