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Veterinary Sciences

Jacques Godfroid
Brucella infections in wildlife have gained a lot of interest from the scientific community and different stakeholders. These interests are often different and sometimes conflicting. As a result, different management perspectives and aims have been implemented (One Health, public health, veterinary public health, maintenance of a brucellosis free status in livestock, sustainable wildlife harvesting by hunters, wildlife and environmental health). When addressing Brucella infection in wildlife, the most important features of Brucella infection should be considered and the following questions need to be answered: (1) Is Brucella infection a result of a spillover from livestock or is it a sustainable infection in one or more wildlife host species? (2) Did the epidemiological situation of Brucella infection in wildlife change over time and, if so, what are the main drivers of change and does it impact the wildlife population dynamics? (3) Does Brucella infection in wildlife represent a reservoir of Brucella strains for livestock? (4) Is Brucella infection in wildlife of zoonotic concern? These questions point to the fundamental biological question of how animal (domestic and wildlife)/ Brucella spp...
September 18, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Carolina Santos, Luciano Henrique Campestrini, Douglas Luis Vieira, Izanara Pritsch, Fábio Tomio Yamassaki, Selma Faria Zawadzki-Baggio, Juliana Bello Baron Maurer, Marcelo Beltrão Molento
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. is a xerophylous plant that originated in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is popularly known in Brazil as "palma forrageira" (cactus pear) and plays a fundamental role in animal nutrition, mainly in the Northeastern semi-arid region of the country. The plant has several uses since it presents bioactive compounds that confer biological and pharmacological properties. In this context, the cactus pear can also be considered a potential product to combat parasite infections...
September 12, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Takashi Kuribayashi, Davide Cossu, Eiichi Momotani
Levels of Japanese cedar pollen ( Cryptomeria japonica ) have increased in Japan and cedar pollinosis caused by Japanese cedar pollen has been reported in dogs. Serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in dogs raised in institutes and treated at veterinary hospitals in Japan were thus investigated. A total of 71 sera obtained from two institutes and 87 sera obtained from veterinary hospitals in the Hyogo and Kanagawa Prefectures were analyzed in this study. Serum levels of IgE were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with commercial purified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2...
September 11, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Federica Giovanelli, Matteo Mattellini, Gianluca Fichi, Guido Flamini, Stefania Perrucci
By using the egg hatch test (EHT), the larval development test (LDT) and the larval mortality/paralysis test (LMT), the in vitro anthelmintic activity on sheep gastrointestinal strongyles (GIS) of four plant-derived pure compounds, mangiferin (at 0.25%, 0.125% and 0.0625%), rutin (at 1%, 0.75%, 0.5%), quercetin (at 1%), and β-sitosterol (at 1%, 0.75%, 0.5%), was investigated. For comparison, untreated and treated (0.1% thiabendazole, 0.1% TBZ) controls were used. Six repetitions were made throughout the experiment...
September 10, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Maganga Sambo, Katie Hampson, Joel Changalucha, Sarah Cleaveland, Tiziana Lembo, Kennedy Lushasi, Eberhard Mbunda, Zacharia Mtema, Lwitiko Sikana, Paul C D Johnson
Estimates of dog population sizes are a prerequisite for delivering effective canine rabies control. However, dog population sizes are generally unknown in most rabies-endemic areas. Several approaches have been used to estimate dog populations but without rigorous evaluation. We compare post-vaccination transects, household surveys, and school-based surveys to determine which most precisely estimates dog population sizes. These methods were implemented across 28 districts in southeast Tanzania, in conjunction with mass dog vaccinations, covering a range of settings, livelihoods, and religious backgrounds...
September 7, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Jessica Benkaroun, Gregory J Robertson, Hugh Whitney, Andrew S Lang
The genomes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) comprise eight negative-sense single-stranded RNA segments. In addition to the protein-coding region, each segment possesses 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCR) that are important for transcription, replication and packaging. The NCRs contain both conserved and segment-specific sequences, and the impacts of variability in the NCRs are not completely understood. Full NCRs have been determined from some viruses, but a detailed analysis of potential variability in these regions among viruses from different host groups and locations has not been performed...
