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SSM—Population Health

Elyas Bakhtiari
Recent studies of immigrant health have focused on an apparent paradox in which some new immigrants arrive healthier than expected but exhibit poorer health outcomes with duration of residence. Although a variety of explanations have been put forth for this epidemiological pattern, questions remain about the socio-historical generalizability of the empirical findings and accompanying theoretical explanations. By examining childhood mortality patterns of European immigrants to the United States in the early 20th century, this study tests hypotheses from current immigrant health literature in a previous era of immigration...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Tammy Leonard, Amy E Hughes, Connor Donegan, Alejandro Santillan, Sandi L Pruitt
We identified overlapping geographic clusters of food insecurity and health across U.S. counties to identify potential shared mechanisms for geographic disparities in health and food insecurity. By analyzing health variables compiled as part of the 2014 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation County Health Rankings, we constructed four health indices and compared their spatial patterns to spatial patterns found in food insecurity data obtained from 2014 Feeding America's County Map the Meal Gap data. Clusters of low and high food security that overlapped with clusters of good or poor health were identified using Local Moran's I statistics...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
James Nazroo, Afshin Zilanawala, Meichu Chen, Laia Bécares, Pamela Davis-Kean, James S Jackson, Yvonne Kelly, Lidia Panico, Amanda Sacker
Existing literature suggests that mixed race/ethnicity children are more likely to experience poor socioemotional wellbeing in both the US and the UK, although the evidence is stronger in the US. It is suggested that this inequality may be a consequence of struggles with identity formation, more limited connections with racial/ethnic/cultural heritage, and increased risk of exposure to racism. Using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,734) and the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ~ 6250), we examine differences in the socioemotional wellbeing of mixed and non-mixed 5/6 year old children in the UK and US and explore heterogeneity in outcomes across different mixed groups in both locations...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Tim A Bruckner, Ralph Catalano
Public health researchers may assume, based on the fetal origins literature, that "scarring" of birth cohorts describes the population response to modern-day stressors. We contend, based on extensive literature concerned with selection in utero , that this assumption remains questionable. At least a third and likely many more of human conceptions fail to yield a live birth. Those that survive to birth, moreover, do not represent their conception cohort. Increasing data availability has led to an improved understanding of selection in utero and its implications for population health...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Olof Östergren
Education develops skills that help individuals use available material resources more efficiently. When material resources are scarce, each decision becomes comparatively more important. Education may also protect from health-related income decline, since the highly educated tend to work in occupations with lower physical demands. Educational inequalities in health may, therefore, be more pronounced at lower levels of income. The aim of this study is to assess whether the shape of the income gradient in premature mortality depends on the level of education...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Elizabeth Sweet, Christopher W Kuzawa, Thomas W McDade
While research now consistently links consumer financial debt with adverse emotional health outcomes, specific forms of debt and their impact on measures of physical health are underexplored. This gap in knowledge is significant because different forms of loans and debt may have different experiential qualities. In this paper, we focus on a type of unsecured debt - short-term/payday loan borrowing - that has risen dramatically in recent decades in the United States and is characterized by predatory, discriminatory, and poorly regulated lending practices...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Yusuf Ransome, Katherine A Thurber, Melody Swen, Natalie D Crawford, Danielle German, Lorraine T Dean
Purpose: Social capital is a well-established predictor of several behavioral health outcomes. However, we know less about the relationship with prevention, transmission, and treatment of HIV/AIDS outcomes in the United States (US). Methods: In 2017, we conducted a scoping review of empirical studies investigating the relationships between social capital and HIV/AIDS in the US by searching PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Sociological Abstracts with no restriction on publication date, for articles in English language...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Angela Daley, Shelley Phipps, Nyla R Branscombe
Although disability has been on the psychological agenda for some time, there is limited empirical evidence on the life satisfaction of youth with a disability, especially the effect of discrimination and factors that might mitigate it. We address this critical gap by examining the complex social experiences of youth with a disability and the culminating effect on life satisfaction. We ask three questions: (1) Is having a disability associated with lower life satisfaction? (2) Do youth with a disability experience discrimination and, if so, how does this affect life satisfaction? (3) Can a sense of belonging mitigate the negative effect of discrimination? We address these questions using microdata from the Canadian Community Health Survey, which is nationally representative...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Andrea Gartner, Daniel Farewell, Giles Greene, Laszlo Trefan, Alisha Davies, David Fone, Shantini Paranjothy
Recent studies found evidence of health selective migration whereby healthy people move to less deprived areas and less healthy people move to or stay in more deprived areas. There is no consensus, however, on whether this influences health inequalities. Measures of socio-economic inequalities in mortality and life expectancy are widely used by government and health services to track changes over time but do not consider the effect of migration. This study aims to investigate whether and to what extent migration altered the observed socioeconomic gradient in mortality...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Madeline Blodgett, Karen Weidert, Benjamin Nieto-Andrade, Ndola Prata
Abortion stigma is influenced by a variety of factors. Previous research has documented a range of contributors to stigma, but the influence of perceived social norms about contraception has not been significantly investigated. This study assesses the influence of perceived social norms about contraception on abortion stigma among women in Luanda, Angola. This analysis uses data from the 2012 Angolan Community Family Planning Survey. Researchers employed multi-stage random sampling to collect demographic, social, and reproductive information from a representative sample of Luandan women aged 15-49...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Juan Merlo, Philippe Wagner, Peter C Austin, S V Subramanian, George Leckie
