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Veterinary Sciences

Bryan R Brown
Loyalty is one of the greatest intangible assets that any organization can possess and improving client loyalty is a primary marketing goal that can have a significant financial impact on any business. This quantitative study examined the mediating role of communication on the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) in veterinary clinics, along with the moderating roles of trust, commitment, perceived value, and relational characteristics. Responses collected from 351 pet-owners through social media were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics...
November 6, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Ronaldo de Carvalho Augusto, Clélia Christina Mello Silva
Worldwide schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with approximately 67 million people infected and 200 million at risk of infection from inhabiting or transiting endemically active regions. Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the Middle East are the main transmission regions of Schistosoma mansoni . The fight against transmission through the use of molluscicides is not recent and has been advocated as the only activity with the possibility of interruption of transmission in small, epidemiologically active outbreaks...
November 6, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Sarah-Jo Paquette, Rahat Zaheer, Kim Stanford, James Thomas, Tim Reuter
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a subgroup of E. coli causing human diseases. Methods to control STEC in livestock and humans are limited. These and other emerging pathogens are a global concern and novel mitigation strategies are required. Habitats populated by bacteria are subjected to competition pressures due to limited space and resources but they use various strategies to compete in natural environments. Our objective was to evaluate non-pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from cattle feces for their ability to out-compete STEC...
November 2, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Kathryn P Huyvaert, Robin E Russell, Kelly A Patyk, Meggan E Craft, Paul C Cross, M Graeme Garner, Michael K Martin, Pauline Nol, Daniel P Walsh
Diseases that affect both wild and domestic animals can be particularly difficult to prevent, predict, mitigate, and control. Such multi-host diseases can have devastating economic impacts on domestic animal producers and can present significant challenges to wildlife populations, particularly for populations of conservation concern. Few mathematical models exist that capture the complexities of these multi-host pathogens, yet the development of such models would allow us to estimate and compare the potential effectiveness of management actions for mitigating or suppressing disease in wildlife and/or livestock host populations...
October 30, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, Laura Frau Pascual, Juan Hernandez
Percutaneous ultrasound-guided radiofrequency heat-ablation (UG-RHA) is a therapeutic option for dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPTH) but information about its outcome is still controversial. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the outcome and complications of UG-RHA in dogs with PHPTH. The medical records of dogs with PHPTH submitted to UG-RHA between June 2012 and September 2015 in a French referral center were retrospectively reviewed. Eight cases were included. No sex predisposition was found...
October 18, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Laura M Dooley, Nicholas J Bamford
Collaborative learning activities are an increasingly prominent feature of veterinary curricula that have been redesigned to achieve competency-based graduate learning outcomes. This evolution challenges the traditional individualistic approach to veterinary education and necessitates revisions to assessment and feedback practices to ensure constructive alignment. Peer feedback has been widely reported in the medical education literature as a teaching intervention in collaborative learning settings, with learning gains reported for students who receive and provide peer feedback...
October 17, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Massimiliano D'Ambola, Antonio Bosco, Andrea Ariano, Laura Rinaldi, Ammar Bader, Alessandra Amadesi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Lorella Severino
The anthelminthic efficacy of the crude extracts of Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R.Br (Acanthaceae) against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep was investigated using the in vitro egg hatch inhibition assay. Faecal samples were collected from sheep with naturally occurring infection of GIN ( Trichostrongylus spp., Chabertia ovina , Cooperia spp., Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia spp.). Crude leaf extracts of H. forskaolii was obtained using increasing polarity solvents: n -hexane, chloroform, chloroform:methanol 9:1, methanol...
