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Neurology. Genetics

Tara M Newcomb, Kevin M Flanigan
The cloning of the DMD gene, and the identifications of mutations in it as the cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), makes a compelling story that is aptly told elsewhere.(1) The locus-the largest in the human genome-consists of 79 exons, distributed over 2.5 million nucleotides on the X chromosome, which are assembled into a complementary DNA (cDNA) of around 14 kb encoding the predominant muscle isoform of the dystrophin protein.(2) The size of the gene, and the number of exons, had historically made mutation analysis challenging...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Lauren Bogue, Sindhu Ramchandren
Carrier risk assessment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is necessary to counsel women at risks of developing cardiomyopathy and having a child with DMD. Comprehensive molecular testing for dystrophin gene mutations has only been available since 2003(1); women counseled earlier have outdated risk assessments. We present a 5-generation family in whom results of familial mutation testing for DMD newly identified 10 obligate carriers and 28 women at risk to be carriers for DMD.
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Sofia Steinrücke, Katja Lohmann, Aloysius Domingo, Arndt Rolfs, Tobias Bäumer, Juliane Spiegler, Corinna Hartmann, Alexander Münchau
Recently, exome sequencing has extended our knowledge of genetic causes of developmental delay through identification of de novo, germline mutations in the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, beta 1 (GNB1) in 13 patients with neurodevelopmental disability and a wide range of additional symptoms and signs including hypotonia in 11 and seizures in 10 of the patients. Limb/arm dystonia was found in 2 patients.(1).
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Julie van der Zee, Peter Mariën, Roeland Crols, Sara Van Mossevelde, Lubina Dillen, Federica Perrone, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Jo Verhoeven, Tine D'aes, Chantal Ceuterick-De Groote, Anne Sieben, Jan Versijpt, Patrick Cras, Jean-Jacques Martin, Christine Van Broeckhoven
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular basis of a Belgian family with autosomal recessive adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL or Kufs disease [KD]) with pronounced frontal lobe involvement and to expand the findings to a cohort of unrelated Belgian patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). METHODS: Genetic screening in the ANCL family and FTD cohort (n = 461) was performed using exome sequencing and targeted massive parallel resequencing. RESULTS: We identified a homozygous mutation (p...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Thanes Termglinchan, Seito Hisamatsu, Junko Ohmori, Hiroshi Suzumura, Noriko Sumitomo, George Imataka, Osamu Arisaka, Nobuyuki Murakami, Narihiro Minami, Ishiyama Akihiko, Masayuki Sasaki, Yuichi Goto, Satoru Noguchi, Ikuya Nonaka, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Ichizo Nishino
Recessive mutations in TK2 cause a severe mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS),(1) characterized by severe myopathy from early infancy. Recent reports have suggested a wider clinical spectrum including encephalomyopathic form.(1,2) We report a patient with infantile-onset fatal encephalomyopathy presenting with extreme muscle fiber immaturity.
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Brooke Rhead, Maria Bäärnhielm, Milena Gianfrancesco, Amanda Mok, Xiaorong Shao, Hong Quach, Ling Shen, Catherine Schaefer, Jenny Link, Alexandra Gyllenberg, Anna Karin Hedström, Tomas Olsson, Jan Hillert, Ingrid Kockum, M Maria Glymour, Lars Alfredsson, Lisa F Barcellos
OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the causal effect of low serum 25(OH)D on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility that is not confounded by environmental or lifestyle factors or subject to reverse causality. METHODS: We conducted mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using an instrumental variable (IV) comprising 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms found to be associated with serum 25(OH)D levels at genome-wide significance. We analyzed the effect of the IV on MS risk and both age at onset and disease severity in 2 separate populations using logistic regression models that controlled for sex, year of birth, smoking, education, genetic ancestry, body mass index at age 18-20 years or in 20s, a weighted genetic risk score for 110 known MS-associated variants, and the presence of one or more HLA-DRB1*15:01 alleles...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Andrew G Engel, Duygu Selcen, Xin-Ming Shen, Margherita Milone, C Michel Harper
OBJECTIVE: To identify the molecular basis of a fatal syndrome of microcephaly, cortical hyperexcitability, and myasthenia. METHODS: We performed clinical and in vitro microelectrode studies of neuromuscular transmission, examined neuromuscular junctions cytochemically and by electron microscopy (EM), and searched for mutations by Sanger and exome sequencing. RESULTS: Neuromuscular transmission was severely compromised by marked depletion of the readily releasable pool of quanta, but the probability of quantal release was normal...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Victoria Mallett, Jay P Ross, Roy N Alcalay, Amirthagowri Ambalavanan, Ellen Sidransky, Patrick A Dion, Guy A Rouleau, Ziv Gan-Or
The lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase), encoded by GBA, has an important role in Parkinson disease (PD). GBA mutation carriers have an increased risk for PD, earlier age at onset, faster progression, and various nonmotor symptoms including cognitive decline, REM sleep behavior disorder, hyposmia, and autonomic dysfunction.(1) Furthermore, GCase enzymatic activity is reduced in the peripheral blood(2) and brain(3) of noncarrier, sporadic PD patients. Biallelic GBA mutations, which have been classified as "severe" or "mild," may cause Gaucher disease (GD), a lysosomal storage disorder...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Jennifer Hirst, Marianna Madeo, Katrien Smets, James R Edgar, Ludger Schols, Jun Li, Anna Yarrow, Tine Deconinck, Jonathan Baets, Elisabeth Van Aken, Jan De Bleecker, Manuel B Datiles, Ricardo H Roda, Joachim Liepert, Stephan Züchner, Caterina Mariotti, Peter De Jonghe, Craig Blackstone, Michael C Kruer
OBJECTIVE: Biallelic mutations in the AP5Z1 gene encoding the AP-5 ζ subunit have been described in a small number of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) (SPG48); we sought to define genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous sequence variants predicted to be deleterious. METHODS: We performed clinical, radiologic, and pathologic studies in 6 patients with biallelic mutations in AP5Z1. RESULTS: In 4 of the 6 patients, there was complete loss of AP-5 ζ protein...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
John J Millichap, Kristen L Park, Tammy Tsuchida, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Lionel Carmant, Robert Flamini, Nishtha Joshi, Paul M Levisohn, Eric Marsh, Srishti Nangia, Vinodh Narayanan, Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez, Marc C Patterson, Phillip L Pearl, Brenda Porter, Keri Ramsey, Emily L McGinnis, Maurizio Taglialatela, Molly Tracy, Baouyen Tran, Charu Venkatesan, Sarah Weckhuysen, Edward C Cooper
OBJECTIVE: To advance the understanding of KCNQ2 encephalopathy genotype-phenotype relationships and to begin to assess the potential of selective KCNQ channel openers as targeted treatments. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 23 patients with KCNQ2 encephalopathy, including 11 treated with ezogabine (EZO). We analyzed the genotype-phenotype relationships in these and 70 previously described patients. RESULTS: The mean seizure onset age was 1...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Chantal Depondt, Simona Donatello, Myriam Rai, François Charles Wang, Mario Manto, Nicolas Simonis, Massimo Pandolfo
OBJECTIVE: To identify the causative gene mutation in a 5-generation Belgian family with dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxia and polyneuropathy, in which known genetic etiologies had been excluded. METHODS: We collected DNA samples of 28 family members, including 7 living affected individuals, whose clinical records were reviewed by a neurologist experienced in ataxia. We combined linkage data of 21 family members with whole exome sequencing in 2 affected individuals to identify shared heterozygous variants mapping to potentially linked regions...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Aravindhan Veerapandiyan, Amit Chaudhari, Christin M Traba, Xue Ming
Leigh syndrome is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, associated with mutations in mitochondrial and nuclear genes.(1) Diagnostic criteria include progressive disorder with motor and intellectual delay/regression; signs and symptoms of brainstem and/or basal ganglia disease; raised lactate concentration in blood and/or CSF; and one or more of the following: (1) characteristic features on neuroimaging (bilateral symmetrical hyperintensities in brainstem, basal ganglia, dentate nuclei, and optic nerves on T2-weighted MRI); (2) typical neuropathologic changes; and (3) typical neuropathology in a similarly affected sibling...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
David S Lynch, Nicholas W Wood, Henry Houlden
Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive form of progressive myoclonic epilepsy that is caused by mutations in EPM2A, encoding laforin, and NHLRC1 (EPM2B), encoding malin.(1) LD is classically described with onset in early teenage years. Patients develop myoclonus, epilepsy, visual hallucinations, and psychosis. Dementia is a prominent feature and often occurs in the late teenage years. LD typically progresses quickly, and patients become bedridden and dependent within 10 years of symptom onset, with life expectancy in the early 20s...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Elizabeth Harris, Catherine L Bladen, Anna Mayhew, Meredith James, Karen Bettinson, Ursula Moore, Fiona E Smith, Laura Rufibach, Avital Cnaan, Diana X Bharucha-Goebel, Andrew M Blamire, Elena Bravver, Pierre G Carlier, John W Day, Jordi Díaz-Manera, Michelle Eagle, Ulrike Grieben, Matthew Harms, Kristi J Jones, Hanns Lochmüller, Jerry R Mendell, Madoka Mori-Yoshimura, Carmen Paradas, Elena Pegoraro, Alan Pestronk, Emmanuelle Salort-Campana, Olivia Schreiber-Katz, Claudio Semplicini, Simone Spuler, Tanya Stojkovic, Volker Straub, Shin'ich Takeda, Carolina Tesi Rocha, M C Walter, Kate Bushby
OBJECTIVE: To describe the baseline clinical and functional characteristics of an international cohort of 193 patients with dysferlinopathy. METHODS: The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy (COS) is an international multicenter study of this disease, evaluating patients with genetically confirmed dysferlinopathy over 3 years. We present a cross-sectional analysis of 193 patients derived from their baseline clinical and functional assessments. RESULTS: There is a high degree of variability in disease onset, pattern of weakness, and rate of progression...
