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Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951210/land-use-patterns-and-their-implication-on-malaria-transmission-in-kilosa-district-tanzania
#1
Phillipo Paul, Richard Y M Kangalawe, Leonard E G Mboera
Background: Understanding of the land use and malaria transmission among farming communities in Tanzania is of great significance. Water resource development projects, deforestation, wetland cultivation, and land use changes for agricultural purposes all expand habitats for malaria-carrying mosquitoes. The main objective of this study was to assess land use patterns and their implication on malaria transmission in two villages in Kilosa District, Tanzania. Methods: Multiple research methods were used for data collection, including household interviews using a structured questionnaire; key informant interviews; transect walks and direct field observations...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942536/epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-determinants-and-treatment-outcome
#2
REVIEW
Tadele Girum, Ebrahim Muktar, Kifle Lentiro, Habtamu Wondiye, Misgun Shewangizaw
Introduction: The emergence of MDR-TB remained a major public health threat particularly in developing countries. With increased prevalence and complexity of treatment, the burden of MDR-TB challenged the country. It is of an important; the epidemiology of drug resistant TB is not well understood. There are few studies conducted to assess the prevalence, determinants and treatment outcome of MDR-TB with inconclusive finding. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on Epidemiology of MDR-TB in Ethiopia, So that policy makers and other stalk holders could have pooled evidence on the problem to make a decision...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881636/multivariate-analysis-of-factors-associated-with-schistosoma-mansoni-and-hookworm-infection-among-primary-school-children-in-rural-bahir-dar-northwest-ethiopia
#3
Tadesse Hailu, Megbaru Alemu, Bayeh Abera, Wondemagegn Mulu, Endalew Yizengaw, Ashenafi Genanew, Fetlework Bereded
Background: Soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan countries. The highest burden of the disease resides in school-age children. Poor water sanitation and hygiene are believed to be the major contributing factors for the high prevalence. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in rural Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2017-June 2017 among 409 randomly selected primary school children...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721329/schistosoma-haematobium-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-and-anaemia-in-children-in-accra-ghana
#4
Ruth Nyarko, Kwasi Torpey, Augustine Ankomah
Background: Urinary Schistosomiasis and malaria are endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. There are public health concerns and implications of these parasites. This study sought to assess the prevalence of malaria, urinary schistosomiasis, and anaemia in children of school going age in two municipalities in Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate the prevalence of S. haematobium , P. falciparum infection and the haemoglobin concentration of respondents...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632700/zika-virus-infection-in-a-pregnant-canadian-traveler-with-congenital-fetal-malformations-noted-by-ultrasonography-at-14-weeks-gestation
#5
Kevin L Schwartz, Tiffany Chan, Nanky Rai, Kellie E Murphy, Wendy Whittle, Michael A Drebot, Jonathan Gubbay, Andrea K Boggild
Background: Following emergence of Zika virus in the Americas, a devastating new congenital syndrome has been documented, leading to significant morbidity among Zika-infected fetuses and neonates. Case presentation: A 29-year-old pregnant woman infected with Zika virus at 9-weeks gestation in Trinidad presented with one-month of fever, headache, and myalgia with persistent viremia. Significant fetal abnormalities were identified at 14-week ultrasound, which is the earliest ultrasound to describe a severely affected fetus following Zika virus infection to our knowledge...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507748/evaluation-of-safety-tool-for-ambulatory-leprosy-patients-at-risk-of-adverse-outcome
#6
Cara MacRae, Swana Kopalakrishnan, Lena Faust, Michael Klowak, Adrienne Showler, Stefanie A Klowak, Andrea K Boggild
Background: Leprosy is a potentially debilitating disease of the skin and nerves that requires a complex management approach consisting of laboratory monitoring, screening for factors that will adversely affect outcome with corticosteroids, engagement of allied health services, and prolonged follow-up. Given the complexities of leprosy management, a safety tool was developed and implemented in the Tropical Disease Unit at Toronto General Hospital. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of the tool using a retrospective chart review...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276622/factors-affecting-prevention-and-control-of-malaria-among-endemic-areas-of-gurage-zone-an-implication-for-malaria-elimination-in-south-ethiopia-2017
#7
Tadele Girum, Gebremariam Hailemikael, Asegedech Wondimu
Background: Globally malaria remains one of the most severe public health problems resulting in massive morbidity particularly in developing countries. Ethiopia as one of the sub-Saharan country it is highly endemic to malaria. It was noted that early detection and prompt treatment of malaria cases, selective vector control and epidemic prevention and control are the major strategies for malaria prevention and control; So far, a lot have been done and remarkable improvements were seen...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093825/an-outbreak-of-leptospirosis-among-united-states-military-personnel-in-guam
