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SSM—Population Health

N Akhter, C Bambra, K Mattheys, J Warren, A Kasim
In response to the 2007/8 financial crisis and the subsequent 'Great Recession', the UK government pursued a policy of austerity, characterised by public spending cuts and reductions in working-age welfare benefits. This paper reports on a case study of the effects of this policy on local inequalities in mental health and wellbeing in the local authority of Stockton-on-Tees in the North East of England, an area with very high spatial and socio-economic inequalities. Follow-up findings from a prospective cohort study of the gap in mental health and wellbeing between the most and least deprived neighbourhoods of Stockton-on-Tees is presented...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Alexander S Long, Alexandra L Hanlon, Karen L Pellegrin
Objectives: Rural disparities in age-adjusted mortality are growing in the United States. While socioeconomic variables have been found to explain significant variation in life expectancy across US counties, previous research has not examined the role of socioeconomic variables in explaining rural mortality disparities. The purpose of this study was to quantify the rural mortality disparity after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Methods: Recursive partitioning, or tree regression, was used to fit models predicting premature mortality across counties in the United States, adjusted for age, median income, and percent in poverty in 4 time periods (from 2004 to 2012) with and without inclusion of an urban-rural variable...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Selena E Ortiz, Bobbie L Johannes
Background: The current housing crisis in the U.S. requires the consideration and promotion of policies that improve the circumstances of severe housing cost burdens. Building public awareness of the health impacts associated with housing affordability may be a key prerequisite for policy change. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative data from a national survey were used to investigate public understandings about housing affordability as a key driver of health. Quantitative and qualitative findings were integrated to test whether any relationships existed between respondents' considerations and concerns about housing affordability and their perceptions about housing affordability as a social determinant of health...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Thomas Astell-Burt, Samantha Rowbotham, Penelope Hawe
How can we communicate to the public that population level health interventions are effective at improving health? Perhaps the most familiar "currency" of effect is that which can be brought about via medication. Comparisons of effect sizes may be effective ways of communicating the benefits of population health interventions if they are seen and understood in the same way that medications are. We developed a series of comparisons to communicate benefits of population health interventions in terms of similar gains to be obtained from statins, metformin and antihypertensive medications for prevention of cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes, obesity and hypertension...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Yunhwan Kim, Curt Hagquist
Increasing inequality in many societies highlights the importance of paying attention to differences in mental health between the economically disadvantaged adolescents and the non-disadvantaged adolescents. Also important is to understand how changing inequality in society over time influences adolescents' mental health at the population- and individual-level. The current study examined to what extent increased societal-level income inequality over time, individual-level experiences of economic disadvantage and the cross-level interaction between the two explained Swedish adolescents' mental health problems from 1995 to 2011...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Danielle Christine Rhubart
Following the roll out of the Affordable Care Act, a significant amount of research has focused on health insurance coverage disadvantages experienced by those in states that chose not to expand Medicaid. This line of research has been used as a way to conceptualize potential disparities in future population health outcomes between states that did and did not expand Medicaid. While health insurance is certainly associated with health outcomes, health behaviors are equally, if not more, important. Therefore, to understand potential future population health outcomes - or lack thereof - this paper examines whether adults in states that did not expand Medicaid are also more likely to engage in health damaging behaviors (i...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Maja Djundeva
Objectives: Previous studies have shown marital status differences in incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality. This study examines the consequences of partnership on biomarkers related to cardiovascular health of older men and women in Germany and England (C-reactive protein, HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; and total cholesterol). Methods: Data used is from older adults (60 +) from the German Survey of Health and Retirement Europe SHARE (n=955) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing ELSA (n=9707)...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Sol P Juárez, Sven Drefahl, Andrea Dunlavy, Mikael Rostila
Background: A mortality advantage has been observed among recently arrived immigrants in multiple national contexts, even though many immigrants experience more social disadvantage compared to natives. This is the first study to investigate the combined influence of duration of residence and age at arrival on the association between region of origin and all-cause mortality among the adult immigrant population in Sweden. Methods: Using population-based registers, we conducted a follow-up study of 1,363,429 individuals aged 25-64 years from 1990 to 2008...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Lori Kowaleski-Jones, Cathleen Zick, Ken R Smith, Barbara Brown, Heidi Hanson, Jessie Fan
Background: Research investigating the connection between neighborhood walkability and obesity often overlooks the issue of nonrandom residential selection. Methods: We use propensity score methods to adjust for the nonrandom selection into residential neighborhoods in this cross-sectional, observational study. The sample includes 103,912 women residing in Salt Lake County, Utah age 20 or older. We measured percentage living in neighborhoods with more walkability, area level measures of neighborhood characteristics, and obesity (body mass index (BMI) > 30)...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Laura Juliana Bonilla-Tinoco, Betty Soledad Manrique-Espinoza, Martin Romero-Martínez, Ana Luisa Sosa-Ortiz
The aim of the present study was to analyse the association between the occurrence of a major depressive episode among older adults and work status in low- and medium-income countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted with people 60 years of age and older from the six countries (Mexico, India, China, Russian Federation, Ghana and South Africa) included in the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and who participated in its first wave (2009-2010). The occurrence of a major depressive episode (MDE) over the previous 12 months was determined based on an adaptation of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Anoop Jain, S V Subramanian
