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JMIR Public Health and Surveillance

Taylor Silverman, Nicole Asante, Jacob J van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Knowledge and uptake of high-efficacy HIV prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) remain low among men who have sex with men (MSM) who are at the highest risk for HIV infection in the United States. Electronic health (eHealth) interventions are promising tools for disseminating information about these critical yet underutilized strategies and addressing key barriers to uptake among target populations. However, existing HIV prevention websites are understudied and unevaluated...
October 16, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Lester Darryl Geneviève, Tenzin Wangmo, Damien Dietrich, Olivia Woolley-Meza, Antoine Flahault, Bernice Simone Elger
BACKGROUND: Influenzanet was launched in several European countries to monitor influenza-like illness during flu seasons with the help of volunteering participants and Web-based technologies. As in the case of developing fields, ethical approaches are not well developed in the collection, processing, and analysis of participants' information. Existing controversies and varying national ethical regulations can, thus, hamper efficient cross-border research collaboration to the detriment of quality disease surveillance...
October 10, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Shikha Dixit, Narendra K Arora, Atiqur Rahman, Natasha J Howard, Rakesh K Singh, Mayur Vaswani, Manoja K Das, Faruqueuddin Ahmed, Prashant Mathur, Nikhil Tandon, Rajib Dasgupta, Sanjay Chaturvedi, Jaishri Jethwaney, Suresh Dalpath, Rajendra Prashad, Rakesh Kumar, Rakesh Gupta, Laurette Dube, Mark Daniel
BACKGROUND: Inadequate administrative health data, suboptimal public health infrastructure, rapid and unplanned urbanization, environmental degradation, and poor penetration of information technology make the tracking of health and well-being of populations and their social determinants in the developing countries challenging. Technology-integrated comprehensive surveillance platforms have the potential to overcome these gaps. OBJECTIVE: This paper provides methodological insights into establishing a geographic information system (GIS)-integrated, comprehensive surveillance platform in rural North India, a resource-constrained setting...
October 5, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Shoko Wakamiya, Yukiko Kawai, Eiji Aramaki
BACKGROUND: The recent rise in popularity and scale of social networking services (SNSs) has resulted in an increasing need for SNS-based information extraction systems. A popular application of SNS data is health surveillance for predicting an outbreak of epidemics by detecting diseases from text messages posted on SNS platforms. Such applications share the following logic: they incorporate SNS users as social sensors. These social sensor-based approaches also share a common problem: SNS-based surveillance are much more reliable if sufficient numbers of users are active, and small or inactive populations produce inconsistent results...
September 25, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Jordan Lee Tustin, Natasha Sarah Crowcroft, Dionne Gesink, Ian Johnson, Jennifer Keelan, Barbara Lachapelle
BACKGROUND: More people are searching for immunization information online and potentially being exposed to misinformation and antivaccination sentiment in content and discussions on social media platforms. As vaccination coverage rates remain suboptimal in several developed countries, and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases become more prevalent, it is important that we build on previous research by analyzing themes in online vaccination discussions, including those that individuals may see without actively searching for information on immunization...
September 20, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Hae-Ra Han, Hyejeong Hong, Laura E Starbird, Song Ge, Athena D Ford, Susan Renda, Michael Sanchez, Jennifer Stewart
BACKGROUND: In the era of eHealth, eHealth literacy is emerging as a key concept to promote self-management of chronic conditions such as HIV. However, there is a paucity of research focused on eHealth literacy for people living with HIV (PLWH) as a means of improving their adherence to HIV care and health outcome. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to critically appraise the types, scope, and nature of studies addressing eHealth literacy as a study variable in PLWH...
September 10, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Subhash Chandir, Danya Arif Siddiqi, Owais Ahmed Hussain, Tahira Niazi, Mubarak Taighoon Shah, Vijay Kumar Dharma, Ali Habib, Aamir Javed Khan
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of free routine immunizations in low- and middle-income countries, many children are not completely vaccinated, vaccinated late for age, or drop out from the course of the immunization schedule. Without the technology to model and visualize risk of large datasets, vaccinators and policy makers are unable to identify target groups and individuals at high risk of dropping out; thus default rates remain high, preventing universal immunization coverage...
