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Physical Review. E

M Mugnaine, A C Mathias, M S Santos, A M Batista, J D Szezech, R L Viana
The turnstile provides us a useful tool to describe the flux in twist Hamiltonian systems. Thus, its determination allows us to find the areas where the trajectories flux through barriers. We show that the mechanism of the turnstile can increase the flux in nontwist Hamiltonian systems. A model which captures the essence of these systems is the standard nontwist map, introduced by del Castillo-Negrete and Morrison. For selected parameters of this map, we show that chaotic trajectories entering in resonances zones can be explained by turnstiles formed by a set of homoclinic points...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
João R D Ramos, Rui Travasso, João Carvalho
The formation of a functional vascular network depends on biological, chemical, and physical processes being extremely well coordinated. Among them, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix and cell adhesion are fundamental to achieve a functional network of endothelial cells, able to fully cover a required domain. By the use of a Cellular Potts Model and Finite Element Method it is shown that there exists a range of values of endothelial traction forces, cell-cell adhesion, and matrix rigidities where the network can spontaneously be formed, and its properties are characterized...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
R El Koussaifi, A Tikan, A Toffoli, S Randoux, P Suret, M Onorato
Rogue waves are extreme and rare fluctuations of the wave field that have been discussed in many physical systems. Their presence substantially influences the statistical properties of a partially coherent wave field, i.e., a wave field characterized by a finite band spectrum with random Fourier phases. Their understanding is fundamental for the design of ships and offshore platforms. In many meteorological conditions waves in the ocean are characterized by the so-called Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Aydin Deger, Kay Brandner, Christian Flindt
The complex zeros of partition functions were originally investigated by Lee and Yang to explain the behavior of condensing gases. Since then, Lee-Yang zeros have become a powerful tool to describe phase transitions in interacting systems. Today, Lee-Yang zeros are no longer just a theoretical concept; they have been determined in recent experiments. In one approach, the Lee-Yang zeros are extracted from the high cumulants of thermodynamic observables at finite size. Here we employ this method to investigate a phase transition in a molecular zipper...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Alexander A Doinikov, Benjamin Dollet, Philippe Marmottant
Equations are derived that describe the growth and subsequent damped oscillation of a cavitation bubble in a liquid-filled cavity surrounded by an elastic solid. It is assumed that the nucleation and the growth of the bubble are caused by an initial negative pressure in the cavity. The liquid is treated as viscous and compressible. The obtained equations allow one to model, by numerical computation, the growth and the oscillation of the bubble in the cavity and the oscillation of the cavity surface. It is shown that the equilibrium radius reached by the growing bubble decreases when the absolute magnitude of the initial negative pressure decreases...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Leopoldo R Gómez, Nicolás A García, Daniel A Vega, José Lorenzana
We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the finite temperature behavior of vortices in the XY model for tangent vector order on curved backgrounds. Contrary to naive expectations, we show that the underlying geometry does not affect the proliferation of vortices with temperature respect to what is observed on a flat surface. Long-range order in these systems is analyzed by using two-point correlation functions. As expected, in the case of slightly curved substrates these correlations behave similarly to the plane...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Øivind Wilhelmsen, Thuat T Trinh, Anders Lervik
Density gradient theory for fluids has played a key role in the study of interfacial phenomena for a century. In this work, we revisit its fundamentals by examining the vapor-liquid interface of argon, represented by the cut and shifted Lennard-Jones fluid. The starting point has traditionally been a Helmholtz energy functional using mass densities as arguments. By using rather the internal energy as starting point and including the entropy density as an additional argument, following thereby the phenomenological approach from classical thermodynamics, the extended theory suggests that the configurational part of the temperature has different contributions from the parallel and perpendicular directions at the interface, even at equilibrium...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Giuseppe Boniello, Christophe Tribet, Emmanuelle Marie, Vincent Croquette, Dražen Zanchi
Immediately before adsorption to a horizontal substrate, sinking polymer-coated colloids can undergo a complex sequence of landing, jumping, crawling, and rolling events. Using video tracking, we studied the soft adhesion to a horizontal flat plate of micron-size colloids coated by a controlled molar fraction f of the poly(lysine)-grafted-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PLL-g-PNIPAM) which is a temperature-sensitive polymer. We ramp the temperature from below to above T_{c}=32±1^{∘}C, at which the PNIPAM polymer undergoes a transition, triggering attractive interaction between microparticles and surface...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Lu Zhang, Li Lai, Hao Peng, Zhe Tu, Suchuan Zhong
The dynamics of many soft condensed matter and biological systems is affected by space limitations, which produce some peculiar effects on the systems' stochastic resonance (SR) behavior. In this study, we propose a model where SR can be observed: a confined overdamped harmonic oscillator that is subjected to a sinusoidal driving force and is under the influence of a multiplicative white noise. The output response of the system is a periodic signal with harmonic frequencies that are odd multiples of the driving frequency...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Istafaul Haque Ansari, Nicolas Rivas, Meheboob Alam
We report patterns consisting of coexistence of synchronous and asynchronous states [for example, a granular gas co-existing with (i) bouncing bed, (ii) undulatory subharmonic waves, and (iii) Leidenfrost-like states] in experiments on vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures in a Hele-Shaw cell. Most experiments have been carried out with equimolar binary mixtures of glass and steel balls of same diameter by varying the total layer height (F) for a range of shaking acceleration (Γ). All patterns as well as the related phase diagram in the (Γ,F) plane have been reproduced via molecular dynamics simulations of the same system...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Antonio Olmedilla, Miha Založnik, Bernard Rouat, Hervé Combeau