October 16, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Elizabeth M Antaki-Zukoski, Xunde Li, Patricia A Pesavento, Tran H B Nguyen, Bruce R Hoar, Edward R Atwill
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , like E. coli O157:H7, are important human and animal pathogens. Naturally-acquired E. coli O157:H7 infections occur in numerous species but, particularly, cattle have been identified as a significant reservoir for human cases. E. coli O157:H7 are isolated from a number of domestic and wild animals, including rodents that share a living space with cattle. These Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 strains can be highly virulent in humans, but little is known about the sequelae of interspecies transfer...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Chris Weir, Annika Oksa, Jennifer Millar, Miles Alexander, Nicola Kynoch, Zoe Walton-Weitz, Peter Mackenzie-Wood, Felicia Tam, Hope Richards, Richard Naylor, Katrina Cheng, Peter Bennett, Nikolai Petrovsky, Rachel Allavena
Canine cancer rates are similar to humans, though the therapeutic options might be limited. Inducing a patient's own immune system to have an anti-tumor response is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. In this safety study, autologous tumor vaccines produced specifically for each canine patient were combined with Advax™, a novel non-inflammatory immunomodulator and vaccine adjuvant and were tested for safety in a diverse range of patient presentations alone or in combination with other treatments. Canine patients had their tumor biopsied, debulked or resected and the tumor antigens were processed into an autologous vaccine formulated with Advax™ adjuvant with or without rhizavidin as an additional immune stimulant...
October 12, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Fabrizio Bertelloni, Mario Forzan, Barbara Turchi, Simona Sagona, Maurizio Mazzei, Antonio Felicioli, Filippo Fratini, Domenico Cerri
In recent years, Brucella suis has been sporadically reported in Italy in domestic and wild swine. Since standard serological tests can determine false positive results, the development of alternative tests with improved sensitivity and specificity is rather essential. We analyzed 1212 sera collected at slaughterhouse from healthy pigs belonging to 62 farms of North-Central Italy. Sera were tested by Rose Bengal Test, Complement Fixation Test, and subsequently by a Dot Blot (DB) and Western Blot assays (WB)...
October 3, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Ala Tabor, Manuel Rodriguez Valle
The 9th Tick and Tick-borne Pathogen (TTP9) Conference was held in conjunction with the first Asia Pacific Rickettsia Conference (APRC1) in Cairns, Australia from 27 August until 1 September in 2017. This MDPI Veterinary Sciences Special Issue has been dedicated to selected veterinary science articles from the conference associated with the control of animal diseases in the context of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia species. The articles presented in this Special Issue include novel developments for the future control of ticks and tick-borne diseases...
October 2, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Katie Waine, Rachel S Dean, Chris Hudson, Jonathan Huxley, Marnie L Brennan
Clinical audit is a quality improvement tool used to assess and improve the clinical services provided to patients. This is the first study to investigate the extent to which clinical audit is understood and utilised in farm animal veterinary practice. A cross-sectional study to collect experiences and attitudes of farm animal veterinary surgeons in the UK towards clinical audit was conducted using an online nationwide survey. The survey revealed that whilst just under three-quarters ( n = 237/325; 73%) of responding veterinary surgeons had heard of clinical audit, nearly 50% ( n = 148/301) had never been involved in a clinical audit of any species...
September 28, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Natasha H Bowser, Neil E Anderson
In a world where climate change, vector expansion, human activity, and pathogen dispersal do not respect boundaries, the human⁻animal⁻pathogen interface has become less defined. Consequently, a One Health approach to disease surveillance and control has generated much interest across several disciplines. This systematic review evaluates current global research on the use of domestic dogs as sentinels for human infectious disease, and critically appraises how this may be applied within Canada. Results highlighted a bias in research from high- and middle-income-economy countries, with 35% of the studies describing data from the Latin America/Caribbean region, 25% from North America, and 11% from the European/Central Asia region...
September 21, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Elizabeth A Pusch, David L Suarez
Poultry-adapted H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are commonly found in many countries in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, and although classified as low pathogenic viruses, they are an economically important disease. Besides the importance of the disease in the poultry industry, some H9N2 AIVs are also known to be zoonotic. The disease in humans appears to cause primarily a mild upper respiratory disease, and doesn't cause or only rarely causes the severe pneumonia often seen with other zoonotic AIVs like H5N1 or H7N9...
