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SSM—Population Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426063/transnational-wealth-related-health-inequality-measurement
#1
Mathieu J P Poirier, Michel Grignon, Karen A Grépin, Michelle L Dion
The study of international differences in wealth-related health inequalities has traditionally consisted of country-by-country comparisons using own-country relative measures of socioeconomic status, which effectively ignores absolute differences in both wealth and health that can differ between and within countries. To address these limitations, we propose an alternative approach: that of constructing a transnational measure of wealth-related health inequality. To illustrate the limitations of the country-by-country approach, we simulate the impact of changes in wealth and health inequalities both between and within countries on cross-country measures of health inequality and find at least five errors that may arise using country-by-country methods...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417068/noncommunicable-disease-attributable-medical-expenditures-household-financial-stress-and-impoverishment-in-bangladesh
#2
Biplab Kumar Datta, Muhammad Jami Husain, Muhammad Mudabbir Husain, Deliana Kostova
Background: Treatment of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in low-income countries can entail large out-of-pocket (OOP) medical expenditures, which can increase the likelihood of household impoverishment and perpetuate the poverty cycle. This paper studies the implications of NCDs on household medical expenditure, household financial stress (e.g. selling assets or borrowing for treatment financing), catastrophic OOP expenditure, and impoverishment in Bangladesh. Methods: We used self-reported health status and household expenditure survey data from 12,240 households in Bangladesh...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417067/credibility-of-subgroup-analyses-by-socioeconomic-status-in-public-health-intervention-evaluations-an-underappreciated-problem
#3
Greig Inglis, Daryll Archibald, Lawrence Doi, Yvonne Laird, Stephen Malden, Louise Marryat, John McAteer, Jan Pringle, John Frank
There is increasing interest amongst researchers and policy makers in identifying the effect of public health interventions on health inequalities by socioeconomic status (SES). This issue is typically addressed in evaluation studies through subgroup analyses, where researchers test whether the effect of an intervention differs according to the socioeconomic status of participants. The credibility of such analyses is therefore crucial when making judgements about how an intervention is likely to affect health inequalities, although this issue appears to be rarely considered within public health...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417066/blue-collar-work-and-women-s-health-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-from-1990-to-2015
#4
Holly Elser, April M Falconi, Michelle Bass, Mark R Cullen
Despite the implications of gender and sex differences for health risks associated with blue-collar work, adverse health outcomes among blue-collar workers has been most frequently studied among men. The present study provides a "state-of-the-field" systematic review of the empiric evidence published on blue-collar women's health. We systematically reviewed literature related to the health of blue-collar women published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2015. We limited our review to peer-reviewed studies published in the English language on the health or health behaviors of women who were presently working or had previously worked in a blue-collar job...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417065/economic-insecurity-a-socioeconomic-determinant-of-mental-health
#5
Daniel Kopasker, Catia Montagna, Keith A Bender
Economic insecurity is an emerging topic that is increasingly relevant to the labour markets of developed economies. This paper uses data from the British Household Panel Survey to assess the causal effect of various aspects of economic insecurity on mental health in the UK. The results support the idea that economic insecurity is an emerging socioeconomic determinant of mental health, although the size of the effect varies across measures of insecurity. In particular, perceived future risks are more damaging to mental health than realised volatility, insecurity is more damaging for men, and the negative effect of insecurity is constant throughout the income distribution...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345342/-it-s-a-tradition-of-naming-injustice-an-oral-history-of-the-social-determinants-of-health-canadian-reflections-1960s-present
#6
Kelsey Lucyk
The 'social determinants of health' (SDOH) approach in Canada is widely acknowledged as having emerged through contributions such as the 1974 Lalonde Report or 1986 Ottawa Charter. Drawing on original oral histories, I consider this history through the reflections of past and present leaders in Canadian public health. Through this rich information, I identified three phases in the recent history of the SDOH, from a social awareness (1960s-1970s, when participants underwent training and gained exposure to social and health inequities), to a loose collection of theoretical and empirical concepts (1970s-1990s, when the evidence base on health inequities and the mechanisms behind them began to solidify), to a distinct research approach (2000s-present, when high profile events led to acceptance of the SDOH approach) that encompassed the spirit of its previous iterations...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310849/black-white-mental-status-trajectories-what-ages-do-differences-emerge
