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SSM—Population Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552630/urban-green-space-and-obesity-in-older-adults-evidence-from-ireland
#1
Seraphim Dempsey, Seán Lyons, Anne Nolan
We examine the association between living in an urban area with more or less green space and the probability of being obese. This work involves the creation of a new dataset which combines geo-coded data at the individual level from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing with green space data from the European Urban Atlas 2012. We find evidence suggestive of a u-shaped relationship between green space in urban areas and obesity; those living in areas with the lowest and highest shares of green space within a 1...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468188/the-association-between-non-standard-employment-job-insecurity-and-health-among-british-adults-with-and-without-intellectual-impairments-cohort-study
#2
Eric Emerson, Chris Hatton, Janet Robertson, Susannah Baines
We sought to investigate the association between employment conditions and health among working age British adults with and without intellectual impairments. Using data from the 1970 British Cohort Study, we undertook a series of cross sectional analyses of the association between employment conditions and health (self-reported general health, mental health) among British adults with and without intellectual impairments at ages 30, 34 and 42. Our results indicated that: (1) British adults with intellectual impairments were more likely than their peers to be exposed to non-standard employment conditions and experience job insecurity; (2) in both groups exposure was typically associated with poorer health; (3) British adults with intellectual impairments in non-standard employment conditions were more likely than their peers to transition to economic inactivity; (4) among both groups, transitioning into employment was associated with positive health status and transitioning out of employment was associated with poorer health status...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349285/a-smart-phone-intervention-to-address-mental-health-stigma-in-the-construction-industry-a-two-arm-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
A Milner, P C F Law, C Mann, T Cooper, K Witt, A D LaMontagne
Background: High levels of self-stigma are associated with a range of adverse mental health, treatment, and functional outcomes. This prospective study examined the effects of an electronic mental health stigma reduction intervention on self-stigma (self-blame, shame, and help-seeking inhibition) among male construction workers in Australia. Method: Male construction workers (N = 682) were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention condition or the wait list control over a six-week period...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349284/the-relationship-between-physical-functional-limitations-and-psychological-distress-considering-a-possible-mediating-role-of-pain-social-support-and-sense-of-mastery
#4
Ingeborg Flåten Backe, Grete Grindal Patil, Ragnhild Bang Nes, Jocelyne Clench-Aas
The aim of this study was to examine associations between selected physical functional limitations related to performing daily activities and psychological distress. We also aimed to investigate if these associations vary across age (moderation), and to explore pain, sense of mastery and social support as potential moderators and mediators. The study was based on pooled data from two rounds (2008 and 2012) of a Norwegian nationally representative cross-sectional health survey (N = 8520) including individuals aged ≥ 16 years (Age groups = 16-44 and ≥ 45 years)...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349283/is-self-rated-health-in-adolescence-a-predictor-of-prescribed-medication-in-adulthood-findings-from-the-nord-tr%C3%A3-ndelag-health-study-and-the-norwegian-prescription-database
#5
Tina Lokke Vie, Karl Ove Hufthammer, Turid Lingaas Holmen, Eivind Meland, Hans Johan Breidablik
Self-rated health (SRH) is a commonly used health indicator predicting morbidity and mortality in a range of populations. However, the relationship between SRH and medication is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine adolescent SRH as a predictor for prescribed medication later in young adulthood. Eighteen years' prospective data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) and the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD) were analyzed. Baseline data, gathered from 8982 adolescents (mean age 16...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349282/does-non-standard-work-mean-non-standard-health-exploring-links-between-non-standard-work-schedules-health-behavior-and-well-being
#6
Megan R Winkler, Susan Mason, Melissa N Laska, Mary J Christoph, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
The last century has seen dramatic shifts in population work circumstances, leading to an increasing normalization of non-standard work schedules (NSWSs), defined as non-daytime, irregular hours. An ever-growing body of evidence links NSWSs to a host of non-communicable chronic conditions; yet, these associations primarily concentrate on the physiologic mechanisms created by circadian disruption and insufficient sleep. While important, not all NSWSs create such chronobiologic disruption, and other aspects of working time and synchronization could be important to the relationships between work schedules and chronic disease...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349281/work-disability-in-the-united-states-1968-2015-prevalence-duration-recovery-and-trends
