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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

Sophie C Broome, Jonathan S T Woodhead, Troy L Merry
One of the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle is the mitochondria. Prolonged or very high ROS exposure causes oxidative damage, which can be deleterious to muscle function, and as such, there is growing interest in targeting antioxidants to the mitochondria in an effort to prevent or treat muscle dysfunction and damage associated with disease and injury. Paradoxically, however, ROS also act as important signalling molecules in controlling cellular homeostasis, and therefore caution must be taken when supplementing with antioxidants...
August 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Nataliia V Shults, Oleksiy Melnyk, Dante I Suzuki, Yuichiro J Suzuki
Right-sided heart failure is the major cause of death among patients who suffer from various forms of pulmonary hypertension and congenital heart disease. The right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) originate from different progenitor cells and function against very different blood pressures. However, differences between the RV and LV formed after birth have not been well defined. Work from our laboratory and others has accumulated evidence that redox signaling, oxidative stress and antioxidant regulation are important components that define the RV/LV differences...
August 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Egor Y Plotnikov, Anna A Brezgunova, Irina B Pevzner, Ljubava D Zorova, Vasily N Manskikh, Vasily A Popkov, Denis N Silachev, Dmitry B Zorov
Neonatal sepsis is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in newborns, greatly associated with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) and failure. Handling of newborns with kidney damage can be significantly different compared to adults, and it is necessary to consider the individuality of an organism's response to systemic inflammation. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated acute kidney injury model to study mechanisms of kidney cells damage in neonatal and adult rats. We found LPS-associated oxidative stress was more severe in adults compared to neonates, as judged by levels of carbonylated proteins and products of lipids peroxidation...
August 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ablassé Rouamba, Moussa Compaoré, Maurice Ouédraogo, Martin Kiendrebeogo
The current study aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the antioxidant capacity and the human lymphocyte-protective effect of the ethanolic extract from Detarium microcarpum fruit pulp against oxidative stress damage. Human lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations of extract, followed by the addition of hydrogen peroxide or tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, the antioxidant property of the extract was evaluated in vitro using hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radical-scavenging assays...
August 4, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Dewald Oosthuizen, Neill J Goosen, Maria A Stander, Aliyu D Ibrahim, Mary-Magdalene Pedavoah, Grace O Usman, Taiwo Aderinola
Indigenous and non-commercial fruits can be an important source of antioxidant polyphenols; however, the identity and content of polyphenols from non-commercial fruits are often poorly described. The study aimed to extract, identify, and quantify polyphenols from the skin of the indigenous Africa fruit Ximenia caffra , using solvent extraction. Three solvents (hexane, acetone, and 70% v / v ethanol) over three extraction times (30, 60 and 120 min) were used in a 3² full factorial experimental design to determine effects on polyphenol recovery, and individual polyphenolics were characterised using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) ...
August 1, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Giuseppina Barrera, Stefania Pizzimenti, Martina Daga, Chiara Dianzani, Alessia Arcaro, Giovanni Paolo Cetrangolo, Giulio Giordano, Marie Angele Cucci, Maria Graf, Fabrizio Gentile
Among the various mechanisms involved in aging, it was proposed long ago that a prominent role is played by oxidative stress. A major way by which the latter can provoke structural damage to biological macromolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins, is by fueling the peroxidation of membrane lipids, leading to the production of several reactive aldehydes. Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes can not only modify biological macromolecules, by forming covalent electrophilic addition products with them, but also act as second messengers of oxidative stress, having relatively extended lifespans...
July 30, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Claus Jacob
Since the advent of modern nanotechnology a couple of decades ago, the field of "nano-bio-med" has attracted particular interest, culminating in an almost meteoric rise of common, feasible, more speculative, and, on occasion, outrightly exotic applications of nanomaterials. [...].
July 29, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Twinkle Chowdhury, Matthew F Allen, Trista L Thorn, Yan He, Sandra J Hewett
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a key cytokine that drives neuroinflammation in the Central Nervous System (CNS), is enhanced in many neurological diseases/disorders. Although IL-1β contributes to and/or sustains pathophysiological processes in the CNS, we recently demonstrated that IL-1β can protect cortical astrocytes from oxidant injury in a glutathione (GSH)-dependent manner. To test whether IL-1β could similarly protect neurons against oxidant stress, near pure neuronal cultures or mixed cortical cell cultures containing neurons and astrocytes were exposed to the organic peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), following treatment with IL-1β or its vehicle...
July 25, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ram B Singh, Jan Fedacko, Viliam Mojto, Dominik Pella
The study aims to examine the effects of coenzyme Q10, (a bioenergetic antioxidant), on the indexes of left ventricular remodeling, oxidative damage, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with left ventricular dysfunction. In a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study (a retrospective analysis of an earlier trial) in 55 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <50% after AMI, the effects of coenzyme Q10 (120 mg/day) or placebo were studied for 24 weeks...
July 25, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mariola Cano Sanchez, Steve Lancel, Eric Boulanger, Remi Neviere
Wound healing is a well-tuned biological process, which is achieved via consecutive and overlapping phases including hemostasis, inflammatory-related events, cell proliferation and tissue remodeling. Several factors can impair wound healing such as oxygenation defects, aging, and stress as well as deleterious health conditions such as infection, diabetes, alcohol overuse, smoking and impaired nutritional status. Growing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucial regulators of several phases of healing processes...
