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Obesity Science & Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090354/what-weight-loss-treatment-options-do-geriatric-patients-with-overweight-and-obesity-want-to-consider
#1
M MacMillan, K Cummins, K Fujioka
INTRODUCTION: Since the 1990s, a number of weight loss medications have been removed from the USA and or European market because of adverse events associated with these medications. These medications include fenfluramine (heart valve thickening), sibutramine (cardiovascular risk) and rimonabant (depression). This history may affect a patient's desire to consider weight loss medications as an option for weight management. OBJECTIVE: This descriptive study was designed to observe what treatment options the geriatric patient (age 65 or higher) seeking weight loss would like to consider, as well as the reasons they felt they struggled with overweight or obesity...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090353/leptin-acylcarnitine-metabolites-and-development-of-adiposity-in-the-rhea-mother-child-cohort-in-crete-greece
#2
W Perng, E Oken, T Roumeliotaki, D Sood, A P Siskos, G Chalkiadaki, E Dermitzaki, M Vafeiadi, S Kyrtopoulos, M Kogevinas, H C Keun, L Chatzi
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate relations of serum leptin at age 4 with development of adiposity and linear growth during 3 years of follow-up among 75 Greek children and to identify serum metabolites associated with leptin at age 4 and to characterize their associations with adiposity gain and linear growth. METHODS: Linear regression models that accounted for maternal age, education and gestational weight gain and child's age and sex were used to examine associations of leptin and leptin-associated metabolites measured at age 4 with indicators of adiposity and linear growth at age 7...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090352/prevalence-of-obesity-in-malta
#3
REVIEW
S Cuschieri, J Vassallo, N Calleja, R Camilleri, A Borg, G Bonnici, Y Zhang, N Pace, J Mamo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global epidemic with the Mediterranean island of Malta being no exception. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified Malta as one of the European countries with the highest obesity prevalence. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted (2014-2016) under the auspices of the University of Malta. The prevalence of overweight-obesity in Malta was calculated and then age stratified for comparisons with previous studies. RESULTS: The study identified 69...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090351/the-prevalence-and-practice-impact-of-weight-bias-amongst-australian-dietitians
#4
T M Diversi, R Hughes, K J Burke
OBJECTIVES: This study explored weight bias amongst Australian Accredited Practising Dietitians (APDs) and the effect of client weight status on dietetic practice. METHODS: Participants were 201 APDs, recruited using purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire, the fat phobia scale (FPS), was completed to assess explicit weight bias. Participants were then randomized to receive either a female within the healthy weight range or female with obesity, accompanied by an identical case study for a condition unrelated to weight...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090350/longitudinal-quality-of-life-improvement-in-underserved-rural-youth-with-obesity
#5
S Engebretsen, R Sorrells, J P Yi-Frazier, K Briggs Early
OBJECTIVE: ACT! (Actively Changing Together) is a family- and community-based intervention targeting youth with obesity. The objective of this study was to establish the longitudinal impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) as well as the relationship with anthropometric and demographic factors. METHODS: Youth (n = 75) aged 8-14 years meeting criteria for overweight or obesity were referred to the programme. Twelve, 90-min classes in English and Spanish were held at the YMCA...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090349/the-association-between-parental-separation-during-childhood-and-obesity-in-adulthood-a-danish-twin-study
#6
J D Petersen, K O Kyvik, B L Heitmann, M E Vámosi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine if parental separation during childhood is associated with obesity in adulthood. METHODS: A co-twin case-control study of 146 adult same-sexed twin pairs with discordant body mass index (BMI) (i.e. one of the twins should have a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2), and the co-twin's BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) was selected from Danish Twin Registry (DTR). In total of 236 eligible twin individuals participated in the study. Childhood parental separation (defined as separation from one of the biological parents, regardless of the reason for separation) for at least one year prior to age 17 was self-reported...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090348/changes-in-hba1c-and-circulating-and-adipose-tissue-androgen-levels-in-overweight-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-response-to-electroacupuncture