#7
DeAnnah R Byrd, Gilbert C Gee, Wassim Tarraf
Objectives: Studies of older U.S. adults have consistently found that African Americans perform worse on cognitive measures than whites, but there are inconsistencies as to whether these findings hold over time. Moreover, studies have focused on adults 51 and older, without considering younger ages; thus it is unclear the age at which these disparities surface. The present study examines black-white disparities in mental status trajectories among adults as young as 25 years over a 25-year period...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302366/canadian-report-card-on-health-equity-across-the-life-course-analysis-of-time-trends-and-cross-national-comparisons-with-the-united-kingdom
#8
Alexandra Blair, Arjumand Siddiqi, John Frank
Addressing social determinants of health (SDoH) has been acknowledged as an essential objective for the promotion of both population health and health equity. Extant literature has identified seven potential areas of investment to address SDoH: investments in sexual and reproductive health and family planning, early learning and child care, education, universal health care, as well as investments to reduce child poverty, ensure sustainable economic development, and control health hazards. The aim of this paper is to produce a 'report card' on Canada's success in reducing socioeconomic and health inequities pertaining to these seven policy domains, and to assess how Canadian trends compare to those in the United Kingdom (UK), a country with a similar health and welfare system...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294657/measuring-social-inequality-in-health-amongst-indigenous-peoples-in-the-arctic-a-comparison-of-different-indicators-of-social-disparity-among-the-inuit-in-greenland
#9
Peter Bjerregaard, Inger Katrine Dahl-Petersen, Christina Viskum Lytken Larsen
The purpose of the article is to compare different indicators of social position as measures of social inequality in health in a population sample from an indigenous arctic people, the Inuit in Greenland. Data was collected during 2005-2015 and consisted of information from 3967 adult Inuit from towns and villages in all parts of Greenland. Social inequalities for smoking and central obesity were analysed in relation to seven indicators of social disparity in four dimensions, i.e. education and employment, economic status, sociocultural position, and place of residence...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271872/the-effect-of-women-in-government-on-population-health-an-ecological-analysis-among-canadian-provinces-1976-2009
#10
Edwin Ng, Carles Muntaner
Previous research finds connections between women in government, promotion of women's issues, and government spending. However, the connection between female politicians and population health warrants more significant attention. This study takes advantage of differences among Canadian provinces to evaluate the effect of women in government on age-standardized all-cause mortality rates, to assess the potential mediating role of government spending, and to determine the role played by political partisanship. Time-series cross-sectional data are retrieved from the Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System II Tables for 1976-2009 (10 provinces and 34 years = 340 cases)...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263926/a-multifaceted-analysis-of-social-stressors-and-chronic-inflammation
#11
Margaret Gough, Kanya Godde
Chronic stress has been linked to negative health outcomes, including increased inflammation, which can be measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). Prior research has focused almost exclusively on relationships between individual social and demographic stressors and CRP. The objective of this study is to assess the role of multiple potential stressors simultaneously to determine which key stressors are related to risk of high CRP, given that sustained stress and resulting inflammation may have long-term health implications...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258971/do-rising-tides-lift-all-boats-racial-disparities-in-health-across-the-lifecourse-among-middle-class-african-americans-and-whites
#12
Cynthia G Colen, Patrick M Krueger, Bethany L Boettner
Although racial inequalities in health are well documented, much less is known about the underlying mechanisms that create and sustain these population patterns, especially among nonpoor subgroups. Using 20 waves of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we estimate the magnitude of the Black/White gap in self-rated health among middle-income, working-age (18-65) adults and explore potential sources of this disparity. Findings from multilevel regression models suggest that intragenerational gains in family income result in significantly smaller improvements in self-rated health for middle-class African-Americans than similarly situated Whites...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258970/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-under-5-mortality-in-nigeria
#13
Modupe Alake Ayoade
•Under 5 mortality rates in Nigeria are very high. •There are significant variations in under 5 mortality rates across states over time. •There is evidence of statistically significant spatial autocorrelation over time. •Significant reductions are achievable with both state and region specific measures.
