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JMIR Public Health and Surveillance

Diane Santa Maria, Nikhil Padhye, Yijiong Yang, Kathryn Gallardo, Michael Businelle
BACKGROUND: Homeless youth continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV compared with their housed peers, with prevalence rates as high as 13%. Yet, HIV prevention in this high-risk population has been only marginally effective. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use ecological momentary assessments to examine real-time factors to determine the predictors of sexual activity among homeless youth. METHODS: Youth experiencing homelessness aged between 18 and 24 years were recruited from a drop-in center in Houston, Texas, between August 2015 and May 2016...
April 10, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Ta-Chien Chan, Tsuey-Hwa Hu, Jing-Shiang Hwang
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on influenza have focused mostly on enhancing vaccination coverage or promoting personal hygiene behavior. Few studies have investigated potential effects of personal health behaviors and social contacts on the risk of getting influenza-like illness (ILI). OBJECTIVE: Taking advantage of an online participatory cohort, this study aimed to estimate the increased risk of getting ILI after contact with infected persons and examine how personal health behaviors, weather, and air pollution affect the probability of getting ILI...
April 9, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Ho-Wei Wang, Duan-Rung Chen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is highly correlated with the development of chronic diseases and has become a critical public health issue that must be countered by aggressive action. This study determined whether data from Google Trends could provide insight into trends in obesity-related search behaviors in Taiwan. OBJECTIVE: Using Google Trends, we examined how changes in economic conditions-using business cycle indicators as a proxy-were associated with people's internet search behaviors related to obesity awareness, health behaviors, and fast food restaurants...
April 6, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Kiffer George Card, Nathan Lachowsky, Blake W Hawkins, Jody Jollimore, Fahmy Baharuddin, Robert S Hogg
BACKGROUND: Social media is used by community-based organizations (CBOs) to promote the well-being of gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, few studies have quantified which factors facilitate the diffusion of health content tailored for sexual minorities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify post characteristics that can be leveraged to optimize the health promotion efforts of CBOs on Facebook. METHODS: The Facebook application programming interface was used to collect 5 years' of posts shared across 10 Facebook pages administered by Vancouver-based CBOs promoting GBM health...
April 6, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Brian Rice, Andrew Boulle, Stefan Baral, Matthias Egger, Paul Mee, Elizabeth Fearon, Georges Reniers, Jim Todd, Sandra Schwarcz, Sharon Weir, George Rutherford, James Hargreaves
The global HIV response has entered a new phase with the recommendation of treating all persons living with HIV with antiretroviral therapy, and with the goals of reducing new infections and AIDS-related deaths to fewer than 500,000 by 2020. This new phase has intensive data requirements that will need to utilize routine data collected through service delivery platforms to monitor progress toward these goals. With a focus on sub-Saharan African, we present the following priorities to improve the demand, supply, and use of routine HIV data: (1) strengthening patient-level HIV data systems that support continuity of clinical care and document sentinel events; (2) leveraging data from HIV testing programs; (3) using targeting data collection in communities and among clients; and (4) building capacity and promoting a culture of HIV data quality assessment and use...
April 3, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Thomas J Stopka, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Kendra Johnson, Philip A Chan, Marga Hutcheson, Richard Crosby, Deirdre Burke, Leandro Mena, Amy Nunn
BACKGROUND: In recent years, more than half of new HIV infections in the United States occur among African Americans in the Southeastern United States. Spatial epidemiological analyses can inform public health responses in the Deep South by identifying HIV hotspots and community-level factors associated with clustering. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify and characterize HIV clusters in Mississippi through analysis of state-level HIV surveillance data...
April 3, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Ashley M Jackson, Lindsay A Mullican, Elizabeth B Blankenship, Mary Elizabeth Goff, Amy J Guinn, Nitin Saroha, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
BACKGROUND: The Office of Advanced Molecular Detection (OAMD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), manages a Twitter profile (@CDC_AMD). To our knowledge, no prior study has analyzed a CDC Twitter handle's entire contents and all followers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the contents and followers of the Twitter profile @CDC_AMD and to assess if attaching photos or videos to tweets posted by @CDC_AMD would increase retweet frequency. METHODS: Data of @CDC_AMD were retrieved on November 21, 2016...
April 2, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Bin Chen, Jian Shao, Kui Liu, Gaofeng Cai, Zhenggang Jiang, Yuru Huang, Hua Gu, Jianmin Jiang
BACKGROUND: A hot topic on the relationship between a popular avian-origin food and avian influenza occurred on social media during the outbreak of the emerging avian influenza A (H7N9). The misinformation generated from this topic had caused great confusion and public concern. OBJECTIVE: Our goals were to analyze the trend and contents of the relevant posts during the outbreak. We also aimed to understand the characteristics of the misinformation and to provide suggestions to reduce public misconception on social media during the emerging disease outbreak...
March 29, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Yelena Mejova, Ingmar Weber, Luis Fernandez-Luque
BACKGROUND: Facebook, the most popular social network with over one billion daily users, provides rich opportunities for its use in the health domain. Though much of Facebook's data are not available to outsiders, the company provides a tool for estimating the audience of Facebook advertisements, which includes aggregated information on the demographics and interests, such as weight loss or dieting, of Facebook users. This paper explores the potential uses of Facebook ad audience estimates for eHealth by studying the following: (1) for what type of health conditions prevalence estimates can be obtained via social media and (2) what type of marker interests are useful in obtaining such estimates, which can then be used for recruitment within online health interventions...
March 28, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Tarun Reddy Katapally, Jasmin Bhawra, Scott T Leatherdale, Leah Ferguson, Justin Longo, Daniel Rainham, Richard Larouche, Nathaniel Osgood
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)-enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let's move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions...