#7
E Stener-Victorin, M Maliqueo, M Soligo, V Protto, L Manni, E Jerlhag, M Kokosar, A Sazonova, C J Behre, M Lind, C Ohlsson, K Højlund, A Benrick
AIM: Insulin sensitivity is ~40% lower in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in controls. We tested the hypothesis that 5 weeks of electroacupuncture treatment improves glucose regulation and androgen levels in overweight/obese women with PCOS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen women with PCOS, aged 18 to 38 years, with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2) and diagnosed with PCOS were included in this experimental and feasibility study and subjected to five weeks of electroacupuncture treatments three times/week...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090347/depressive-symptoms-in-women-s-midlife-in-relation-to-their-body-weight-before-during-and-after-childbearing-years
#8
M Bliddal, A Pottegård, H Kirkegaard, J Olsen, T I A Sørensen, E A Nohr
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine how weight and weight changes related to pregnancy were associated with depressive symptoms 11-16 years after childbirth. METHOD: We followed 16,998 first-time mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort up till 16 years after birth and estimated associations between depressive symptoms and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (kg m(-2)), weight changes in different time periods, and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 years after birth (WCBMI, cm)...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090346/a-gwas-follow-up-of-obesity-related-snps-in-sypl2-reveals-sex-specific-association-with-hip-circumference
#9
J de Toro-Martín, F Guénard, A Tchernof, Y Deshaies, L Pérusse, S Biron, O Lescelleur, L Biertho, S Marceau, M-C Vohl
OBJECTIVE: A novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with morbid obesity was recently identified by exome sequencing. The purpose of this study was to follow up this low-frequency coding SNP located within the SYPL2 locus and associated with body mass index in order to reveal novel associations with obesity-related traits. METHODS: The body mass index-associated SNP (rs62623713 A>G [chr1:109476817/hg19]) and two tagging SNPs within the SYPL2 locus, rs9661614 T>C (chr1:109479215) and rs485660 G>A (chr1:109480810), were genotyped in the obesity (n = 3,017) and the infogene (n = 676) cohorts, which were further combined, leading to a larger cohort of 3,693 individuals...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090345/electronically-captured-patient-reported-physical-function-an-important-vital-sign-in-obesity-medicine
#10
J Fleming, G C Wood, C Seiler, A Cook, M R Lent, C D Still, P N Benotti, B A Irving
OBJECTIVES: Impaired physical function (i.e., inability to walk 200 feet, climb a flight of stairs or perform activities of daily living) predicts poor clinical outcomes and adversely impacts medical and surgical weight management. However, routine assessment physical function is seldom performed clinically. The PROMIS Physical Function Short Form 20a (SF-20a) is a validated questionnaire for assessing patient reported physical function, which includes published T-score percentiles adjusted for gender, age and education...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090344/tasting-profile-affects-adoption-of-caloric-beverage-reduction-in-a-randomized-weight-loss-intervention
#11
G Turner-McGrievy, X Wang, B Popkin, D F Tate
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine differences in rates of non-caloric beverage adoption by participants classified as sweet likers (SLs) or sweet dislikers (measured using a behavioural tasting task). METHODS: Data are a sub-study from a 6-month, three-group, randomized weight loss trial (CHOICE) (body mass index 36.3 ± 5.8 kg m(-2), 84% female, aged 42.2 ± 10.9 years, 53% African-American) comparing the replacement of caloric beverages with either non-caloric sweetened beverages (diet) or water (water) compared with a control group...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090343/amylin-leptin-synergy-is-absent-in-extreme-obesity-and-not-restored-by-calorie-restriction-induced-weight-loss-in-rats
#12
J L Trevaskis, C Wittmer, J Athanacio, P S Griffin, D G Parkes, J D Roth
OBJECTIVE: Co-administration of amylin and leptin induces synergistic and clinically meaningful (>10%) weight loss that is attenuated as the degree of obesity increases. We explored whether calorie restriction (CR) could restore amylin/leptin synergy in very obese rats. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats on high-fat diet (696 ± 8 g, n = 72) were randomized to three cohorts (C1-C3). Rats in C1 were administered vehicle, rat amylin (50 µg kg(-1) d(-1)), murine leptin (125 µg kg(-1) d(-1)) or amylin and leptin for 28 days (n = 6 per group) via subcutaneous minipump...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090342/-1-h-mrs-measured-ectopic-fat-in-liver-and-muscle-is-associated-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-danish-girls-but-not-in-boys-with-overweight-and-obesity