To be relevant for public health, a context (e.g., neighborhood, school, hospital) should influence or affect the health status of the individuals included in it. The greater the influence of the shared context, the higher the correlation of subject outcomes within that context is likely to be. This intra-context or intra-class correlation is of substantive interest and has been used to quantify the magnitude of the general contextual effect (GCE). Furthermore, ignoring the intra-class correlation in a regression analysis results in spuriously narrow 95% confidence intervals around the estimated regression coefficients of the specific contextual variables entered as covariates and, thereby, overestimates the precision of the estimated specific contextual effects (SCEs)...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Martin Lindström, Maria Rosvall
The aim was to investigate associations between economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and low leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in adulthood from two life course perspectives. The public health survey in Scania in the southernmost part of Sweden in 2012 is a cross-sectional study based on a stratified random sample with 28,029 respondents aged 18-80 (51.7% response rate). Associations between childhood and adult economic stress, and low LTPA were analyzed with logistic regressions. A 14.8% prevalence of men and 13...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Crystal Adams, Anwesa Chatterjee, Brittany M Harder, Liza Hayes Mathias
Trends toward pharmaceuticalization in Western countries have led to increased research and theorizing about the roles macro-level institutions, structures, and collective actors play in contributing to patients' reliance on prescription drugs. Relatively less work has focused on the degree to which patients resist pharmaceuticalization pressures, and even less research has explored the factors contributing to patients' resistance to pharmaceuticalization. Drawing on focus groups with patients who had been recently prescribed a prescription drug, this paper investigates how marginalization in the mainstream US society, as measured by acculturation and race, contributes to differences in patients' subjective experiences and responses to prescription drugs...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Catherine Kreatsoulas, S V Subramanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Sten Axelsson Fisk, Shai Mulinari, Maria Wemrell, George Leckie, Raquel Perez Vicente, Juan Merlo
Socioeconomic, ethnic and gender disparities in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) risk are well established but no studies have applied multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity and discriminatory accuracy (MAIHDA) within an intersectional framework to study this outcome. We study individuals at the first level of analysis and combinations of multiple social and demographic categorizations (i.e., intersectional strata) at the second level of analysis. Here we used MAIHDA to assess to what extent individual differences in the propensity of developing COPD are at the intersectional strata level...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Karen R Flórez, Andrea S Richardson, Madhumita Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Wendy Troxel, Amy DeSantis, Natalie Colabianchi, Tamara Dubowitz
Social support and social networks can elucidate important structural and functional aspects of social relationships that are associated with health-promoting behaviors, including Physical Activity (PA) and weight. A growing number of studies have investigated the relationship between social support, social networks, PA and obesity specifically among African Americans; however, the evidence is mixed and many studies focus exclusively on African American women. Most studies have also focused on either functional or structural aspects of social relationships (but not both) and few have objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and body mass index (BMI)...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Jessie Gevaert, Deborah De Moortel, Mathijn Wilkens, Christophe Vanroelen
Although many governments actively stimulate self-employment, their work-related mental well-being remains understudied. The aim of current study is to investigate the mental well-being of different types of self-employed, testing whether mental well-being differences among self-employed are explained by the presence of work characteristics that are in accordance with the ideal-typical image of the "successful entrepreneur" (e.g. creativity, willingness to take risks, innovativeness, high intrinsic motivation, skilfulness and the ability of recognizing opportunities)...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Jason Schnittker
Evidence showing a relationship between season of birth and adult well-being is long-standing, but is now largely overlooked or dismissed. In light of increasingly compelling evidence for the effects of in-utero conditions on adult health, however, it is instructive to revisit the relationship, with an eye toward resolving the reasons for skepticism. This study uses data from the first National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey to examine the effects of month of birth on adult depression. The data correspond to an important time in history and the analysis points to one reason why enthusiasm for birth seasonality in depression has faded: although there was a strong relationship between month of birth and depression in the early 20th century, with spring and summer month births corresponding to significantly more depression, the relationship was largely eliminated by the 1940 birth cohort...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Thiago Magalhães da Silva, Rosemeire L Fiaccone, Fernanda S G Kehdy, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Laura C Rodrigues, Gustavo N O Costa, Camila A Figueiredo, Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves, Maurício L Barreto
Racial inequalities are observed for different diseases and are mainly caused by differences in socioeconomic status between ethnoracial groups. Genetic factors have also been implicated, and recently, several studies have investigated the association between biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and complex diseases. However, the role of BGA as a proxy for non-genetic health determinants has been little investigated. Similarly, studies comparing the association of BGA and self-reported skin colour with these determinants are scarce...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Molly A Martin, Adam M Lippert, Kelly D Chandler, Megan Lemmon
Women's lives are marked by complex work and family routines - routines that have implications for their children's health. Prior research suggests a link between mothers' work hours and their children's weight, but few studies investigate the child health implications of increasingly common work arrangements, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules. We examine whether changes in mothers' work arrangements are associated with changes in adolescents' weight, physical activity, and sedentary behavior using longitudinal data and fixed effects models to better account for mothers' social selection in to different work arrangements and children's underlying preferences...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
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