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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439480/appropriate-handling-processing-and-analysis-of-blood-samples-is-essential-to-avoid-oxidation-of-vitamin-c-to-dehydroascorbic-acid
#1
Juliet M Pullar, Simone Bayer, Anitra C Carr
Vitamin C (ascorbate) is the major water-soluble antioxidant in plasma and its oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) has been proposed as a marker of oxidative stress in vivo. However, controversy exists in the literature around the amount of DHA detected in blood samples collected from various patient cohorts. In this study, we report on DHA concentrations in a selection of different clinical cohorts (diabetes, pneumonia, cancer, and critically ill). All clinical samples were collected into EDTA anticoagulant tubes and processed at 4 °C prior to storage at -80 °C for subsequent analysis by HPLC with electrochemical detection...
February 11, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439455/carotenoids-antioxidant-properties
#2
EDITORIAL
Andrew J Young, Gordon L Lowe
The carotenoid group of pigments are ubiquitous in nature and more than 600 different carotenoids have been identified and characterized [1].[...].
February 11, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419774/a-naturally-occurring-antioxidant-complex-from-unripe-grapes-the-case-of-sangiovese-v-vitis-vinifera
#3
Giovanna Fia, Claudio Gori, Ginevra Bucalossi, Francesca Borghini, Bruno Zanoni
The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvents. The juice was dried by a spray-drying technique with the addition of arabic gum as support to obtain powder; juice and powder were characterized for antioxidant activity, phenolic concentration and profile...
February 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401716/do-coffee-polyphenols-have-a-preventive-action-on-metabolic-syndrome-associated-endothelial-dysfunctions-an-assessment-of-the-current-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Kazuo Yamagata
Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline...
February 4, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385710/a-review-of-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-human-manganese-superoxide-dismutase
#5
REVIEW
Jahaun Azadmanesh, Gloria E O Borgstahl
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are necessary antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Decreased levels of SODs or mutations that affect their catalytic activity have serious phenotypic consequences. SODs perform their bio-protective role by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide by cyclic oxidation and reduction reactions with the active site metal. Mutations of SODs can cause cancer of the lung, colon, and lymphatic system, as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
January 30, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382057/impact-of-thermal-degradation-of-cyanidin-3-o-glucoside-of-haskap-berry-on-cytotoxicity-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepg2-and-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cells
#6
Eric Pace, Yuanyuan Jiang, Amy Clemens, Tennille Crossman, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), the predominant anthocyanin in haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.), possesses antioxidant and many other biological activities. This study investigated the impact of temperature and pH on the degradation of the C3G-rich haskap fraction. The effect of the thermal degradation products on the viability of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells was also studied in vitro. Using column chromatography, the C3G-rich fraction was isolated from acetone extracts of haskap berries...
January 27, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382037/resuspendable-powders-of-lyophilized-chalcogen-particles-with-activity-against-microorganisms
#7
Sharoon Griffin, Muhammad Sarfraz, Steffen F Hartmann, Shashank Reddy Pinnapireddy, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Udo Bakowsky, Cornelia M Keck, Claus Jacob
Many organic sulfur, selenium and tellurium compounds show considerable activity against microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. This pronounced activity is often due to the specific, oxidizing redox behavior of the chalcogen-chalcogen bond present in such molecules. Interestingly, similar chalcogen-chalcogen motifs are also found in the elemental forms of these elements, and while those materials are insoluble in aqueous media, it has recently been possible to unlock their biological activities using naturally produced or homogenized suspensions of respective chalcogen nanoparticles...
January 27, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373543/vitamin-e-as-an-antioxidant-in-female-reproductive-health
#8
REVIEW
Siti Syairah Mohd Mutalip, Sharaniza Ab-Rahim, Mohd Hamim Rajikin
Vitamin E was first discovered in 1922 as a substance necessary for reproduction. Following this discovery, vitamin E was extensively studied, and it has become widely known as a powerful lipid-soluble antioxidant. There has been increasing interest in the role of vitamin E as an antioxidant, as it has been discovered to lower body cholesterol levels and act as an anticancer agent. Numerous studies have reported that vitamin E exhibits anti-proliferative, anti-survival, pro-apoptotic, and anti-angiogenic effects in cancer, as well as anti-inflammatory activities...