#8
Alyson J Brinker, David L Blazes
Background: Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. Case presentation: We describe and discuss the clinical course of a leptospirosis outbreak in a running club called the hash house harriers on Guam. Conclusions: Leptospirosis is a potentialy life threatening disease, and has had a reemergence given the popularity of travel adventure sports, teams, and clubs around the world. This case presentation highlights the robust prescence of leptospirosis on Guam...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883985/local-stakeholders-perceptions-of-community-sensitization-for-school-based-deworming-programme-in-kenya
#9
D W Njomo, J Masaku, F Mwende, G Odhiambo, R Musuva, E Matey, I G Thuita, J H Kihara
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) for soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis in prioritized areas has been going on since the year 2012. By the year 2013 over 6 million School Age Children (SAC) had been treated. A community sensitization supplement containing key messages and answers to frequently asked questions was developed as a guiding tool. Awareness creation methods used include county sensitization meetings, stakeholder forums, town criers and posters...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883984/the-changing-epidemiology-of-japanese-encephalitis-and-new-data-the-implications-for-new-recommendations-for-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine
#10
REVIEW
Bradley Connor, William B Bunn
The epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis and risk to the traveler has changed and continues to evolve. The spread of Japanese Encephalitis virus into new environments, changes in agricultural practice and animal vectors, climate change, peri-urban growth, changes in international travel to Asia, personal risk factors, mosquito vector free transmission, interactions with other flaviviruses and better information on infections without encephalitis and other factors make Japanese Encephalitis an underappreciated risk...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883983/antibiotic-resistance-in-campylobacter-and-other-diarrheal-pathogens-isolated-from-us-military-personnel-deployed-to-thailand-in-2002-2004-a-case-control-study
#11
Carl J Mason, Siriporn Sornsakrin, Jessica C Seidman, Apichai Srijan, Oralak Serichantalergs, Nucharee Thongsen, Michael W Ellis, Viseth Ngauy, Brett E Swierczewski, Ladaporn Bodhidatta
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter continues to be an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and a leading cause in Southeast Asia. Studies of US soldiers and marines deployed to Thailand for a 2 to 3 week field exercise provide a unique population in which to study traveler's diarrhea. METHODS: A case-control study of 217 deployed military personnel was conducted from 2002 through 2004. Of these, 155 subjects who presented to a field medical unit with acute diarrhea were enrolled as cases...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883982/assessment-of-the-agreement-between-the-framingham-and-dad-risk-equations-for-estimating-cardiovascular-risk-in-adult-africans-living-with-hiv-infection-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Steve Raoul Noumegni, Vicky Jocelyne Moor Ama, Felix K Assah, Jean Joel Bigna, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Jenny Arielle M Kameni, Jean-Claude Katte, Mesmin Y Dehayem, Andre Pascal Kengne, Eugene Sobngwi
BACKGROUND: The Absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk evaluation using multivariable CVD risk models is increasingly advocated in people with HIV, in whom existing models remain largely untested. We assessed the agreement between the general population derived Framingham CVD risk equation and the HIV-specific Data collection on Adverse effects of anti-HIV Drugs (DAD) CVD risk equation in HIV-infected adult Cameroonians. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 452 HIV infected adults recruited at the HIV day-care unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883981/immunization-of-mice-with-soluble-lysate-of-interferon-gamma-expressing-plasmodium-berghei-anka%C3%A2-induces-high-ifn-%C3%AE-production
#13
Ebenezer Taylor, Faith Onditi, Naomi Maina, Hastings Ozwara
BACKGROUND: Efforts in search of lasting malaria vaccine have led to the development of transgenic rodent malaria parasites. As a result, wild type Plasmodium berghei ANKA (WTPbA) has recently been transformed to express mouse interferon gamma (mIFN-γ). The immunomodulatory effect of this transgenic parasite on WTPbA infection has been demonstrated. However, the protective immune responses after repeated immunization with soluble lysate of this parasite has not been investigated. METHODS: Soluble lysate of transgenic PbA (TPbA) was prepared and concentration of IFN-γ in lysate determined by ELISA...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883980/guidelines-for-the-prevention-of-travel-associated-illness-in-older-adults
#14
REVIEW
Tida K Lee, Jack N Hutter, Jennifer Masel, Christie Joya, Timothy J Whitman
International travel to the developing world is becoming more common in elderly patients (defined here as individuals greater than 65 years old). When providing pre-travel counseling, providers must appreciate the changing physiology, comorbidities, immunity and pharmacokinetics associated with the aging process to prepare elderly patients for the stressors of international travel. These guidelines present an evidence-based approach to pre-travel counseling, immunization, and pharmacology concerns unique to elderly patients seeking care in a travel clinic setting...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883979/review-chronic-and-persistent-diarrhea-with-a-focus-in-the-returning-traveler
