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JMIR Public Health and Surveillance

Auntre D Hamp, Rupali K Doshi, Garret R Lum, Adam Allston
BACKGROUND: Accurate HIV surveillance data are essential to monitor trends to help end the HIV epidemic. Owing to strict policies around data security and confidentiality, HIV surveillance data have not been routinely shared across jurisdictions except a biannual case-by-case review process to identify and remove duplicate cases (Routine Interstate Duplicate Review, RIDR). HIV surveillance estimates for the District of Columbia (DC) are complicated by migration and care seeking throughout the metropolitan area, which includes Maryland and Virginia...
August 13, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Kiffer George Card, Jeremy Gibbs, Nathan John Lachowsky, Blake W Hawkins, Miranda Compton, Joshua Edward, Travis Salway, Maya K Gislason, Robert S Hogg
BACKGROUND: While services tailored for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) may provide support for this vulnerable population, planning access to these services can be difficult due to the unknown spatial distribution of gbMSM outside of gay-centered neighborhoods. This is particularly true since the emergence of geosocial networking apps, which have become a widely used venue for meeting sexual partners. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our research was to estimate the spatial density of app users across Metro Vancouver and identify the independent and adjusted neighborhood-level factors that predict app user density...
August 8, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Michael A Grasso, Albert E Manyuchi, Maria Sibanyoni, Alex Marr, Tom Osmand, Zachary Isdahl, Helen Struthers, James A McIntyre, Francois Venter, Helen V Rees, Tim Lane
BACKGROUND: Robust population size estimates of female sex workers and other key populations in South Africa face multiple methodological limitations, including inconsistencies in surveillance and programmatic indicators. This has, consequently, challenged the appropriate allocation of resources and benchmark-setting necessary to an effective HIV response. A 2013-2014 integrated biological and behavioral surveillance (IBBS) survey from South Africa showed alarmingly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in South Africa's three largest cities of Johannesburg (71...
August 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Alain Placide Nsabimana, Bernard Uzabakiriho, Daniel M Kagabo, Jerome Nduwayo, Qinyouen Fu, Allison Eng, Joshua Hughes, Samuel K Sia
BACKGROUND: Precise measurements of HIV incidences at community level can help mount a more effective public health response, but the most reliable methods currently require labor-intensive population surveys. Novel mobile phone technologies are being tested for adherence to medical appointments and antiretroviral therapy, but using them to track HIV test results with automatically generated geospatial coordinates has not been widely tested. OBJECTIVE: We customized a portable reader for interpreting the results of HIV lateral flow tests and developed a mobile phone app to track HIV test results in urban and rural locations in Rwanda...
August 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Breno Bernardes-Souza, Francisco Patruz Ananias De Assis Pires, Gustavo Moreira Madeira, Túlio Felício Da Cunha Rodrigues, Martina Gatzka, Markus V Heppt, Albert J Omlor, Alexander H Enk, David A Groneberg, Werner Seeger, Christof von Kalle, Carola Berking, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto Corrêa, Janina Leonie Suhre, Jonas Alfitian, Aisllan Assis, Titus Josef Brinker
BACKGROUND: Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous. Interventions that harness the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance may be a novel way to improve school-based prevention. A recent study conducted in Germany showed promising results. However, the transfer to other cultural contexts, effects on different genders, and implementability remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: In this observational study, we aimed to test the perception and implementability of facial-aging apps to prevent smoking in secondary schools in Brazil in accordance with the theory of planned behavior and with respect to different genders...