September 4, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Naoe Tatara, Hugo Lewi Hammer, Hege Kristin Andreassen, Jelena Mirkovic, Marte Karoline Råberg Kjøllesdal
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/publichealth.7009.].
August 31, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Ralph M Turner, Michael DePietro, Bo Ding
BACKGROUND: Although asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are clinically distinct diseases, they represent biologically diverse and overlapping clinical entities and it has been observed that they often co-occur. Some research and theorizing suggest there is a common comorbid condition termed asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap (ACO). However, the existence of ACO is controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe patient characteristics and estimate prevalence, health care utilization, and costs of ACO using claims-based diagnoses confirmed with medical record information...
August 20, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Auntre D Hamp, Rupali K Doshi, Garret R Lum, Adam Allston
BACKGROUND: Accurate HIV surveillance data are essential to monitor trends to help end the HIV epidemic. Owing to strict policies around data security and confidentiality, HIV surveillance data have not been routinely shared across jurisdictions except a biannual case-by-case review process to identify and remove duplicate cases (Routine Interstate Duplicate Review, RIDR). HIV surveillance estimates for the District of Columbia (DC) are complicated by migration and care seeking throughout the metropolitan area, which includes Maryland and Virginia...
August 13, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Kiffer George Card, Jeremy Gibbs, Nathan John Lachowsky, Blake W Hawkins, Miranda Compton, Joshua Edward, Travis Salway, Maya K Gislason, Robert S Hogg
BACKGROUND: While services tailored for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) may provide support for this vulnerable population, planning access to these services can be difficult due to the unknown spatial distribution of gbMSM outside of gay-centered neighborhoods. This is particularly true since the emergence of geosocial networking apps, which have become a widely used venue for meeting sexual partners. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our research was to estimate the spatial density of app users across Metro Vancouver and identify the independent and adjusted neighborhood-level factors that predict app user density...
August 8, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Michael A Grasso, Albert E Manyuchi, Maria Sibanyoni, Alex Marr, Tom Osmand, Zachary Isdahl, Helen Struthers, James A McIntyre, Francois Venter, Helen V Rees, Tim Lane
BACKGROUND: Robust population size estimates of female sex workers and other key populations in South Africa face multiple methodological limitations, including inconsistencies in surveillance and programmatic indicators. This has, consequently, challenged the appropriate allocation of resources and benchmark-setting necessary to an effective HIV response. A 2013-2014 integrated biological and behavioral surveillance (IBBS) survey from South Africa showed alarmingly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in South Africa's three largest cities of Johannesburg (71...
August 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Alain Placide Nsabimana, Bernard Uzabakiriho, Daniel M Kagabo, Jerome Nduwayo, Qinyouen Fu, Allison Eng, Joshua Hughes, Samuel K Sia
BACKGROUND: Precise measurements of HIV incidences at community level can help mount a more effective public health response, but the most reliable methods currently require labor-intensive population surveys. Novel mobile phone technologies are being tested for adherence to medical appointments and antiretroviral therapy, but using them to track HIV test results with automatically generated geospatial coordinates has not been widely tested. OBJECTIVE: We customized a portable reader for interpreting the results of HIV lateral flow tests and developed a mobile phone app to track HIV test results in urban and rural locations in Rwanda...
August 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Breno Bernardes-Souza, Francisco Patruz Ananias De Assis Pires, Gustavo Moreira Madeira, Túlio Felício Da Cunha Rodrigues, Martina Gatzka, Markus V Heppt, Albert J Omlor, Alexander H Enk, David A Groneberg, Werner Seeger, Christof von Kalle, Carola Berking, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto Corrêa, Janina Leonie Suhre, Jonas Alfitian, Aisllan Assis, Titus Josef Brinker
BACKGROUND: Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous. Interventions that harness the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance may be a novel way to improve school-based prevention. A recent study conducted in Germany showed promising results. However, the transfer to other cultural contexts, effects on different genders, and implementability remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: In this observational study, we aimed to test the perception and implementability of facial-aging apps to prevent smoking in secondary schools in Brazil in accordance with the theory of planned behavior and with respect to different genders...