September 21, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Jacques Godfroid
Brucella infections in wildlife have gained a lot of interest from the scientific community and different stakeholders. These interests are often different and sometimes conflicting. As a result, different management perspectives and aims have been implemented (One Health, public health, veterinary public health, maintenance of a brucellosis free status in livestock, sustainable wildlife harvesting by hunters, wildlife and environmental health). When addressing Brucella infection in wildlife, the most important features of Brucella infection should be considered and the following questions need to be answered: (1) Is Brucella infection a result of a spillover from livestock or is it a sustainable infection in one or more wildlife host species? (2) Did the epidemiological situation of Brucella infection in wildlife change over time and, if so, what are the main drivers of change and does it impact the wildlife population dynamics? (3) Does Brucella infection in wildlife represent a reservoir of Brucella strains for livestock? (4) Is Brucella infection in wildlife of zoonotic concern? These questions point to the fundamental biological question of how animal (domestic and wildlife)/ Brucella spp...
September 18, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Carolina Santos, Luciano Henrique Campestrini, Douglas Luis Vieira, Izanara Pritsch, Fábio Tomio Yamassaki, Selma Faria Zawadzki-Baggio, Juliana Bello Baron Maurer, Marcelo Beltrão Molento
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. is a xerophylous plant that originated in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is popularly known in Brazil as "palma forrageira" (cactus pear) and plays a fundamental role in animal nutrition, mainly in the Northeastern semi-arid region of the country. The plant has several uses since it presents bioactive compounds that confer biological and pharmacological properties. In this context, the cactus pear can also be considered a potential product to combat parasite infections...
September 12, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Takashi Kuribayashi, Davide Cossu, Eiichi Momotani
Levels of Japanese cedar pollen ( Cryptomeria japonica ) have increased in Japan and cedar pollinosis caused by Japanese cedar pollen has been reported in dogs. Serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in dogs raised in institutes and treated at veterinary hospitals in Japan were thus investigated. A total of 71 sera obtained from two institutes and 87 sera obtained from veterinary hospitals in the Hyogo and Kanagawa Prefectures were analyzed in this study. Serum levels of IgE were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with commercial purified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2...
September 11, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Federica Giovanelli, Matteo Mattellini, Gianluca Fichi, Guido Flamini, Stefania Perrucci
By using the egg hatch test (EHT), the larval development test (LDT) and the larval mortality/paralysis test (LMT), the in vitro anthelmintic activity on sheep gastrointestinal strongyles (GIS) of four plant-derived pure compounds, mangiferin (at 0.25%, 0.125% and 0.0625%), rutin (at 1%, 0.75%, 0.5%), quercetin (at 1%), and β-sitosterol (at 1%, 0.75%, 0.5%), was investigated. For comparison, untreated and treated (0.1% thiabendazole, 0.1% TBZ) controls were used. Six repetitions were made throughout the experiment...
September 10, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Maganga Sambo, Katie Hampson, Joel Changalucha, Sarah Cleaveland, Tiziana Lembo, Kennedy Lushasi, Eberhard Mbunda, Zacharia Mtema, Lwitiko Sikana, Paul C D Johnson
Estimates of dog population sizes are a prerequisite for delivering effective canine rabies control. However, dog population sizes are generally unknown in most rabies-endemic areas. Several approaches have been used to estimate dog populations but without rigorous evaluation. We compare post-vaccination transects, household surveys, and school-based surveys to determine which most precisely estimates dog population sizes. These methods were implemented across 28 districts in southeast Tanzania, in conjunction with mass dog vaccinations, covering a range of settings, livelihoods, and religious backgrounds...
September 7, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Jessica Benkaroun, Gregory J Robertson, Hugh Whitney, Andrew S Lang
The genomes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) comprise eight negative-sense single-stranded RNA segments. In addition to the protein-coding region, each segment possesses 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCR) that are important for transcription, replication and packaging. The NCRs contain both conserved and segment-specific sequences, and the impacts of variability in the NCRs are not completely understood. Full NCRs have been determined from some viruses, but a detailed analysis of potential variability in these regions among viruses from different host groups and locations has not been performed...
August 25, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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