August 25, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Constance White, Marnie L Brennan
Prolapsed nictitans gland (PNG) is an important ocular condition of dogs. Various surgical interventions have been described, but effective technique is currently considered to be a matter of personal clinician preference. The aim of this rapid review was to evaluate existing peer-reviewed evidence of effectiveness for surgical techniques and their subsequent effects on quantitative and clinical lacrimal outcomes for PNG. We performed a structured bibliographic search of CAB Abstracts, PubMed, and Medline using terms relevant to dogs, nictitans gland, and surgery on 13 September 2017...
August 23, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Luiz Saramago, Helga Gomes, Elena Aguilera, Hugo Cerecetto, Mercedes González, Mauricio Cabrera, Maria Fernanda Alzugaray, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Junior, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Beatriz Aguirre-López, Nallely Cabrera, Ruy Pérez-Montfort, Alicia Merlino, Jorge Moraes, Guzmán Álvarez
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the most important ectoparasites causing significant economic losses for the cattle industry. The major tool of control is reducing the number of ticks, applying acaricides in cattle. However, overuse has led to selection of resistant populations of R. microplus to most of these products, some even to more than one active principle. Thus, exploration for new molecules with acaricidal activity in R. microplus has become necessary. Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is an essential enzyme in R...
August 23, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Roberta Sartori, Valeria Colombo, Silvia Colombo, Chiara Noli
A two-year-old, intact female Scottish Terrier presented with one-and-a-half-year history of erosive and ulcerative lesions affecting the nasal planum. Clinical appearance, history, histopathology, and response to therapy were suggestive of a rare vasculopathy of the nasal planum that has been previously described in Scottish Terrier dogs. In previously published reports, medical treatments of the disease had failed, leading to euthanasia of five dogs, while a short-term follow-up was available for one case that was controlled with prednisolone and ciclosporin...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Walaa Hamed Shaker Nasry, Haili Wang, Kathleen Jones, Wessel P Dirksen, Thomas J Rosol, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Chelsea K Martin
Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a highly invasive form of cancer in cats. In human OSCC, cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) contributes to inflammation and tumor invasiveness. CD147 is a potential therapeutic target, but the expression of CD147 in feline OSCC has not been examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine if cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and CD147 expression in feline OSCC biopsies was coordinated. Tumor cells were more likely to express COX-2 (22/43 cases or 51%) compared to stroma (8/43 or 19%) and adjacent oral epithelium (9/31 cases or 29%) ( p < 0...
August 13, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Suresh V Kuchipudi, Ruth H Nissly
Influenza viruses are among the major infectious disease threats of animal and human health. This review examines the recent discovery of novel influenza viruses in bats and cattle, the evolving complexity of influenza virus host range including the ability to cross species barriers and geographic boundaries, and implications to animal and human health.
August 6, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Liliana M E Finocchiaro, Agustina I M Spector, Lucrecia Agnetti, M Florencia Arbe, Gerardo C Glikin
The incidence of canine mammary carcinoma varies with age, breed, and spay status, being among the main tumors appearing in intact female dogs. Thirty-six canine mammary carcinoma patients received injections of canine interferon-β (cIFN-β) and HSV-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) carrying lipoplexes, into the tumor bed, immediately after surgery. Next, they started periodic subcutaneous injections of lipoplexes carrying a human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2 mixed with allogeneic mammary carcinoma extracts...
August 3, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Luis F Nuñez, Silvana H Santander-Parra, Lucas Chaible, David I De la Torre, Marcos R Buim, Alexandre Murakami, Maria Lucia Zaidan Dagli, Claudete S Astolfi-Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino Ferreira
Many viruses have been associated with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS). These viral infections mainly affect young chickens, causing apathy, depression, ruffled feathers, cloacal pasting, and diarrhea. Chicken Parvovirus (ChPV) is such an infection and has been detected in chickens showing signs of enteric diseases worldwide. Therefore, the present study aims to develop a sensitive real-time fast-qPCR assay based on SYBR® Green for detection and quantification of ChPV. A 561-bp non-structural (NS) gene was amplified and cloned, and a pair of primers was designed based on conserved nucleotide sequences on the NS gene of ChPV, the intercalating DNA reagent SYBR® Green was employed, and the Fast mode of a thermocycler was used...