#15
REVIEW
Christopher A Duplessis, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Chad K Porter
BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea is a common malady afflicting up to 50% of travelers after a 2-week travel period. An appreciable percentage of these cases will become persistent or chronic. We summarized the published literature reporting persistent/chronic diarrhea in travelers elucidating current understanding of disease incidence, etiology and regional variability. METHODS: We searched electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Cochrane database of clinical trials) from 1990 to 2015 using the following terms: "chronic or persistent diarrh* and (returning) travel* or enteropathogen, GeoSentinel, and travel-associated infection...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883978/sanitation-for-all-the-global-opportunity-to-increase-transgenerational-health-gains-and-better-understand-the-link-between-ncds-and-ntds-a-scoping-review
#16
REVIEW
Shiva Raj Mishra, Meghnath Dhimal, Parash Mani Bhandari, Bipin Adhikari
The global sanitation divide is narrowing. However, in many countries in Asia and Africa, the gap between rural and urban sanitation coverage is rather widening. Moreover, there is an increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), notwithstanding to the already high burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). A scientific query is building on how the global 'sanitation for all' goal will address the dual burden of NTDs and NCDs, and help further understand the link between the two. This paper aims to discuss the link between i) sanitation and NTDs, and ii) sanitation and NCDs through a scoping review of the literature...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883977/management-of-plasmodium-vivax-risk-and-illness-in-travelers
#17
EDITORIAL
J Kevin Baird
Malaria poses an exceptionally complex problem for providers of travel medicine services. Perceived high risk of exposure during travel typically prompts prescribing protective antimalarial drugs. Suppressive chemoprophylactic agents have dominated strategy for that practice for over 70 years. This broad class of therapeutic agents kills parasites after they emerge from the liver and attempt development in red blood cells. The dominance of suppressive chemoprophylaxis in travel medicine stems largely from the view of Plasmodium falciparum as the utmost threat to the patient - these drugs are poorly suited to preventing Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale due to inactivity against the latent liver stages of these species not produced by P...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883976/prospecting-for-an-hiv-vaccine
#18
REVIEW
D M Brett-Major, T A Crowell, N L Michael
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sets several challenges for the development of a preventative HIV vaccine. Predictable, protective natural immunity against HIV does not occur and so unlike most other diseases for which vaccines exist, there are few guideposts from natural infection. Nonetheless, six vaccine efficacy trials have occurred. One in particular, the Thai trial called RV144, showed partial protective efficacy and potential ways ahead to a better vaccine approach. This coupled with other lessons from studies of acute infections as well as an increasingly complex knowledge of HIV-related vaccine immunology bring hope that a vaccine solution might be reached for this pervasive and deadly pandemic...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883975/more-harm-than-good-the-questionable-ethics-of-medical-volunteering-and-international-student-placements
#19
Irmgard Bauer
It has been argued that much of international medical volunteering is done for the wrong reasons, in that local people serve as a means to meet volunteers' needs, or for the right reasons but ignorance and ill-preparedness harm the intended beneficiaries, often without volunteers' grasp of the damage caused. The literature on ethical concerns in medical volunteering has grown tremendously over the last years highlighting the need for appropriate guidelines. These same concerns, however, and an appreciation of the reasons why current aid paradigms are flawed, can serve as indicators on how to change existing practices to ensure a better outcome for those who are in need of help...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883974/the-salivary-gland-as-a-target-for-enhancing-immunization-response
#20
REVIEW
Todd A Ponzio, John W Sanders
BACKGROUND: An organism's immune response to a vaccine is dependent on a number of factors, including the site of immunization. While muscle is the most common site for vaccine administration, other sites, including the salivary gland, are poised to confer stronger and broader immunoprotection. FINDINGS: Studies exploring the salivary gland as an immunization site have involved protein antigens, as well as live pathogens and DNA vaccines. While intraductal instillation of protein antigens into the salivary gland may result in a relatively transient increase in antibody production, DNA or attenuated pathogen vaccination appear to confer a lasting widespread mucosal immune response that includes robust salivary and enteric IgA, as well as high levels of circulating IgG...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
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