July 17, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Lindsay Meyers, Christine C Ginocchio, Aimie N Faucett, Frederick S Nolte, Per H Gesteland, Amy Leber, Diane Janowiak, Virginia Donovan, Jennifer Dien Bard, Silvia Spitzer, Kathleen A Stellrecht, Hossein Salimnia, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Stefan Juretschko, Judy A Daly, Jeremy C Wallentine, Kristy Lindsey, Franklin Moore, Sharon L Reed, Maria Aguero-Rosenfeld, Paul D Fey, Gregory A Storch, Steve J Melnick, Christine C Robinson, Jennifer F Meredith, Camille V Cook, Robert K Nelson, Jay D Jones, Samuel V Scarpino, Benjamin M Althouse, Kirk M Ririe, Bradley A Malin, Mark A Poritz
BACKGROUND: Health care and public health professionals rely on accurate, real-time monitoring of infectious diseases for outbreak preparedness and response. Early detection of outbreaks is improved by systems that are comprehensive and specific with respect to the pathogen but are rapid in reporting the data. It has proven difficult to implement these requirements on a large scale while maintaining patient privacy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the automated export, aggregation, and analysis of infectious disease diagnostic test results from clinical laboratories across the United States in a manner that protects patient confidentiality...
July 6, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Wei Luo, David A Katz, Deven T Hamilton, Jennie McKenney, Samuel M Jenness, Steven M Goodreau, Joanne D Stekler, Eli S Rosenberg, Patrick S Sullivan, Susan Cassels
BACKGROUND: In the United States HIV epidemic, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the most profoundly affected group. Prevention science is increasingly being organized around HIV testing as a launch point into an HIV prevention continuum for MSM who are not living with HIV and into an HIV care continuum for MSM who are living with HIV. An increasing HIV testing frequency among MSM might decrease future HIV infections by linking men who are living with HIV to antiretroviral care, resulting in viral suppression...
June 29, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Sachin Muralidhara, Michael J Paul
BACKGROUND: Social media provides a complementary source of information for public health surveillance. The dominate data source for this type of monitoring is the microblogging platform Twitter, which is convenient due to the free availability of public data. Less is known about the utility of other social media platforms, despite their popularity. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to characterize the health topics that are prominently discussed in the image-sharing platform Instagram, as a step toward understanding how this data might be used for public health research...
June 29, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Mohammad Sadnan Al Manir, Jon Haël Brenas, Christopher Jo Baker, Arash Shaban-Nejad
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, malaria surveillance is weakest in countries and regions with the highest malaria burden. A core obstacle is that the data required to perform malaria surveillance are fragmented in multiple data silos distributed across geographic regions. Furthermore, consistent integrated malaria data sources are few, and a low degree of interoperability exists between them. As a result, it is difficult to identify disease trends and to plan for effective interventions...
June 15, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Rachel A Oldroyd, Michelle A Morris, Mark Birkin
BACKGROUND: Traditional methods of monitoring foodborne illness are associated with problems of untimeliness and underreporting. In recent years, alternative data sources such as social media data have been used to monitor the incidence of disease in the population (infodemiology and infoveillance). These data sources prove timelier than traditional general practitioner data, they can help to fill the gaps in the reporting process, and they often include additional metadata that is useful for supplementary research...
June 6, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Amy Jo Vassallo, Bridget Kelly, Lelin Zhang, Zhiyong Wang, Sarah Young, Becky Freeman
BACKGROUND: Omnipresent marketing of processed foods is a key driver of dietary choices and brand loyalty. Market data indicate a shift in food marketing expenditures to digital media, including social media. These platforms have greater potential to influence young people, given their unique peer-to-peer transmission and youths' susceptibility to social pressures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of images and videos posted by the most popular, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverage brands on Instagram and the marketing strategies used in these images, including any healthy choice claims...
June 5, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
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