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JMIR Public Health and Surveillance

Taylor H Hoj, Jacob J Bramwell, Cameron Lister, Emily Grant, Benjamin T Crookston, Cougar Hall, Joshua H West
BACKGROUND: The emergence of electric pedal-assist bicycles (e-bikes) presents an opportunity to increase active transportation by minimizing personal barriers of engaging in physical activity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the beliefs of individuals using e-bikes for active transport and report preliminary biometric measurements while using e-bikes for physical activity compared with conventional bikes. METHODS: Participants used both conventional bicycles and e-bikes to compare energy expenditure while riding on the study route...
November 29, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Lisa Dulli, Kathleen Ridgeway, Catherine Packer, Kate F Plourde, Tolulope Mumuni, Tosin Idaboh, Adesola Olumide, Oladosu Ojengbede, Donna R McCarraher
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIVs) enrolled in HIV treatment services experience greater loss to follow-up and suboptimal adherence than other age groups. HIV-related stigma, disclosure-related issues, lack of social support, and limited HIV knowledge impede adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retention in HIV services. The 90-90-90 goals for ALHIVs will only be met through strategies targeted to meet their specific needs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a social media-based intervention to improve HIV knowledge, social support, ART adherence, and retention among ALHIV aged 15-19 years on ART in Nigeria...
November 28, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Simon de Lusignan, Christopher McGee, Rebecca Webb, Mark Joy, Rachel Byford, Ivelina Yonova, Mariya Hriskova, Filipa Matos Ferreira, Alex J Elliot, Gillian Smith, Imran Rafi
BACKGROUND: Living in a conurbation, urban, or rural environment is an important determinant of health. For example, conurbation and rural living is associated with increased respiratory and allergic conditions, whereas a farm or rural upbringing has been shown to be a protective factor against this. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess differences in general practice presentations of allergic and infectious disease in those exposed to conurbation or urban living compared with rural environments...
November 26, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Shi Chen, Qian Xu, John Buchenberger, Arunkumar Bagavathi, Gabriel Fair, Samira Shaikh, Siddharth Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Social media have been increasingly adopted by health agencies to disseminate information, interact with the public, and understand public opinion. Among them, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is one of the first US government health agencies to adopt social media during health emergencies and crisis. It had been active on Twitter during the 2016 Zika epidemic that caused 5168 domestic noncongenital cases in the United States. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the temporal variabilities in CDC's tweeting activities throughout the Zika epidemic, public engagement defined as retweeting and replying, and Zika case counts...
November 22, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Michelle Odlum, Sunmoo Yoon, Peter Broadwell, Russell Brewer, Da Kuang
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS is a tremendous public health crisis, with a call for its eradication by 2030. A human rights response through civil society engagement is critical to support and sustain HIV eradication efforts. However, ongoing civil engagement is a challenge. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to demonstrate the use of Twitter data to assess public sentiment in support of civil society engagement. METHODS: Tweets were collected during World AIDS Days 2014 and 2015...
November 22, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Richard M Selik, Laurie Linley
BACKGROUND: Early (including acute) HIV infection is associated with viral loads higher than those in later stages. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between acute infection and viral loads near the time of diagnosis using data reported to the US National HIV Surveillance System. METHODS: We analyzed data on infections diagnosed in 2012-2016 and reported through December 2017. Diagnosis and staging were based on the 2014 US surveillance case definition for HIV infection...
November 5, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Sabina Hirshfield, Richard A Teran, Martin J Downing, Mary Ann Chiasson, Hong-Van Tieu, Laura Dize, Charlotte A Gaydos
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and disengagement in care present significant public health challenges because of the increased probability of HIV transmission. In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV, highlighting a critical need to engage high-risk MSM living with HIV who are not engaged or retained in care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of at-home blood self-collection and laboratory quantification of HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) to report laboratory-based VL outcomes and compare self-reported and laboratory-reported VL...
November 1, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Daniel Tom-Aba, Patrick Mboya Nguku, Chinedu Chukwujekwu Arinze, Gerard Krause
BACKGROUND: The use of mobile phone information technology (IT) in the health sector has received much attention especially during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. mHealth can be attributed to a major improvement in EVD control, but there lacks an overview of what kinds of tools were available and used based on the functionalities they offer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct a systematic review of mHealth tools in the context of the recent EVD outbreak to identify the most promising approaches and guide further mHealth developments for infectious disease control...
October 29, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Cédric Rat, Heloise Schmeltz, Sylvain Rocher, France Nanin, Aurélie Gaultier, Jean-Michel Nguyen
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend avoiding prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening in the elderly when life expectancy is less than 10 years. For younger men, most recommendations encourage a shared decision-making process taking into account patient comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the performance of PSA-based prostate cancer screening in men older than 74 years and assess whether the presence (vs absence) of comorbidities was related to the performance of PSA testing in younger men aged 50 to 74 years who were eligible for screening...
October 23, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Taylor Silverman, Nicole Asante, Jacob J van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Knowledge and uptake of high-efficacy HIV prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) remain low among men who have sex with men (MSM) who are at the highest risk for HIV infection in the United States. Electronic health (eHealth) interventions are promising tools for disseminating information about these critical yet underutilized strategies and addressing key barriers to uptake among target populations. However, existing HIV prevention websites are understudied and unevaluated...
