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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

Flavien Zannini, Thomas Roret, Jonathan Przybyla-Toscano, Tiphaine Dhalleine, Nicolas Rouhier, Jérémy Couturier
In plants, the mitochondrial thioredoxin (TRX) system generally comprises only one or two isoforms belonging to the TRX h or o classes, being less well developed compared to the numerous isoforms found in chloroplasts. Unlike most other plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two TRXo isoforms whose physiological functions remain unclear. Here, we performed a structure⁻function analysis to unravel the respective properties of the duplicated TRXo1 and TRXo2 isoforms. Surprisingly, when expressed in Escherichia coli , both recombinant proteins existed in an apo-monomeric form and in a homodimeric iron⁻sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-bridged form...
October 13, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Stefano Raffaele Giannubilo, Patrick Orlando, Sonia Silvestri, Ilenia Cirilli, Fabio Marcheggiani, Andrea Ciavattini, Luca Tiano
BACKGROUND: The target of the reduced fecundity with aging is the oocyte. The follicular fluid and its components are strongly linked with the environment of the maturing oocyte. The aim of the present study was to evaluate CoQ10 bioavailability in follicular fluids after oral supplementation and its possible implication in oocyte maturation. METHODS: Fifteen female partners of infertile couples, aged 31⁻46, undergoing IVF-ET and taking 200 mg/day oral CoQ10 were compared to unsupplemented patients...
October 13, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Méry Marimoutou, Danielle A Springer, Chengyu Liu, Geumsoo Kim, Rodney L Levine
Methionine 77 in calmodulin can be stereospecifically oxidized to methionine sulfoxide by mammalian methionine sulfoxide reductase A. Whether this has in vivo significance is unknown. We therefore created a mutant mouse in which wild type calmodulin-1 was replaced by a calmodulin containing a mimic of methionine sulfoxide at residue 77. Total calmodulin levels were unchanged in the homozygous M77Q mutant, which is viable and fertile. No differences were observed on learning tests, including the Morris water maze and associative learning...
October 13, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Vassilia J Sinanoglou, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis, Charalambos Fotakis, Nick Kalogeropoulos, Aikaterini Sakellari, Sotirios Karavoltsos, Irini F Strati
Commercially available common and balsamic vinegars were examined, using a combination of spectrophotometric, chromatographic, colorimetric and spectroscopic methods. Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, radical scavenging capacity, phenolic profile, colour parameters, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H NMR) spectra were comparatively studied. The main scope was the assessment of vinegar antioxidant and metabolic profiles and the identification of the most appropriate features influencing their type and subtypes...
October 11, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Hiromi Yano, Masataka Uchida, Tatsuya Saito, Takafumi Aoki, Michael J Kremenik, Eri Oyanagi
Macrophages migrate and invade into damaged muscle rapidly and are important for muscle repair and subsequent regeneration. The exact cellular and biological events that cause macrophage migration toward injured muscle are not completely understood. In this study, the effect of macrophage differentiation on the chemotactic capability to invade local damaged muscle was investigated using an in vitro model of muscle injury. We used C2C12 cell myoblasts and J774 cell macrophages, and the "killed-C2C12" cells were combined with live C2C12 cells as a partially damaged muscle model...
October 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Qamar Uddin Ahmed, Alhassan Muhammad Alhassan, Alfi Khatib, Syed Adnan Ali Shah, Muhammad Mahmudul Hasan, Murni Nazira Sarian
The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiradical and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves. Hence, crude methanolic leaves extract and its resultant fractions, namely hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol were evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The active constituents were tentatively identified through LC-QTOF-MS/MS and molecular docking approaches. The n-butanol fraction of A. bilimbi crude methanolic leaves extract displayed significant DPPH radical scavenging effect with IC50 (4...
October 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jesse Fischer, Tim W Eglinton, Frank A Frizelle, Mark B Hampton
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the Western world, with one-third of cases located in the rectum. Preoperative radiotherapy is the standard of care for many patients with rectal cancer but has a highly variable response rate. The ability to predict response would be of great clinical utility. The response of cells to ionizing radiation is known to involve immediate damage to biomolecules and more sustained disruption of redox homeostasis leading to cell death. The peroxiredoxins are an important group of thiol-dependent antioxidants involved in protecting cells from oxidative stress and regulating signaling pathways involved in cellular responses to oxidative stress...
October 5, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Buckley McCall, Connor K McPartland, Reece Moore, Anastasia Frank-Kamenetskii, Brian W Booth
Astaxanthin (ASX) is a marine-based ketocarotenoid; an accessory pigment in plants in that it has many different potential functions. ASX is an antioxidant that is notably more potent than many other antioxidants. Antioxidants have anti-inflammatory and oxidative stress-reducing properties to potentially reduce the incidence of cancer or inhibit the expansion of tumor cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ASX would inhibit proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro. We found that application of ASX significantly reduced proliferation rates and inhibited breast cancer cell migration compared to control normal breast epithelial cells...
October 4, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ahlam Al-Yafeai, Peter Bellstedt, Volker Böhm
Maturity stage affects the bioactive compounds as well as the antioxidant capacity in the fruit. This study was designed to identify and quantify carotenoids, as well as to evaluate vitamin E, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds of Rosa rugosa hips at different degrees of ripeness. HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) analysis showed different types of carotenoids at different stages of maturity of R. rugosa hips with significant differences ( p ˂ 0.05), where the maximum concentration was observed at late harvesting...
