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Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics

Takeshi Oshima, Junsuke Nakase, Hitoaki Numata, Yasushi Takata, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: The looped side of the semitendinosus tendon (ST) graft (i.e., the side inserted into the femoral tunnel during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction) appears to be oval rather than round. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross section of the fourfold semitendinosus tendon graft and, more specifically, the differences in pressure exerted by a rounded rectangular tunnel versus a round femoral tunnel. METHODS: Seven STs were harvested from cadaveric knees and a fourfold ST graft was made...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Marie Bagger Bohn, Annemette Krintel Petersen, Dennis Brandborg Nielsen, Henrik Sørensen, Martin Lind
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency leads to altered stability of the knee. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic, rotational stability of the knee, expressed as rotational stiffness, between anterior cruciate ligament-deficient (ACLD) knees, their contralateral intact knees (ACLI) and a knee healthy control group during walking, running and 90° pivoting. We hypothesized a larger tibial internal rotation, a smaller knee joint external moment and a lower rotational stiffness in the ACLD group compared to the ACLI and the control group...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Michel P Bonnin, Tom Van Hoof, Arnoud De Kok, Matthias Verstraete, Catherine Van der Straeten, Mo Saffarini, Jan Victor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Yu-Chieh Chiu, Eliza L Fong, Brian J Grindel, Fred K Kasper, Daniel A Harrington, Mary C Farach-Carson
BACKGROUND: Biomaterial scaffolds that deliver growth factors such as recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins-2 (rhBMP-2) have improved clinical bone tissue engineering by enhancing bone tissue regeneration. This approach could be further improved if the controlled delivery of bioactive rhBMP-2 were sustained throughout the duration of osteogenesis from fibrous scaffolds that provide control over dose and bioactivity of rhBMP-2. In nature, heparan sulfate attached to core proteoglycans serves as the co-receptor that delivers growth factors to support tissue morphogenesis...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Michel P Bonnin, Tom Van Hoof, Arnoud De Kok, Matthias Verstraete, Catherine Van der Straeten, Moreno Saffarini, Jan Victor
BACKGROUND: In Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), residual pain may be secondary to soft tissue impingements, which are difficult to visualize around chromium-cobalt implants using medical imaging, so their interactions remain poorly understood. The goal of this work was to establish a protocol for in-vitro imaging of the soft tissues around TKA, usable during throughout the range of motion (ROM). METHODS: The full size range of a commercially available TKA prosthesis was manufactured by 3D-printing in non-magnetic and non-radiopaque polymer and implanted in 12 cadaveric knees...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Benjamin B Rothrauff, Piya-On Numpaisal, Brian B Lauro, Peter G Alexander, Richard E Debski, Volker Musahl, Rocky S Tuan
BACKGROUND: Large radial tears that disrupt the circumferential fibers of the meniscus are associated with reduced meniscal function and increased risk of joint degeneration. Electrospun fibrous scaffolds can mimic the topography and mechanics of fibrocartilaginous tissues and simultaneously serve as carriers of cells and growth factors, yet their incorporation into clinically relevant suture repair techniques for radial meniscus tears is unexplored. The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile properties and suture-retention strength of multilayered electrospun scaffolds and (2) determine the mechanical effects of scaffold inclusion within a surgical repair of a simulated radial meniscal tear...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Magali Cucchiarini, Laura de Girolamo, Giuseppe Filardo, J Miguel Oliveira, Patrick Orth, Dietrich Pape, Pascal Reboul
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent, disabling disorder of the joints that affects a large population worldwide and for which there is no definitive cure. This review provides critical insights into the basic knowledge on OA that may lead to innovative end efficient new therapeutic regimens. While degradation of the articular cartilage is the hallmark of OA, with altered interactions between chondrocytes and compounds of the extracellular matrix, the subchondral bone has been also described as a key component of the disease, involving specific pathomechanisms controlling its initiation and progression...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
J Kay, M Memon, D de Sa, A Duong, N Simunovic, G S Athwal, O R Ayeni
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the five-year publication rate of papers presented at both the open and closed American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons' (ASES) annual meetings from 2005 to 2010. METHODS: Online abstracts of the presentations at the open and closed ASES annual meetings were independently screened for clinical studies and graded for quality using level of evidence. The databases PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid (MEDLINE), and EMBASE were comprehensively searched for full-text publications corresponding to these presentations and any paper published within five years of the presentation date was counted...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Roberto Negrín, Jaime Duboy, Fernando Olavarría, Mauricio Wainer, Horacio Jimenez, Facundo Las Heras, Nicolas Reyes, Hugo Godoy
BACKGROUND: Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is the main restrictor of lateral shifting of the patella, contributing by 60 % in the first 20° flexion of the knee. MPFL reconstruction has been performed in order to restore the stability of the patella with good results.Lyophilized Gracilis tendon allograft (LGA) compared to Cryopreserved Gracilis tendon allograft (CGA) has a lower cost, does not require to maintain cooling chain or preparation. The purpose of this study is to compare the histological and biomechanical characteristics of an experimental model of reconstruction of the MPFL in porcine patellas with LGA versus CGA...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
QiCai Jason Hoon, Matthew H Pelletier, Chris Christou, Kenneth A Johnson, William R Walsh
BACKGROUND: The field of orthopaedics is a constantly evolving discipline. Despite the historical success of plates, pins and screws in fracture reduction and stabilisation, there is a continuing search for more efficient and improved methods of fracture fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate shape-memory staples and to compare them to a currently used implant for internal fracture fixation. Multi-plane bending stability and interfragmentary compression were assessed across a simulated osteotomy using single and double-staple fixation and compared to a bridging plate...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Khaled A Elsaid, Anand Ubhe, Ziyad Shaman, Gerard D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra) can be disease-modifying in posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). One limitation is its short joint residence time. We hypothesized that IL-1 ra encapsulation in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres reduces IL-1 ra systemic absorption and provides an enhanced anti-PTOA effect. METHODS: IL-1 ra release kinetics and biological activity: IL-1 ra encapsulation into PLGA microsphere was performed using double emulsion solvent extraction...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Dianne Little, Stephen Johnson, Jonathan Hash, Steven A Olson, Bradley T Estes, Franklin T Moutos, B Duncan X Lascelles, Farshid Guilak