October 16, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Lester Darryl Geneviève, Tenzin Wangmo, Damien Dietrich, Olivia Woolley-Meza, Antoine Flahault, Bernice Simone Elger
BACKGROUND: Influenzanet was launched in several European countries to monitor influenza-like illness during flu seasons with the help of volunteering participants and Web-based technologies. As in the case of developing fields, ethical approaches are not well developed in the collection, processing, and analysis of participants' information. Existing controversies and varying national ethical regulations can, thus, hamper efficient cross-border research collaboration to the detriment of quality disease surveillance...
October 10, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Shikha Dixit, Narendra K Arora, Atiqur Rahman, Natasha J Howard, Rakesh K Singh, Mayur Vaswani, Manoja K Das, Faruqueuddin Ahmed, Prashant Mathur, Nikhil Tandon, Rajib Dasgupta, Sanjay Chaturvedi, Jaishri Jethwaney, Suresh Dalpath, Rajendra Prashad, Rakesh Kumar, Rakesh Gupta, Laurette Dube, Mark Daniel
BACKGROUND: Inadequate administrative health data, suboptimal public health infrastructure, rapid and unplanned urbanization, environmental degradation, and poor penetration of information technology make the tracking of health and well-being of populations and their social determinants in the developing countries challenging. Technology-integrated comprehensive surveillance platforms have the potential to overcome these gaps. OBJECTIVE: This paper provides methodological insights into establishing a geographic information system (GIS)-integrated, comprehensive surveillance platform in rural North India, a resource-constrained setting...
October 5, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Shoko Wakamiya, Yukiko Kawai, Eiji Aramaki
BACKGROUND: The recent rise in popularity and scale of social networking services (SNSs) has resulted in an increasing need for SNS-based information extraction systems. A popular application of SNS data is health surveillance for predicting an outbreak of epidemics by detecting diseases from text messages posted on SNS platforms. Such applications share the following logic: they incorporate SNS users as social sensors. These social sensor-based approaches also share a common problem: SNS-based surveillance are much more reliable if sufficient numbers of users are active, and small or inactive populations produce inconsistent results...
September 25, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Jordan Lee Tustin, Natasha Sarah Crowcroft, Dionne Gesink, Ian Johnson, Jennifer Keelan, Barbara Lachapelle
BACKGROUND: More people are searching for immunization information online and potentially being exposed to misinformation and antivaccination sentiment in content and discussions on social media platforms. As vaccination coverage rates remain suboptimal in several developed countries, and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases become more prevalent, it is important that we build on previous research by analyzing themes in online vaccination discussions, including those that individuals may see without actively searching for information on immunization...
September 20, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Hae-Ra Han, Hyejeong Hong, Laura E Starbird, Song Ge, Athena D Ford, Susan Renda, Michael Sanchez, Jennifer Stewart
BACKGROUND: In the era of eHealth, eHealth literacy is emerging as a key concept to promote self-management of chronic conditions such as HIV. However, there is a paucity of research focused on eHealth literacy for people living with HIV (PLWH) as a means of improving their adherence to HIV care and health outcome. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to critically appraise the types, scope, and nature of studies addressing eHealth literacy as a study variable in PLWH...
September 10, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Subhash Chandir, Danya Arif Siddiqi, Owais Ahmed Hussain, Tahira Niazi, Mubarak Taighoon Shah, Vijay Kumar Dharma, Ali Habib, Aamir Javed Khan
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of free routine immunizations in low- and middle-income countries, many children are not completely vaccinated, vaccinated late for age, or drop out from the course of the immunization schedule. Without the technology to model and visualize risk of large datasets, vaccinators and policy makers are unable to identify target groups and individuals at high risk of dropping out; thus default rates remain high, preventing universal immunization coverage...
September 4, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Naoe Tatara, Hugo Lewi Hammer, Hege Kristin Andreassen, Jelena Mirkovic, Marte Karoline Råberg Kjøllesdal
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/publichealth.7009.].
August 31, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Ralph M Turner, Michael DePietro, Bo Ding
BACKGROUND: Although asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are clinically distinct diseases, they represent biologically diverse and overlapping clinical entities and it has been observed that they often co-occur. Some research and theorizing suggest there is a common comorbid condition termed asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap (ACO). However, the existence of ACO is controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe patient characteristics and estimate prevalence, health care utilization, and costs of ACO using claims-based diagnoses confirmed with medical record information...
August 20, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Auntre D Hamp, Rupali K Doshi, Garret R Lum, Adam Allston
BACKGROUND: Accurate HIV surveillance data are essential to monitor trends to help end the HIV epidemic. Owing to strict policies around data security and confidentiality, HIV surveillance data have not been routinely shared across jurisdictions except a biannual case-by-case review process to identify and remove duplicate cases (Routine Interstate Duplicate Review, RIDR). HIV surveillance estimates for the District of Columbia (DC) are complicated by migration and care seeking throughout the metropolitan area, which includes Maryland and Virginia...
August 13, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Kiffer George Card, Jeremy Gibbs, Nathan John Lachowsky, Blake W Hawkins, Miranda Compton, Joshua Edward, Travis Salway, Maya K Gislason, Robert S Hogg
BACKGROUND: While services tailored for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) may provide support for this vulnerable population, planning access to these services can be difficult due to the unknown spatial distribution of gbMSM outside of gay-centered neighborhoods. This is particularly true since the emergence of geosocial networking apps, which have become a widely used venue for meeting sexual partners. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our research was to estimate the spatial density of app users across Metro Vancouver and identify the independent and adjusted neighborhood-level factors that predict app user density...
August 8, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
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