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Obesity Science & Practice

E Flowers, A M Kanaya, Y Fukuoka, I E Allen, B Cooper, B E Aouizerat
Background: Circulating microRNAs are emerging as potential prognostic biomarkers for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, microRNAs are also associated with complications from impaired glucose metabolism (e.g. endothelial cell function). Prior studies have not evaluated for associations between trajectories of circulating microRNAs with trajectories of fasting blood glucose over time and the responses to behavioral interventions to reduce risk. This study performed longitudinal assessment of microRNAs and fasting blood glucose and identified relationships between microRNAs and behavioral risk reduction interventions...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
K Coveleskie, L A Kilpatrick, A Gupta, J Stains, L Connolly, J S Labus, C Sanmiguel, E A Mayer
Objective: The differential effect of GLP-1 agonist Exenatide on functional connectivity of the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS), a key region associated with homeostasis, and on appetite-related behaviours was investigated in women with normal weight compared with women with obesity. Methods: Following an 8-h fast, 19 female subjects (11 lean, 8 obese) participated in a 2-d double blind crossover study. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at fast and 30-min post subcutaneous injection of 5 μg of Exenatide or placebo...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
L Engelbrechtsen, J Lundgren, N J Wewer Albrechtsen, Y Mahendran, E W Iepsen, P Finocchietto, A E Jonsson, S Madsbad, J J Holst, H Vestergaard, T Hansen, S S Torekov
Background: Dislipidaemia and increased levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in individuals with obesity are risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and weight maintenance with and without liraglutide treatment on plasma lipid profiles and apoB. Methods: Fifty-eight individuals with obesity (body mass index 34.5 ± 3.0 kg/m2 [mean ± SD]) were included in this study. After 8 weeks on a very low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day), participants were randomized to weight maintenance with meal replacements with or without liraglutide (1...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
N Okamoto, A Hosono, K Shibata, S Tsujimura, K Oka, H Fujita, M Kamiya, F Kondo, R Wakabayashi, T Yamada, S Suzuki
Objective: Inconsistent results have been found in prior studies investigating the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference, and no study has investigated the validity of self-reported waist circumference among Japanese individuals. This study used the diagnostic standard of metabolic syndrome to assess the accuracy of individual's self-reported height, weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample. Methods: Study participants included 7,443 Japanese men and women aged 35-79 years...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
T Moriyasu, K Hosoda, S Tanaka-Mizuno, M Konda, K Ueshima, M Ida, K Nin
Objective: To investigate the effects of monthly feedback of changes in visceral fat area (VFA) as measured by dual bioelectrical impedance analysis method and the importance of VFA in individuals with obesity. Methods: Thirty-eight Japanese patients with obesity underwent VFA measurements. The feedback group was given feedback on VFA measurements each month for 4 months. The control group underwent VFA measurements at the beginning and end of the study but was not informed of the results...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
H So, L McLaren, G C Currie
Objective: The relationship between Canada's Food Guide (CFG) adherence and overweight/obesity at the population level is unknown. Our objective was to explore the association between overweight/obesity and CFG adherence in Canada. Methods: Using 24-h dietary recall data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of Canadians' consumption of four predefined food types from CFG (grain products, vegetables and fruit, milk and alternatives, meat and alternatives)...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
M Marini
Objective: Although stigma towards obesity and anorexia is a well-recognized problem, no research has investigated and compared the explicit (i.e. conscious) and implicit (i.e. unconscious) preferences between these two conditions. The present study conducted this investigation in a sample of 4,806 volunteers recruited at the Project Implicit website ( Methods: Explicit and implicit preferences were assessed among different weight categories (i...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
R S Doshi, S N Bleich, K A Gudzune
Objective: To examine health professionals' (HPs) perceptions of top challenges and solutions in obesity care, and whether these perceptions differ by patient-panel income level. Methods: A 2014 national cross-sectional survey of HPs in nutrition, nursing, behavioural or mental health, exercise and pharmacy was analysed. The dependent variables were identification of insurance coverage for their services as a top (1) challenge or (2) solution for obesity care. The independent variable was self-reported income distribution of HPs' patient panels, which was dichotomized as 'lower-income' if 'mostly low income' or 'higher-income' if 'mostly not low income/evenly split between low-income and not low-income'...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
L E Hayward, L R Vartanian, R T Pinkus
People who are overweight or obese are frequently stigmatized because of their weight, but there has been limited exploration of how people cope with these experiences. The Coping Responses Inventory (CRI) assesses a wide range of coping strategies in response to weight stigma; however, its length (99 items) may have prevented it from being widely used. The aim of the current research (four studies; total N = 1,391) was to develop and validate a Brief CRI. This 10-item measure consists of two subscales that assess core coping responses to weight stigma: reappraisal and disengagement coping...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
J G Thomas, H A Raynor, D S Bond, A K Luke, C C Cardoso, A C Wojtanowski, S Vander Veur, D Tate, R R Wing, G D Foster
Objective: Evaluate the effects of an online commercial weight management program, with and without provision of a 'smart' scale with instructions to weigh daily and weekly tailored feedback, on weight loss and the frequency of body-weight self-monitoring. Methods: Participants (N = 92; body mass index 27-40 kg/m2) were randomized to 6 months of no-cost access to the Weight Watchers Online (WWO) platform alone, or enhanced with a cellular-connected 'smart' scale, instructions to weigh daily and weekly pre-scripted email feedback (Weight Watchers Online Enhanced [WWO-E])...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
