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Veterinary Sciences

Ronel Pienaar, Albert W H Neitz, Ben J Mans
In comparison to other arachnids, ticks are major vectors of disease, but less than 8% of the known species are capable of inducing paralysis, as compared to the ~99⁻100% arachnids that belong to venomous classes. When considering the potential monophyly of venomous Arachnida, this review reflects on the implications regarding the classification of ticks as venomous animals and the possible origin of toxins. The origin of tick toxins is compared with scorpion and spider toxins and venoms based on their significance, functionality, and structure in the search to find homologous venomous characters...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Kavita Ranjeeta Lall, Kegan Romelle Jones, Gary Wayne Garcia
This review highlights the available literature on the nutrition of six neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication-the agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina / D. aguti ), lappe ( Agouti paca ), capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ), manicou/opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis insularis ), collared peccary ( Peccary tajucu ) and the red brokcet deer ( Mazama americana ). Over 100 references were used, spanning over 100 years. The earliest being 1915 and the most recent being 2018. The references used in this review were synthesized to give a detailed look of the dentition, anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract and type of feed these animals consume...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Michael J Morris, Jamie Sookhoo, Lemar Blake, Arianne Brown Jordan, Justine John, Sheliza Ali, Gervaise Sarjusingh, Janelle St Aime, Edward H Amoroso, Christopher A L Oura
Despite frequent reports of subfertility and abortion in dairy cattle in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), little is known about the potential infectious and non-infectious causes. This study set out to investigate possible infectious causes of reproductive problems by measuring the seroprevalence of four of the most significant reproductive pathogens in dairy cattle worldwide: Brucella abortus (B. abortus) ; Neospora caninum ( N. caninum ), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV)...
May 11, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Arianne Brown Jordan, Darshan Narang, Steve C Essen, Sharon M Brookes, Ian H Brown, Christopher Oura
Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV) and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading zoonotic H5 influenza viruses to many countries, which has generated high levels of public health concern. Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) is positioned along the wintering route of migratory birds from the Americas; every year, many species of wild birds stopover on the islands of T&T, potentially carrying AIVs and exposing local populations of wild and domestic birds, including commercial poultry, to infection...
May 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Mohamed A Elhady, Ahmed Ali, Walid H Kilany, Wael K Elfeil, Hytham Ibrahim, Ahmed Nabil, Ahmed Samir, Magdy El Sayed
Egyptian poultry suffer from frequent respiratory disease outbreaks associated with Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) variant 2 strains (Egy/VarII). Different vaccination programs using imported vaccines have failed to protect the flocks from field challenge. Recent studies confirmed a successful protection using homologous strains as live attenuated vaccines. In this study, a newly developed live attenuated IB-VAR2 vaccine representing the GI-23 Middle East IBV lineage was evaluated in day-old commercial broilers in an IBV-endemic area...
May 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Lisa Graziano, Mauro Vasconi, Luisa Cornegliani
A non-epidermolytic ichthyosis has been identified in Golden Retrievers due to a variant in the PNPLA1 gene, and a genetic test is available to detect wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous dogs. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of the PNPLA1 gene variant in Golden Retrievers used for breeding and to provide more information to breeders in order to restrict the spread of this disease. Clinical examination and assessment of the PNPLA1 genotype using PCR testing of oral swabs were performed in 48 breeding Golden Retrievers...
May 8, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Suwicha Kasemsuwan, Karoon Chanachai, Tanu Pinyopummintr, Kansuda Leelalapongsathon, Kitipat Sujit, Ad Vos
(1) Background: As part of the ongoing endeavor to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies in Thailand, renewed interest has been shown in oral vaccination of dogs as a supplementary tool to increase vaccination coverage of the dog population. (2) Methods: Three different bait types were tested using a hand-out model on the campus of the Kasetsart University and the surrounding temples in Thailand during September 2017, consisting of two industrial manufactured baits (fish meal and egg-flavored) and one bait made from local material (boiled pig intestine placed in collagen casing)...
