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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106822/red-fruits-extraction-of-antioxidants-phenolic-content-and-radical-scavenging-determination-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Gádor-Indra Hidalgo, María Pilar Almajano
Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic...
January 19, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106721/exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-responses-in-the-pediatric-population
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra Avloniti, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Chariklia K Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Diamanda Leontsini, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, George Mastorakos, Ioannis G Fatouros
Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development...
January 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085082/use-of-saliva-biomarkers-to-monitor-efficacy-of-vitamin-c-in-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress
#3
REVIEW
Levi W Evans, Stanley T Omaye
Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health status. A popular topic of discussion in medical research is the potential association between oxidative stress and negative outcomes. Systemic biomarkers that represent oxidative stress can be found in saliva. It is unclear, however, if saliva is an accurate biospecimen as is blood and/or plasma...
January 12, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085029/acknowledgement-to-reviewers-of-antioxidants-in-2016
#4
EDITORIAL
Antioxidants Editorial Office
The editors of Antioxidants would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...].
January 11, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042817/think-yellow-and-keep-green-role-of-sulfanes-from-garlic-in-agriculture
#5
REVIEW
Awais Anwar, Emma Gould, Ryan Tinson, Murree Groom, Chris J Hamilton
Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils...
December 30, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036057/green-tea-and-other-tea-polyphenols-effects-on-sebum-production-and-acne-vulgaris
#6
REVIEW
Suzana Saric, Manisha Notay, Raja K Sivamani
Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris...
December 29, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035949/the-effects-of-allicin-a-reactive-sulfur-species-from-garlic-on-a-selection-of-mammalian-cell-lines
#7
Martin C H Gruhlke, Carole Nicco, Frederic Batteux, Alan J Slusarenko
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as a spice and medicinal plant since ancient times. Garlic produces the thiol-reactive defence substance, allicin, upon wounding. The effects of allicin on human lung epithelium carcinoma (A549), mouse fibroblast (3T3), human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), human colon carcinoma (HT29) and human breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines were tested. To estimate toxic effects of allicin, we used a standard MTT-test (methylthiazoltetrazolium) for cell viability and ³H-thymidine incorporation for cell proliferation...
December 26, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983587/role-of-redox-signaling-and-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-training
#8
REVIEW
Maria Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Jose Viña, Li Li Ji
The inflammatory response to exercise-induced muscle damage has been extensively described. Exercise has important modulatory effects on immune function. These effects are mediated by diverse factors including pro-inflammatory cytokines, classical stress hormones, and hemodynamic effects leading to cell redistribution. As has been reported regarding oxidative stress, inflammation can have both detrimental and beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. In this review we will address the role of inflammation on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle...
December 13, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973458/silymarin-activates-c-amp-phosphodiesterase-and-stimulates-insulin-secretion-in-a-glucose-dependent-manner-in-hit-t15-cells
#9
Ran Meng, Jana Mahadevan, Elizabeth Oseid, Sara Vallerie, R Paul Robertson
Silymarin (SIL) is a flavonoid extracted from milk thistle seed that has been reported to decrease hyperglycemia in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is not known whether SIL has direct secretory effects on β-cells. Using the β-cell line HIT-T15, SIL was shown to decrease intracellular peroxide levels and to augment glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, the latter was observed using a concentration range of 25-100 µM, which was too low to affect endogenous peroxide levels. The stimulatory effect of SIL dissipated at higher concentrations (100-200 µM), and mild apoptosis was observed...
December 12, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929399/the-effects-of-different-garlic-derived-allyl-sulfides-on-anaerobic-sulfur-metabolism-in-the-mouse-kidney
#10
Małgorzata Iciek, Anna Bilska-Wilkosz, Magdalena Górny, Maria Sokołowska-Jeżewicz, Danuta Kowalczyk-Pachel
Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) are major oil-soluble organosulfur compounds of garlic responsible for most of its pharmacological effects. The present study investigated the influence of repeated intraperitoneally (ip) administration of DAS, DADS and DATS on the total level of sulfane sulfur, bound sulfur (S-sulfhydration) and hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) and on the activity of enzymes, which catalyze sulfane sulfur formation and transfer from a donor to an acceptor in the normal mouse kidney, i...
December 5, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918436/characterization-of-chemical-compounds-with-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-activities-in-bougainvillea-x-buttiana-holttum-and-standl-var-rose-extracts
#11
Rodolfo Abarca-Vargas, Carlos F Peña Malacara, Vera L Petricevich
Bougainvillea is widely used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat several diseases. This study was designed to characterize the chemical constituents of B. x buttiana extracts with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities using different solvents. The extraction solvents used were as follows: distilled water (dH₂O), methanol (MeOH), acetone (DMK), ethanol (EtOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), dichloromethane (DCM), and hexane (Hex) (100%) at an extraction temperature of 26 °C. Analysis of bioactive compounds present in the B...
