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Physical Review. E

Kishan A Manani, Kim Christensen, Nicholas S Peters
Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4-5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF...
October 2016: Physical Review. E
Andrea Schmessane
I report on experiments demonstrating the appearance of Wood's anomalies in surface gravity waves propagating along a channel with a submerged obstacle. Space-time measurements of surface gravity waves allow one to compute the stationary complex field of the wave and the amplitude growth of localized and propagative modes over all the entire channel, including the scattering region. This allows one to access the near and far field dynamics, which constitute a new and complementary way of observation of mode resonances of the incoming wave displaying Wood's anomalies...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Aidan I Brown, David A Sivak
At molecular scales, fluctuations play a significant role and prevent biomolecular processes from always proceeding in a preferred direction, raising the question of how limited amounts of free energy can be dissipated to obtain directed progress. We examine the system and process characteristics that efficiently break time-reversal symmetry at fixed energy loss; in particular for a simple model of a molecular machine, an intermediate energy barrier produces unusually high asymmetry for a given dissipation...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Gianmaria Falasco, Richard Pfaller, Andreas P Bregulla, Frank Cichos, Klaus Kroy
Symmetries constrain dynamics. We test this fundamental physical principle, experimentally and by molecular dynamics simulations, for a hot Janus swimmer operating far from thermal equilibrium. Our results establish scalar and vectorial steady-state fluctuation theorems and a thermodynamic uncertainty relation that link the fluctuating particle current to its entropy production at an effective temperature. A Markovian minimal model elucidates the underlying nonequilibrium physics.
September 2016: Physical Review. E
M V Rasna, K P Zuhail, U V Ramudu, R Chandrasekar, Surajit Dhara
We study the dynamics of electric field driven multiaxis electro-orientation of birefringent microsheets in both the isotropic and nematic phases of a liquid crystal. For a fixed direction of applied field in the isotropic phase, there are two critical fields above which the microsheets show two orientations. In the nematic phase, it shows three rotations in both planar and homeotropic cells. These orientations are observed at varying voltages and wide time scales and are explained based on the competing effect of the electric, elastic, and viscous torques...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
O Coquand, D Mouhanna
We investigate the flat phase of quantum polymerized phantom membranes by means of a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We first implement this formalism for general quantum polymerized membranes and derive the flow equations that encompass both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We then deduce and analyze the flow equations relevant to study the flat phase and discuss their salient features: quantum to classical crossover and, in each of these regimes, strong to weak coupling crossover. We finally illustrate these features in the context of free-standing graphene physics...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Xiaojing Fu, Luis Cueto-Felgueroso, Ruben Juanes
We study the evolution of binary mixtures far from equilibrium, and show that the interplay between phase separation and hydrodynamic instability can arrest the Ostwald ripening process characteristic of nonflowing mixtures. We describe a model binary system in a Hele-Shaw cell using a phase-field approach with explicit dependence of both phase fraction and mass concentration. When the viscosity contrast between phases is large (as is the case for gas and liquid phases), an imposed background flow leads to viscous fingering, phase branching, and pinch off...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
F Puosi, J Rottler, J-L Barrat
The onset of irreversible deformation in low-temperature amorphous solids is due to the accumulation of elementary events, consisting of spatially and temporally localized atomic rearrangements involving only a few tens of atoms. Recently, numerical and experimental work addressed the issue of spatiotemporal correlations between these plastic events. Here, we provide further insight into these correlations by investigating, via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the plastic response of a two-dimensional amorphous solid to artificially triggered local shear transformations...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Vikash Pandey, Sverre Holm
Many of the most interesting complex media are non-Newtonian and exhibit time-dependent behavior of thixotropy and rheopecty. They may also have temporal responses described by power laws. The material behavior is represented by the relaxation modulus and the creep compliance. On the one hand, it is shown that in the special case of a Maxwell model characterized by a linearly time-varying viscosity, the medium's relaxation modulus is a power law which is similar to that of a fractional derivative element often called a springpot...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Bethany Lusch, Pedro D Maia, J Nathan Kutz
Determining the interactions and causal relationships between nodes in an unknown networked dynamical system from measurement data alone is a challenging, contemporary task across the physical, biological, and engineering sciences. Statistical methods, such as the increasingly popular Granger causality, are being broadly applied for data-driven discovery of connectivity in fields from economics to neuroscience. A common version of the algorithm is called pairwise-conditional Granger causality, which we systematically test on data generated from a nonlinear model with known causal network structure...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Fernando Haas, Shahzad Mahmood
Nonlinear ion-acoustic waves are analyzed in a nonrelativistic magnetized quantum plasma with arbitrary degeneracy of electrons. Quantum statistics is taken into account by means of the equation of state for ideal fermions at arbitrary temperature. Quantum diffraction is described by a modified Bohm potential consistent with finite-temperature quantum kinetic theory in the long-wavelength limit. The dispersion relation of the obliquely propagating electrostatic waves in magnetized quantum plasma with arbitrary degeneracy of electrons is obtained...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
C J Carstens
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.042812.
