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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420078/natural-phenol-polymers-recent-advances-in-food-and-health-applications
#1
REVIEW
Lucia Panzella, Alessandra Napolitano
Natural phenol polymers are widely represented in nature and include a variety of classes including tannins and lignins as the most prominent. Largely consumed foods are rich sources of phenol polymers, notably black foods traditionally used in East Asia, but other non-edible, easily accessible sources, e.g., seaweeds and wood, have been considered with increasing interest together with waste materials from agro-based industries, primarily grape pomace and other byproducts of fruit and coffee processing. Not in all cases were the main structural components of these materials identified because of their highly heterogeneous nature...
April 14, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394280/acute-pre-post-treatment-with-8th-day-sod-like-supreme-a-free-radical-scavenging-health-product-protects-against-oxidant-induced-injury-in-cultured-cardiomyocytes-and-hepatocytes-in-vitro-as-well-as-in-mouse-myocardium-and-liver-in-vivo
#2
Pou Kuan Leong, Jihang Chen, Wing Man Chan, Hoi Yan Leung, Lincoln Chan, Kam Ming Ko
8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD)-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product) is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in AML12 hepatocytes as well as oxidant-induced injury in the mouse myocardium and liver were investigated. SOD-Like Supreme was found to possess potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro as assessed by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay...
April 10, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383481/strange-bedfellows-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-like-2-nrf2-and-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-hif-1-in-tumor-hypoxia
#3
REVIEW
Rachel K Toth, Noel A Warfel
The importance of the tumor microenvironment for cancer progression and therapeutic resistance is an emerging focus of cancer biology. Hypoxia, or low oxygen, is a hallmark of solid tumors that promotes metastasis and represents a significant obstacle to successful cancer therapy. In response to hypoxia, cancer cells activate a transcriptional program that allows them to survive and thrive in this harsh microenvironment. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is considered the main effector of the cellular response to hypoxia, stimulating the transcription of genes involved in promoting angiogenesis and altering cellular metabolism...
April 6, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379200/green-tea-catechins-for-prostate-cancer-prevention-present-achievements-and-future-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Valeria Naponelli, Ileana Ramazzina, Chiara Lenzi, Saverio Bettuzzi, Federica Rizzi
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are a family of chemically related compounds usually classified as antioxidant molecules. Epidemiological evidences, supported by interventional studies, highlighted a more than promising role for GTCs in human prostate cancer (PCa) chemoprevention. In the last decades, many efforts have been made to gain new insights into the mechanism of action of GTCs. Now it is clear that GTCs' anticancer action can no longer be simplistically limited to their direct antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties...
April 5, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379197/abnormalities-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Ju Gao, Luwen Wang, Jingyi Liu, Fei Xie, Bo Su, Xinglong Wang
Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and devastating neurological disorders characterized by the progressive loss of the structure and function of neurons in the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system. Mitochondria, organelles found in most eukaryotic cells, are essential for neuronal survival and are involved in a number of neuronal functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been demonstrated as a common prominent early pathological feature of a variety of common neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD)...
April 5, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353636/zinc-and-oxidative-stress-current-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz, Jennifer Beatriz Silva Morais, Jéssica Batista Beserra, Juliana Soares Severo, Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira
Oxidative stress is a metabolic dysfunction that favors the oxidation of biomolecules, contributing to the oxidative damage of cells and tissues. This consequently contributes to the development of several chronic diseases. In particular, zinc is one of the most relevant minerals to human health, because of its antioxidant properties. This review aims to provide updated information about the mechanisms involved in the protective role of zinc against oxidative stress. Zinc acts as a co-factor for important enzymes involved in the proper functioning of the antioxidant defense system...
March 29, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338603/antioxidant-properties-of-selenophene-thiophene-and-their-aminocarbonitrile-derivatives
#7
Levon A Tavadyan, Zaruhi H Manukyan, Lusik H Harutyunyan, Makich V Musayelyan, Adrine D Sahakyan, Hakob G Tonikyan
The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to detect the antiperoxyradical ability of organoselenium compounds: selenophene and its derivative, 2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-selenophene-3-carbonitrile (ATSe); while as a comparison, the sulfur-containing analogue of selenophene-thiophene and its derivative-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-thiophene-3-carbonitrile (ATS)-was selected. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and squarewave voltammetry (SWV) methods were used to determine the redox characteristics of organoselenium and organosulfur compounds...
