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Abdominal Radiology

Jordi Rimola, Matthew S Davenport, Peter S Liu, Theodore Brown, Jorge A Marrero, Barbara J McKenna, Hero K Hussain
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of extracellular gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI (Gd-MRI) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) for the assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) response to locoregional therapy (LRT) using explant correlation as the reference standard. METHODS: Forty-nine subjects with cirrhosis and HCC treated with LRT who underwent liver MRI using either Gd-MRI (n = 26) or EOB-MRI (n = 23) within 90 days of liver transplantation were included...
September 14, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Venkatraman Indiran, Kanakaraj Kannan, Tirumalasetty Ramachandra Prasad, Prabakaran Maduraimuthu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Michio Taya, Cody McHargue, Zina J Ricci, Milana Flusberg, Stefanie Weinstein, Judy Yee
PURPOSE: To compare the distribution of extracolonic findings and clinical outcomes between screening and diagnostic CT colonography (CTC) populations. METHODS: 388 consecutive patients (369 men, 19 women; mean ± SD age 67.8 ± 10 years) who underwent first-time CTC (4/2011-4/2017) at a Veteran's Affairs Medical Center were divided into screening (asymptomatic) or diagnostic (symptomatic) cohorts based on CTC indication. CTC reporting and data system E-scores for extracolonic findings were retrospectively assigned based on prospective CTC radiologic reports...
September 12, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Rehan Ali, Ahmed Gabr, Samdeep K Mouli, Joseph Ralph Kallini, Ahsun Riaz, Ronald Mora, Robert J Lewandowski, Elias Hohlastos, David D Casalino, Matthias D Hofer, Nabeel Hamoui, Frank H Miller, John Hairston, Riad Salem
PURPOSE: To assess changes in imaging and volume characteristics of the prostate gland by magnetic resonance (MR) following prostatic artery embolization (PAE) for benign prostate hyperplasia. METHODS: With IRB approval, we analyzed prospectively acquired MR data of PAE patients at baseline and 6-month following treatment from 2015 to 2017. We reviewed prostate MRs looking for sequelae of embolization [changes in signal intensity and/or enhancement, infection/inflammation, infarction, edema, and change in intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP)]...
September 8, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Jae Gu Oh, Seo-Youn Choi, Min Hee Lee, Ji Eun Lee, Boem Ha Yi, Seung Soo Kim, Ji Hye Min, Bora Lee
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to identify computed tomography (CT) findings that differentiate hepatic abscess from hepatic metastasis in a patient with a history of extrahepatic malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 30 patients with 93 hepatic abscesses and 40 patients with 125 hepatic metastases who had a history of extrahepatic malignancy and underwent contrast-enhanced dynamic CT with arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PVP)...
September 8, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Brian Morse, Daniel Jeong, Gary Ihnat, Alvin C Silva
Oncologic imaging is an important facet of abdominal imaging that radiologists encounter nearly every day. Many oncology clinical trials utilize response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 which divides tumor sites into target and non-target lesions. Although RECIST v1.1 provides clear instructions regarding the use of imaging in clinical trials, errors in response assessment still occur using these criteria. This is especially true of response assessment with regards to non-target lesions which involve rules which are less well-defined and somewhat subjective...
September 8, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Daniel C Oppenheimer, Parisa Mazaheri, David H Ballard, Motoyo Yano, Kathryn J Fowler
The placenta is commonly overlooked on magnetic resonance imaging of the pregnant patient, which is frequently performed for alternative reasons such as to characterize fetal or uterine anomalies or to investigate the etiology of acute pelvic pain in pregnancy. Placental disorders have potential for significant maternal and fetal morbidity and peripartum complications if not recognized and treated in a timely manner. The radiologist must be familiar with normal placental variants and the spectrum of benign to life-threatening conditions affecting the placenta so that the Obstetrician can be promptly notified and patient management altered, if necessary...
September 8, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Saskia Weltings, Sander Hulsbos, Gerard J Kieft, Rob C M Pelger, Hossain Roshani
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of the pyelocaliceal system anatomy is essential for the safe and successful performance of endourologic procedures. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the full three-dimensional pyelocaliceal system anatomy. METHODS: Morphometric parameters of the three-dimensional reconstructions of computed tomography intravenous urography scans (n = 25 scans) were analyzed. Both kidneys were divided into three equal-sized segments (US: upper segment, MS: mid segment, LS: lower segment)...
September 8, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Chuangen Guo, Xiaoling Zhuge, Zhongqiu Wang, Qidong Wang, Ke Sun, Zhan Feng, Xiao Chen
PURPOSE: Grades of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) are associated with the choice of treatment strategies. Texture analysis has been used in tumor diagnosis and staging evaluation. In this study, we aim to evaluate the potential ability of texture parameters in differentiation of PNENs grades. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 37 patients with histologically proven PNENs and underwent pretreatment dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography examinations were retrospectively analyzed...
September 4, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Huan L Chou, Nancy A Mohsen, Bruce B Garber, David C Feldstein
PURPOSE: Inflatable penile prostheses (IPPs) are widely used in the United States, for patients with erectile dysfunction refractory to other treatments. Complications subsequent to IPP insertion include infection, hematoma, fluid leak, component (cylinder/pump/reservoir) complications, and retained previous IPP components. Radiologists are often called upon to identify and characterize these complications utilizing CT prior to intervention. Our paper aims to provide a guide to familiarize radiologists with normal IPP component imaging and review the CT findings of commonly encountered complications...