October 3, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sotirios Kiokias, Charalampos Proestos, Vassilki Oreopoulou
Radical oxygen species formed in human tissue cells by many endogenous and exogenous pathways cause extensive oxidative damage which has been linked to various human diseases. This review paper provides an overview of lipid peroxidation and focuses on the free radicals-initiated processes of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative modification and DNA oxidative damage, which are widely associated with the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis, respectively. The article subsequently provides an overview of the recent human trials or even in vitro investigations on the potential of natural antioxidant compounds (such as carotenoids; vitamins C and E) to monitor LDL and DNA oxidative changes...
October 3, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jessica L H Walters, Geoffry N De Iuliis, Brett Nixon, Elizabeth G Bromfield
Germline oxidative stress is intimately linked to several reproductive pathologies including a failure of sperm-egg recognition. The lipid aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) is particularly damaging to the process of sperm-egg recognition as it compromises the function and the stability of several germline proteins. Considering mature spermatozoa do not have the capacity for de novo protein translation, 4HNE modification of proteins in the mature gametes has uniquely severe consequences for protein homeostasis, cell function and cell survival...
October 3, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sandrine Boschi-Muller
Neisseria meningitidis , an obligate pathogenic bacterium in humans, has acquired different defense mechanisms to detect and fight the oxidative stress generated by the host's defense during infection. A notable example of such a mechanism is the PilB reducing system, which repairs oxidatively-damaged methionine residues. This review will focus on the catalytic mechanism of the two methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) domains of PilB, which represent model enzymes for catalysis of the reduction of a sulfoxide function by thiols through sulfenic acid chemistry...
October 1, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Collin Y Ewald
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that transient or physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases act as a redox signal to re-establish homeostasis. The capacity to re-establish homeostasis progressively declines during aging but is maintained in long-lived animals to promote healthy aging. In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans , ROS generated by dual oxidases (Duox) are important for extracellular matrix integrity, pathogen defense, oxidative stress resistance, and longevity...
September 28, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Tiziana Corsello, Narayana Komaravelli, Antonella Casola
Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) has arisen as a critical gasotransmitter signaling molecule modulating cellular biological events related to health and diseases in heart, brain, liver, vascular systems and immune response. Three enzymes mediate the endogenous production of H₂S: cystathione β-synthase ( CBS ), cystathione γ-lyase ( CSE ) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase ( 3-MST ). CBS and CSE localizations are organ-specific. 3-MST is a mitochondrial and cytosolic enzyme. The generation of H₂S is firmly regulated by these enzymes under normal physiological conditions...
September 28, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Vineet K Singh, Kuldeep Singh, Kyle Baum
Methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRA1 and MSRB) are proteins overproduced in Staphylococcus aureus during exposure with cell wall-active antibiotics. Later studies identified the presence of two additional MSRA proteins (MSRA2 and MSRA3) in S. aureus . These MSR proteins have been characterized in many other bacteria as well. This review provides the current knowledge about the conditions and regulatory network that mimic the expression of these MSR encoding genes and their role in defense from oxidative stress and virulence...
September 28, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Takuji Kawamura, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Masaki Takahashi, Miki Tomari, Reira Hara, Yuko Gando, Isao Muraoka
The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of neutrophil dynamics and function in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and the effect of molecular hydrogen (H₂) intake on these parameters. Nine healthy and active young men performed H₂ and placebo bath trial in a crossover design. They carried out downhill running (-8% slope) for 30 min at a speed corresponding to 75~85% of peak oxygen uptake (VO₂peak). Subsequently, they repeated bathing for 20 min per day for one week...
September 25, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Robert Gilkerson
As a highly dynamic organellar network, mitochondria are maintained as an organellar network by delicately balancing fission and fusion pathways. This homeostatic balance of organellar dynamics is increasingly revealed to play an integral role in sensing cellular stress stimuli. Mitochondrial fission/fusion balance is highly sensitive to perturbations such as loss of bioenergetic function, oxidative stress, and other stimuli, with mechanistic contribution to subsequent cell-wide cascades including inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis...
September 22, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Vera Cesar, Iva Jozić, Lidija Begović, Tea Vuković, Selma Mlinarić, Hrvoje Lepeduš, Suzana Borović Šunjić, Neven Žarković
Although Aloe vera contains numerous bioactive components, the activity principles of widely used A. vera extracts are uncertain. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of genuine A. vera aqueous extract (AV) on human cells with respect to the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Fully developed A. vera leaves were harvested and analyzed for vitamin C, carotenoids, total soluble phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, human cervical cancer (HeLa), human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC), human keratinocytes (HaCat), and human osteosarcoma (HOS) cell cultures were treated with AV extract for one hour after treatment with H₂O₂ or HNE...
September 21, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Julie A Maupin-Furlow
Methionine sulfoxide reductases are found in all domains of life and are important in reversing the oxidative damage of the free and protein forms of methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid particularly sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Archaea are microbes of a domain of life distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes. Archaea are well known for their ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions that range from habitats of high ROS, such as hypersaline lakes of intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation and desiccation, to hydrothermal vents of low concentrations of dissolved oxygen at high temperature...
September 20, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Lidija Milkovic, Tea Vukovic, Neven Zarkovic, Franz Tatzber, Egils Bisenieks, Zenta Kalme, Imanta Bruvere, Zaiga Ogle, Janis Poikans, Astrida Velena, Gunars Duburs
Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathophysiology of different human stress- and age-associated disorders, including osteoporosis for which antioxidants could be considered as therapeutic remedies as was suggested recently. The 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) derivatives are known for their pleiotropic activity, with some also acting as antioxidants. To find compounds with potential antioxidative activity, a group of 27 structurally diverse DHPs, as well as one pyridine compound, were studied. A group of 11 DHPs with 10-fold higher antioxidative potential than of uric acid, were further tested in cell model of human osteoblast-like cells...
September 19, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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