January 26, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370088/the-addition-of-manganese-porphyrins-during-radiation-inhibits-prostate-cancer-growth-and-simultaneously-protects-normal-prostate-tissue-from-radiation-damage
#9
Arpita Chatterjee, Yuxiang Zhu, Qiang Tong, Elizabeth A Kosmacek, Eliezer Z Lichter, Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan
Radiation therapy is commonly used for prostate cancer treatment; however, normal tissues can be damaged from the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by radiation. In separate reports, we and others have shown that manganese porphyrins (MnPs), ROS scavengers, protect normal cells from radiation-induced damage but inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. However, there have been no studies demonstrating that MnPs protect normal tissues, while inhibiting tumor growth in the same model. LNCaP or PC3 cells were orthotopically implanted into athymic mice and treated with radiation (2 Gy, for 5 consecutive days) in the presence or absence of MnPs...
January 25, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364189/polyphenolic-compounds-analysis-of-old-and-new-apple-cultivars-and-contribution-of-polyphenolic-profile-to-the-in-vitro-antioxidant-capacity
#10
Josephine Kschonsek, Theresa Wolfram, Annette Stöckl, Volker Böhm
Polyphenols are antioxidant ingredients in apples and are related to human health because of their free radical scavenging activities. The polyphenolic profiles of old and new apple cultivars (n = 15) were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). The in vitro antioxidant capacity was determined by total phenolic content (TPC) assay, hydrophilic trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (H-TEAC) assay and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance (H-ORAC) assay...
January 24, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361692/interplay-between-selenium-levels-and-replicative-senescence-in-wi-38-human-fibroblasts-a-proteomic-approach
#11
Ghania Hammad, Yona Legrain, Zahia Touat-Hamici, Stéphane Duhieu, David Cornu, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Laurent Chavatte
Selenoproteins are essential components of antioxidant defense, redox homeostasis, and cell signaling in mammals, where selenium is found in the form of a rare amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenium, which is often limited both in food intake and cell culture media, is a strong regulator of selenoprotein expression and selenoenzyme activity. Aging is a slow, complex, and multifactorial process, resulting in a gradual and irreversible decline of various functions of the body. Several cellular aspects of organismal aging are recapitulated in the replicative senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts, such as embryonic lung fibroblast WI-38 cells...
January 20, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351198/superoxide-dismutase-mimetic-gc4419-enhances-the-oxidation-of-pharmacological-ascorbate-and-its-anticancer-effects-in-an-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-dependent-manner
#12
Collin D Heer, Andrew B Davis, David B Riffe, Brett A Wagner, Kelly C Falls, Bryan G Allen, Garry R Buettner, Robert A Beardsley, Dennis P Riley, Douglas R Spitz
Lung cancer, together with head and neck cancer, accounts for more than one-fourth of cancer deaths worldwide. New, non-toxic therapeutic approaches are needed. High-dose IV vitamin C (aka, pharmacological ascorbate; P-AscH-) represents a promising adjuvant to radiochemotherapy that exerts its anti-cancer effects via metal-catalyzed oxidation to form H₂O₂. Mn(III)-porphyrins possessing superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity have been shown to increase the rate of oxidation of AscH-, enhancing the anti-tumor effects of AscH- in several cancer types...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342092/metabolic-alterations-in-cancer-cells-and-the-emerging-role-of-oncometabolites-as-drivers-of-neoplastic-change
#13
REVIEW
Zhengqiu Zhou, Elochukwu Ibekwe, Yevgen Chornenkyy
The mitochondrion is an important organelle and provides energy for a plethora of intracellular reactions. Metabolic dysregulation has dire consequences for the cell, and alteration in metabolism has been identified in multiple disease states-cancer being one. Otto Warburg demonstrated that cancer cells, in the presence of oxygen, undergo glycolysis by reprogramming their metabolism-termed "aerobic glycolysis". Alterations in metabolism enable cancer cells to gain a growth advantage by obtaining precursors for macromolecule biosynthesis, such as nucleic acids and lipids...
