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Physical Review. E

Knut Küllmer, Andreas Krämer, Wolfgang Joppich, Dirk Reith, Holger Foysi
Pseudopotential-based lattice Boltzmann models are widely used for numerical simulations of multiphase flows. In the special case of multicomponent systems, the overall dynamics are characterized by the conservation equations for mass and momentum as well as an additional advection diffusion equation for each component. In the present study, we investigate how the latter is affected by the forcing scheme, i.e., by the way the underlying interparticle forces are incorporated into the lattice Boltzmann equation...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Manuel Schrauth, Julian A J Richter, Jefferson S E Portela
We study the two-dimensional Ising model on networks with quenched topological (connectivity) disorder. In particular, we construct random lattices of constant coordination number and perform large-scale Monte Carlo simulations in order to obtain critical exponents using finite-size scaling relations. We find disorder-dependent effective critical exponents, similar to diluted models, showing thus no clear universal behavior. Considering the very recent results for the two-dimensional Ising model on proximity graphs and the coordination number correlation analysis suggested by Barghathi and Vojta [Phys...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Akira Furukawa
A model for describing growing length scale accompanying the vitrification is introduced, in which we assume that in a subsystem whose density is above a certain threshold value, ρ_{c}, due to steric constraints, particle rearrangements are highly suppressed for a sufficiently long time period (∼structural relaxation time). We regard such a subsystem as a glassy cluster. With this assumption and without introducing any complicated thermodynamic arguments, we predict that with compression (increasing average density ρ) at a fixed temperature T in supercooled states, the characteristic length of the clusters, ξ, diverges as ξ∼(ρ_{c}-ρ)^{-2/d}, where d is the spatial dimensionality...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Nikolai I Lebovka, Yuri Yu Tarasevich, Nikolai V Vygornitskii
The vertical drying of a two-dimensional colloidal film containing zero-thickness sticks (lines) was studied by means of kinetic Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The continuous two-dimensional problem for both the positions and orientations was considered. The initial state before drying was produced using a model of random sequential adsorption with isotropic orientations of the sticks. During the evaporation, an upper interface falls with a linear velocity in the vertical direction, and the sticks undergo translational and rotational Brownian motions...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Ana L Schaigorodsky, Juan I Perotti, Nahuel Almeira, Orlando V Billoni
In this work we introduce a variant of the Yule-Simon model for preferential growth by incorporating a finite kernel to model the effects of bounded memory. We characterize the properties of the model combining analytical arguments with extensive numerical simulations. In particular, we analyze the lifetime and popularity distributions by mapping the model dynamics to corresponding Markov chains and branching processes, respectively. These distributions follow power laws with well-defined exponents that are within the range of the empirical data reported in ecologies...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Dáibhid Ó Maoiléidigh
To ensure their sensitivity to weak periodic signals, some physical systems likely operate near a Hopf bifurcation. Many systems operating near such a bifurcation exhibit stochastic resonance, but it is unclear which mechanisms for resonance are inherent to the bifurcation. To address this question, we study the sinusoidally forced dynamics of noisy supercritical and subcritical Hopf oscillators. We find four qualitatively different mechanisms for stochastic resonance and determine the conditions for each type of resonance...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Filippo Radicchi
According to a recent information-theoretical proposal, the problem of defining and identifying communities in networks can be interpreted as a classical communication task over a noisy channel: memberships of nodes are information bits erased by the channel, edges and nonedges in the network are parity bits introduced by the encoder but degraded through the channel, and a community identification algorithm is a decoder. The interpretation is perfectly equivalent to the one at the basis of well-known statistical inference algorithms for community detection...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
N Sato, Z Yoshida
Topological constraints on a dynamical system often manifest themselves as breaking of the Hamiltonian structure; well-known examples are nonholonomic constraints on Lagrangian mechanics. The statistical mechanics under such topological constraints is the subject of this study. Conventional arguments based on phase spaces, Jacobi identity, invariant measure, or the H theorem are no longer applicable since all these notions stem from the symplectic geometry underlying canonical Hamiltonian systems. Remembering that Hamiltonian systems are endowed with field tensors (canonical 2-forms) that have zero helicity, our mission is to extend the scope toward the class of systems governed by finite-helicity field tensors...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Keiko Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Shima, Keisuke Fujii, Noriyuki Tabuchi, Yuji Yamamoto
Team coordination is a basic human behavioral trait observed in many real-life communities. To promote teamwork, it is important to cultivate social skills that elicit team coordination. In the present work, we consider which social skills are indispensable for individuals performing a ball possession game in soccer. We develop a simple social force model that describes the synchronized motion of offensive players. Comparing the simulation results with experimental observations, we uncovered that the cooperative social force, a measure of perception skill, has the most important role in reproducing the harmonized collective motion of experienced players in the task...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Alexandre P Solon, Joakim Stenhammar, Michael E Cates, Yariv Kafri, Julien Tailleur
Motility-induced phase separation (MIPS) arises generically in fluids of self-propelled particles when interactions lead to a kinetic slowdown at high densities. Starting from a continuum description of scalar active matter akin to a generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation, we give a general prescription for the mean densities of coexisting phases in flux-free steady states that amounts, at a hydrodynamics scale, to extremizing an effective free energy. We illustrate our approach on two well-known models: self-propelled particles interacting either through a density-dependent propulsion speed or via direct pairwise forces...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Aykut Erbaş, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, John F Marko