September 2016: Physical Review. E
F Vallone, E Vannini, A Cintio, M Caleo, A Di Garbo
Epilepsy is characterized by substantial network rearrangements leading to spontaneous seizures and little is known on how an epileptogenic focus impacts on neural activity in the contralateral hemisphere. Here, we used a model of unilateral epilepsy induced by injection of the synaptic blocker tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Local field potential (LFP) signals were simultaneously recorded from both hemispheres of each mouse in acute phase (peak of toxin action) and chronic condition (completion of TeNT effects)...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Devin Kachan, Kei W Müller, Wolfgang A Wall, Alex J Levine
Fluctuation-induced interactions are an important organizing principle in a variety of soft matter systems. We investigate the role of fluctuation-based or thermal Casimir interactions between cross linkers in a semiflexible network. One finds that, by integrating out the polymer degrees of freedom, there is an attractive logarithmic potential between nearest-neighbor cross linkers in a bundle, with a significantly weaker next-nearest-neighbor interaction. Here we show that a one-dimensional gas of these strongly interacting linkers in equilibrium with a source of unbound ones admits a discontinuous phase transition between a sparsely and a densely bound bundle...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
María Pereda
In this work, we aim to contribute to the understanding of human prosocial behavior by studying the influence that a particular form of social pressure, "being watched," has on the evolution of cooperative behavior. We study how cooperation emerges in multiplex complex topologies by analyzing a particular bidirectionally coupled dynamics on top of a two-layer multiplex network (duplex). The coupled dynamics appears between the prisoner's dilemma game in a network and a threshold cascade model in the other. The threshold model is intended to abstract the behavior of a network of vigilant nodes that impose the pressure of being observed altering hence the temptation to defect of the dilemma...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Joel C Miller
In recent years, many variants of percolation have been used to study network structure and the behavior of processes spreading on networks. These include bond percolation, site percolation, k-core percolation, bootstrap percolation, the generalized epidemic process, and the Watts threshold model (WTM). We show that-except for bond percolation-each of these processes arises as a special case of the WTM, and bond percolation arises from a small modification. In fact "heterogeneous k-core percolation," a corresponding "heterogeneous bootstrap percolation" model, and the generalized epidemic process are completely equivalent to one another and the WTM...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Prasenjit Das, Sanjay Puri, Moshe Schwartz
We present large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to study the free evolution of granular gases. Initially, the density of particles is homogeneous and the velocity follows a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) distribution. The system cools down due to solid friction between the granular particles. The density remains homogeneous, and the velocity distribution remains MB at early times, while the kinetic energy of the system decays with time. However, fluctuations in the density and velocity fields grow, and the system evolves via formation of clusters in the density field and the local ordering of velocity field, consistent with the onset of plug flow...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Li Shi, Florent Carn, François Boué, Eric Buhler
Aggregation of nanoparticles of given size R induced by addition of a polymer strongly depends on its degree of rigidity. This is shown here on a large variety of silica nanoparticle self-assemblies obtained by electrostatic complexation with carefully selected oppositely charged biopolyelectrolytes of different rigidity. The effective rigidity is quantified by the total persistence length L_{T} representing the sum of the intrinsic (L_{p}) and electrostatic (L_{e}) polyelectrolyte persistence length, which depends on the screening, i...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Mesfin Asfaw Taye
We derive general expressions for the free energy, entropy production, and entropy extraction rates for a Brownian particle that walks in a viscous medium where the dynamics of its motion is governed by the Langevin equation. It is shown that, when the system is out of equilibrium, it constantly produces entropy and at the same time extracts entropy out of the system. Its entropy production and extraction rates decrease in time and saturate to a constant value. In the long-time limit, the rate of entropy production balances the rate of entropy extraction and, at equilibrium, both entropy production and extraction rates become zero...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
H W Diehl
In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 92, 012123 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.012123], a modified d-dimensional Φ^{4} model was investigated that differs from the standard one in that the Φ^{4} term was replaced by a nonlocal one with a potential u(x-x^{'}) that depends on a parameter σ and decays exponentially as |x-x^{'}|→∞ on a scale |m|^{-1}<∞. The authors claim the upper critical dimension of this model to be d_{σ}=4+2σ. Performing a one-loop calculation, they arrive at expansions in powers of ε_{σ}=d_{σ}-d for critical exponents such as η and related ones to O(ε_{σ}) whose O(ε_{σ}) coefficients depend on σ and the ratio w=m^{2}/Λ^{2}, where Λ is the uv cutoff...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
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