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Annual Review of Vision Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937950/vectors-and-gene-delivery-to-the-retina
#1
REVIEW
Arthur Planul, Deniz Dalkara
One of the great advantages of the retina as a target tissue for gene delivery is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed in the past decade. This includes a variety of vectors for therapeutic gene delivery to most types of retinal neurons and glia, as well as cell type-specific promoters for restricted gene expression in distinct neuronal subtypes. Within the scope of neuroscience applications and for gene therapy, it is now routine to express reporter genes, replacement genes, neuronal activity indicators, and microbial opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse retina...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937949/international-vision-care-issues-and-approaches
#2
Rohit C Khanna, Srinivas Marmamula, Gullapalli N Rao
Globally, 32.4 million individuals are blind and 191 million have moderate or severe visual impairment (MSVI); 80% of cases of blindness and MSVI are avoidable. However, great efforts are needed to tackle blindness and MSVI, as eye care in most places is delivered in isolation from and without significant integration with general health sectors. Success stories, including control of vitamin A deficiency, onchocerciasis, and trachoma, showed that global partnerships, multisectoral collaboration, public-private partnerships, corporate philanthropy, support from nongovernmental organizations-both local and international-and governments are responsible for the success of these programs...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937948/textures-as-probes-of-visual-processing
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan D Victor, Mary M Conte, Charles F Chubb
Visual textures are a class of stimuli with properties that make them well suited for addressing general questions about visual function at the levels of behavior and neural mechanism. They have structure across multiple spatial scales, they put the focus on the inferential nature of visual processing, and they help bridge the gap between stimuli that are analytically convenient and the complex, naturalistic stimuli that have the greatest biological relevance. Key questions that are well suited for analysis via visual textures include the nature and structure of perceptual spaces, modulation of early visual processing by task, and the transformation of sensory stimuli into patterns of population activity that are relevant to perception...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753382/electrical-stimulation-of-visual-cortex-relevance-for-the-development-of-visual-cortical-prosthetics
#4
REVIEW
William H Bosking, Michael S Beauchamp, Daniel Yoshor
Electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex is a powerful tool for exploring cortical function. Stimulation of early visual cortical areas is easily detected by subjects and produces simple visual percepts known as phosphenes. A device implanted in visual cortex that generates patterns of phosphenes could be used as a substitute for natural vision in blind patients. We review the possibilities and limitations of such a device, termed a visual cortical prosthetic. Currently, we can predict the location and size of phosphenes produced by stimulation of single electrodes...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746815/higher-order-areas-of-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#5
REVIEW
Lindsey L Glickfeld, Shawn R Olsen
The brain has evolved to transform sensory information in the environment into neural representations that can be used for perception and action. Higher-order sensory cortical areas, with their increasingly complex receptive fields and integrative properties, are thought to be critical nodes for this function. This is especially true in the primate visual cortex, in which functionally specialized areas are engaged in parallel streams to support diverse computations. Recent anatomical and physiological studies of the mouse visual cortex have revealed a similarly complex network of specialized higher-order areas...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746814/probabilistic-computations-for-attention-eye-movements-and-search
#6
REVIEW
Miguel P Eckstein
The term visual attention immediately evokes the idea of limited resources, serial processing, or a zoom metaphor. But evidence has slowly accumulated that computations that take into account probabilistic relationships among visual forms and the target contribute to optimizing decisions in biological and artificial organisms, even without considering these limited-capacity processes in covert attention or even foveation. The benefits from such computations can be formalized within the framework of an ideal Bayesian observer and can be related to the classic theory of sensory cue combination in vision science and context-driven approaches to object detection in computer vision...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746813/binocular-mechanisms-of-3d-motion-processing
#7
REVIEW
Lawrence K Cormack, Thaddeus B Czuba, Jonas Knöll, Alexander C Huk
The visual system must recover important properties of the external environment if its host is to survive. Because the retinae are effectively two-dimensional but the world is three-dimensional (3D), the patterns of stimulation both within and across the eyes must be used to infer the distal stimulus-the environment-in all three dimensions. Moreover, animals and elements in the environment move, which means the input contains rich temporal information. Here, in addition to reviewing the literature, we discuss how and why prior work has focused on purported isolated systems (e...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731838/neuroprotection-in-glaucoma-animal-models-and-clinical-trials
#8
REVIEW
Mohammadali Almasieh, Leonard A Levin
Glaucoma is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that frequently results in irreversible blindness. Glaucoma causes death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons in the optic nerve, resulting in visual field deficits and eventual loss of visual acuity. Glaucoma is a complex optic neuropathy, and a successful strategy for its treatment requires not only better management of known risk factors such as elevated intraocular pressure and the development of improved tools for detecting RGC injury but also treatments that address this injury (i...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723311/visual-perceptual-learning-and-models
#9
REVIEW
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715958/vision-and-action
#10
REVIEW
Mary M Hayhoe
Investigation of natural behavior has contributed a number of insights to our understanding of visual guidance of actions by highlighting the importance of behavioral goals and focusing attention on how vision and action play out in time. In this context, humans make continuous sequences of sensory-motor decisions to satisfy current behavioral goals, and the role of vision is to provide the relevant information for making good decisions in order to achieve those goals. This conceptualization of visually guided actions as a sequence of sensory-motor decisions has been formalized within the framework of statistical decision theory, which structures the problem and provides the context for much recent progress in vision and action...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715957/the-transduction-cascade-in-retinal-on-bipolar-cells-signal-processing-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Kirill A Martemyanov, Alapakkam P Sampath
