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International Journal of Insect Science

Azubuike Christian Ukubuiwe, Israel Kayode Olayemi, Innocent Chukwuemeka James Omalu, Francis Ofurum Arimoro, Bulus Musa Baba, Chinenye Catherine Ukubuiwe
This study investigated the effects of varying photoperiodic conditions on critical life stages' parameters of Culex quinquefasciatus . To this end, first larval stage was reared under different constant photoperiodic regimens: 0, 6 (short), 12 (equal), 13 (prevailing condition), and 18 and 24 (long) hours of light (hL). Duration of development, survivorship, emergence successes, adult longevity, caloric indices (CIs), and utilisation of teneral reserves for metamorphosis at each regimen were monitored. Analyses revealed significant negative effects of increasing photoperiod on all entomological variables measured...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Eric W Riddick, Zhixin Wu, Fred J Eller, Mark A Berhow
Maximizing the reproductive potential of ladybird beetles fed factitious foods or artificial diets, in lieu of natural prey, is a major challenge to cost-effective mass rearing for augmentative biological control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that compounds in redcedar, Juniperus virginiana , stimulate oviposition in the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata . We also tested the prediction that several bioflavonoids, identified in heartwood fractions, elicited this behavioral response. Phenolic compounds were extracted from J...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Maria Luisa Dindo, Satoshi Nakamura
Oviposition strategies and mechanisms of host selection in parasitoids may be crucial for the success of parasitization and parasitoid production. These aspects are far less known in tachinid parasitoids than in hymenopteran parasitoids. Depending on the species, parasitoid flies may adopt direct or indirect oviposition strategies. The 'direct type' females lay eggs on or, in relatively a few species, inside the host body. This review describes cues involved in host selection by tachinid parasitoids and their oviposition strategies and presents 2 case studies in more detail, focusing on Exorista larvarum and Exorista japonica ...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Lee Eisenberg, Seth Johnson, Michael J Grodowitz
The morphology of the female Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands reproductive system is similar to other weevil species being meroistic and telotrophic. The reproductive system is composed of 2 ovaries each containing 2 ovarioles where the follicles mature. A physiological age grading system was developed where the continuum of ovarium development was divided into 2 nulliparous and 3 parous classes. This was based on the differentiation of the ovarioles, presence, and appearance of follicular relics, cuticle hardness/coloration, and fat body quantity/appearance...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Thomas E Marler, Anders J Lindström, Paris N Marler
Chilades pandava (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) larval food quality was studied to determine its influence on adult life history traits. A wild population from Cycas nongnoochiae (Cycadales: Cycadaceae) endemic habitat behaved similarly to the population collected from a garden setting. Cycas micronesica, Cycas revoluta , and Cycas seemannii leaves were used as high-quality food, whereas C nongnoochiae, Cycas taitungensis , and Cycas condaoensis leaves were used as low-quality food. The daily oviposition rate was not influenced by food quality, but longevity and lifetime fecundity of females were increased by high-quality larval food...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
Kolade T Ibrahim, Kehinde O Popoola, Kenneth O Akure
The nature and type of local indoor resting wall surfaces to certain level influences the residual bio-efficacy of insecticides used in indoor residual spraying programs. Knockdown and mortality effects of an organophosphate Actellic 300 CS and pyrethroid K-Othrine WG 250 insecticides on the field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus were assessed bimonthly from July to November 2014, using World Health Organization (WHO) cones bioassay test. Knockdown and mortality rates were subjected to statistical analysis using χ2 and Student t tests...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
Grant T McQuate, Charmaine D Sylva, Nicanor J Liquido
Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp ("mango relatives") which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
Weste LA Osbrink, John A Goolsby, Don B Thomas, Alba Mejorado, Allan T Showler, Adalberto Pérez De León
Our hypothesis was that there will be greater ant biodiversity in heterogeneous native vegetation compared with Arundo stands. Changes in ant biodiversity due to Arundo invasion may be one of the ecological changes in the landscape that facilitates the invasion of cattle fever ticks from Mexico where they are endemic. Ants collected in pitfall traps were identified and compared between native vegetation and stands of Arundo, Arundo donax L., monthly for a year at 10 locations. A total of 82 752 ants representing 28 genera and 76 species were collected...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
Anuar Morales-Rodriguez, Aracely Ospina, Kevin W Wanner
The basic principles of a reliable integrated pest management program include pest identification, monitoring, and distribution. Selecting the appropriate sampling protocol to monitor wireworm for research or applied entomology depends on the objective, including simply detecting the presence or absence of wireworm, surveying the composition of wireworm assemblages, or estimating spatial and temporal population densities. In this study, the efficacy of pitfall, stocking, pot, and canister traps baited with wheat and barley mixtures was evaluated for monitoring wireworm populations in four commercial cereal fields in Montana...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
Bridget O Bobadoye, Paul N Ndegwa, Lucy Irungu, Ayuka T Fombong
Habitat degradation has over time formed synergy with other factors to contribute to dwindling populations of both fauna and flora by altering their habitats. The disturbance of natural habitats affects the diversity of both vertebrates and invertebrates by altering both feeding and nesting sites for which organisms are known to depend on for survival. Little is known of the extent to which vulnerable habitats could shape the diversity of most indigent pollinators such as African meliponine bee species in tropical ecosystems...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
Paul-André Calatayud, Stéphane Dupas, Brigitte Frérot, Gilles Genestier, Peter Ahuya, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Bruno Le Ru
The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
Karel Sláma, Jan Lukáš
The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Barry R Pittendrigh, Larry L Murdock
Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
Asma Mahmoud Hamza, El Amin El Rayah
Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
Christopher H Wearing
Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10-15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
Abdul Rashid War, Suraj Prasad Sharma, Hari Chand Sharma
Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
Lame Younoussa, Elias Nchiwan Nukenine, Charles Okechukwu Esimone
Mosquitoes are vectors of several human pathogens, and great attention has recently been placed on insecticides from plant-derived products, in search for mosquito control agents. This study, thus, investigated the potency of Boswellia dalzielii methanol leaf extract and its four fractions as mosquito ovicide, larvicide, and pupicide against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant products were tested at the following concentrations: 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm on eggs and 312.5, 625, 1250, and 2500 ppm on the larvae and pupae of the mosquitoes...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
A V Oyedokun, D O Adeniyi
The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
Azubuike C Ukubuiwe, Israel K Olayemi, Aisha I Jibrin
The need to have an improved knowledge on the bioecology of Culex quinquefasciatus, a prerequisite in the development of cost-effective control strategies, has informed the present preliminary investigation to put in better perspective variations that exist in the egg rafts of the species. Freshly laid egg rafts were collected and incubated at ambient temperature in well-labeled plastic trays. The results showed overall inconsistency in all indices monitored for the egg rafts. Generally, survivorship was high for the species...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
Ming-Hui Jin, Xiao-Long Zhao, Guang-Yue Li, Xiao-Zhi Che, Zhen-Gang Liu, Chao-Bin Xue
Phenoloxidase (PO) is an important enzyme in insect life, which is involved in important physical functions, such as defensive encapsulation and melanization of foreign organisms and wound healing. In this study, we obtained a cDNA sequence of 2838 bp with 2049 open reading frames encoding 682 amino acids. The protein sequence deduced from the cDNA has high homology with the known PPO1 sequences of other lepidopterous insects. There were three conserved regions, including the two copper-binding sites characteristic of arthropod PPOs...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
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