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International Journal of Insect Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305796/the-amylases-of-insects
#1
REVIEW
Jean-Luc Da Lage
Alpha-amylases are major digestive enzymes that act in the first step of maltopolysaccharide digestion. In insects, these enzymes have long been studied for applied as well as purely scientific purposes. In many species, amylases are produced by multiple gene copies. Rare species are devoid of Amy gene. They are predominantly secreted in the midgut but salivary expression is also frequent, with extraoral activity. Enzymological parameters are quite variable among insects, with visible trends according to phylogeny: Coleopteran amylases have acidic optimum activity, whereas dipteran amylases have neutral preference and lepidopteran ones have clear alkaline preference...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30186031/leaf-damage-by-phytophagous-beetles-alters-terminalia-catappa-green-and-senesced-leaf-chemistry
#2
Thomas E Marler
Chemical traits of Terminalia catappa L. leaves were determined on the island of Guam to understand the changes caused by beetle leaf herbivory. Green leaf chemistry indicated nitrogen was the most limiting nutrient in the climate and soils of Guam. The changes in leaf chemistry following beetle damage were extensive. Senesced leaf chemistry indicated beetle damage decreased some traits that predict lower leaf litter quality, such as lignin, but also decreased some traits that predict higher leaf litter quality, such as nitrogen...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150876/comments-to-recent-studies-showing-systemic-mechanisms-enabling-drosophila-larvae-to-recover-from-stress-induced-damages
#3
Yoichi Hayakawa
Compensational recovery from the damage created by stressors is important for all animals. However, how organisms recover from stress-induced negative impacts has been poorly understood. An 1-hour exposure to heat stress at 35°C led to reduced feeding activity of Drosophila melanogaster larvae, which caused reduction in body weight 2 hours after the stress, but not at other times. Such weight losses seem to be rescued by following enhanced feeding activities. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the accelerated feeding activity after the stress-induced reduction in feeding behavior...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090021/potential-of-botanicals-to-control-callosobruchus-maculatus-col-chrysomelidae-bruchinae-a-major-pest-of-stored-cowpeas-in-burkina-faso-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Antoine Sanon, Ilboudo Zakaria, Dabire-Binso Clémentine L, Ba Malick Niango, Nébié Roger Charles Honora
Cowpea is an essential food legume in the tropics and particularly for sub-Saharan African populations. Postharvest grain storage, however, is a major constraint for crop expansion and year-round availability due to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F., the main storage pest of cowpeas in West Africa. The use of chemicals for cowpea storage is a common practice which represents, however, a risk for consumers, environment, and could also exacerbate pest control. In Burkina Faso, since the early 2000s, several scientific investigations have focused on the control of C maculatus using botanicals considered as promising and safe alternatives to chemicals...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090020/oviposition-strategies-in-beneficial-insects
#5
EDITORIAL
Eric W Riddick, Maria Luisa Dindo, Michael J Grodowitz, Ted E Cottrell
AIMS AND SCOPE: The aim of this special collection is to highlight the importance of reproduction (ie, oviposition) in the life history, population dynamics, survival, and fitness of beneficial insects, broadly defined. Specific areas of interest include the (1) identification of natural products to boost oviposition; (2) importance of chemical cues in oviposition site selection; (3) influence of host plant defenses on oviposition success; (4) reproductive physiology and the frequency of egg laying; (5) trade-offs between maternal size and egg size; (6) foraging behavior, host selection, and oviposition in parasitoids; and (7) oviposition decisions in the face of intraguild predators...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090019/description-of-a-new-genus-and-new-species-of-soft-scale-insect-hemiptera-coccomorpha-coccidae-from-cuba
#6
Nereida Mestre-Novoa, Takumasa Kondo