July 17, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Lindsay Meyers, Christine C Ginocchio, Aimie N Faucett, Frederick S Nolte, Per H Gesteland, Amy Leber, Diane Janowiak, Virginia Donovan, Jennifer Dien Bard, Silvia Spitzer, Kathleen A Stellrecht, Hossein Salimnia, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Stefan Juretschko, Judy A Daly, Jeremy C Wallentine, Kristy Lindsey, Franklin Moore, Sharon L Reed, Maria Aguero-Rosenfeld, Paul D Fey, Gregory A Storch, Steve J Melnick, Christine C Robinson, Jennifer F Meredith, Camille V Cook, Robert K Nelson, Jay D Jones, Samuel V Scarpino, Benjamin M Althouse, Kirk M Ririe, Bradley A Malin, Mark A Poritz
BACKGROUND: Health care and public health professionals rely on accurate, real-time monitoring of infectious diseases for outbreak preparedness and response. Early detection of outbreaks is improved by systems that are comprehensive and specific with respect to the pathogen but are rapid in reporting the data. It has proven difficult to implement these requirements on a large scale while maintaining patient privacy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the automated export, aggregation, and analysis of infectious disease diagnostic test results from clinical laboratories across the United States in a manner that protects patient confidentiality...
July 6, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Wei Luo, David A Katz, Deven T Hamilton, Jennie McKenney, Samuel M Jenness, Steven M Goodreau, Joanne D Stekler, Eli S Rosenberg, Patrick S Sullivan, Susan Cassels
BACKGROUND: In the United States HIV epidemic, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the most profoundly affected group. Prevention science is increasingly being organized around HIV testing as a launch point into an HIV prevention continuum for MSM who are not living with HIV and into an HIV care continuum for MSM who are living with HIV. An increasing HIV testing frequency among MSM might decrease future HIV infections by linking men who are living with HIV to antiretroviral care, resulting in viral suppression...
June 29, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Sachin Muralidhara, Michael J Paul
BACKGROUND: Social media provides a complementary source of information for public health surveillance. The dominate data source for this type of monitoring is the microblogging platform Twitter, which is convenient due to the free availability of public data. Less is known about the utility of other social media platforms, despite their popularity. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to characterize the health topics that are prominently discussed in the image-sharing platform Instagram, as a step toward understanding how this data might be used for public health research...
June 29, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Mohammad Sadnan Al Manir, Jon Haël Brenas, Christopher Jo Baker, Arash Shaban-Nejad
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, malaria surveillance is weakest in countries and regions with the highest malaria burden. A core obstacle is that the data required to perform malaria surveillance are fragmented in multiple data silos distributed across geographic regions. Furthermore, consistent integrated malaria data sources are few, and a low degree of interoperability exists between them. As a result, it is difficult to identify disease trends and to plan for effective interventions...
June 15, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Rachel A Oldroyd, Michelle A Morris, Mark Birkin
BACKGROUND: Traditional methods of monitoring foodborne illness are associated with problems of untimeliness and underreporting. In recent years, alternative data sources such as social media data have been used to monitor the incidence of disease in the population (infodemiology and infoveillance). These data sources prove timelier than traditional general practitioner data, they can help to fill the gaps in the reporting process, and they often include additional metadata that is useful for supplementary research...
June 6, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Amy Jo Vassallo, Bridget Kelly, Lelin Zhang, Zhiyong Wang, Sarah Young, Becky Freeman
BACKGROUND: Omnipresent marketing of processed foods is a key driver of dietary choices and brand loyalty. Market data indicate a shift in food marketing expenditures to digital media, including social media. These platforms have greater potential to influence young people, given their unique peer-to-peer transmission and youths' susceptibility to social pressures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of images and videos posted by the most popular, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverage brands on Instagram and the marketing strategies used in these images, including any healthy choice claims...
June 5, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Nicholas Rosso, Philippe Giabbanelli
BACKGROUND: National surveys in public health nutrition commonly record the weight of every food consumed by an individual. However, if the goal is to identify whether individuals are in compliance with the 5 main national nutritional guidelines (sodium, saturated fats, sugars, fruit and vegetables, and fats), much less information may be needed. A previous study showed that tracking only 2.89% of all foods (113/3911) was sufficient to accurately identify compliance. Further reducing the data needs could lower participation burden, thus decreasing the costs for monitoring national compliance with key guidelines...
