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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820437/are-astrocytes-the-predominant-cell-type-for-activation-of-nrf2-in-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey R Liddell
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates hundreds of antioxidant genes, and is activated in response to oxidative stress. Given that many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis are characterised by oxidative stress, Nrf2 is commonly activated in these diseases. Evidence demonstrates that Nrf2 activity is repressed in neurons in vitro, and only cultured astrocytes respond strongly to Nrf2 inducers, leading to the interpretation that Nrf2 signalling is largely restricted to astrocytes...
August 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805683/analysis-and-comparison-of-the-antioxidant-component-of-portulaca-oleracea-leaves-obtained-by-different-solid-liquid-extraction-techniques
#2
Monica Gallo, Esterina Conte, Daniele Naviglio
Portulaca oleracea is a wild plant pest of orchards and gardens, but is also an edible vegetable rich in beneficial nutrients. It possesses many antioxidant properties due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 essential fatty acids and other healthful compounds; therefore, the intake of purslane and/or its bioactive compounds could help to improve the health and function of the whole human organism. Accordingly, in this work it was analyzed and compared to the extractive capacity of the antioxidant component of purslane leaves obtained by solid-liquid extraction techniques such as: hot-maceration, maceration with ultrasound, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction using the Naviglio extractor, and a combination of two techniques (mix extraction)...
August 12, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796154/the-ability-of-exercise-associated-oxidative-stress-to-trigger-redox-sensitive-signalling-responses
#3
REVIEW
Richard Webb, Michael G Hughes, Andrew W Thomas, Keith Morris
In this review, we discuss exercise as an oxidative stressor, and elucidate the mechanisms and downstream consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the mitochondria of contracting skeletal myocytes; also, their diffusion across the myocyte membrane allows their transport to neighbouring muscle tissue and to other regions of the body. Although very intense exercise can induce oxidative damage within myocytes, the magnitudes of moderate-intensity exercise-associated increases in ROS are quite modest (~two-fold increases in intracellular and extracellular ROS concentrations during exercise), and so the effects of such increases are likely to involve redox-sensitive signalling effects rather than oxidative damage...
August 10, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771173/fate-and-prediction-of-phenolic-secoiridoid-compounds-throughout-the-different-stages-of-the-virgin-olive-oil-making-process
#4
Giuseppe Fregapane, M Desamparados Salvador
The evolution of the main phenolic secoiridoid compounds throughout the different stages of the virgin olive oil making process-crushing, malaxation and liquid-solid separation-is studied here, with the goal of making possible the prediction of the partition and transformation that take place in the different steps of the process. The concentration of hydroxytyrosol secoiridoids produced under the different crushing conditions studied are reasonably proportional to the intensity of the milling stage, and strongly depend on the olive variety processed...
August 3, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771170/cysteine-glutathione-and-thiol-redox-balance-in-astrocytes
#5
REVIEW
Gethin J McBean
This review discusses the current understanding of cysteine and glutathione redox balance in astrocytes. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of oxidative stress and astrocyte activation on pathways that provide cysteine as a precursor for glutathione. The effect of the disruption of thiol-containing amino acid metabolism on the antioxidant capacity of astrocytes is also discussed.
August 3, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28788071/fractioning-of-proanthocyanidins-of-uncaria-tomentosa-composition-and-structure-bioactivity-relationship
#6
Mirtha Navarro, William Zamora, Silvia Quesada, Gabriela Azofeifa, Diego Alvarado, Maria Monagas
In a previous study, the detailed low-molecular weight polyphenolic profile of the different plant parts (leaves, stem, bark and wood) of Uncaria tomentosa was reported, the leaves being the plant part with the highest phenolic content and presenting the most heterogenous proanthocyanidin composition. Further, cytotoxicity of leaves extracts in two cancer cell lines was also found to be higher than in the remaining parts of the plant. In the present study, fractioning of U. tomentosa leaves polyphenolic extracts was performed using Diaion(®) HP-20 resin and a detailed characterization and quantification of fractions (n = 5) was achieved using advanced analytical techniques such as Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Electrospray Ionization and Triple Quadrupole (TQD) Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS) and (13)C-NMR...
July 28, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737734/storage-of-fruits-and-vegetables-in-refrigerator-increases-their-phenolic-acids-but-decreases-the-total-phenolics-anthocyanins-and-vitamin-c-with-subsequent-loss-of-their-antioxidant-capacity
#7
Joseph H Y Galani, Jalpesh S Patel, Nilesh J Patel, Jayant G Talati
It is of paramount importance for consumers, scientists and industrialists to understand how low-temperature storage of food items affects their bioactive compounds and properties. This study evaluated the effects of cold storage on total phenolics (TP), phenolic acids profile (PA), total anthocyanins (TA), total ascorbic acid (Vit. C) and antioxidant activity (AA) of 19 fruits and vegetables, collected from local Indian markets and stored in refrigerator (4 °C) during 15 days. Content of TP was highest in dill and amaranth and decreased (up to 29...
