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Physical Review. E

James Burridge, Michał Gnacik
We study the spread of a persuasive new idea through a population of continuous-time random walkers in one dimension. The idea spreads via social gatherings involving groups of nearby walkers who act according to a biased "majority rule": After each gathering, the group takes on the new idea if more than a critical fraction 1-ɛ/2<1/2 of them already hold it; otherwise they all reject it. The boundary of a domain where the new idea has taken hold expands as a traveling wave in the density of new idea holders...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Longquan Chen, Elmar Bonaccurso, Peigang Deng, Haibo Zhang
In this work, we experimentally investigate the impact of water droplets onto soft viscoelastic surfaces with a wide range of impact velocities. Several impact phenomena, which depend on the dynamic interaction between the droplets and viscoelastic surfaces, have been identified and analyzed. At low We, complete rebound is observed when the impact velocity is between a lower and an upper threshold, beyond which droplets are deposited on the surface after impact. At intermediate We, entrapment of an air bubble inside the impinging droplets is found on soft surfaces, while a bubble entrapment on the surface is observed on rigid surfaces...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Aritra Kundu, Abhishek Dhar
We investigate the form of equilibrium spatiotemporal correlation functions of conserved quantities in the Toda lattice and in other integrable models. From numerical simulations we find that the correlations satisfy ballistic scaling with a remarkable collapse of data from different times. We examine special limiting choices of parameter values, for which the Toda lattice tends to either the harmonic chain or the equal mass hard-particle gas. In both these limiting cases, one can obtain the correlations exactly and we find excellent agreement with the direct Toda simulation results...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Sudip Mukherjee, Arnab Chatterjee
We study a model of continuous opinion dynamics with both positive and negative mutual interactions. The model shows a continuous phase transition between a phase with consensus (order) and a phase having no consensus (disorder). The mean field version of the model was already studied. Using extensive numerical simulations, we study the same model in two and three dimensions. The critical points of the phase transitions for various cases and the associated critical exponents have been estimated. The universality class of the phase transitions in the model is found to be same as Ising model in the respective dimensions...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Naomichi Hatano, Joshua Feinberg
We study Chebyshev-polynomial expansion of the inverse localization length of Hermitian and non-Hermitian random chains as a function of energy. For Hermitian models, the expansion produces this energy-dependent function numerically in one run of the algorithm. This is in strong contrast to the standard transfer-matrix method, which produces the inverse localization length for a fixed energy in each run. For non-Hermitian models, as in the transfer-matrix method, our algorithm computes the inverse localization length for a fixed (complex) energy...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Waki Sakatsuji, Takashi Konishi, Yoshihisa Miyamoto
The origin of two maxima in specific heat observed at the higher and the lower temperatures in the glass-transition region in the heating process has been studied for polymethyl methacrylate and polyvinyl chloride using differential scanning calorimetry, and the calculation was done using the phenomenological model equation under a thermal history of the typical annealing experiment composed of cooling, annealing, and heating. The higher maximum is observed above the glass-transition temperature, and it remains almost unchanged independent of annealing time t_{a}, while the lower one is observed above an annealing temperature T_{a} and shifts toward the higher one, increasing its magnitude with t_{a}...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
M Schick
I consider the effect of a small concentration of a molecule, such as a short-chain alcohol, on the miscibility transition temperature of a giant plasma membrane vesicle. For concentrations sufficiently small such that the system can be treated as a dilute solution, the change in transition temperature is known to depend upon the extent of the molecule's partition into the coexisting liquid-disordered and liquid-ordered phases. Preferential partitioning into the former decreases the miscibility temperature, while preferential partitioning into the latter causes an increase...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Gautam Singh, Jinxin Fu, Dena M Agra-Kooijman, Jang-Kun Song, M R Vengatesan, Mohan Srinivasarao, Michael R Fisch, Satyendra Kumar
The temperature dependence of the orientational order parameters 〈P_{2}(cosβ)〉 and 〈P_{4}(cosβ)〉 in the nematic (N) and twist-bend nematic (N_{tb}) phases of the liquid crystal dimer CB7CB have been measured using x-ray and polarized Raman scattering. The 〈P_{2}(cosβ)〉 obtained from both techniques are the same, while 〈P_{4}(cosβ)〉, determined by Raman scattering is, as expected, systematically larger than its x-ray value. Both order parameters increase in the N phase with decreasing temperature, drop across the N-N_{tb} transition, and continue to decrease...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Yûto Murashita, Massimiliano Esposito
After establishing stochastic thermodynamics for underdamped Langevin systems in contact with multiple reservoirs, we derive its overdamped limit using timescale separation techniques. The overdamped theory is different from the naive theory that one obtains when starting from overdamped Langevin or Fokker-Planck dynamics and only coincides with it in the presence of a single reservoir. The reason is that the coarse-grained fast momentum dynamics reaches a nonequilibrium state, which conducts heat in the presence of multiple reservoirs...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Sarah Marzen, Simon DeDeo
For many organisms, the number of sensory neurons is largely determined during development, before strong environmental cues are present. This is despite the fact that environments can fluctuate drastically both from generation to generation and within an organism's lifetime. How can organisms get by by hard coding the number of sensory neurons? We approach this question using rate-distortion theory. A combination of simulation and theory suggests that when environments are large, the rate-distortion function-a proxy for material costs, timing delays, and energy requirements-depends only on coarse-grained environmental statistics that are expected to change on evolutionary, rather than ontogenetic, time scales...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Chao-Jie Mo, Li-Zi Qin, Fei Zhao, Li-Jun Yang