Public health interventions are often implemented because they are a means to an end. For example, improving population-level health outcomes is a key step towards improving social and economic outcomes, too. But what is often overlooked is the fact that a given public health intervention might be the end in itself. In other words, a given intervention might be worth investing in even if there are zero returns from investing in it. This intrinsic value, however, is often overlooked. In this commentary, we look specifically at sanitation, and why the development community should motivate sanitation interventions using an intrinsic value perspective...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Bethany A Caruso, Hannah L F Cooper, Regine Haardörfer, Kathryn M Yount, Parimita Routray, Belen Torondel, Thomas Clasen
Emerging qualitative research suggests women's sanitation experiences may impact mental health. However, specific associations remain unclear. We aimed to determine if sanitation access and sanitation experiences were associated with mental health among women in rural Odisha, India. Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated the association between sanitation access and sanitation experiences and selected mental health outcomes. Data were collected from 1347 randomly selected women across four life course stages in 60 rural communities (December 2014-February 2015)...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Elizabeth M Lawrence, Robert A Hummer, Benjamin W Domingue, Kathleen Mullan Harris
Widening educational differences in overall health and recent stagnation in cardiovascular disease mortality rates highlight the critical need to describe and understand educational disparities in cardiovascular health (CVH) among U.S. young adults. We use two data sets representative of the U.S. population to examine educational disparities in CVH among young adults (24-34) coming of age in the 21st century: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2010; N= 689) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (2007-2008; N=11,200)...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Karel Haal, Anja Smith, Eddy van Doorslaer
Post-apartheid South Africa has seen an unprecedented rise and fall of mortality in less than two decades as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the subsequent rollout of free antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since the incidence of both was not equal for rich and poor, it is likely to also have affected disparities in health and survival chances by income. We use large nationwide surveys for 2001, 2007 and 2011 to obtain estimates of average income and mortality at the aggregate level of a municipality, and then to examine changes in mortality - and in inequality in mortality by income ─ over time...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Jesse J Plascak, Bernadette Hohl, Wendy E Barrington, Shirley Aa Beresford
Social environmental factors are theoretically identified as influential drivers of health behaviors - tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity - related to chronic disease disparities. Empirical studies investigating relationships involving social environmental factors have found that either greater interpersonal racial-ethnic discrimination or perceived neighborhood disorder were associated with adverse health behaviors, with potentially larger effects among women. We simultaneously tested whether measures of perceived racial-ethnic discrimination and perceived neighborhood disorder were associated with physical activity, alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking; lifestyle risk factors of major chronic disease among women...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Vesper H Chisumpa, Clifford O Odimegwu
In the context of high adult mortality and an immense impact on the health burden of Zambia, a decomposition analysis of age- and cause-specific mortality in age group 15-59 was performed to determine the contributions to the gap in life expectancy at birth between males and females. Previous studies on decomposition have examined income groups, ethnicity, and regional differences' contributions to gaps in life expectancy, but not the adult mortality age group 15-59. These studies focus on developed countries and few on developing countries...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Michael J McFarland, John Taylor, Cheryl A S McFarland
Police maltreatment, whether experienced personally or indirectly through one's family or friends, represents a potentially harmful stressor, particularly for minority populations. We address this issue by investigating: (1) how waist circumference (WC) varies by personal and vicarious exposure to unfair treatment by police (UTBP); and (2) to what extent exposure to UTBP explains the black-white disparity in WC. We employed data collected from a community-based sample of black (n = 601) and white (n = 608) adults living in Nashville-Davidson county Tennessee to address these questions...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
M Bhatia, M Ranjan, P Dixit, L K Dwivedi
•Temporal trends in inequalities in infant and child mortality over two and half decades in India.•Relative change in inequalities in child mortality over survey periods.•Scatter plots to identify states with largest inequalities among wealth index groups.•Concentration Index by various background characteristics and decomposition analysis to identify factors contributing in inequality in infant mortality between richest and poorest groups.•Gap between the poorest and richest groups has narrowed in most states in India in recent years...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Kerri M Raissian, Jessica Houston Su
Health organizations recommend that mothers exclusively breastfeed infants for the first six months of life. The current study contributes to a growing body of research that examines whether the purported benefits of breastfeeding are causal. We systematically evaluated the role of an expectant mother's prenatal breastfeeding intentions, which reflect not only demographic characteristics, but also knowledge, attitudes, and social norms about infant feeding, and therefore serve as a proxy for positive maternal selection into breastfeeding...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Airín D Martínez, Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A Granger
Sociologists recognize that immigration enforcement policies are forms of institutionalized racism that can produce adverse health effects in both undocumented and documented Latinos and Mexican-origin persons in the United States. Despite this important advancement, little research examines the relationship between fear of immigration enforcement and biobehavioral health in mixed-status Mexican-origin families. This study applies an embodiment of racism approach to examine how household fear of deportation (FOD) is related to differences in salivary proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
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