#7
James N Laditka, Sarah B Laditka
The United States workforce is aging. At the same time more people have chronic conditions, for longer periods. Given these trends the importance of work disability, physical or nervous problems that limit a person's type or amount of work, is increasing. No research has examined transitions among multiple levels of work disability, recovery from work disability, or trends. Limited research has focused on work disability among African Americans and Hispanics, or separately for women and men. We examined these areas using data from 30,563 adults in the 1968-2015 Panel Study of Income Dynamics...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349280/food-insecurity-and-family-structure-in-nigeria
#8
Nkechi S Owoo
The article explores a series of questions and hypotheses related to polygynous family structures and both household and individual-level food security outcomes, using the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey data from Nigeria, collected in 2011, 2013 and 2015. A Correlated Random Effects (CRE) model is used to examine the relationship between polygyny and household-level food security, and the degree to which it is mediated by household wealth, size, and livelihood. A Household Fixed Effect model is employed to explore whether a mother's status as monogamous versus polygynous relates systematically to her child's health, and also whether child outcomes of senior wives are better than outcomes of junior wives within polygynous households...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349279/parental-population-exposure-to-historical-socioeconomic-and-political-periods-and-grand-child-s-birth-weight-in-the-lifeways-cross-generation-cohort-study-in-the-republic-of-ireland
#9
Cilia Mejia-Lancheros, John Mehegan, Ricardo Segurado, Celine Murrin, Cecily Kelleher
Exposure to deprived socioeconomic conditions during the peri-conception and early childhood periods can have a negative long-term impact on individuals' health and that of their progeny. We aimed to examine whether relatives' birth period affected index-child (grand-child) birthweight status in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort in the Republic of Ireland. Participants were 943 mothers and offspring, 890 fathers, 938 maternal grandmothers (MGM), 700 maternal grandfathers (MGF) 537 paternal grandmothers (PGM) and 553 paternal grandfathers (PGF)...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349278/machine-learning-approaches-to-the-social-determinants-of-health-in-the-health-and-retirement-study
#10
Benjamin Seligman, Shripad Tuljapurkar, David Rehkopf
Background: Social and economic factors are important predictors of health and of recognized importance for health systems. However, machine learning, used elsewhere in the biomedical literature, has not been extensively applied to study relationships between society and health. We investigate how machine learning may add to our understanding of social determinants of health using data from the Health and Retirement Study. Methods: A linear regression of age and gender, and a parsimonious theory-based regression additionally incorporating income, wealth, and education, were used to predict systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and telomere length...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349277/patterns-of-poverty-exposure-and-children-s-trajectories-of-externalizing-and-internalizing-behaviors
#11
Jinette Comeau, Michael H Boyle
Using data from the Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we compare trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children exposed to five patterns of poverty from birth to age 14: always or never poor - stable patterns; a single transition into or out of poverty, or repeated fluctuations in and out of poverty - changing patterns. We also examine how low maternal education and single parenthood interact with these poverty exposures to compound their adverse effects...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349276/examining-individual-interpersonal-and-environmental-influences-on-children-s-physical-activity-levels
#12
Piotr Wilk, Andrew F Clark, Alana Maltby, Christine Smith, Patricia Tucker, Jason A Gilliland
The purpose of this study was to explore individual-level socio-demographic factors and interpersonal-level factors related to social support, as well as the potential role of neighborhood and school environments that may influence the physical activity (PA) levels of children (ages 9-11). Child and parent questionnaires included individual and interpersonal factors, and PA behaviour. Home postal codes were used to determine the neighbourhood the child resides within, as well as their geographic accessibility to recreation opportunities...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349275/living-with-parents-or-grandparents-increases-social-capital-and-survival-2014-general-social-survey-national-death-index
#13
Peter Muennig, Boshen Jiao, Elizabeth Singer
Introduction: After nearly a century-long trend toward single-family living arrangements, people in wealthy nations are increasingly living in multi-generational households. Multi-generational living arrangements can, in theory, increase psychological, social, and financial capital-factors associated with improvements in health and longevity. Methods: We conducted a survival analysis using the 2014 General Social Survey-National Death Index, a prospective multi-year survey...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349274/long-run-effects-of-early-childhood-exposure-to-cholera-on-final-height-evidence-from-industrializing-japan
#14