Our robust visual experience is based on the reliable transfer of information from our photoreceptor cells, the rods and cones, to higher brain centers. At the very first synapse of the visual system, information is split into two separate pathways, ON and OFF, which encode increments and decrements in light intensity, respectively. The importance of this segregation is borne out in the fact that receptive fields in higher visual centers maintain a separation between ON and OFF regions. In the past decade, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of ON signals have been identified, which are unique in their use of a G-protein signaling cascade...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715956/visual-decision-making-in-an-uncertain-and-dynamic-world
#12
REVIEW
Joshua I Gold, Alan A Stocker
The right decision today may be the wrong decision tomorrow. We live in a world in which expectations, contingencies, and goals continually evolve and change. Thus, decisions do not occur in isolation but rather are tightly embedded in these streams of temporal dependencies. Accordingly, even relatively straightforward visual decisions must take into account not just the immediate sensory input but also past experiences and future goals and expectations. Here, we evaluate recent progress in understanding how the brain implements these dependencies...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715955/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-human-face-perception
#13
REVIEW
Kalanit Grill-Spector, Kevin S Weiner, Kendrick Kay, Jesse Gomez
Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697678/ek-dlek-dsek-dmek-new-frontier-in-cornea-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Marianne O Price, Pankaj Gupta, Jonathan Lass, Francis W Price
Endothelial keratoplasty (EK) has revolutionized treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Compared with penetrating keratoplasty (PK), EK provides faster and more reliable visual rehabilitation while maintaining the eye's structural integrity. The number of EK procedures is growing annually and surpassed PK in the United States in 2012. The most widely used iteration, Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK), implants healthy donor endothelium, Descemet membrane, and posterior stroma. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) eliminates the donor stromal layer...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697677/material-perception
#15
REVIEW
Roland W Fleming
Under typical viewing conditions, human observers effortlessly recognize materials and infer their physical, functional, and multisensory properties at a glance. Without touching materials, we can usually tell whether they would feel hard or soft, rough or smooth, wet or dry. We have vivid visual intuitions about how deformable materials like liquids or textiles respond to external forces and how surfaces like chrome, wax, or leather change appearance when formed into different shapes or viewed under different lighting...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617660/circuits-for-action-and-cognition-a-view-from-the-superior-colliculus
#16
REVIEW
Michele A Basso, Paul J May
The superior colliculus is one of the most well-studied structures in the brain, and with each new report, its proposed role in behavior seems to increase in complexity. Forty years of evidence show that the colliculus is critical for reorienting an organism toward objects of interest. In monkeys, this involves saccadic eye movements. Recent work in the monkey colliculus and in the homologous optic tectum of the bird extends our understanding of the role of the colliculus in higher mental functions, such as attention and decision making...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617659/inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-retina-types-circuitry-and-function
#17
REVIEW
Jeffrey S Diamond
Visual signals in the vertebrate retina are shaped by feedback and feedforward inhibition in two synaptic layers. In one, horizontal cells establish fundamental center-surround receptive-field properties via morphologically and physiologically complex synapses with photoreceptors and bipolar cells. In the other, a panoply of amacrine cells imbue ganglion cell responses with spatiotemporally complex information about the visual world. Here, I review current ideas about horizontal cell signaling, considering the evidence for and against the leading, competing theories...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532364/evolution-of-concepts-and-technologies-in-ophthalmic-laser-therapy
#18
Daniel Palanker
Ophthalmology was the first medical specialty to adopt lasers right after their invention more than 50 years ago, and they gradually revolutionized ocular imaging, diagnostics, therapy, and surgery. Challenging precision, safety, and selectivity requirements for ocular therapeutic and surgical procedures keep advancing the laser technologies, which in turn continue enabling novel applications for the preservation and restoration of sight. Modern lasers can provide single-cell-layer selectivity in therapy, submicrometer precision in three-dimensional image-guided surgery, and nondamaging retinal therapy under optoacoustic temperature control...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532363/early-visual-cortex-as-a-multiscale-cognitive-blackboard
#19
Pieter R Roelfsema, Floris P de Lange
Neurons in early visual cortical areas not only represent incoming visual information but are also engaged by higher level cognitive processes, including attention, working memory, imagery, and decision-making. Are these cognitive effects an epiphenomenon or are they functionally relevant for these mental operations? We review evidence supporting the hypothesis that the modulation of activity in early visual areas has a causal role in cognition. The modulatory influences allow the early visual cortex to act as a multiscale cognitive blackboard for read and write operations by higher visual areas, which can thereby efficiently exchange information...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532362/mechanisms-of-orientation-selectivity-in-the-primary-visual-cortex
#20
Nicholas J Priebe
The mechanisms underlying the emergence of orientation selectivity in the visual cortex have been, and continue to be, the subjects of intense scrutiny. Orientation selectivity reflects a dramatic change in the representation of the visual world: Whereas afferent thalamic neurons are generally orientation insensitive, neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) are extremely sensitive to stimulus orientation. This profound change in the receptive field structure along the visual pathway has positioned V1 as a model system for studying the circuitry that underlies neural computations across the neocortex...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
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