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258969/maternal-experiences-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-c-reactive-protein-levels-in-young-children-in-tanzania
#14
Natalie Slopen, Jing Zhang, Samuel S Urlacher, Gretchen De Silva, Mona Mittal
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health issue that impacts women and children across the globe. Prior studies have documented that maternal experiences of IPV are associated with adverse psychological and physical health outcomes in children; however, research on the underlying physiological pathways linking IPV to these conditions is limited. Drawing on data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, we examined the relationship between maternal report of IPV in the past 12 months and inflammation among children ages 6 months to 5 years...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246140/critical-epidemiology-in-action-research-for-and-by-indigenous-peoples
#15
Erica Prussing
Global social justice movements, including transnational activism for indigenous rights, are working to promote health equity by transforming public health research and policy. Yet little social scientific research has examined how professional epidemiologists are figuring within such efforts. Discussions are unfolding, however, in critical sectors of epidemiology about how to improve the profession's input into advocacy. Findings from a multi-sited ethnographic study of epidemiological research for and by indigenous peoples in three settings (Aotearoa/New Zealand, the continental U...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246139/religious-landscape-in-brazil-comparing-different-representative-nationwide-approaches-to-obtain-sensitive-information-in-healthcare-research
#16
Mario Fernando Prieto Peres, Arão Belitardo de Oliveira, Frederico Camelo Leão, Homero Vallada, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Giancarlo Lucchetti
Although the basis of religious studies start with demographics, nation-wide data are often extracted from face-to-face interviews (leading to a social-desirability bias) and in studies not originally designed to assess religion. This study aims to understand the religious landscape in Brazil and to investigate the feasibility of carrying out a representative nation-wide survey without interviewers, comparing it with other representative face-to-face surveys. We conducted a nationwide online survey representing all regions in Brazil...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238054/parental-education-differentially-predicts-young-adults-frequency-and-quantity-of-alcohol-use-in-a-longitudinal-swedish-sample
#17
Laura Wells, Viveca Östberg
Background: Alcohol consumption contributes to health inequalities, but few studies have examined how socially differentiated alcohol use develops across the life course. In this study, we examine how one aspect of childhood socioeconomic position (parental education) relates to two often-conflated young adult drinking patterns: drinking frequency and quantity per occasion. Using a life course perspective, we also explore whether parental drinking patterns or young adults' own educational attainment might account for such associations...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225337/inequalities-in-mental-health-and-well-being-in-a-time-of-austerity-follow-up-findings-from-the-stockton-on-tees-cohort-study
#18
N Akhter, C Bambra, K Mattheys, J Warren, A Kasim
In response to the 2007/8 financial crisis and the subsequent 'Great Recession', the UK government pursued a policy of austerity, characterised by public spending cuts and reductions in working-age welfare benefits. This paper reports on a case study of the effects of this policy on local inequalities in mental health and wellbeing in the local authority of Stockton-on-Tees in the North East of England, an area with very high spatial and socio-economic inequalities. Follow-up findings from a prospective cohort study of the gap in mental health and wellbeing between the most and least deprived neighbourhoods of Stockton-on-Tees is presented...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225336/socioeconomic-variables-explain-rural-disparities-in-us-mortality-rates-implications-for-rural-health-research-and-policy
#19
Alexander S Long, Alexandra L Hanlon, Karen L Pellegrin
Objectives: Rural disparities in age-adjusted mortality are growing in the United States. While socioeconomic variables have been found to explain significant variation in life expectancy across US counties, previous research has not examined the role of socioeconomic variables in explaining rural mortality disparities. The purpose of this study was to quantify the rural mortality disparity after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Methods: Recursive partitioning, or tree regression, was used to fit models predicting premature mortality across counties in the United States, adjusted for age, median income, and percent in poverty in 4 time periods (from 2004 to 2012) with and without inclusion of an urban-rural variable...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225335/building-the-case-for-housing-policy-understanding-public-beliefs-about-housing-affordability-as-a-key-social-determinant-of-health
#20
Selena E Ortiz, Bobbie L Johannes
Background: The current housing crisis in the U.S. requires the consideration and promotion of policies that improve the circumstances of severe housing cost burdens. Building public awareness of the health impacts associated with housing affordability may be a key prerequisite for policy change. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative data from a national survey were used to investigate public understandings about housing affordability as a key driver of health. Quantitative and qualitative findings were integrated to test whether any relationships existed between respondents' considerations and concerns about housing affordability and their perceptions about housing affordability as a social determinant of health...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
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