July 24, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737676/high-dose-ascorbate-causes-both-genotoxic-and-metabolic-stress-in-glioma-cells
#8
Maria Leticia Castro, Georgia M Carson, Melanie J McConnell, Patries M Herst
We have previously shown that exposure to high dose ascorbate causes double stranded breaks (DSBs) and a build-up in S-phase in glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines. Here we investigated whether or not this was due to genotoxic stress as well as metabolic stress generated by exposure to high dose ascorbate, radiation, ascorbate plus radiation and H₂O₂ in established and primary GBM cell lines. Genotoxic stress was measured as phosphorylation of the variant histone protein, H2AX, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8OH-dG) positive cells and cells with comet tails...
July 22, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753987/chemical-analysis-of-astragali-complanati-semen-and-its-hypocholesterolemic-effect-using-serum-metabolomics-based-on-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#9
Tung Ting Sham, Huan Zhang, Daniel Kam Wah Mok, Shun Wan Chan, Jianhong Wu, Songyun Tang, Chi On Chan
The hypocholesterolemic protective effect of the dried seed of Astragalus complanatus (ACS) was investigated in rats fed with normal diet, high cholesterol diet (HCD), and HCD plus 70% ethanol extract of ACS (600 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for four weeks. ACS extract was tested to be rich in antioxidants, which may be contributed to its high content of phenolic compounds. Consumption of ACS remarkably suppressed the elevated total cholesterol (p < 0.01) and LDL-C (p < 0.001) induced by HCD. Chemical constituents of ACS extract were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry and the results showed that the ACS extract mainly consisted of phenolic compounds including flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides...
July 21, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704938/nadph-oxidases-angiogenesis-and-peripheral-artery-disease
#10
REVIEW
Pradeep Manuneedhi Cholan, Siân P Cartland, Mary M Kavurma
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is caused by narrowing of arteries in the limbs, normally occurring in the lower extremities, with severe cases resulting in amputation of the foot or leg. A potential approach for treatment is to stimulate the formation of new blood vessels to restore blood flow to limb tissues. This is a process called angiogenesis and involves the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells. Angiogenesis can be stimulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), with NADPH oxidases (NOX) being a major source of ROS in endothelial cells...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704937/attenuation-of-red-blood-cell-storage-lesions-with-vitamin-c
#11
Kimberly Sanford, Bernard J Fisher, Evan Fowler, Alpha A Fowler, Ramesh Natarajan
Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo oxidative stress that induces deleterious metabolic, structural, biochemical, and molecular changes collectively referred to as "storage lesions". We hypothesized that vitamin C (VitC, reduced or oxidized) would reduce red cell storage lesions, thus prolonging their storage duration. Whole-blood-derived, leuko-reduced, SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol)-preserved RBC concentrates were equally divided into four pediatric storage bags and the following additions made: (1) saline (saline); (2) 0...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698499/molecular-mechanisms-behind-free-radical-scavengers-function-against-oxidative-stress
#12
REVIEW
Fereshteh Ahmadinejad, Simon Geir Møller, Morteza Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Gholamreza Bidkhori, Mohammad-Saeid Jami
Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson's disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively), collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)...
July 10, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698493/antifungal-and-antiochratoxigenic-activities-of-essential-oils-and-total-phenolic-extracts-a-comparative-study
#13
Rachelle El Khoury, Ali Atoui, Florence Mathieu, Hiba Kawtharani, Anthony El Khoury, Richard G Maroun, Andre El Khoury
This study is intended to prevent ochratoxin A (OTA) production by Aspergillus carbonarius S402 using essential oils (EOs) and total phenolic compounds extracted from plants and herbs. The EOs used in this study are the following: bay leaves, cumin, fenugreek, melissa, mint, and sage. As for the phenolic compounds, they were extracted from bay leaves, cumin, fenugreek, melissa, mint, sage, anise, chamomile, fennel, rosemary, and thyme. The experiments were conducted on Synthetic Grape Medium (SGM) medium at 28 °C for 4 days...
July 9, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684719/reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-in-the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
David J R Fulton, Xueyi Li, Zsuzsanna Bordan, Stephen Haigh, Austin Bentley, Feng Chen, Scott A Barman
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease of the lung vasculature that involves the loss of endothelial function together with inappropriate smooth muscle cell growth, inflammation, and fibrosis. These changes underlie a progressive remodeling of blood vessels that alters flow and increases pulmonary blood pressure. Elevated pressures in the pulmonary artery imparts a chronic stress on the right ventricle which undergoes compensatory hypertrophy but eventually fails. How PAH develops remains incompletely understood and evidence for the altered production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS respectively) in the pulmonary circulation has been well documented...