December 2, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916833/blueberries-impact-on-insulin-resistance-and-glucose-intolerance
#12
REVIEW
April J Stull
Blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols, which include anthocyanin bioactive compounds. Epidemiological evidence indicates that incorporating blueberries into the diet may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These findings are supported by pre-clinical and clinical studies that have shown improvements in insulin resistance (i.e., increased insulin sensitivity) after obese and insulin-resistant rodents or humans consumed blueberries. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps...
November 29, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916816/blueberry-consumption-affects-serum-uric-acid-concentrations-in-older-adults-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#13
Carol L Cheatham, Itzel Vazquez-Vidal, Amanda Medlin, V Saroja Voruganti
Blueberries are rich in antioxidants and may protect against disease. Uric acid accounts for about 50% of the antioxidant properties in humans. Elevated levels of serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim was to determine the effect of blueberries on SUA in older adults. Participants (n = 133, 65-80 years) experiencing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were randomized in a double-blind 6-month clinical trial to either blueberry or placebo. A reference group with no MCI received no treatment...
November 29, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879667/biological-chemistry-of-hydrogen-selenide
#14
REVIEW
Kellye A Cupp-Sutton, Michael T Ashby
There are no two main-group elements that exhibit more similar physical and chemical properties than sulfur and selenium. Nonetheless, Nature has deemed both essential for life and has found a way to exploit the subtle unique properties of selenium to include it in biochemistry despite its congener sulfur being 10,000 times more abundant. Selenium is more easily oxidized and it is kinetically more labile, so all selenium compounds could be considered to be "Reactive Selenium Compounds" relative to their sulfur analogues...
November 22, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845706/in-vitro-investigation-of-six-antioxidants-for-pig-diets
#15
Hans Vergauwen, Sara Prims, Jeroen Degroote, Wei Wang, Christophe Casteleyn, Steven van Cruchten, Stefaan de Smet, Joris Michiels, Chris van Ginneken
Oxidative stress in the small intestinal epithelium can lead to barrier malfunction. In this study, the effect of rosmarinic acid (RA), quercetin (Que), gallic acid (GA), lipoic acid (LA), ethoxyquin (ETQ) and Se-methionine (SeMet) pre-treatments using 2 mM Trolox as a control on the viability and the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) of oxidatively (H₂O₂) stressed intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) was investigated. A neutral red assay showed that RA (50-400 µM), Que (12...
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792130/vitamin-e-turmeric-and-saffron-in-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Nur Adalier, Heath Parker
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing epidemic and currently there is no cure for the disease. The disease has a detrimental effect on families and will strain the economy and health care systems of countries worldwide. The paper provides a literature review on a few ongoing possible antioxidant therapy treatments for the disease. The paper highlights use of vitamin E, turmeric and saffron for an alternative antioxidant therapy approach. Clinical studies report their therapeutic abilities as protective agents for nerve cells against free radical damage, moderating acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and reducing neurodegeneration, which are found as key factors in Alzheimer's...
October 25, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775656/rp-hplc-ms-ms-analysis-of-the-phenolic-compounds-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-salvia-l-species
#17
Hatice Tohma, Ekrem Köksal, Ömer Kılıç, Yusuf Alan, Mustafa Abdullah Yılmaz, İlhami Gülçin, Ercan Bursal, Saleh H Alwasel
The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz.) Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS). In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing assay (CUPRAC) and ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing assay (FRAP) were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents...
October 21, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775607/antioxidant-activity-of-oat-proteins-derived-peptides-in-stressed-hepatic-hepg2-cells
#18
Yichen Du, Ramak Esfandi, William G Willmore, Apollinaire Tsopmo
The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, antioxidant activities of seven peptides (P1-P7) derived from hydrolysis of oat proteins in a cellular model. In the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that P2 had the highest radical scavenging activity (0.67 ± 0.02 µM Trolox equivalent (TE)/µM peptide) followed by P5, P3, P6, P4, P1, and P7 whose activities were between 0.14-0.61 µM TE/µM). In the hepatic HepG2 cells, none of the peptides was cytotoxic at 20-300 µM...
October 20, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775562/protective-role-of-dietary-berries-in-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Aleksandra S Kristo, Dorothy Klimis-Zacas, Angelos K Sikalidis
Dietary patterns, including regular consumption of particular foods such as berries as well as bioactive compounds, may confer specific molecular and cellular protection in addition to the overall epidemiologically observed benefits of plant food consumption (lower rates of obesity and chronic disease risk), further enhancing health. Mounting evidence reports a variety of health benefits of berry fruits that are usually attributed to their non-nutritive bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic substances such as flavonoids or anthocyanins...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775557/chemical-analysis-of-extracts-from-newfoundland-berries-and-potential-neuroprotective-effects
#20
Mohammad Z Hossain, Emily Shea, Mohsen Daneshtalab, John T Weber
Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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