We investigate the application of the dissipative particle dynamics method to the instability problem of a long liquid thread surrounded by another fluid. The dispersion curves obtained from simulations are compared with classic theoretical predictions. The results from standard dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations at first have a tendency of gradually approaching to Tomotika's Stokes flow prediction when the Reynolds number is decreased. But they then abnormally deviate again when the viscosity is very large...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
E Ben-Naim, P L Krapivsky
We generalize the ordinary aggregation process to allow for choice. In ordinary aggregation, two random clusters merge and form a larger aggregate. In our implementation of choice, a target cluster and two candidate clusters are randomly selected and the target cluster merges with the larger of the two candidate clusters. We study the long-time asymptotic behavior and find that as in ordinary aggregation, the size density adheres to the standard scaling form. However, aggregation with choice exhibits a number of different features...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Yan-Wei Li, You-Liang Zhu, Zhao-Yan Sun
We numerically investigate the connection between spatial density correlation and dynamical heterogeneity in glass-forming liquids. We demonstrate that the cluster size defined by the spatial aggregation of densely packed particles (DPPs) can better capture the difference between the dynamics of the Lennard-Jones glass model and the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen truncation model than the commonly used pair correlation functions. More interestingly, we compare the mobility of DPPs and loosely packed particles, and we find that high local density correlates well with slow dynamics in systems with relatively hard repulsive interactions but links to mobile ones in the system with soft repulsive interactions at one relaxation time scale...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Zhen-Guo Fu, Zhigang Wang, Meng-Lei Li, Da-Fang Li, Wei Kang, Ping Zhang
The energy loss of multi-MeV charged particles moving in two-component warm dense plasmas (WDPs) is studied theoretically beyond the random-phase approximation. The short-range correlations between particles are taken into account via dynamic local field corrections (DLFC) in a Mermin dielectric function for two-component plasmas. The mean ionization states are obtained by employing the detailed configuration accounting model. The Yukawa-type effective potential is used to derive the DLFC. Numerically, the DLFC are obtained via self-consistent iterative operations...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Fabio Leoni, Giancarlo Franzese
We study via molecular-dynamics simulations the thermodynamics of an anomalous fluid confined in a slit pore with one wall structured and attractive and another unstructured and repulsive. We find that the phase diagram of the homogeneous part of the confined fluid is shifted to higher temperatures, densities, and pressures with respect to the bulk, but it can be rescaled on the bulk case. We calculate a moderate increase of mobility of the homogeneous confined fluid that we interpret as a consequence of the layering due to confinement and the collective modes due to long-range correlations...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Bálint Kaszás, Ulrike Feudel, Tamás Tél
We investigate the death and revival of chaos under the impact of a monotonous time-dependent forcing that changes its strength with a non-negligible rate. Starting on a chaotic attractor it is found that the complexity of the dynamics remains very pronounced even when the driving amplitude has decayed to rather small values. When after the death of chaos the strength of the forcing is increased again with the same rate of change, chaos is found to revive but with a different history. This leads to the appearance of a hysteresis in the complexity of the dynamics...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Bertrand Ottino-Löffler, Steven H Strogatz
We present a case study of how topology can affect synchronization. Specifically, we consider arrays of phase oscillators coupled in a ring or a chain topology. Each ring is perfectly matched to a chain with the same initial conditions and the same random natural frequencies. The only difference is their boundary conditions: periodic for a ring and open for a chain. For both topologies, stable phase-locked states exist if and only if the spread or "width" of the natural frequencies is smaller than a critical value called the locking threshold (which depends on the boundary conditions and the particular realization of the frequencies)...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
H L Peng, H R Schober, Th Voigtmann
Molecular dynamic simulations are performed to reveal the long-time behavior of the velocity autocorrelation function (VAF) by utilizing the finite-size effect in a Lennard-Jones binary mixture. Whereas in normal liquids the classical positive t^{-3/2} long-time tail is observed, we find in supercooled liquids a negative tail. It is strongly influenced by the transfer of the transverse current wave across the period boundary. The t^{-5/2} decay of the negative long-time tail is confirmed in the spectrum of VAF...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
Stephan Mertens, Robert M Ziff
We derive an exact, simple relation between the average number of clusters and the wrapping probabilities for two-dimensional percolation. The relation holds for periodic lattices of any size. It generalizes a classical result of Sykes and Essam, and it can be used to find exact or very accurate approximations of the critical density. The criterion that follows is related to the criterion used by Scullard and Jacobsen to find precise approximate thresholds, and our work provides a different perspective on their approach...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
U Bhat, P L Krapivsky, R Lambiotte, S Redner
We introduce a growing network model, the copying model, in which a new node attaches to a randomly selected target node and, in addition, independently to each of the neighbors of the target with copying probability p. When p<1/2, this algorithm generates sparse networks, in which the average node degree is finite. A power-law degree distribution also arises, with a nonuniversal exponent whose value is determined by a transcendental equation in p. In the sparse regime, the network is "normal," e.g., the relative fluctuations in the number of links are asymptotically negligible...
December 2016: Physical Review. E
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