July 6, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678174/possible-reactions-of-dietary-phenolic-compounds-with-salivary-nitrite-and-thiocyanate-in-the-stomach
#15
REVIEW
Umeo Takahama, Sachiko Hirota
Foods are mixed with saliva in the oral cavity and swallowed. While staying in the stomach, saliva is contentiously provided to mix with the ingested foods. Because a salivary component of nitrite is protonated to produce active nitrous acid at acidic pH, the redox reactions of nitrous acid with phenolic compounds in foods become possible in the stomach. In the reactions, nitrous acid is reduced to nitric oxide (•NO), producing various products from phenolic compounds. In the products, stable hydroxybezoyl benzofuranone derivatives, which are produced from quercetin and its 7-O-glucoside, are included...
July 5, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671577/silencing-of-nrf2-reduces-the-expression-of-aldh1a1-and-aldh3a1-and-sensitizes-to-5-fu-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#16
Hong-Quan Duong, Kyu Sic You, Seunghoon Oh, Sahng-June Kwak, Yeon-Sun Seong
Pancreatic cancer remains an intractable cancer with a poor five-year survival rate, which requires new therapeutic modalities based on the biology of pancreatic oncogenesis. Nuclear factor E2 related factor-2 (NRF2), a key cytoprotective nuclear transcription factor, regulates antioxidant production, reduction, detoxification and drug efflux proteins. It also plays an essential role in cell homeostasis, cell proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy. We aimed to evaluate the possibility that modulation of NRF2 expression could be effective in the treatment of pancreatic cancer cells...
July 1, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665311/antioxidant-activity-of-yichun-blue-honeysuckle-ybhs-berry-counteracts-ccl%C3%A2-induced-toxicity-in-liver-injury-model-of-mice
#17
Mian-Ying Wang, Madhuwanti Srinivasan, Subramanyam Dasari, Parnal Narvekar, Angela Lincy Prem Antony Samy, Venkata Satish Dontaraju, Lin Peng, Gary L Anderson, Gnanasekar Munirathinam
Yichun Blue Honeysuckle (YBHS) is reported to have a broad range of health benefits including protection against a number of chronic diseases. The objective of our study was to determine whether YBHS exhibits antioxidant activity, and if so, determine how it provides protection against oxidative stress. Eight-week old mice (25 male and 25 female) were randomized into five groups (n = 10 per group). YBHS extract (at 6.25%, 12.5%, or 25%) was administrated via intra-gastric tube to mice at 0.1 mL/10 g body weight once daily for 7 days...
June 30, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661467/early-and-late-induction-of-kras-and-hras-proto-oncogenes-by-reactive-oxygen-species-in-primary-astrocytes
#18
Samantha Messina, Erika Di Zazzo, Bruno Moncharmont
Astrocytes, one of the predominant types of glial cells, function as both supportive and metabolic cells for the brain. Among mammalian tissues, the highest levels of p21(Ras) protein are detected in the brain. Here, we investigated the expression of KRAS and HRAS proto-oncogenes in primary astrocytes following acute oxidative stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) changed the expression of proto-oncogenes at both transcriptional and translational levels. De novo protein synthesis analysis measured approximate values of proteins half-life, ranging from 1-4 h, of the different H- and K- isoforms by western blot analysis...
June 29, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661427/deletion-of-txnip-mitigates-high-fat-diet-impaired-angiogenesis-and-prevents-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-critical-limb-ischemia
#19
Sally L Elshaer, Islam N Mohamed, Maha Coucha, Sara Altantawi, Wael Eldahshan, Megan L Bartasi, Ahmed Y Shanab, Renee Lorys, Azza B El-Remessy
BACKGROUND: Previous work demonstrated that high-fat diet (HFD) triggered thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and that silencing TXNIP prevents diabetes-impaired vascular recovery. Here, we examine the impact of genetic deletion of TXNIP on HFD-impaired vascular recovery using hind limb ischemia model. METHODS: Wild type mice (WT, C57Bl/6) and TXNIP knockout mice (TKO) were fed either normal chow diet (WT-ND and TKO-ND) or 60% high-fat diet (WT-HFD and TKO-HFD)...
June 29, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661424/vitamin-c-and-microvascular-dysfunction-in-systemic-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Karel Tyml
Sepsis, life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysfunctional host response to infection, is associated with high mortality. A promising strategy to improve the outcome is to inject patients intravenously with ascorbate (vitamin C). In animal models of sepsis, this injection improves survival and, among others, the microvascular function. This review examines our recent work addressing ascorbate's ability to inhibit arteriolar dysfunction and capillary plugging in sepsis. Arteriolar dysfunction includes impaired vasoconstriction/dilation (previously reviewed) and impaired conduction of vasoconstriction/dilation along the arteriole...
June 29, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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