September 1, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Nayana U Patel, Kimberly E Lind, Kavita Garg, David Crawford, Priya N Werahera, Sajal S Pokharel
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of PI-RADS v2 categories ≥ 3 to detect clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) against histopathology of Transperineal Mapping Biopsy (TPMB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: IRB-approved retrospective cohort study included 47 men who had 3.0 T multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) and TPMB of prostate. Two radiologists independently evaluated T2, DWI, ADC map, and DCE images using PI-RADS v2 categories. A third radiologist served as tie-breaker...
August 31, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Chansik An, Myeong-Jin Kim
We discuss various imaging features that have been reported to be associated with the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but not included in the current staging systems: findings related with microvascular invasion, tumor encapsulation, intratumoral fat, presence of satellite nodules, peritumoral hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic-acid enhanced MRI, restricted diffusion, and irregular rim-like hyperenhancement. Current evidence suggests that larger (> 2 cm) tumor size, presence of satellite nodules, presence of irregular rim-like hyperenhancement of a tumor, peritumoral parenchymal enhancement in the arterial phase, and peritumoral hypointensity observed on hepatobiliary phase images are independent imaging features to portend a worse prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma...
August 31, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Hanan Abdelhaleem, Hadeel Gamal Eldeen, Mohammed Mahmoud Nabeel, Reham Abdelmoniem, Wafaa Elakel, Naglaa Zayed, Zeinab Abdellatif, Bahaa Monir, Mohamed Said Abdelaziz, Sherif Mogawer, Mona Elamir, Mostafa Elshazli, Ayman Salah, Adel Hosny, Ayman Yosry
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Role of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, in transplant setting, is not well established. We aimed to define the normal mean values of the liver stiffness by ARFI Elastography in healthy liver donors and to evaluate ARFI elastography as predictor of graft fibrosis post living donor liver transplant (LDLT) in comparison to other non-invasive methods (transient elastography [TE], APRI and FIB4). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 100 subjects (70 recipients and 30 donors) were recruited...
August 31, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Kamonwon Cattapan, Thitinan Chulroek, Dearada Wancharoenrung, Hamed Kordbacheh, Mukesh Harisinghani
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of pelvic MR imaging in differentiating between low rectal and anal cancers using the pathological results as the gold standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, retrospective analysis of 100 patients with a history of low rectal (n = 50) or anal (n = 50) cancers who underwent staging pelvic MR imaging before treatment was performed. The following parameters were analyzed: distance from the anal verge to the tumor, percentage of tumor above puborectalis muscle, tumor size, T2W signal intensity, sphincter/levator muscles invasion, organ invasion, and MRI diagnosis...
August 31, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Ayman Alhasan, Milena Cerny, Damien Olivié, Jean-Sébastien Billiard, Catherine Bergeron, Kip Brown, Paule Bodson-Clermont, Hélène Castel, Simon Turcotte, Pierre Perreault, An Tang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) v2017 major features, the impact of ancillary features, and categories on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 59 patients (104 observations including 72 HCCs) with clinical suspicion of HCC undergoing CECT between 2013 and 2016. Two radiologists independently assessed major and ancillary imaging features for each liver observation and assigned a LI-RADS category based on major features only and in combination with ancillary features...
August 30, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Devon J Cole, Neil Wolfman, Raymond B Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Kamonwon Cattapan, Thitinan Chulroek, Hamed Kordbacheh, Dearada Wancharoenrung, Mukesh Harisinghani
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy between pre- and post-contrast MRI sequences in perianal fistulas using intra-operative findings as the gold standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 50 patients with a history of perianal fistula and MRI performed between January 2006 and January 2018 was performed. The inclusion criteria were patients who underwent MRI prior to surgery and had a detailed surgical report available. Pre- and post-contrast MR data sets were evaluated by two radiologists at two-week-intervals, assessed fistula type, internal/external opening, presence of abscess/secondary tracts, and confidence scores...
August 29, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Teresa S McQueen, Raymond B Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Serdar Aslan, Ilkay Camlidag, Mehmet Selim Nural
PURPOSE: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is used in the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but it may be inadequate in some cases. Tumor detection can be improved using rapid kV-switching dual-energy CT (rsDECT) and iodine maps. Our aim this study is to evaluate tumor conspicuity in PDAC cases using rsDECT and iodine maps. METHODS: Ninety cases with PDAC were evaluated rsDECT. Tumor contrast (HU) differences, tumor size, CNR (contrast-noise ratio), and noise were measured at 70 keV, individual CNR-energy level, and 45 keV, respectively...
August 28, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Chenxia Li, Haitian Liu, Xiang Li, Li Zhou, Rong Wang, Yuelang Zhang
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to explore the application of blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) in classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Twenty-nine cases with CKD and 27 healthy volunteers underwent renal BOLD-MRI. Cases of CKD were divided into two groups according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The R2* values were measured in renal cortex and medulla, respectively. The difference of R2* between renal cortex and medulla was compared, and the correlations of R2* value in renal cortex and medulla with eGFR were analyzed...
August 27, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
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