The packing of free-floating crystal grains during solidification has a strong impact on the phase-change process as well as on the structure and the defects in the solidified material. The packing fraction is affected by the particular dendritic morphology of the grains and by their low inertia resulting from the small density difference between solid and liquid. Understanding the grain packing phenomenon during metal alloy solidification is not experimentally possible since packing is coupled to many other phenomena...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
J-T Hsiang, C H Chou, Y Subaşı, B L Hu
In a series of papers, we intend to take the perspective of open quantum systems and examine from their nonequilibrium dynamics the conditions when the physical quantities, their relations, and the laws of thermodynamics become well defined and viable for quantum many-body systems. We first describe how an open-system nonequilibrium dynamics (ONEq) approach is different from the closed combined system + environment in a global thermal state (CGTs) setup. Only after the open system equilibrates will it be amenable to conventional thermodynamics descriptions, thus quantum thermodynamics (QTD) comes at the end rather than assumed in the beginning...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
David B Saakian, Andreas Klümper
We consider the flashing potential ratchet model with general asymmetric potential. Using Bloch functions, we derive equations which allow for the calculation of both the ratchet's flux and higher moments of distribution for rather general potentials. We indicate how to derive the optimal transition rates for maximal velocity of the ratchet. We calculate explicitly the exact velocity of a ratchet with simple sawtooth potential from the solution of a system of 8 linear algebraic equations. Using Bloch functions, we derive the equations for the ratchet with potentials changing periodically with time...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Antoine Moinet, Romualdo Pastor-Satorras, Alain Barrat
Many progresses in the understanding of epidemic spreading models have been obtained thanks to numerous modeling efforts and analytical and numerical studies, considering host populations with very different structures and properties, including complex and temporal interaction networks. Moreover, a number of recent studies have started to go beyond the assumption of an absence of coupling between the spread of a disease and the structure of the contacts on which it unfolds. Models including awareness of the spread have been proposed, to mimic possible precautionary measures taken by individuals that decrease their risk of infection, but have mostly considered static networks...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Maksim Kitsak, Alexander A Ganin, Daniel A Eisenberg, Pavel L Krapivsky, Dmitri Krioukov, David L Alderson, Igor Linkov
We analyze the stability of the network's giant connected component under impact of adverse events, which we model through the link percolation. Specifically, we quantify the extent to which the largest connected component of a network consists of the same nodes, regardless of the specific set of deactivated links. Our results are intuitive in the case of single-layered systems: the presence of large degree nodes in a single-layered network ensures both its robustness and stability. In contrast, we find that interdependent networks that are robust to adverse events have unstable connected components...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Yi Hu, Petia M Vlahovska, Michael J Miksis
A model to study the dynamics of colloidal particles in nonuniform electric fields is proposed. For an isolated sphere, the conditions and threshold for sustained (Quincke) rotation in a linear direct current (dc) field are determined. Particle dynamics becomes more complex with increasing electric field strength, changing from steady spinning around the particle center to time-dependent orbiting motion around the minimum field location. Pairs of particles exhibit intricate trajectories, which are a combination of translation, due to dielectrophoresis, and rotation, due to the Quincke effect...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Krzysztof Ptaszyński
Fluctuations in stochastic systems are usually characterized by full counting statistics, which analyzes the distribution of the number of events taking place in the fixed time interval. In an alternative approach, the distribution of the first-passage times, i.e., the time delays after which the counting variable reaches a certain threshold value, is studied. This paper presents the approach to calculate the first-passage time distribution in systems in which the analyzed current is associated with an arbitrary set of transitions within the Markovian network...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Ke Liu, Jonas Greitemann, Lode Pollet
Polyhedral nematics are examples of exotic orientational phases that possess a complex internal symmetry, representing highly nontrivial ways of rotational symmetry breaking, and are subject to current experimental pursuits in colloidal and molecular systems. The classification of these phases has been known for a long time; however, their transitions to the disordered isotropic liquid phase remain largely unexplored, except for a few symmetries. In this work, we utilize a recently introduced non-Abelian gauge theory to explore the nature of the underlying nematic-isotropic transition for all three-dimensional polyhedral nematics...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
I G Marchenko, I I Marchenko, A V Zhiglo
We present a study of the diffusion enhancement of underdamped Brownian particles in a one-dimensional symmetric space-periodic potential due to external symmetric time-periodic driving with zero mean. We show that the diffusivity can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude at an appropriate choice of the driving amplitude and frequency. The diffusivity demonstrates abnormal (decreasing) temperature dependence at the driving amplitudes exceeding a certain value. At any fixed driving frequency Ω normal temperature dependence of the diffusivity is restored at low enough temperatures, T<T_{TAD}(Ω)-in contrast with the problem with constant external driving...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Mobolaji Williams
The field of disordered systems in statistical physics provides many simple models in which the competing influences of thermal and nonthermal disorder lead to new phases and nontrivial thermal behavior of order parameters. In this paper, we add a model to the subject by considering a disordered system where the state space consists of various orderings of a list. As in spin glasses, the disorder of such "permutation glasses" arises from a parameter in the Hamiltonian being drawn from a distribution of possible values, thus allowing nominally "incorrect orderings" to have lower energies than "correct orderings" in the space of permutations...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
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