BACKGROUND: The hip is one of the most common sites of osteoarthritis in the body, second only to the knee in prevalence. However, current animal models of hip osteoarthritis have not been assessed using many of the functional outcome measures used in orthopaedics, a characteristic that could increase their utility in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions. The canine hip shares similarities with the human hip, and functional outcome measures are well documented in veterinary medicine, providing a baseline for pre-clinical evaluation of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Janina Frisch, Jagadeesh K Venkatesan, Ana Rey-Rico, Adam M Zawada, Gertrud Schmitt, Henning Madry, Magali Cucchiarini
BACKGROUND: Application of genetically modified bone marrow concentrates in articular cartilage lesions is a promising approach to enhance cartilage repair by stimulating the chondrogenic differentiation processes in sites of injury. METHOD: In the present study, we examined the potential benefits of transferring the proliferative and pro-chondrogenic basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) to human bone marrow aspirates in vitro using the clinically adapted recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors to monitor the biological and chondrogenic responses over time to the treatment compared with control (lacZ) gene application...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Thomas Laumonier, Jacques Menetrey
Satellite cells are tissue resident muscle stem cells required for postnatal skeletal muscle growth and repair through replacement of damaged myofibers. Muscle regeneration is coordinated through different mechanisms, which imply cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as well as extracellular secreted factors. Cellular dynamics during muscle regeneration are highly complex. Immune, fibrotic, vascular and myogenic cells appear with distinct temporal and spatial kinetics after muscle injury. Three main phases have been identified in the process of muscle regeneration; a destruction phase with the initial inflammatory response, a regeneration phase with activation and proliferation of satellite cells and a remodeling phase with maturation of the regenerated myofibers...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Mélanie L Beaulieu, Grace E Carey, Stephen H Schlecht, Edward M Wojtys, James A Ashton-Miller
BACKGROUND: Most ruptures of the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and ACL graft occur at, or near, the femoral enthesis, with the posterolateral fibers of the native ligament being especially vulnerable during pivot landings. Characterizing the anatomy of the ACL femoral enthesis may help us explain injury patterns which, in turn, could help guide injury prevention efforts. It may also lead to improved anatomic reconstruction techniques given that the goal of such techniques is to replicate the knee's normal anatomy...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Andrew A Tran, Corey Gatewood, Alex H S Harris, Julie A Thompson, Jason L Dragoo
BACKGROUND: Identification of biomechanical risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can facilitate injury prevention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of three foot landing positions, "toe-in", "toe-out" and "neutral", on biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in males and females. The authors hypothesize that 1) relative to neutral, the toe-in position increases the biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, 2) the toe-out position decreases these biomechanical risk factors, and 3) compared to males, females demonstrate greater changes in lower extremity biomechanics with changes in foot landing position...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Yong Sang Kim, Moses Lee, Yong Gon Koh
BACKGROUND: Supramalleolar osteotomy (SMO) is reported to be an effective treatment for varus ankle osteoarthritis by redistributing the load line within the ankle joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a new treatment option for osteoarthritis on the basis of their cartilage regeneration ability. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical, radiological, and second-look arthroscopic outcomes between MSC injection with marrow stimulation and marrow stimulation alone in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis who have undergone SMO...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Patrick C McCulloch, Hugh L Jones, Kendall Hamilton, Michael G Hogen, Jonathan E Gold, Philip C Noble
BACKGROUND: The objective of rehabilitation following meniscal repair is to promote healing by limiting stresses on repairs, while simultaneously preserving muscle strength and joint motion. Both protective protocols limiting weight bearing and accelerated which do not, have shown clinical success. This study assesses the effects of physiologic gait loading on the kinematic behavior of a repaired medial meniscus. METHODS: The medial menisci of eight fresh cadaveric knees were implanted with arrays of six 0...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
David Civitarese, Tammy L Haut Donahue, Christopher M LaPrade, Adriana J Saroki, Samuel G Moulton, Jason M Schon, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to quantify the meniscal root anatomy of the New Zealand white rabbit to better understand this animal model for future in vitro and in vivo joint degeneration studies. METHODS: Ten non-paired fresh frozen New Zealand white rabbit knee stifle joints were carefully disarticulated for this study. Measurements were made for all bony landmarks and ligamentous structure attachment sites on the tibial plateau. The following soft tissue structures were consistently identified in the rabbit stifle joint: the anterior root attachment of the lateral meniscus, the anterior root attachment of the medial meniscus, the anterior cruciate ligament, the posterior root attachment of the medial meniscus, the ligament of Wrisberg, the posterior cruciate ligament, and the posterior meniscotibial ligament...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
William King, Walter van der Weegen, Rogier Van Drumpt, Hans Soons, Krista Toler, Jennifer Woodell-May
BACKGROUND: There has been debate on which blood components should be included in autologous therapies. Autologous Protein Solution (APS) is a unique blood-derived therapy composed of concentrated white blood cells, platelets, and plasma to contain high concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines and anabolic growth factors to potentially address osteoarthritis. The primary aim of the exploratory secondary analysis was to identify characteristics of an Autologous Protein Solution (APS) that may correlate with improved Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores and OMERACT-OARSI responder status after treatment of subjects with an intra-articular injection of APS...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
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