Kota Ogasawara, Tatsuki Inoue
Pandemic cholera is one of the most topical and urgent issues in many developing countries. However, although a growing body of research has shown the negative long-run effects of infectious disease exposure on human health, the long-run influences of early childhood exposure to cholera have thus far been understudied. To bridge this gap in the body of knowledge, we draw both on new data describing adult height from 1899 to 1910 from comprehensive official Japanese army records and on data recording the regional variation in the intensity of cholera pandemics...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349273/the-contribution-of-three-dimensions-of-allostatic-load-to-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-poor-fair-self-rated-health
#15
Alexis R Santos-Lozada, Jonathan Daw
Objective: This study evaluates whether different dimensions of physiological dysregulation, modeled individually rather than additively mediate racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported health. Methods: Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2010) and the Karlson, Hold, and Breen (KHB) mediation model, this paper explores what operationalization of biomarker data most strongly mediate racial/ethnic disparities in poor/fair self-rated health (SRH) among adults in the United States, net of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and medication controls...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349272/why-is-parental-lifespan-linked-to-children-s-chances-of-reaching-a-high-age-a-transgenerational-hypothesis
#16
Denny Vågerö, Vanda Aronsson, Bitte Modin
Purpose: Transgenerational determinants of longevity are poorly understood. We used data from four linked generations (G0, G1, G2 and G3) of the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigeneration Study to address this issue. Methods: Mortality in G1 (N = 9565) was followed from 1961-2015 and analysed in relation to tertiles of their parents' (G0) age-at-death using Cox regression. Parental social class and marital status were adjusted for in the analyses, as was G1's birth order and adult social class...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349271/becoming-a-pharmaceutical-person-medication-use-trajectories-from-age-26-to-38-in-a-representative-birth-cohort-from-dunedin-new-zealand
#17
Peri J Ballantyne, Pauline Norris, Venkata Praveen Parachuru, W Murray Thomson
Despite the abundance of medications available for human consumption, and frequent concerns about increasing medicalization or pharmaceuticalization of everyday life, there is little research investigating medicines-use in young and middle-aged populations and discussing the implications of young people using increasing numbers of medicines and becoming pharmaceutical users over time. We use data from a New Zealand longitudinal study to examine changes in self-reported medication use by a complete birth cohort of young adults...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349270/breaking-down-the-monolith-understanding-flu-vaccine-uptake-among-african-americans
#18
Sandra Crouse Quinn, Amelia Jamison, Ji An, Vicki S Freimuth, Gregory R Hancock, Donald Musa
Black adults are significantly less likely to be immunized for seasonal influenza when compared to Whites. This persistent disparity contributes to increased influenza-related morbidity and mortality in the African American population. Most scholarship on vaccine disparities has compared Whites and Blacks. Employing Public Health Critical Race Praxis, this study seeks to shift the focus to explore differences within the Black population. Utilizing a nationally-representative 2015 survey of US Black adults ( n = 806), we explore differences by gender, age, income, and education across vaccine-related measures (e...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349269/fertility-behaviors-in-south-korea-and-their-association-with-ultrasound-prenatal-sex-screening
#19
Jinkook Lee, James P Smith
Imbalances in the sex ratio at birth in Southeast and East Asia increased especially after the mid-1980s. We study how ultrasonic technology affected sex ratios at birth in South Korea, a country with a strong son preference. Between 1985 and 1995 fetal screenings and abortion services were widely available, though not available in the years before, and prohibited in the years after. Using the 1985, 1995, and 2005 Census microdata, we examine changes in sex ratios of newborns by birth year. We then study periodic effects on the fertility stopping rule, using the 2006 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, which provides birth years for all children...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349268/socioeconomic-status-indicators-and-common-mental-disorders-evidence-from-a-study-of-prenatal-depression-in-pakistan
#20
Joanna Maselko, Lisa Bates, Sonia Bhalotra, John A Gallis, Karen O'Donnell, Siham Sikander, Elizabeth L Turner
There is growing interest in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), poverty, and mental health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, it is not clear whether a gradient approach focused on a wider SES distribution or a binary poverty approach is more salient for mental health in LMIC. Yet this distinction has implications for interventions aimed at improving population health. We contribute to the literature by examining how multiple indicators of socioeconomic status, including gradient SES and binary poverty indicators, contribute to prenatal depression symptoms in a LMIC context...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
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