#13
A Nissen, C E Fonvig, E Chabanova, C Bøjsøe, C Trier, O Pedersen, T Hansen, H S Thomsen, J-C Holm
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complication to overweight and obesity, which can be observed already in childhood. Ectopic lipid accumulation in muscle and liver has been shown to associate with the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Thus, the interaction between MetS and ectopic fat may offer clinical relevance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of MetS, or components hereof, and ectopic fat accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle tissue in children, as well as interactions between these...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090341/small-weight-gains-during-obesity-treatment-normative-or-cause-for-concern
#14
Leah M Schumacher, Monika Gaspar, Jocelyn E Remmert, Fengqing Zhang, Evan M Forman, Meghan L Butryn
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to characterize the frequency and size of small weight gains during behavioural weight loss treatment and to evaluate the relationship between small weight gains and weight loss outcomes. METHODS: Participants (n = 281) in a year-long behavioural weight loss programme were weighed at treatment sessions, and between-session weight gains were classified into several categories based on size. The occurrence of different gain magnitudes and their relation to weight loss were examined during both the active weight loss (months 1-6) and weight loss maintenance (months 7-12) phases of treatment...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090340/recruitment-and-retention-for-a-weight-loss-maintenance-trial-involving-weight-loss-prior-to-randomization
#15
C I Voils, J M Grubber, M A McVay, M K Olsen, J Bolton, J M Gierisch, S S Taylor, M L Maciejewski, W S Yancy
OBJECTIVE: A weight loss maintenance trial involving weight loss prior to randomization is challenging to implement due to the potential for dropout and insufficient weight loss. We examined rates and correlates of non-initiation, dropout, and insufficient weight loss during a weight loss maintenance trial. METHODS: The MAINTAIN trial involved a 16-week weight loss program followed by randomization among participants losing at least 4 kg. Psychosocial measures were administered during a screening visit...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090339/a-mixed-methods-approach-to-improving-recruitment-and-engagement-of-emerging-adults-in-behavioural-weight-loss-programs
#16
J G LaRose, K M Guthrie, A Lanoye, D F Tate, E Robichaud, L J Caccavale, R R Wing
OBJECTIVE: Emerging adults ages 18-25 are at high risk for obesity, but are markedly underrepresented in behavioural weight loss (BWL) programs and experience lower engagement and retention relative to older adults. PURPOSE: To utilize a mixed methods approach to inform future efforts to effectively recruit and engage this high-risk population in BWL programs. METHODS: We used a convergent parallel design in which quantitative and qualitative data were given equal priority...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090338/executive-functions-predict-weight-loss-in-a-medically-supervised-weight-loss-programme
#17
R Galioto, D Bond, J Gunstad, V Pera, L Rathier, G Tremont
BACKGROUND: Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. METHODS: Twenty-three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090337/editorial
#18
EDITORIAL
David B Sarwer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708849/highly-purified-eicosapentaenoic-acid-ameliorates-cardiac-injury-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#19
S Ito, Y Sano, K Nagasawa, N Matsuura, Y Yamada, A Uchinaka, T Murohara, K Nagata
INTRODUCTION: n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are abundant in fish oil, have been shown to delay the onset of cardiovascular events. We previously established DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a model of metabolic syndrome. This study has now explored the influence of highly purified EPA on cardiac and adipose tissue pathophysiology in this animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DS/obese rats were administered EPA (300 or 1,000 mg kg(-1) d(-1), per os) or vehicle from age 9 to 13 weeks...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708848/metabolomics-identified-metabolites-associated-with-body-mass-index-and-prospective-weight-gain-among-mexican-american-women
#20
H Zhao, J Shen, D Djukovic, C Daniel-MacDougall, H Gu, X Wu, W-H Chow
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms linking metabolic profiles and weight gain are largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we used semi-targeted metabolomics to assay 156 metabolites selected from 25 key metabolic pathways in plasma samples from 300 non-smoking healthy women identified from Mano-A-Mano, the Mexican American Cohort study. The study subjects were randomly divided into two cohorts: training (N = 200) and testing (N = 100) cohorts...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
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