May 4, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Harsha Ariyarathna, Niranjala de Silva, Danielle Aberdein, Dayananda Kodikara, Manjula Jayasinghe, Ranjith Adikari, John S Munday
Mammary gland tumors (MGTs) are one of the most common neoplasms among dogs in Sri Lanka. However, the clinicopathological diversity of MGTs in Sri Lanka is largely unknown, impeding accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of the disease. The present study investigated the clinicopathological features of MGTs in 74 dogs presented to two veterinary practices in Sri Lanka treated surgically, over a one-year period. Information regarding the patient signalment, clinical presentation, and reproductive history were collected, and each neoplasm was examined histologically...
April 27, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Simona Nardoni, Francesca Pisseri, Luisa Pistelli, Basma Najar, Mario Luini, Francesca Mancianti
Protothecal mastitis poses an emergent animal health problem in dairy herds, with a high impact on dairy industries, causing heavy economic losses. Current methods of treating protothecal infections are ineffective, and no drug is licensed for use in cattle. The aim of the present study was to check the antialgal activity of 30 chemically defined essential oils (EOs) against Prototheca zopfii and Prototheca blaschkeae isolated from the milk of dairy cows with mastitis. A microdilution test was carried out to estimate the antialgal effectiveness of the selected chemically defined EOs...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Reda Mohamed
Common opossums ( Didelphis marsupialis ) are found throughout the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The present work was conducted on 10 skulls and mandibles of the common opossum to describe the osteology and foramina of these skulls and mandibles grossly and radiographically. The information that is garnered can be used to detect, diagnose, and treat head affections, as well as for comparative studies with the skulls and mandibles of other similar species. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method...
April 23, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Kenichi Maeda, Munehiro Iwasaki, Yuki Itou, Satomi Iwai, Shozo Okano
Hyperglycemia causes perioperative complications and many anesthetics impair glucose metabolism and cause hyperglycemia. We evaluated the effects of propofol on blood glucose metabolism and insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dogs. Blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, and free fatty acid (FFA) levels were measured in dogs during IVGTT in a conscious state and under the effect of 2.0% isoflurane, low-concentration propofol (0.2 mg/kg/min), and high-concentration propofol (0...
April 20, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Anil K Persad, Jeffrey LeJeune
Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are two of the main causes of foodborne disease globally, and while they have been implicated as possible causes of foodborne disease within the Caribbean region, the actual incidence is unknown. Trinidad and Tobago, one of the larger countries in the Caribbean, has an estimated annual foodborne disease burden of over 100,000 cases and, similar to other countries, the etiology of most of these cases is unknown. Both pathogens can reside as part of the normal gastrointestinal microflora of many wild and domestic animals, with animals acting as reservoirs, spillover hosts, or dead-end hosts...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Mariano E Ascencio, Monica Florin-Christensen, Choukri B Mamoun, William Weir, Brian Shiels, Leonhard Schnittger
Piroplasmid parasites comprising of Babesia , Theileria , and Cytauxzoon are transmitted by ticks to farm and pet animals and have a significant impact on livestock industries and animal health in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In addition, diverse Babesia spp. infect humans as opportunistic hosts. Molecular phylogeny has demonstrated at least six piroplasmid lineages exemplified by B. microti , B. duncani , C. felis , T. equi , Theileria sensu stricto ( T. annulata , T. parva , and T. orientalis ) and Babesia sensu stricto ( B...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Javier Fernández, Beatriz Guerra, M Rosario Rodicio
Non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica (NTS) are a leading cause of food-borne disease in animals and humans worldwide. Like other zoonotic bacteria, NTS have the potential to act as reservoirs and vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial drug resistance in different settings. Of particular concern is the resistance to critical "last resort" antimicrobials, such as carbapenems. In contrast to other Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , and Enterobacter , which are major nosocomial pathogens affecting debilitated and immunocompromised patients), carbapenem resistance is still very rare in NTS...