August 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Stefan M Pulst
As of April 8, 2016, articles in Neurology® Genetics can be searched using PubMed. Launched in 1996, PubMed is a search engine that accesses citations and abstracts of more than 26 million articles. Its primary sources include the MEDLINE database, which was started in the 1960s, and biomedical and life sciences journal articles that date back to 1946. In addition, PubMed accesses other sources, for example, citations to those life sciences journals that submit full-text articles to PubMed Central (PMC). PubMed Central was launched in 2000 as a free archive of biomedical and life science journals...
August 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Orhun H Kantarci
Before the genomics technology revolution allowed us to do genome-wide science, genetics research relied on our limited knowledge about a subject to generate hypothesis and candidate genes to study. Despite the level of naiveté, several associations with susceptibility to a complex disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS) were discovered. Of these, HLA-DRB1 and IL7R (1) stand out as being confirmed and refined early by the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that followed.(2) Despite the expense and gargantuan efforts, these GWAS have successfully led to the discovery of more than 100 additional genes, albeit with smaller effect sizes, that contribute to MS susceptibility...
August 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Matthew P Wicklund
The limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) encompass a collection of genetic muscle diseases with proximal-predominant weakness of the limbs. Thirty-two of these disorders are named via the common nomenclature, including 8 autosomal-dominant (LGMD1A-H) and 24 autosomal-recessive (LGMD2A-X) disorders.(1) In addition, numerous other genetic muscle diseases, including Bethlem myopathy, dystrophinopathies, ryanodine receptor-associated myopathies, and many more, may clinically present with similar proximal-predominant weakness...
August 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Michaela F George, Farren B S Briggs, Xiaorong Shao, Milena A Gianfrancesco, Ingrid Kockum, Hanne F Harbo, Elisabeth G Celius, Steffan D Bos, Anna Hedström, Ling Shen, Allan Bernstein, Lars Alfredsson, Jan Hillert, Tomas Olsson, Nikolaos A Patsopoulos, Philip L De Jager, Annette B Oturai, Helle B Søndergaard, Finn Sellebjerg, Per S Sorensen, Refujia Gomez, Stacy J Caillier, Bruce A C Cree, Jorge R Oksenberg, Stephen L Hauser, Sandra D'Alfonso, Maurizio A Leone, Filippo Martinelli Boneschi, Melissa Sorosina, Ingrid van der Mei, Bruce V Taylor, Yuan Zhou, Catherine Schaefer, Lisa F Barcellos
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between 52 risk variants identified through genome-wide association studies and disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Ten unique MS case data sets were analyzed. The Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) was calculated using the Expanded Disability Status Scale at study entry and disease duration. MSSS was considered as a continuous variable and as 2 dichotomous variables (median and extreme ends; MSSS of ≤5 vs >5 and MSSS of <2...
August 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Steven A Hardy, Emma L Blakely, Andrew I Purvis, Mariana C Rocha, Syeda Ahmed, Gavin Falkous, Joanna Poulton, Michael R Rose, Olivia O'Mahony, Niamh Bermingham, Charlotte F Dougan, Yi Shiau Ng, Rita Horvath, Doug M Turnbull, Grainne S Gorman, Robert W Taylor
Pathogenic mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) gene mutations represent a prominent cause of primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-related disease despite accounting for only 5%-10% of the mitochondrial genome.(1,2) Although some common mt-tRNA mutations, such as the m.3243A>G mutation, exist, the majority are rare and have been reported in only a small number of cases.(3) The MT-TP gene, encoding mt-tRNA(Pro), is one of the less polymorphic mt-tRNA genes, and only 5 MT-TP mutations have been reported as a cause of mitochondrial muscle disease to date (table e-1 at Neurology...
August 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Gail Chan, Charles C White, Phoebe A Winn, Maria Cimpean, Joseph M Replogle, Laura R Glick, Nicole E Cuerdon, Katie J Ryan, Keith A Johnson, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Lori B Chibnik, Reisa A Sperling, Philip L De Jager, Elizabeth M Bradshaw
OBJECTIVE: Given evidence from genetic studies, we hypothesized that there may be a shared component to the role of myeloid function in Parkinson and Alzheimer disease (PD and AD) and assessed whether PD susceptibility variants influenced protein expression of well-established AD-associated myeloid genes in human monocytes. METHODS: We repurposed data in which AD-related myeloid proteins CD33, TREM1, TREM2, TREML2, TYROBP, and PTK2B were measured by flow cytometry in monocytes from 176 participants of the PhenoGenetic Project (PGP) and Harvard Aging Brain Study...
August 2016: Neurology. Genetics
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