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Physical Review. E

Shay I Heizler, David A Kessler
Mode-I fracture exhibits microbranching in the high velocity regime where the simple straight crack is unstable. For velocities below the instability, classic modeling using linear elasticity is valid. However, showing the existence of the instability and calculating the dynamics postinstability within the linear elastic framework is difficult and controversial. The experimental results give several indications that the microbranching phenomenon is basically a three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon. Nevertheless, the theoretical effort has been focused mostly on two-dimensional (2D) modeling...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Jizhou Li, Steven Tomsovic
Semiclassical sum rules, such as the Gutzwiller trace formula, depend on the properties of periodic, closed, or homoclinic (heteroclinic) orbits. The interferences embedded in such orbit sums are governed by classical action functions and Maslov indices. For chaotic systems, the relative actions of such orbits can be expressed in terms of phase-space areas bounded by segments of stable and unstable manifolds and Moser invariant curves. This also generates direct relations between periodic orbits and homoclinic (heteroclinic) orbit actions...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
G M Viswanathan
An important problem in statistical physics concerns the fascinating connections between partition functions of lattice models studied in equilibrium statistical mechanics on the one hand and graph theoretical enumeration problems on the other hand. We investigate the nature of the relationship between the number of spanning trees and the partition function of the Ising model on the square lattice. The spanning tree generating function T(z) gives the spanning tree constant when evaluated at z=1, while giving the lattice green function when differentiated...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Ranjan Modak, Marcos Rigol
We study work extraction (defined as the difference between the initial and the final energy) in noninteracting and (effectively) weakly interacting isolated fermionic quantum lattice systems in one dimension, which undergo a sequence of quenches and equilibration. The systems are divided in two parts, which we identify as the subsystem of interest and the bath. We extract work by quenching the on-site potentials in the subsystem, letting the entire system equilibrate, and returning to the initial parameters in the subsystem using a quasistatic process (the bath is never acted upon)...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
R Blossey, A C Maggs, R Podgornik
We present a derivation of generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equations starting from classical theories of binary fluid mixtures, employing an approach based on the Legendre transform as recently applied to the case of local descriptions of the fluid free energy. Under specific symmetry assumptions, and in the linearized regime, the Poisson-Boltzmann equation reduces to a phenomenological equation introduced by Bazant et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 046102 (2011)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.046102, whereby the structuring near the surface is determined by bulk coefficients...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Miguel A Rodríguez
The structure of time series is usually characterized by means of correlations. A new proposal based on visibility networks has been considered recently. Visibility networks are complex networks mapped from surfaces or time series using visibility properties. The structures of time series and visibility networks are closely related, as shown by means of fractional time series in recent works. In these works, a simple relationship between the Hurst exponent H of fractional time series and the exponent of the distribution of edges γ of the corresponding visibility network, which exhibits a power law, is shown...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
C J Pierce, E Mumper, E E Brown, J T Brangham, B H Lower, S K Lower, F Y Yang, R Sooryakumar
Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of motile prokaryotes that synthesize chains of lipid-bound, magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes. This study exploits their innate magnetism to investigate previously unexplored facets of bacterial hydrodynamics at surfaces. Through use of weak, uniform, external magnetic fields and local, micromagnetic surface patterns, the relative strength of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and flagellar force components is tuned through magnetic control of the bacteria's orientation. The resulting swimming behaviors provide a means to experimentally determine hydrodynamic parameters and offer a high degree of control over large numbers of living microscopic entities...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Joshua B Ruebeck, Jie Lin, Arjendu K Pattanayak
We present an analysis of the entangling quantum kicked top focusing on the few qubit case and the initial condition dependence of the time-averaged entanglement S_{Q} for spin-coherent states. We show a very strong connection between the classical phase space and the initial condition dependence of S_{Q} even for the extreme case of two spin-1/2 qubits. This correlation is not related directly to chaos in the classical dynamics. We introduce a measure of the behavior of a classical trajectory which correlates far better with the entanglement and show that the maps of classical and quantum initial-condition dependence are both organized around the symmetry points of the Hamiltonian...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Agnieszka Chrzanowska
A replica method for calculation of smectic liquid crystal properties within the Onsager theory has been presented and applied to an exemplary case of two-dimensional perfectly aligned needlelike boomerangs. The method allows one to consider the complete influence of the interaction terms in contrast to the Fourier expansion method which uses mostly first or second order terms of expansion. The program based on the replica algorithm is able to calculate a single representative layer as an equivalent set of layers, depending on the size of the considered width of the sample integration interval...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
M Hubert, M Labousse, S Perrard
We investigate the crossing of an energy barrier by a self-propelled particle described by a Rayleigh friction term. We reveal the existence of a sharp transition in the external force field whereby the amplitude dramatically increases. This corresponds to a saddle point transition in the velocity flow phase space, as would be expected for any type of repulsive force field. We use this approach to rationalize the results obtained by Eddi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240401 (2009)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Marko S Milosavljevic, Jonathan N Blakely, Aubrey N Beal, Ned J Corron
We show examples of dynamical systems that can be solved analytically at any point along a period doubling route to chaos. Each system consists of a linear part oscillating about a set point and a nonlinear rule for regularly updating that set point. Previously it has been shown that such systems can be solved analytically even when the oscillations are chaotic. However, these solvable systems show few bifurcations, transitioning directly from a steady state to chaos. Here we show that a simple change to the rule for updating the set point allows for a greater variety of nonlinear dynamical phenomena, such as period doubling, while maintaining solvability...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Andrew M Chap, Raymond J Sedwick
In kinetic simulations of non-Maxwellian plasmas, the calculation of particle scattering due to Coulomb collisions has no simple approximation. In such simulations, the number of collision interactions a particle experiences in a single time step is typically too large for direct calculation. In this work, the cumulative effect of a series of binary collisions is calculated numerically in a stochastic manner, and heuristic trends are produced as functions of the local plasma parameters. The result is a collision model suitable for implementation into a kinetic plasma simulation...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Farshad Meshkati, Henry Chien Fu
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.063006.