We study unbinding of multivalent cationic ligands from oppositely charged polymeric binding sites sparsely grafted on a flat neutral substrate. Our molecular dynamics simulations are suggested by single-molecule studies of protein-DNA interactions. We consider univalent salt concentrations spanning roughly a 1000-fold range, together with various concentrations of excess ligands in solution. To reveal the ionic effects on unbinding kinetics of spontaneous and facilitated dissociation mechanisms, we treat electrostatic interactions both at a Debye-Hückel (DH) (or implicit ions, i...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
C Clément, R Toussaint, M Stojanova, E Aharonov
This article focuses on liquefaction of saturated granular soils, triggered by earthquakes. Liquefaction is defined here as the transition from a rigid state, in which the granular soil layer supports structures placed on its surface, to a fluidlike state, in which structures placed initially on the surface sink to their isostatic depth within the granular layer. We suggest a simple theoretical model for soil liquefaction and show that buoyancy caused by the presence of water inside a granular medium has a dramatic influence on the stability of an intruder resting at the surface of the medium...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
M D Grynberg, F I Schaposnik Massolo
We discuss the steady-state dynamics of interfaces with periodic boundary conditions arising from body-centered solid-on-solid growth models in 1+1 dimensions involving random aggregation of extended particles (dimers, trimers, ...,k-mers). Roughening exponents as well as width and maximal height distributions can be evaluated directly in stationary regimes by mapping the dynamics onto an asymmetric simple exclusion process with k-type of vacancies. Although for k≥2 the dynamics is partitioned into an exponentially large number of sectors of motion, the results obtained in some generic cases strongly suggest a universal scaling behavior closely following that of monomer interfaces...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
V Sofonea, T Biciuşcă, S Busuioc, Victor E Ambruş, G Gonnella, A Lamura
Aiming to study the bubble cavitation problem in quiescent and sheared liquids, a third-order isothermal lattice Boltzmann model that describes a two-dimensional (2D) fluid obeying the van der Waals equation of state, is introduced. The evolution equations for the distribution functions in this off-lattice model with 16 velocities are solved using the corner-transport-upwind (CTU) numerical scheme on large square lattices (up to 6144×6144 nodes). The numerical viscosity and the regularization of the model are discussed for first- and second-order CTU schemes finding that the latter choice allows to obtain a very accurate phase diagram of a nonideal fluid...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Frederic von Wegner, Helmut Laufs, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Long-range memory in time series is often quantified by the Hurst exponent H, a measure of the signal's variance across several time scales. We analyze neurophysiological time series from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state experiments with two standard Hurst exponent estimators and with the time-lagged mutual information function applied to discretized versions of the signals. A confidence interval for the mutual information function is obtained from surrogate Markov processes with equilibrium distribution and transition matrix identical to the underlying signal...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Thomas Blommel, Alexander J Wagner
We examine a new kind of lattice gas that closely resembles modern lattice Boltzmann methods. This new kind of lattice gas, which we call a Monte Carlo lattice gas, has interesting properties that shed light on the origin of the multirelaxation time collision operator, and it derives the equilibrium distribution for an entropic lattice Boltzmann. Furthermore these lattice gas methods have Galilean invariant fluctuations given by a Poisson statistics, giving further insight into the properties that we should expect for fluctuating lattice Boltzmann methods...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Heiko Hoffmann
The general mechanisms behind self-organized criticality (SOC) are still unknown. Several microscopic and mean-field theory approaches have been suggested, but they do not explain the dependence of the exponents on the underlying network topology of the SOC system. Here, we first report the phenomena that in the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model, sites inside an avalanche area largely return to their original state after the passing of an avalanche, forming, effectively, critically arranged clusters of sites...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Pejman Tahmasebi
Accurate characterization of heterogeneous materials is of great importance for different fields of science and engineering. Such a goal can be achieved through imaging. Acquiring three- or two-dimensional images under different conditions is not, however, always plausible. On the other hand, accurate characterization of complex and multiphase materials requires various digital images (I) under different conditions. An ensemble method is presented that can take one single (or a set of) I(s) and stochastically produce several similar models of the given disordered material...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Andrea Crisanti, Andrea De Martino, Jonathan Fiorentino
Genetic regulatory circuits universally cope with different sources of noise that limit their ability to coordinate input and output signals. In many cases, optimal regulatory performance can be thought to correspond to configurations of variables and parameters that maximize the mutual information between inputs and outputs. Since the mid-2000s, such optima have been well characterized in several biologically relevant cases. Here we use methods of statistical field theory to calculate the statistics of the maximal mutual information (the "capacity") achievable by tuning the input variable only in an ensemble of regulatory motifs, such that a single controller regulates N targets...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Kensuke Teramoto, Shunsuke Inoue, Shigeki Tokita, Ryo Yasuhara, Yoshihide Nakamiya, Takeshi Nagashima, Kazuaki Mori, Masaki Hashida, Shuji Sakabe
We have demonstrated that a pulsed electromagnetic wave (Sommerfeld wave) of subterahertz frequency and 11-MV/m field strength can be induced on a metal wire by the interaction of an intense femtosecond laser pule with an adjacent metal foil at a laser intensity of 8.5×10^{18}W/cm^{2}. The polarity of the electric field of this surface wave is opposite to that obtained by the direct interaction of the laser with the wire. Numerical simulations suggest that an electromagnetic wave associated with electron emission from the foil induces the surface wave...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
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