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International Journal of Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890657/natural-field-infestation-of-mangifera-casturi-and-mangifera-lalijiwa-by-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-diptera-tephritidae
#1
Grant T McQuate, Charmaine D Sylva, Nicanor J Liquido
Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp ("mango relatives") which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835737/higher-ant-diversity-in-native-vegetation-than-in-stands-of-the-invasive-arundo-arundo-donax-l-along-the-rio-grande-basin-in-texas-usa
#2
Weste LA Osbrink, John A Goolsby, Don B Thomas, Alba Mejorado, Allan T Showler, Adalberto Pérez De León
Our hypothesis was that there will be greater ant biodiversity in heterogeneous native vegetation compared with Arundo stands. Changes in ant biodiversity due to Arundo invasion may be one of the ecological changes in the landscape that facilitates the invasion of cattle fever ticks from Mexico where they are endemic. Ants collected in pitfall traps were identified and compared between native vegetation and stands of Arundo, Arundo donax L., monthly for a year at 10 locations. A total of 82 752 ants representing 28 genera and 76 species were collected...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634430/evaluation-of-four-bait-traps-for-sampling-wireworm-coleoptera-elateridae-infesting-cereal-crops-in-montana
#3
Anuar Morales-Rodriguez, Aracely Ospina, Kevin W Wanner
The basic principles of a reliable integrated pest management program include pest identification, monitoring, and distribution. Selecting the appropriate sampling protocol to monitor wireworm for research or applied entomology depends on the objective, including simply detecting the presence or absence of wireworm, surveying the composition of wireworm assemblages, or estimating spatial and temporal population densities. In this study, the efficacy of pitfall, stocking, pot, and canister traps baited with wheat and barley mixtures was evaluated for monitoring wireworm populations in four commercial cereal fields in Montana...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579849/vulnerable-habitats-alter-african-meliponine-bee-s-hymenoptera-apidae-assemblages-in-an-eastern-afromontane-biodiversity-hotspot
#4
Bridget O Bobadoye, Paul N Ndegwa, Lucy Irungu, Ayuka T Fombong
Habitat degradation has over time formed synergy with other factors to contribute to dwindling populations of both fauna and flora by altering their habitats. The disturbance of natural habitats affects the diversity of both vertebrates and invertebrates by altering both feeding and nesting sites for which organisms are known to depend on for survival. Little is known of the extent to which vulnerable habitats could shape the diversity of most indigent pollinators such as African meliponine bee species in tropical ecosystems...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867304/relationships-of-reproductive-traits-with-the-phylogeny-of-the-african-noctuid-stem-borers
#5
Paul-André Calatayud, Stéphane Dupas, Brigitte Frérot, Gilles Genestier, Peter Ahuya, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Bruno Le Ru
The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790049/hypermetabolic-conversion-of-plant-oil-into-water-endothermic-biochemical-process-stimulated-by-juvenile-hormone-in-the-european-firebug-pyrrhocoris-apterus-l
#6
Karel Sláma, Jan Lukáš
The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594789/plant-defense-inhibitors-affect-the-structures-of-midgut-cells-in-drosophila-melanogaster-and-callosobruchus-maculatus
#7
Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Barry R Pittendrigh, Larry L Murdock
Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547039/a-qualitative-evidence-of-the-breeding-sites-of-anopheles-arabiensis-patton-diptera-culicidae-in-and-around-kassala-town-eastern-sudan
#8
Asma Mahmoud Hamza, El Amin El Rayah
Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429560/distribution-characteristics-of-eggs-and-neonate-larvae-of-codling-moth-cydia-pomonella-l-lepidoptera-tortricidae
#9
Christopher H Wearing
Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10-15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398031/differential-induction-of-flavonoids-in-groundnut-in-response-to-helicoverpa-armigera-and-aphis-craccivora-infestation
#10
Abdul Rashid War, Suraj Prasad Sharma, Hari Chand Sharma
Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279752/toxicity-of-boswellia-dalzielii-burseraceae-leaf-fractions-against-immature-stages-of-anopheles-gambiae-giles-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-say-diptera-culicidae
#11
Lame Younoussa, Elias Nchiwan Nukenine, Charles Okechukwu Esimone
Mosquitoes are vectors of several human pathogens, and great attention has recently been placed on insecticides from plant-derived products, in search for mosquito control agents. This study, thus, investigated the potency of Boswellia dalzielii methanol leaf extract and its four fractions as mosquito ovicide, larvicide, and pupicide against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant products were tested at the following concentrations: 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm on eggs and 312.5, 625, 1250, and 2500 ppm on the larvae and pupae of the mosquitoes...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147898/microbial-diversity-in-the-gut-of-cashew-stem-girdler-analeptes-trifasciata-fabricius-coleoptera-cerambycidae-in-ibadan-nigeria