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Xiangyu Cao, Alberto Rosso, Jean-Philippe Bouchaud, Pierre Le Doussal
We introduce and study a banded random matrix model describing sparse, long-range quantum hopping in one dimension. Using a series of analytic arguments, numerical simulations, and a mapping to a long-range epidemics model, we establish the phase diagram of the model. A genuine localization transition, with well defined mobility edges, appears as the hopping rate decreases slower than ℓ^{-2}, where ℓ is the distance. Correspondingly, the decay of the localized states evolves from a standard exponential shape to a stretched exponential and finally to a exp(-Cln^{κ}ℓ) behavior, with κ>1...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
David B Saakian, Alexander S Bratus, Chin-Kun Hu
We consider the Wright-Fisher model of the finite population evolution on a fitness landscape defined in the sequence space by a path of nearly neutral mutations. We study a specific structure of the fitness landscape: One of the intermediate mutations on the mutation path results in either a large fitness value (climbing up a fitness hill) or a low fitness value (crossing a fitness canyon), the rest of the mutations besides the last one are neutral, and the last sequence has much higher fitness than any intermediate sequence...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Tamás Kovács, József Vanyó
We formulate a model that describes the escape dynamics in a leaky chaotic system in which the size of the leak depends on the number of the in-falling particles. The basic motivation of this work is the astrophysical process, which describes the planetary accretion. In order to study the dynamics generally, the standard map is investigated in two cases when the dynamics is fully hyperbolic and in the presence of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser islands. In addition to the numerical calculations, an analytic solution to the temporal behavior of the model is also derived...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Yuanzhao Zhang, Takashi Nishikawa, Adilson E Motter
A scenario has recently been reported in which in order to stabilize complete synchronization of an oscillator network-a symmetric state-the symmetry of the system itself has to be broken by making the oscillators nonidentical. But how often does such behavior-which we term asymmetry-induced synchronization (AISync)-occur in oscillator networks? Here we present the first general scheme for constructing AISync systems and demonstrate that this behavior is the norm rather than the exception in a wide class of physical systems that can be seen as multilayer networks...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Tal Agranov, Baruch Meerson
We study fluctuations of particle absorption by a three-dimensional domain with multiple absorbing patches. The domain is in contact with a gas of interacting diffusing particles. This problem is motivated by living cell sensing via multiple receptors distributed over the cell surface. Employing the macroscopic fluctuation theory, we calculate the covariance matrix of the particle absorption by different patches, extending previous works which addressed fluctuations of a single current. We find a condition when the sign of correlations between different patches is fully determined by the transport coefficients of the gas and is independent of the problem's geometry...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
S Pieprzyk, A C Brańka, D M Heyes
An accurate representation of the structural pair correlation functions of the hard sphere (HS) fluid up to the freezing density is proposed which combines the pole expression for the total correlation function h(r), the Ornstein-Zernike equation, and molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation data. In the scheme, h(r) is expressed in terms of a set of pole parameters, which reveals how the tail of the Fourier transform of h(r) contains information on the discontinuities in the derivatives of the direct correlation function (DCF)...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Vegard Sørdal, Joakim Bergli, Y M Galperin
In any general cycle of measurement, feedback, and erasure, the measurement will reduce the entropy of the system when information about the state is obtained, while erasure, according to Landauer's principle, is accompanied by a corresponding increase in entropy due to the compression of logical and physical phase space. The total process can in principle be fully reversible. A measurement error reduces the information obtained and the entropy decrease in the system. The erasure still gives the same increase in entropy, and the total process is irreversible...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
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