April 8, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Jacqueline P Kurz, Kate E Schoenhals, Gordon A Hullinger, Arnaud J Van Wettere
Syringomyelia is a form of myelodysplasia defined by the formation of one or more fluid-filled cavities within the spinal cord that do not communicate with the central canal. The defect may be congenital or acquired. Clinical signs correlate to the segment of spinal cord affected and include pain, paresis, proprioceptive deficits, alterations in sensation, scoliosis, and autonomic dysfunction. This report describes the clinical and pathologic changes in a case of acquired syringomyelia in a 10-year-old American Paint Horse mare...
April 5, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
David I De la Torre, Luis F Nuñez, Claudete S Astolfi-Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino Ferreira
Enteric viruses play an important role in the Brazilian poultry industry due to the economic impact of resulting low yields of broilers, layers, and breeders. The most common enteric viruses affecting commercial flocks in Brazil include Fowl Adenovirus of group I (FAdV-I), Chicken Parvovirus (ChPV), Chicken Astrovirus (CAstV), Avian Nephritis Virus (ANV), Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), Avian Reovirus (AReo), and Avian Rotavirus (ARtV). The aim of this study was to identify single and multiple infections using data obtained from 270 samples from eleven Brazilian states, corresponding to the period between 2010 and 2017...
March 29, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Paulo H C Lima, Pedro M P Vidigal, Rafael M Barcelos, Raphael C Klein, Carlos E Montandon, Mary H Fabres-Klein, Jorge A Dergam, José M Venzal, Cláudio Mafra
The molecular biology era, together with morphology, molecular phylogenetics, bioinformatics, and high-throughput sequencing technologies, improved the taxonomic identification of Argasidae family members, especially when considering specimens at different development stages, which remains a great difficulty for acarologists. These tools could provide important data and insights on the history and evolutionary relationships of argasids. To better understand these relationships, we sequenced and assembled the first complete mitochondrial genome of Nothoaspis amazoniensis ...
March 27, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Charles T Eason, Serean L Adams, Jonathan Puddick, Donato Romanazzi, Matthew R Miller, Nick King, Sarah Johns, Elizabeth Forbes-Blom, Paul A Hessian, Lisa K Stamp, Michael A Packer
The therapeutic benefits of Greenshell™ mussel (GSM; Perna canaliculus ) preparations have been studied using in vitro test systems, animal models, and human clinical trials focusing mainly on anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects. Activity is thought to be linked to key active ingredients that include omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, a variety of carotenoids and other bioactive compounds. In this paper, we review the studies that have been undertaken in dogs, cats, and horses, and outline new research directions in shellfish breeding and high-value nutrition research programmes targeted at enhancing the efficacy of mussel and algal extracts...
March 27, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Chele N Lathroum, Linda Shell, Kathleen Neuville, Jennifer K Ketzis
Treatments for Platynosomum fastosum -the liver fluke of cats-have been developed based on fecal egg counts. Post mortem fluke counts are required to understand true efficacy. In this study, two praziquantel treatment regimens were evaluated using post mortem fluke counts: a high-dose treatment (HT) of 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) administered intramuscularly (IM) once a day for three consecutive days and a low-dose treatment (LT) of 5 mg/kg BW administered once (IM) and repeated 14 days later. A continual enrolment study design was used with 16 naturally infected cats randomly allocated in blocks of four to the HT (eight cats) or LT (eight cats) group...
March 24, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Mark A Brown
For the past two decades, veterinary educators have been at the forefront of innovations in educational practices related to science and medicine. Many of the resulting methods have been translated and implemented as best practices across the breadth of disciplines in higher education. However, past World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) global conferences have highlighted the necessity for improving global harmonization of veterinary medical education. This underscores a growing need for even broader dissemination of best practices and assessment programs related to educating our veterinary workforce...
March 23, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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