A new neotropical genus and species of soft scale insect from Cuba, Hamonicoccus Mestre and Kondo gen. nov. is described and Hamonicoccus alayoi Mestre and Kondo sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) is described and illustrated based on the adult female. The species was collected in Cayos de las Cinco Leguas, Matanzas Province, on Capparis cynophallophora (Capparaceae), and in Surgidero de Batabanó, Mayabeque Province, on Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae). The affinities of H alayoi sp. nov. with closely related species is discussed based on published literature...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636636/effects-of-varying-photoperiodic-regimens-on-critical-biological-fitness-traits-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae-mosquito-vector
#7
Azubuike Christian Ukubuiwe, Israel Kayode Olayemi, Innocent Chukwuemeka James Omalu, Francis Ofurum Arimoro, Bulus Musa Baba, Chinenye Catherine Ukubuiwe
This study investigated the effects of varying photoperiodic conditions on critical life stages' parameters of Culex quinquefasciatus . To this end, first larval stage was reared under different constant photoperiodic regimens: 0, 6 (short), 12 (equal), 13 (prevailing condition), and 18 and 24 (long) hours of light (hL). Duration of development, survivorship, emergence successes, adult longevity, caloric indices (CIs), and utilisation of teneral reserves for metamorphosis at each regimen were monitored. Analyses revealed significant negative effects of increasing photoperiod on all entomological variables measured...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531477/do-bioflavonoids-in-juniperus-virginiana-heartwood-stimulate-oviposition-in-the-ladybird-coleomegilla-maculata
#8
Eric W Riddick, Zhixin Wu, Fred J Eller, Mark A Berhow
Maximizing the reproductive potential of ladybird beetles fed factitious foods or artificial diets, in lieu of natural prey, is a major challenge to cost-effective mass rearing for augmentative biological control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that compounds in redcedar, Juniperus virginiana , stimulate oviposition in the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata . We also tested the prediction that several bioflavonoids, identified in heartwood fractions, elicited this behavioral response. Phenolic compounds were extracted from J...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531476/oviposition-strategies-of-tachinid-parasitoids-two-exorista-species-as-case-studies
#9
REVIEW
Maria Luisa Dindo, Satoshi Nakamura
Oviposition strategies and mechanisms of host selection in parasitoids may be crucial for the success of parasitization and parasitoid production. These aspects are far less known in tachinid parasitoids than in hymenopteran parasitoids. Depending on the species, parasitoid flies may adopt direct or indirect oviposition strategies. The 'direct type' females lay eggs on or, in relatively a few species, inside the host body. This review describes cues involved in host selection by tachinid parasitoids and their oviposition strategies and presents 2 case studies in more detail, focusing on Exorista larvarum and Exorista japonica ...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371784/the-reproductive-morphology-and-physiological-age-grading-of-the-female-salvinia-weevil-cyrtobagous-salviniae-calder-and-sands
#10
REVIEW
Lee Eisenberg, Seth Johnson, Michael J Grodowitz
The morphology of the female Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands reproductive system is similar to other weevil species being meroistic and telotrophic. The reproductive system is composed of 2 ovaries each containing 2 ovarioles where the follicles mature. A physiological age grading system was developed where the continuum of ovarium development was divided into 2 nulliparous and 3 parous classes. This was based on the differentiation of the ovarioles, presence, and appearance of follicular relics, cuticle hardness/coloration, and fat body quantity/appearance...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238238/diversity-in-cycas-cycadales-cycadaceae-species-offered-as-larval-food-influences-fecundity-of-chilades-pandava-lepidoptera-lycaenidae-adults
#11
Thomas E Marler, Anders J Lindström, Paris N Marler
Chilades pandava (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) larval food quality was studied to determine its influence on adult life history traits. A wild population from Cycas nongnoochiae (Cycadales: Cycadaceae) endemic habitat behaved similarly to the population collected from a garden setting. Cycas micronesica, Cycas revoluta , and Cycas seemannii leaves were used as high-quality food, whereas C nongnoochiae, Cycas taitungensis , and Cycas condaoensis leaves were used as low-quality food. The daily oviposition rate was not influenced by food quality, but longevity and lifetime fecundity of females were increased by high-quality larval food...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147079/laboratory-evaluation-of-residual-efficacy-of-actellic-300-cs-pirimiphos-methyl-and-k-othrine-wg-250-deltamethrin-on-different-indoor-surfaces