July 24, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Atul Dhall, William Self
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) exhibit antioxidant properties both in vitro and in vivo. This is due to the self-regeneration of their surface, which is based on redox-cycling between 3+ and 4+ states for cerium, in response to their immediate environment. Additionally, oxygen vacancies in the lattice structure allow for alternating between CeO₂ and CeO2- x during redox reactions. Research to identify and characterize the biomedical applications of CeNPs has been heavily focused on investigating their use in treating diseases that are characterized by higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
July 24, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Kin Sum Leung, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
Consumption of food containing n-3 PUFAs, namely EPA and DHA, are known to benefit health and protect against chronic diseases. Both are richly found in marine-based food such as fatty fish and seafood that are commonly cooked prior to consumption. However, the elevated temperature during cooking potentially degrades the EPA and DHA through oxidation. To understand the changes during different cooking methods, lipid profiles of raw, boiled, pan-fried and baked salmon were determined by LC-MS/MS. Our results showed that pan-frying and baking elevated the concentration of peroxides in salmon, whereas only pan-frying increased the MDA concentration, indicating it to be the most severe procedure to cause oxidation among the cooking methods...
July 24, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Wiem Meddeb, Leila Rezig, Amira Zarrouk, Thomas Nury, Anne Vejux, Michel Prost, Lionel Bretillon, Mondher Mejri, Gérard Lizard
The Asteraceae family is economically very important, because many of these plants are grown mainly for their food value, such as lettuce (Lactuca), chicory (Cichorium), and sunflower (Heliantus aminus). One of the typical properties of this family, which includes milk thistle ( Sylibum marianum ), is the richness of the oil in various compounds (flavonoids, alkaloids, tocopherols, and unsaturated fatty acids). Currently, and for the coming decades, age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, are a major public health problem...
July 19, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Giuseppe Grosso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Cristina Anna Gallelli, Silvio Calcagnini, Adele Romano, Justyna Barbara Koczwara, Marialuisa de Ceglia, Donatella Dante, Rosanna Villani, Anna Maria Giudetti, Tommaso Cassano, Silvana Gaetani
Growing evidence supports the pivotal role played by oxidative stress in tissue injury development, thus resulting in several pathologies including cardiovascular, renal, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders, all characterized by an altered oxidative status. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation-derived reactive aldehydes including acrolein, malondialdehyde, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, among others, are the main responsible for cellular and tissue damages occurring in redox-dependent processes...
July 18, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mike N Foster, Anitra C Carr, Alina Antony, Selene Peng, Mike G Fitzpatrick
A 52-year-old female presented to Integrated Health Options Clinic in October 2014 with a history of relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, diagnosed in 2009 and relapsed in 2014). Intravenous(IV) vitamin C therapy was initiated (in 2014) following completion of chemotherapy as an alternative to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. IV vitamin C was administered twice weekly at a dose of 70 g/infusion. Within 4 weeks of initiation of IV vitamin C therapy, there was a dramatic improvement in the patient's blood indices with platelet cell counts increasing from 25 × 10⁸/L to 196 × 10⁸/L and white blood cell counts increasing from 0...
July 16, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Juliet M Pullar, Anitra C Carr, Stephanie M Bozonet, Margreet C M Vissers
Micronutrient status is thought to impact on psychological mood due to the role of nutrients in brain structure and function. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of vitamin C status with mood state in a sample of male tertiary students. We measured fasting plasma vitamin C levels as an indicator of vitamin C status, and subjective mood was determined using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. One hundred and thirty-nine male students aged 18 to 35 years were recruited from local tertiary institutes in Christchurch, New Zealand...
July 16, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Masutaka Furue, Yoko Fuyuno, Chikage Mitoma, Hiroshi Uchi, Gaku Tsuji
Chloracne is the major skin symptom caused by dioxin intoxication. Dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)⁻cytochrome p450 1A1 (CYP1A1) system, generates oxidative stress, and induces hyperkeratinization of keratinocytes and sebocytes leading to chloracne. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2) is a master switch that induces the expression of various antioxidative enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1. Cinnamaldehyde is an antioxidant phytochemical that inhibits AHR⁻CYP1A1 signaling and activates the NRF2⁻antioxidative axis...
July 13, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Gina Nauman, Javaughn Corey Gray, Rose Parkinson, Mark Levine, Channing J Paller
BACKGROUND: Ascorbate (vitamin C) has been evaluated as a potential treatment for cancer as an independent agent and in combination with standard chemotherapies. This review assesses the evidence for safety and clinical effectiveness of intravenous (IV) ascorbate in treating various types of cancer. METHODS: Single arm and randomized Phase I/II trials were included in this review. The PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Results were screened by three of the authors (GN, RP, and CJP) to determine if they met inclusion criteria, and then summarized using a narrative approach...
July 12, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Cinzia Signorini, Claudio De Felice, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Silvia Leoncini, Alessio Cortelazzo, Lucia Ciccoli, Thierry Durand, Joussef Hayek, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
Isoprostanoids are a large family of compounds derived from non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Unlike other oxidative stress biomarkers, they provide unique information on the precursor of the targeted PUFA. Although they were discovered about a quarter of century ago, the knowledge on the role of key isoprostanoids in the pathogenesis of experimental and human disease models remains limited. This is mainly due to the limited availability of highly purified molecules to be used as a reference standard in the identification of biological samples...
July 11, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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