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Veterinary Sciences

Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi, Farbod Alinezhad, Ivan Kuzmin, Charles E Rupprecht
Rabies is a neglected but preventable viral zoonosis that poses a substantial threat to public health. In this regard, a global program has been initiated for the elimination of human rabies caused by rabid dogs through the mass vaccination of canine populations. Geographic areas vary greatly towards attainment of this objective. For example, while dog-mediated and wildlife rabies have been largely controlled in major parts of the Americas and Western Europe, the Middle East still grapples with human rabies transmitted by unvaccinated dogs and cats...
July 17, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Teresa Collins, Amelia Cornish, Jennifer Hood, Chris Degeling, Andrew D Fisher, Rafael Freire, Susan J Hazel, Jane Johnson, Janice K F Lloyd, Clive J Phillips, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul D McGreevy
Veterinarians are in a strong position of social influence on animal-related issues. Hence, veterinary schools have an opportunity to raise animal health and welfare standards by improving veterinary students' animal welfare and ethics (AWE) education, including that related to animals used for scientific purposes. A survey of 851 students in the early, mid, and senior stages of their courses at all eight veterinary schools across Australia and New Zealand was undertaken on their first day of practice (or Day One Competences) to explore how veterinary students viewed the importance of their competence in the management of welfare and ethical decision-making relating to animals kept for scientific purposes...
July 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Amelia Cornish, Andrew D Fisher, Teresa Collins, Chris Degeling, Rafael Freire, Susan J Hazel, Jennifer Hood, Janice K F Lloyd, Clive J C Phillips, Kevin J Stafford, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul D McGreevy
The importance of animal welfare and ethics (AWE) within the veterinary education should reflect community concerns and expectations about AWE, and the professional demands of veterinary accreditation on the first day of practice (or 'Day One' competences). Currently, much interest and debate surrounds the treatment of production animals, particularly around live export. To explore the attitudes to AWE of veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand, a survey was undertaken to (i) understand what students consider important AWE topics for initial production animal competence; and (ii) ascertain how these priorities correlated with gender, area of intended practice and stage-of-study...
July 12, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Antonio Watson, Vade Sookram, Marc Driscoll, Michael Morris, Rod Suepaul, Jordi López-Alvarez, Ignacio Corradini
A six-year-old female goat was presented to the veterinary teaching hospital of the University of the West Indies with a history of progressive hind-limb paresis lasting two weeks. The doe developed a grade 6/6 holosystolic murmur during hospitalisation. Echocardiography revealed vegetative growths attached to cusps of the mitral and aortic valves. There was an accelerated aortic flow at 2.9 m/s and aortic insufficiency. The aortic vegetation was prolapsing into the left ventricle during diastole, causing it to contact the septal mitral valve leaflet...
July 10, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Isabelle Lesponne, Jérôme Naar, Sébastien Planchon, Tommaso Serchi, Mauricio Montano
Adverse food reactions (AFR) are a common cause of skin diseases in cats and dogs. The correct diagnosis and management of AFR relies upon clinical nutrition. The reliability of commercial hypoallergenic diets commonly used in AFR has been questioned because studies have shown the presence of proteins not declared on the label ingredients. It is proposed that extensively hydrolysed protein-based diets constitute a reliable nutritional solution. Royal Canin Anallergenic™ Canine and Feline diets are formulated with very low molecular weight feather protein and purified corn starch...
June 26, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Valentina Virginia Ebani, Basma Najar, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Luisa Pistelli, Francesca Mancianti, Simona Nardoni
Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus are two pathogens largely present among poultry. They can cause mild or severe forms of disease, and are associated with significant economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and the in vitro antimicrobial activity of sixteen essential oils (EOs) and five mixtures against E. coli and A. fumigatus strains previously isolated from poultry. The study was performed with the following EOs: Aloysia tryphilla , Boswellia sacra , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Citrus aurantium , Citrus bergamia , Citrus limon , Citrus reticulata , Cymbopogon citratus , Eucalyptus globulus , Lavandula hybrida , Litsea cubeba , Ocimum basilicum , Melaleuca alternifolia , Mentha piperita , Pelargonium graveolens , and Syzygium aromaticum ...