May 30, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Yvonne Cm Staal, Suzanne van de Nobelen, Anne Havermans, Reinskje Talhout
BACKGROUND: A wide variety of new tobacco and tobacco-related products have emerged on the market in recent years. OBJECTIVE: To understand their potential implications for public health and to guide tobacco control efforts, we have used an infoveillance approach to identify new tobacco and tobacco-related products. METHODS: Our search for tobacco(-related) products consists of several tailored search profiles using combinations of keywords such as "e-cigarette" and "new" to extract information from almost 9000 preselected sources such as websites of online shops, tobacco manufacturers, and news sites...
May 28, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Sharon Stucker Weir, Stefan D Baral, Jessie K Edwards, Sabrina Zadrozny, James Hargreaves, Jinkou Zhao, Keith Sabin
BACKGROUND: Normative guidelines from the World Health Organization recommend tracking strategic information indicators among key populations. Monitoring progress in the global response to the HIV epidemic uses indicators put forward by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. These include the 90-90-90 targets that require a realignment of surveillance data, routinely collected program data, and medical record data, which historically have developed separately. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe current challenges for monitoring HIV-related strategic information indicators among key populations ((men who have sex with men [MSM], people in prisons and other closed settings, people who inject drugs, sex workers, and transgender people) and identify future opportunities to enhance the use of surveillance data, programmatic data, and medical record data to describe the HIV epidemic among key populations and measure the coverage of HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs...
May 22, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Miriam Navarro, Bárbara Navaza, Anne Guionnet, Rogelio López-Vélez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Jmir Editorial Office
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/publichealth.9490.].
May 11, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Danushka Bollegala, Simon Maskell, Richard Sloane, Joanna Hajne, Munir Pirmohamed
BACKGROUND: Detecting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an important task that has direct implications for the use of that drug. If we can detect previously unknown ADRs as quickly as possible, then this information can be provided to the regulators, pharmaceutical companies, and health care organizations, thereby potentially reducing drug-related morbidity and saving lives of many patients. A promising approach for detecting ADRs is to use social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook...
May 9, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Sonali Wayal, David Reid, Paula B Blomquist, Peter Weatherburn, Catherine H Mercer, Gwenda Hughes
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance is vital for tracking the scale and pattern of epidemics; however, it often lacks data on the underlying drivers of STIs. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the acceptability and feasibility of implementing a bio-behavioral enhanced surveillance tool, comprising a self-administered Web-based survey among sexual health clinic attendees, as well as linking this to their electronic health records (EHR) held in England's national STI surveillance system...
May 4, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Nicole Dancy-Scott, Gale A Dutcher, Alla Keselman, Colette Hochstein, Christina Copty, Diane Ben-Senia, Sampada Rajan, Maria Guadalupe Asencio, Jason Jongwon Choi
BACKGROUND: The language encompassing health conditions can also influence behaviors that affect health outcomes. Few published quantitative studies have been conducted that evaluate HIV-related terminology changes over time. To expand this research, this study included an analysis of a dataset of abstracts presented at the International AIDS Conference (IAC) from 1989 to 2014. These abstracts reflect the global response to HIV over 25 years. Two powerful methodologies were used to evaluate the dataset: text mining to convert the unstructured information into structured data for analysis and data visualization to represent the data visually to assess trends...
May 4, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Awatef Ahmed Ben Ramadan, Jeannette Jackson-Thompson, Chester Lee Schmaltz
BACKGROUND: The Missouri Cancer Registry collects population-based cancer incidence data on Missouri residents diagnosed with reportable malignant neoplasms. The Missouri Cancer Registry wanted to produce data that would be of interest to lawmakers as well as public health officials at the legislative district level on breast cancer, the most common non-skin cancer among females. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to measure and interactively visualize survival data of female breast cancer cases in the Missouri Cancer Registry...
May 3, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
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