March 24, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333068/effects-of-reactive-oxygen-species-on-tubular-transport-along-the-nephron
#8
REVIEW
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Jeffrey L Garvin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxygen-containing molecules naturally occurring in both inorganic and biological chemical systems. Due to their high reactivity and potentially damaging effects to biomolecules, cells express a battery of enzymes to rapidly metabolize them to innocuous intermediaries. Initially, ROS were considered by biologists as dangerous byproducts of respiration capable of causing oxidative stress, a condition in which overproduction of ROS leads to a reduction in protective molecules and enzymes and consequent damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA...
March 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300753/krebs-cycle-intermediates-protective-against-oxidative-stress-by-modulating-the-level-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-neuronal-ht22-cells
#9
Kenta Sawa, Takumi Uematsu, Yusuke Korenaga, Ryuya Hirasawa, Masatoshi Kikuchi, Kyohei Murata, Jian Zhang, Xiaoqing Gai, Kazuichi Sakamoto, Tomoyuki Koyama, Takumi Satoh
Krebs cycle intermediates (KCIs) are reported to function as energy substrates in mitochondria and to exert antioxidants effects on the brain. The present study was designed to identify which KCIs are effective neuroprotective compounds against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Here we found that pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoglutarate, but not lactate, citrate, iso-citrate, succinate, fumarate, or malate, protected HT22 cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity. These three intermediates reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide-activated reactive oxygen species, measured in terms of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335380/vitamin-e-nicotinate
#10
REVIEW
Kimbell R Duncan, Yuichiro J Suzuki
Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications...
March 13, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273843/effect-of-leaves-of-caesalpinia-decapetala-on-oxidative-stability-of-oil-in-water-emulsions
#11
María Gabriela Gallego, Monika Skowyra, Michael H Gordon, Nurul Aini Mohd Azman, María Pilar Almajano
Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy...
March 4, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257114/na-k-atpase-signaling-and-salt-sensitivity-the-role-of-oxidative-stress
#12
REVIEW
Jiang Liu, Yanling Yan, Ying Nie, Joseph I Shapiro
Other than genetic regulation of salt sensitivity of blood pressure, many factors have been shown to regulate renal sodium handling which contributes to long-term blood pressure regulation and have been extensively reviewed. Here we present our progress on the Na/K-ATPase signaling mediated sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules, from cardiotonic steroids-mediated to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling that contributes to experimental salt sensitivity.
March 2, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264499/current-insights-to-regulation-and-role-of-telomerase-in-human-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Mert Burak Ozturk, Yinghui Li, Vinay Tergaonkar
The telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex has a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and senescence of normal somatic cells as well as cancer cells. This complex is comprised mainly of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA component (TERC) and other associated proteins that function to elongate telomeres localized at the end of the chromosomes. While reactivation of telomerase is a major hallmark of most cancers, together with the synergistic activation of other oncogenic signals, deficiency in telomerase and telomeric proteins might lead to aging and senescence-associated disorders...
February 28, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241459/the-effect-of-gender-and-menstrual-phase-on-serum-creatine-kinase-activity-and-muscle-soreness-following-downhill-running
#14
Tanja Oosthuyse, Andrew N Bosch
Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity reflects muscle membrane disruption. Oestrogen has antioxidant and membrane stabilising properties, yet no study has compared the CK and muscle soreness (DOMS) response to unaccustomed exercise between genders when all menstrual phases are represented in women. Fifteen eumenorrhoeic women (early follicular, EF (n = 5); late follicular, LF (n = 5); mid-luteal, ML (n = 5) phase) and six men performed 20 min of downhill running (-10% gradient) at 9 km/h. Serum CK activity and visual analogue scale rating of perceived muscle soreness were measured before, immediately, 24-h, 48-h and 72-h after exercise...