March 27, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Jiaqi Zhou, Qingpeng Zhang, Daniel Dajun Zeng, Kwok Leung Tsui
BACKGROUND: Modeling the influence of e-cigarette flavors on information propagation could provide quantitative policy decision support concerning smoking initiation and contagion, as well as e-cigarette regulations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of flavors on e-cigarette-related information propagation on social media. METHODS: We collected a comprehensive dataset of e-cigarette-related discussions from public Pages on Facebook...
March 23, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Terdsak Yano, Somphorn Phornwisetsirikun, Patipat Susumpow, Surasing Visrutaratna, Karoon Chanachai, Polawat Phetra, Warangkhana Chaisowwong, Pairat Trakarnsirinont, Phonpat Hemwan, Boontuan Kaewpinta, Charuk Singhapreecha, Khwanchai Kreausukon, Arisara Charoenpanyanet, Chongchit Sripun Robert, Lamar Robert, Pranee Rodtian, Suteerat Mahasing, Ekkachai Laiya, Sakulrat Pattamakaew, Taweesart Tankitiyanon, Chalutwan Sansamur, Lertrak Srikitjakarn
BACKGROUND: Aiming for early disease detection and prompt outbreak control, digital technology with a participatory One Health approach was used to create a novel disease surveillance system called Participatory One Health Disease Detection (PODD). PODD is a community-owned surveillance system that collects data from volunteer reporters; identifies disease outbreak automatically; and notifies the local governments (LGs), surrounding villages, and relevant authorities. This system provides a direct and immediate benefit to the communities by empowering them to protect themselves...
March 21, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Roy Cherian, Marisa Westbrook, Danielle Ramo, Urmimala Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid misuse has doubled over the past 10 years and is now a public health epidemic. Analysis of social media data may provide additional insights into opioid misuse to supplement the traditional approaches of data collection (eg, self-report on surveys). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize representations of codeine misuse through analysis of public posts on Instagram to understand text phrases related to misuse. METHODS: We identified hashtags and searchable text phrases associated with codeine misuse by analyzing 1156 sequential Instagram posts over the course of 2 weeks from May 2016 to July 2016...
March 20, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Amanda D Castel, Arpi Terzian, Jenevieve Opoku, Lindsey Powers Happ, Naji Younes, Michael Kharfen, Alan Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Triangulation of data from multiple sources such as clinical cohort and surveillance data can help improve our ability to describe care patterns, service utilization, comorbidities, and ultimately measure and monitor clinical outcomes among persons living with HIV infection. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether linkage of clinical cohort data and routinely collected HIV surveillance data would enhance the completeness and accuracy of each database and improve the understanding of care patterns and clinical outcomes...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Ayako Yagahara, Keiri Hanai, Shin Hasegawa, Katsuhiko Ogasawara
BACKGROUND: After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on March 11, 2011, interest in, and fear of, radiation increased among citizens. When such accidents occur, appropriate risk communication must provided by the government. It is therefore necessary to understand the fears of citizens in the days after such accidents. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the progression of people's concerns, specifically fear, from a study of radiation-related tweets in the days after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident...
March 15, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Amaryllis Mavragani, Alexia Sampri, Karla Sypsa, Konstantinos P Tsagarakis
BACKGROUND: With the internet's penetration and use constantly expanding, this vast amount of information can be employed in order to better assess issues in the US health care system. Google Trends, a popular tool in big data analytics, has been widely used in the past to examine interest in various medical and health-related topics and has shown great potential in forecastings, predictions, and nowcastings. As empirical relationships between online queries and human behavior have been shown to exist, a new opportunity to explore the behavior toward asthma-a common respiratory disease-is present...
March 12, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Abdul Momin Kazi, Murtaza Ali, Khurram Zubair, Hussain Kalimuddin, Abdul Nafey Kazi, Saleem Perwaiz Iqbal, Jean-Paul Collet, Syed Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Improved routine immunization (RI) coverage is recommended as the priority public health strategy to decrease vaccine-preventable diseases and eradicate polio in Pakistan and worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to ascertain whether customized, automated, one-way text messaging (short message service, SMS) reminders delivered to caregivers via mobile phones when a child is due for an RI visit can improve vaccination uptake and timelines in Pakistan...
March 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Corinne M Hohl, Serena S Small, David Peddie, Katherin Badke, Chantelle Bailey, Ellen Balka
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events are unintended and harmful events related to medications. Adverse drug events are important for patient care, quality improvement, drug safety research, and postmarketing surveillance, but they are vastly underreported. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to identify barriers to adverse drug event documentation and factors contributing to underreporting. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in 1 ambulatory center, and the emergency departments and inpatient wards of 3 acute care hospitals in British Columbia between March 2014 and December 2016...
February 27, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Victoria Wan, Lorraine McIntyre, Debra Kent, Dennis Leong, Sarah B Henderson
BACKGROUND: Data from poison centers have the potential to be valuable for public health surveillance of long-term trends, short-term aberrations from those trends, and poisonings occurring in near-real-time. This information can enable long-term prevention via programs and policies and short-term control via immediate public health response. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing use of poison control data for surveillance in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand, but this resource still remains widely underused...
February 23, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Aleksandar Kecojevic, Corey Basch, Charles Basch, William Kernan
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral (ARV) medicines reduce the risk of transmitting the HIV virus and are recommended as daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in combination with safer sex practices for HIV-negative individuals at a high risk for infection, but are underused in HIV prevention. Previous literature suggests that YouTube is extensively used to share health information. While pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a novel and promising approach to HIV prevention, there is limited understanding of YouTube videos as a source of information on PrEP...
February 16, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
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