January 17, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342083/regulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-by-proteolytic-processing-and-protein-turnover
#14
REVIEW
Sumaira Ali, Gavin P McStay
The mitochondrial network is a dynamic organization within eukaryotic cells that participates in a variety of essential cellular processes, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, central metabolism, apoptosis and inflammation. The mitochondrial network is balanced between rates of fusion and fission that respond to pathophysiologic signals to coordinate appropriate mitochondrial processes. Mitochondrial fusion and fission are regulated by proteins that either reside in or translocate to the inner or outer mitochondrial membranes or are soluble in the inter-membrane space...
January 17, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337890/subcellular-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-in-cardiovascular-pathophysiology
#15
REVIEW
Sarah Aldosari, Maan Awad, Elizabeth O Harrington, Frank W Sellke, M Ruhul Abid
There exist two opposing perspectives regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their roles in angiogenesis and cardiovascular system, one that favors harmful and causal effects of ROS, while the other supports beneficial effects. Recent studies have shown that interaction between ROS in different sub-cellular compartments plays a crucial role in determining the outcomes (beneficial vs. deleterious) of ROS exposures on the vascular system. Oxidant radicals in one cellular organelle can affect the ROS content and function in other sub-cellular compartments in endothelial cells (ECs)...
January 16, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337889/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-the-yin-and-yang-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cancer-progression
#16
REVIEW
Jan Ježek, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich
Mitochondria are organelles with a highly dynamic ultrastructure maintained by a delicate equilibrium between its fission and fusion rates. Understanding the factors influencing this balance is important as perturbations to mitochondrial dynamics can result in pathological states. As a terminal site of nutrient oxidation for the cell, mitochondrial powerhouses harness energy in the form of ATP in a process driven by the electron transport chain. Contemporaneously, electrons translocated within the electron transport chain undergo spontaneous side reactions with oxygen, giving rise to superoxide and a variety of other downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 16, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337849/vitamin-e-as-a-treatment-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-reality-or-myth
#17
REVIEW
Hamza El Hadi, Roberto Vettor, Marco Rossato
Obesity is one of the major epidemics of this millennium, and its incidence is growing worldwide. Following the epidemics of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a disease of increasing prevalence and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality closely related to cardiovascular disease, malignancies, and cirrhosis. It is believed that oxidative stress is a main player in the development and progression of NAFLD. Currently, a pharmacological approach has become necessary in NAFLD because of a failure to modify lifestyle and dietary habits in most patients...
January 16, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342884/effect-of-the-extraction-process-on-the-biological-activity-of-lyophilized-apricot-extracts-recovered-from-apricot-pomace
#18
Dina Cheaib, Nada El Darra, Hiba N Rajha, Iman El-Ghazzawi, Richard G Maroun, Nicolas Louka
The preservation of polyphenols in fruits by lyophilization has gained great interest in the recent decades. The present study aims to assess the impact of the pre-treatment extraction methods heat-assisted extraction (HAE) and infrared (IR) on lyophilized apricot pomace extracts. Then to test the conservation of polyphenols quantities as well as their bioactivities (antiradical and antibacterial) in lyophilized extract. An aqueous extract was obtained through either heat-assisted extraction or infrared pre-treatments then lyophilized to obtain a dried form...
January 14, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329238/long-chain-metabolites-of-vitamin-e-metabolic-activation-as-a-general-concept-for-lipid-soluble-vitamins
#19
REVIEW
Martin Schubert, Stefan Kluge, Lisa Schmölz, Maria Wallert, Francesco Galli, Marc Birringer, Stefan Lorkowski
Vitamins E, A, D and K comprise the class of lipid-soluble vitamins. For vitamins A and D, a metabolic conversion of precursors to active metabolites has already been described. During the metabolism of vitamin E, the long-chain metabolites (LCMs) 13'-hydroxychromanol (13'-OH) and 13'-carboxychromanol (13'-COOH) are formed by oxidative modification of the side-chain. The occurrence of these metabolites in human serum indicates a physiological relevance. Indeed, effects of the LCMs on lipid metabolism, apoptosis, proliferation and inflammatory actions as well as tocopherol and xenobiotic metabolism have been shown...
January 12, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329195/dietary-antioxidants-and-health-promotion
#20
EDITORIAL
Dejian Huang
Accumulating scientific evidence suggests that over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be the root cause of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, and ageing per se [1,2].[...].
January 12, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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