February 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218725/treating-cancer-by-targeting-telomeres-and-telomerase
#15
REVIEW
Marko Ivancich, Zachary Schrank, Luke Wojdyla, Brandon Leviskas, Adijan Kuckovic, Ankita Sanjali, Neelu Puri
Telomerase is expressed in more than 85% of cancer cells. Tumor cells with metastatic potential may have a high telomerase activity, allowing cells to escape from the inhibition of cell proliferation due to shortened telomeres. Human telomerase primarily consists of two main components: hTERT, a catalytic subunit, and hTR, an RNA template whose sequence is complimentary to the telomeric 5'-dTTAGGG-3' repeat. In humans, telomerase activity is typically restricted to renewing tissues, such as germ cells and stem cells, and is generally absent in normal cells...
February 19, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212297/inorganic-reactive-sulfur-nitrogen-species-intricate-release-mechanisms-or-cacophony-in-yellow-blue-and-red
#16
Marian Grman, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Roman Leontiev, Anton Misak, Veronika Jakusova, Karol Ondrias, Claus Jacob
Since the heydays of Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS) research during the first decade of the Millennium, numerous sulfur species involved in cellular regulation and signalling have been discovered. Yet despite the general predominance of organic species in organisms, recent years have also seen the emergence of inorganic reactive sulfur species, ranging from inorganic polysulfides (HSx(-)/Sx(2-)) to thionitrous acid (HSNO) and nitrosopersulfide (SSNO(-)). These inorganic species engage in a complex interplay of reactions in vitro and possibly also in vivo...
February 15, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216602/selenium-and-tellurium-based-antioxidants-for-modulating-inflammation-and-effects-on-osteoblastic-activity
#17
Xi Lu, Gemma Mestres, Vijay Pal Singh, Pedram Effati, Jia-Fei Poon, Lars Engman, Marjam Karlsson Ott
Increased oxidative stress plays a significant role in the etiology of bone diseases. Heightened levels of H2O2 disrupt bone homeostasis, leading to greater bone resorption than bone formation. Organochalcogen compounds could act as free radical trapping agents or glutathione peroxidase mimetics, reducing oxidative stress in inflammatory diseases. In this report, we synthesized and screened a library of organoselenium and organotellurium compounds for hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, using macrophagic cell lines RAW264...
February 14, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165396/proanthocyanidin-characterization-and-bioactivity-of-extracts-from-different-parts-of-uncaria-tomentosa-l-cat-s-claw
#18
Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos, Rosa Lebrón-Aguilar, Jesús E Quintanilla-López, Carolina Cueva, David Hevia, Silvia Quesada, Gabriela Azofeifa, M Victoria Moreno-Arribas, María Monagas, Begoña Bartolomé
Apart from alkaloids, bioactive properties of Uncaria tomentosa L. have been attributed to its phenolic constituents. Although there are some reports concerning low-molecular-weight polyphenols in U. tomentosa, its polymeric phenolic composition has been scarcely studied. In this study, phenolic-rich extracts from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 14) of Uncaria tomentosa plants from several regions of Costa Rica were obtained and analysed in respect to their proanthocyanidin profile determined by a quadrupole-time-of-flight analyser (ESI-QTOF MS)...
February 4, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165379/in-vitro-lipophilic-antioxidant-capacity-antidiabetic-and-antibacterial-activity-of-citrus-fruits-extracts-from-aceh-indonesia
#19
Ernawita, Ruri Agung Wahyuono, Jana Hesse, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner, Volker Böhm
This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin...
February 3, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134834/hydroxybenzoic-acids-are-significant-contributors-to-the-antioxidant-effect-of-borututu-bark-cochlospermum-angolensis-welw-ex-oliv
#20
Ehab A Abourashed, Hao Wen Fu
Borututu (Cochlospermum angolensis) is an African tree whose bark has recently emerged as a herbal dietary supplement with claims for antioxidant activity. In order to substantiate the claimed activity of borututu supplements, we performed an activity-guided fractionation of the total extract utilizing a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Subsequent flash and centrifugal chromatography resulted in the isolation of gallic acid (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) as the main antioxidant constituents...
January 28, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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