#12
Kolade T Ibrahim, Kehinde O Popoola, Kenneth O Akure
The nature and type of local indoor resting wall surfaces to certain level influences the residual bio-efficacy of insecticides used in indoor residual spraying programs. Knockdown and mortality effects of an organophosphate Actellic 300 CS and pyrethroid K-Othrine WG 250 insecticides on the field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus were assessed bimonthly from July to November 2014, using World Health Organization (WHO) cones bioassay test. Knockdown and mortality rates were subjected to statistical analysis using χ2 and Student t tests...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890657/natural-field-infestation-of-mangifera-casturi-and-mangifera-lalijiwa-by-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-diptera-tephritidae
#13
Grant T McQuate, Charmaine D Sylva, Nicanor J Liquido
Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp ("mango relatives") which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835737/higher-ant-diversity-in-native-vegetation-than-in-stands-of-the-invasive-arundo-arundo-donax-l-along-the-rio-grande-basin-in-texas-usa
#14
Weste LA Osbrink, John A Goolsby, Don B Thomas, Alba Mejorado, Allan T Showler, Adalberto Pérez De León
Our hypothesis was that there will be greater ant biodiversity in heterogeneous native vegetation compared with Arundo stands. Changes in ant biodiversity due to Arundo invasion may be one of the ecological changes in the landscape that facilitates the invasion of cattle fever ticks from Mexico where they are endemic. Ants collected in pitfall traps were identified and compared between native vegetation and stands of Arundo, Arundo donax L., monthly for a year at 10 locations. A total of 82 752 ants representing 28 genera and 76 species were collected...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634430/evaluation-of-four-bait-traps-for-sampling-wireworm-coleoptera-elateridae-infesting-cereal-crops-in-montana
#15
Anuar Morales-Rodriguez, Aracely Ospina, Kevin W Wanner
The basic principles of a reliable integrated pest management program include pest identification, monitoring, and distribution. Selecting the appropriate sampling protocol to monitor wireworm for research or applied entomology depends on the objective, including simply detecting the presence or absence of wireworm, surveying the composition of wireworm assemblages, or estimating spatial and temporal population densities. In this study, the efficacy of pitfall, stocking, pot, and canister traps baited with wheat and barley mixtures was evaluated for monitoring wireworm populations in four commercial cereal fields in Montana...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579849/vulnerable-habitats-alter-african-meliponine-bee-s-hymenoptera-apidae-assemblages-in-an-eastern-afromontane-biodiversity-hotspot
#16
Bridget O Bobadoye, Paul N Ndegwa, Lucy Irungu, Ayuka T Fombong
Habitat degradation has over time formed synergy with other factors to contribute to dwindling populations of both fauna and flora by altering their habitats. The disturbance of natural habitats affects the diversity of both vertebrates and invertebrates by altering both feeding and nesting sites for which organisms are known to depend on for survival. Little is known of the extent to which vulnerable habitats could shape the diversity of most indigent pollinators such as African meliponine bee species in tropical ecosystems...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867304/relationships-of-reproductive-traits-with-the-phylogeny-of-the-african-noctuid-stem-borers
#17
Paul-André Calatayud, Stéphane Dupas, Brigitte Frérot, Gilles Genestier, Peter Ahuya, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Bruno Le Ru
The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790049/hypermetabolic-conversion-of-plant-oil-into-water-endothermic-biochemical-process-stimulated-by-juvenile-hormone-in-the-european-firebug-pyrrhocoris-apterus-l
#18
Karel Sláma, Jan Lukáš
The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594789/plant-defense-inhibitors-affect-the-structures-of-midgut-cells-in-drosophila-melanogaster-and-callosobruchus-maculatus
#19
Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Barry R Pittendrigh, Larry L Murdock
Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547039/a-qualitative-evidence-of-the-breeding-sites-of-anopheles-arabiensis-patton-diptera-culicidae-in-and-around-kassala-town-eastern-sudan
#20
Asma Mahmoud Hamza, El Amin El Rayah
Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
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