July 25, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Charles E Rupprecht, Zhiquan Xiang, Alexandre Servat, Richard Franka, Jordona Kirby, Hildegund C J Ertl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi, Farbod Alinezhad, Ivan Kuzmin, Charles E Rupprecht
Rabies is a neglected but preventable viral zoonosis that poses a substantial threat to public health. In this regard, a global program has been initiated for the elimination of human rabies caused by rabid dogs through the mass vaccination of canine populations. Geographic areas vary greatly towards attainment of this objective. For example, while dog-mediated and wildlife rabies have been largely controlled in major parts of the Americas and Western Europe, the Middle East still grapples with human rabies transmitted by unvaccinated dogs and cats...
July 17, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Teresa Collins, Amelia Cornish, Jennifer Hood, Chris Degeling, Andrew D Fisher, Rafael Freire, Susan J Hazel, Jane Johnson, Janice K F Lloyd, Clive J Phillips, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul D McGreevy
Veterinarians are in a strong position of social influence on animal-related issues. Hence, veterinary schools have an opportunity to raise animal health and welfare standards by improving veterinary students' animal welfare and ethics (AWE) education, including that related to animals used for scientific purposes. A survey of 851 students in the early, mid, and senior stages of their courses at all eight veterinary schools across Australia and New Zealand was undertaken on their first day of practice (or Day One Competences) to explore how veterinary students viewed the importance of their competence in the management of welfare and ethical decision-making relating to animals kept for scientific purposes...
July 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Amelia Cornish, Andrew D Fisher, Teresa Collins, Chris Degeling, Rafael Freire, Susan J Hazel, Jennifer Hood, Janice K F Lloyd, Clive J C Phillips, Kevin J Stafford, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul D McGreevy
The importance of animal welfare and ethics (AWE) within the veterinary education should reflect community concerns and expectations about AWE, and the professional demands of veterinary accreditation on the first day of practice (or 'Day One' competences). Currently, much interest and debate surrounds the treatment of production animals, particularly around live export. To explore the attitudes to AWE of veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand, a survey was undertaken to (i) understand what students consider important AWE topics for initial production animal competence; and (ii) ascertain how these priorities correlated with gender, area of intended practice and stage-of-study...
July 12, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Antonio Watson, Vade Sookram, Marc Driscoll, Michael Morris, Rod Suepaul, Jordi López-Alvarez, Ignacio Corradini
A six-year-old female goat was presented to the veterinary teaching hospital of the University of the West Indies with a history of progressive hind-limb paresis lasting two weeks. The doe developed a grade 6/6 holosystolic murmur during hospitalisation. Echocardiography revealed vegetative growths attached to cusps of the mitral and aortic valves. There was an accelerated aortic flow at 2.9 m/s and aortic insufficiency. The aortic vegetation was prolapsing into the left ventricle during diastole, causing it to contact the septal mitral valve leaflet...
July 10, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Isabelle Lesponne, Jérôme Naar, Sébastien Planchon, Tommaso Serchi, Mauricio Montano
Adverse food reactions (AFR) are a common cause of skin diseases in cats and dogs. The correct diagnosis and management of AFR relies upon clinical nutrition. The reliability of commercial hypoallergenic diets commonly used in AFR has been questioned because studies have shown the presence of proteins not declared on the label ingredients. It is proposed that extensively hydrolysed protein-based diets constitute a reliable nutritional solution. Royal Canin Anallergenic&trade; Canine and Feline diets are formulated with very low molecular weight feather protein and purified corn starch...
June 26, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Valentina Virginia Ebani, Basma Najar, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Luisa Pistelli, Francesca Mancianti, Simona Nardoni
Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus are two pathogens largely present among poultry. They can cause mild or severe forms of disease, and are associated with significant economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and the in vitro antimicrobial activity of sixteen essential oils (EOs) and five mixtures against E. coli and A. fumigatus strains previously isolated from poultry. The study was performed with the following EOs: Aloysia tryphilla , Boswellia sacra , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Citrus aurantium , Citrus bergamia , Citrus limon , Citrus reticulata , Cymbopogon citratus , Eucalyptus globulus , Lavandula hybrida , Litsea cubeba , Ocimum basilicum , Melaleuca alternifolia , Mentha piperita , Pelargonium graveolens , and Syzygium aromaticum ...
June 25, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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