June 25, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Theresa Conze, Isabelle Ritz, Rainer Hospes, Axel Wehrend
Cleft palate in dogs is a congenital defect that mostly leads to euthanasia of the affected puppy. If an attempt is made to raise the puppy, it is generally fed via an orogastric tube. Here, we describe the management of cleft palate in three puppies (two Boxers, one Collie) using a customised temporary prosthesis, which allowed the puppies to be bottle-fed and successfully raised by their owners (Cases 2 and 3) and the author (Case 1). The temporary palatal prosthesis was manufactured from a mouthguard intended for human children, which is made of thermoplastic silicone...
June 24, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Stephen K Wikel
Ticks transmit the most diverse array of infectious agents of any arthropod vector. Both ticks and the microbes they transmit are recognized as significant threats to human and veterinary public health. This article examines the potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of ticks and the infections they transmit; the emergence of novel tick-borne pathogens, increasing geographic range and incidence of tick-borne infections; and advances in the characterization of tick saliva mediated modulation of host defenses and the implications of those interactions for transmission, establishment, and control of tick infestation and tick-borne infectious agents...
June 20, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Charles E Rupprecht, Zhiquan Xiang, Alexandre Servat, Richard Franka, Jordona Kirby, Hildegund C J Ertl
Laboratory-based surveillance is fundamental to effective rabies prevention and control. The direct fluorescent antibody (AB) test (FAT) is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. Recently, additional tests besides the FAT have been developed, such as the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT). In this study, our objective was to further refine technical aspects of the DRIT using a combination of two monoclonal ABs (MABs), 502 and 802, conduct additional testing among rabies reference laboratories using a diversity of animal species and rabies virus (RV) variants and compare the potential utility of the DRIT for end users via proficiency testing (PT) against the FAT...
June 20, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
William Brady Little, Elpida Artemiou, Anne Conan, Cathryn Sparks
Although cadaveric dissection has historically been the cornerstone of anatomical education, it comes at the cost of some emotional, moral, safety, and environmental concerns. Computer assisted learning (CAL) programs are an increasingly common solution to these issues; however, research regarding the efficacy of high fidelity simulation is limited. The traditional first semester veterinary gross anatomy course curriculum at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) was supplemented with a web based virtual anatomy program, IVALA™ (www...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Garyfalia Karponi, Spyridon Kritas, Evanthia Petridou, Eleni Papanikolaou
A number of bacteria provoking zoonotic diseases present intracellular survival and a host cell tropism limited to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus, infection is rendered difficult to eradicate, causing chronic inflammatory reactions to the host and widespread prevalence. Although self-inactivating lentiviral vectors have been successfully tested in the clinic against virally-induced human infectious diseases, little is known about the transduction susceptibility of ruminant animal phagocytes that play a critical role in the outbreak of zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis...
June 18, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Kenneth Royal, Mari-Wells Hedgpeth, Keven Flammer
BACKGROUND: Shyness is defined as "the tendency to feel awkward, worried or tense during social encounters, especially with unfamiliar people." While shyness is not necessarily a social disorder, extreme cases of shyness may classify as a social phobia and require medical treatment. Extant research has noted shyness may be correlated with social problems that could be detrimental to one's health, career, and social relationships. This exploratory study examined the prevalence, source, and nature of shyness among incoming Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) program students at one veterinary medical school...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Kenneth Royal, David Dorman
BACKGROUND: The number of answer options is an important element of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Many MCQs contain four or more options despite the limited literature suggesting that there is little to no benefit beyond three options. The purpose of this study was to evaluate item performance on 3-option versus 4-option MCQs used in a core curriculum course in veterinary toxicology at a large veterinary medical school in the United States. METHODS: A quasi-experimental, crossover design was used in which students in each class were randomly assigned to take one of two versions (A or B) of two major exams...