S El Akoum, Y Haddad, R Couture
AIM: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major complication of obesity and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Antagonizing bradykinin type 1 receptor (B1R) improved body and tissue fat mass and reversed vascular and adipose tissue inflammation in a rat model of insulin resistance. This study aimed at evaluating further the role of B1R in a mouse model of T2D by comparing the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects of the B1R antagonist SSR240612 (SSR) in adipose tissue with those of pioglitazone (TZD), an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
G S Carls, R Tan, J Y Zhu, E Tuttle, J Yee, S V Edelman, W H Polonsky
AIMS: The study aims to examine real-world weight change and the role of medication adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated one of three drug classes: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4) and sulfonylureas (SUs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of patients initiating one of the three drug classes was selected from a large US database of integrated electronic medical record and administrative claims...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
J J Lee, S-J Hwang, K Mutalik, D Corey, R Joyce, J P Block, C S Fox, T M Powell-Wiley
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships of built environment characteristics with adiposity and glycaemic measures. METHOD: Longitudinal study sample consisted of 4,010 Framingham Heart Study Offspring (baseline: 1998-2001; follow-up: 2005-2008) and Generation Three (baseline: 2002-2005; follow-up: 2008-2011) participants (54.8% women, baseline mean age 48.6 years). Built environment characteristics (intersection density, greenspace, recreation land and food stores) at baseline were collected...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
A Kalani, H Bami, M Tiboni, R Jaeschke, J D Adachi, A N Lau
BACKGROUND: Concerns have emerged about post-operative decreases in calcium and vitamin D following bariatric surgery. This review explores changes in metabolic bone health in persons with obesity undergoing gastric bypass surgery compared to non-surgical controls, providing an updated and comprehensive perspective on the literature. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases to 8 November 2016. Eligible trials included randomized controlled trials or controlled observational studies of patients who have undergone laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
H M Niemeier, J Lillis, R R Wing
OBJECTIVE: Adults with overweight/obesity reporting high levels of internal disinhibition (ID) tend to do poorly in standard behavioural weight loss programmes. The current study sought to compare a sample of individuals with overweight/obesity selected on the basis of high ID with an unselected treatment-seeking sample of adults with overweight/obesity on characteristics that might make acceptance-based treatments particularly appropriate for those with high ID. METHODS: Sample 1 included 162 treatment-seeking adults with overweight/obesity who were selected for high ID; sample 2 included 194 unselected treatment-seeking adults with overweight/obesity...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
R D Sayer, K J Speaker, Z Pan, J C Peters, H R Wyatt, J O Hill
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized equivalence trial was to determine the impact of consuming lean beef as part of a high protein (HP) weight-reducing diet on changes in body weight, body composition and cardiometabolic health. METHODS: A total of 120 adults (99 female) with overweight or obesity (BMI: 35.7 ± 7.0 kg m(-2)) were randomly assigned to consume either a HP diet with ≥4 weekly servings of lean beef (B; n = 60) or a HP diet restricted in all red meats (NB; n = 60) during a 16-week weight loss intervention...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
C M Vincent, P A Hall
BACKGROUND: Several studies document reliable brain health benefits of acute exercise bouts. However, no prior studies have explored such effects among those living with co-morbid overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), both of which are conditions associated with cognitive performance decrements. PURPOSE: To examine the impact of a 30-min bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on executive function among adults with overweight/obesity and T2DM, employing a widely used experimental paradigm...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
M Peng
OBJECTIVE: Manipulating plate sizes could possibly introduce perceptual biases for judging food satiation and intake, which is thought to be related to the Delbeouf illusion - a visual illusion based on the perceived size of one object related to another. This study was to investigate whether an association exists between an individual's susceptibility to the plate-size-effect and their weight status (i.e. normal-weight versus overweight). METHODS: The study assessed the effect of plate size amongst normal-weight (N = 124) and overweight (N = 79) New Zealand Europeans...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
M Hübers, M Pourhassan, W Braun, C Geisler, M J Müller
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut-offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6-60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0-27.7] kg m-2). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATtotal, SATtrunk) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
Y Türk, W Theel, M J Kasteleyn, F M E Franssen, P S Hiemstra, A Rudolphus, C Taube, G J Braunstahl
INTRODUCTION: High Intensity training (HIT) is a time-effective alternative to traditional exercise programs in adults with obesity, but the superiority in terms of improving cardiopulmonary fitness and weight loss has not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: to determine the effectiveness of HIT on cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition in adults with obesity compared to traditional (high volume continuous) exercise. METHODS: A systematic search of the main health science databases was conducted for randomized controlled trials comparing HIT with traditional forms of exercise in people with obesity...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
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