#12
A V Oyedokun, D O Adeniyi
The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013900/genetic-variations-in-bionomics-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae-mosquito-population-in-minna-north-central-nigeria
#13
Azubuike C Ukubuiwe, Israel K Olayemi, Aisha I Jibrin
The need to have an improved knowledge on the bioecology of Culex quinquefasciatus, a prerequisite in the development of cost-effective control strategies, has informed the present preliminary investigation to put in better perspective variations that exist in the egg rafts of the species. Freshly laid egg rafts were collected and incubated at ambient temperature in well-labeled plastic trays. The results showed overall inconsistency in all indices monitored for the egg rafts. Generally, survivorship was high for the species...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966394/molecular-characterization-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-a-prophenoloxidase-1-ppo1-in-plutella-xylostella
#14
Ming-Hui Jin, Xiao-Long Zhao, Guang-Yue Li, Xiao-Zhi Che, Zhen-Gang Liu, Chao-Bin Xue
Phenoloxidase (PO) is an important enzyme in insect life, which is involved in important physical functions, such as defensive encapsulation and melanization of foreign organisms and wound healing. In this study, we obtained a cDNA sequence of 2838 bp with 2049 open reading frames encoding 682 amino acids. The protein sequence deduced from the cDNA has high homology with the known PPO1 sequences of other lepidopterous insects. There were three conserved regions, including the two copper-binding sites characteristic of arthropod PPOs...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26816489/resistance-level-of-mosquito-species-diptera-culicidae-from-shandong-province-china
#15
Hong-Mei Liu, Pei-Pei Yang, Peng Cheng, Hai-Fang Wang, Li-Juan Liu, Xiaodan Huang, Yu-Qiang Zhao, Huai-Wei Wang, Chong-Xing Zhang, Mao-Qing Gong
This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay...
2015: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26816488/efficacy-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-var-kurstaki-against-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l-eggs-and-larvae-on-cabbage-under-semi-controlled-greenhouse-conditions
#16
Mitch M Legwaila, David C Munthali, Baone C Kwerepe, Motshwari Obopile
The efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) (Btk) against the diamondback moth (DBM) on cabbage was studied at Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana. Using five concentrations of Btk: 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/L, bioassays were conducted against DBM eggs and second instar larvae at 30°C ± 5°C. Each treatment was replicated three times. Probit analysis was used to determine the LD50 and LD90 values for the treatments against eggs and larvae. When the treatments were assessed at 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours, LD90 values against larvae were 11...
2015: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26816487/melon-fly-bactrocera-cucurbitae-diptera-tephritidae-infestation-in-host-fruits-in-the-southwestern-islands-of-japan-before-the-initiation-of-island-wide-population-suppression-as-recorded-in-publications-of-japanese-public-institutions
#17
REVIEW
Grant T McQuate, Tadashi Teruya
Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here...
2015: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26816486/stable-fly-stomoxys-calcitrans-l-dispersal-and-governing-factors
#18
REVIEW
Allan T Showler, Weste L A Osbrink
Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (<13 km), fly movement occurs between host animals and resting sites to feed and mate, mainly at on-farm locations where herbivorous livestock regularly congregate. Small numbers emigrate from livestock congregation sites in search of other hosts and oviposition substrate, mostly within <1.6 km. Such local movement occurs by flight ~90 cm above ground, or with moving livestock...
2015: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26816485/oxidative-damaged-products-level-of-hydrogen-peroxide-and-antioxidant-protection-in-diapausing-pupa-of-tasar-silk-worm-antheraea-mylitta-a-comparative-study-in-two-voltine-groups
#19
Alpana Sahoo, Jagneshwar Dandapat, Luna Samanta
The present study demonstrates tissue-specific (hemolymph and fat body) and inter-voltine [bivoltine (BV) and trivoltine (TV)] differences in oxidatively damaged products, H2O2 content, and the relative level of antioxidant protection in the diapausing pupae of Antheraea mylitta. Results suggest that fat body (FB) of both the voltine groups has oxidative predominance, as evident from the high value of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content, despite better enzymatic defenses in comparison to hemolymph (HL). This may be attributed to the higher metabolic rate of the tissue concerned, concomitant with high lipid content and abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)...
2015: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26816484/assessment-of-navel-oranges-clementine-tangerines-and-rutaceous-fruits-as-hosts-of-bactrocera-cucurbitae-and-bactrocera-latifrons-diptera-tephritidae
#20
Grant T McQuate, Peter A Follett, Nicanor J Liquido, Charmaine D Sylva
Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L...
2015: International Journal of Insect Science
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