June 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Constance N White, Gareth Jones, Sarah Baker, Rachel S Dean, Marnie L Brennan
Treatment variation in medicine may be driven by evidence gaps, clinician factors, and patient preferences. Although well-documented in human medicine, variation in clinical management is relatively unexplored in veterinary practice. Clinical vignette questionnaires were administered to a cross section of general practitioners (GPs) and veterinarians with postgraduate training in ophthalmology (PGs) to survey recommended management of canine prolapsed nictitans gland ("cherry eye", PNG) and feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) keratitis...
June 1, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Ronel Pienaar, Albert W H Neitz, Ben J Mans
In comparison to other arachnids, ticks are major vectors of disease, but less than 8% of the known species are capable of inducing paralysis, as compared to the ~99⁻100% arachnids that belong to venomous classes. When considering the potential monophyly of venomous Arachnida, this review reflects on the implications regarding the classification of ticks as venomous animals and the possible origin of toxins. The origin of tick toxins is compared with scorpion and spider toxins and venoms based on their significance, functionality, and structure in the search to find homologous venomous characters...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Kavita Ranjeeta Lall, Kegan Romelle Jones, Gary Wayne Garcia
This review highlights the available literature on the nutrition of six neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication-the agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina / D. aguti ), lappe ( Agouti paca ), capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ), manicou/opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis insularis ), collared peccary ( Peccary tajucu ) and the red brokcet deer ( Mazama americana ). Over 100 references were used, spanning over 100 years. The earliest being 1915 and the most recent being 2018. The references used in this review were synthesized to give a detailed look of the dentition, anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract and type of feed these animals consume...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Michael J Morris, Jamie Sookhoo, Lemar Blake, Arianne Brown Jordan, Justine John, Sheliza Ali, Gervaise Sarjusingh, Janelle St Aime, Edward H Amoroso, Christopher A L Oura
Despite frequent reports of subfertility and abortion in dairy cattle in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), little is known about the potential infectious and non-infectious causes. This study set out to investigate possible infectious causes of reproductive problems by measuring the seroprevalence of four of the most significant reproductive pathogens in dairy cattle worldwide: Brucella abortus (B. abortus) ; Neospora caninum ( N. caninum ), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV)...
May 11, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Arianne Brown Jordan, Darshan Narang, Steve C Essen, Sharon M Brookes, Ian H Brown, Christopher Oura
Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV) and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading zoonotic H5 influenza viruses to many countries, which has generated high levels of public health concern. Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) is positioned along the wintering route of migratory birds from the Americas; every year, many species of wild birds stopover on the islands of T&T, potentially carrying AIVs and exposing local populations of wild and domestic birds, including commercial poultry, to infection...
May 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Mohamed A Elhady, Ahmed Ali, Walid H Kilany, Wael K Elfeil, Hytham Ibrahim, Ahmed Nabil, Ahmed Samir, Magdy El Sayed
Egyptian poultry suffer from frequent respiratory disease outbreaks associated with Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) variant 2 strains (Egy/VarII). Different vaccination programs using imported vaccines have failed to protect the flocks from field challenge. Recent studies confirmed a successful protection using homologous strains as live attenuated vaccines. In this study, a newly developed live attenuated IB-VAR2 vaccine representing the GI-23 Middle East IBV lineage was evaluated in day-old commercial broilers in an IBV-endemic area...
May 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Lisa Graziano, Mauro Vasconi, Luisa Cornegliani
A non-epidermolytic ichthyosis has been identified in Golden Retrievers due to a variant in the PNPLA1 gene, and a genetic test is available to detect wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous dogs. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of the PNPLA1 gene variant in Golden Retrievers used for breeding and to provide more information to breeders in order to restrict the spread of this disease. Clinical examination and assessment of the PNPLA1 genotype using PCR testing of oral swabs were performed in 48 breeding Golden Retrievers...
May 8, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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