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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879667/biological-chemistry-of-hydrogen-selenide
#1
REVIEW
Kellye A Cupp-Sutton, Michael T Ashby
There are no two main-group elements that exhibit more similar physical and chemical properties than sulfur and selenium. Nonetheless, Nature has deemed both essential for life and has found a way to exploit the subtle unique properties of selenium to include it in biochemistry despite its congener sulfur being 10,000 times more abundant. Selenium is more easily oxidized and it is kinetically more labile, so all selenium compounds could be considered to be "Reactive Selenium Compounds" relative to their sulfur analogues...
November 22, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845706/in-vitro-investigation-of-six-antioxidants-for-pig-diets
#2
Hans Vergauwen, Sara Prims, Jeroen Degroote, Wei Wang, Christophe Casteleyn, Steven van Cruchten, Stefaan de Smet, Joris Michiels, Chris van Ginneken
Oxidative stress in the small intestinal epithelium can lead to barrier malfunction. In this study, the effect of rosmarinic acid (RA), quercetin (Que), gallic acid (GA), lipoic acid (LA), ethoxyquin (ETQ) and Se-methionine (SeMet) pre-treatments using 2 mM Trolox as a control on the viability and the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) of oxidatively (H₂O₂) stressed intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) was investigated. A neutral red assay showed that RA (50-400 µM), Que (12...
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792130/vitamin-e-turmeric-and-saffron-in-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Nur Adalier, Heath Parker
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing epidemic and currently there is no cure for the disease. The disease has a detrimental effect on families and will strain the economy and health care systems of countries worldwide. The paper provides a literature review on a few ongoing possible antioxidant therapy treatments for the disease. The paper highlights use of vitamin E, turmeric and saffron for an alternative antioxidant therapy approach. Clinical studies report their therapeutic abilities as protective agents for nerve cells against free radical damage, moderating acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and reducing neurodegeneration, which are found as key factors in Alzheimer's...
October 25, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775656/rp-hplc-ms-ms-analysis-of-the-phenolic-compounds-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-salvia-l-species
#4
Hatice Tohma, Ekrem Köksal, Ömer Kılıç, Yusuf Alan, Mustafa Abdullah Yılmaz, İlhami Gülçin, Ercan Bursal, Saleh H Alwasel
The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz.) Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS). In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing assay (CUPRAC) and ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing assay (FRAP) were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents...
October 21, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775607/antioxidant-activity-of-oat-proteins-derived-peptides-in-stressed-hepatic-hepg2-cells
#5
Yichen Du, Ramak Esfandi, William G Willmore, Apollinaire Tsopmo
The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, antioxidant activities of seven peptides (P1-P7) derived from hydrolysis of oat proteins in a cellular model. In the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that P2 had the highest radical scavenging activity (0.67 ± 0.02 µM Trolox equivalent (TE)/µM peptide) followed by P5, P3, P6, P4, P1, and P7 whose activities were between 0.14-0.61 µM TE/µM). In the hepatic HepG2 cells, none of the peptides was cytotoxic at 20-300 µM...
October 20, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775562/protective-role-of-dietary-berries-in-cancer
#6
Aleksandra S Kristo, Dorothy Klimis-Zacas, Angelos K Sikalidis
Dietary patterns, including regular consumption of particular foods such as berries as well as bioactive compounds, may confer specific molecular and cellular protection in addition to the overall epidemiologically observed benefits of plant food consumption (lower rates of obesity and chronic disease risk), further enhancing health. Mounting evidence reports a variety of health benefits of berry fruits that are usually attributed to their non-nutritive bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic substances such as flavonoids or anthocyanins...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775557/chemical-analysis-of-extracts-from-newfoundland-berries-and-potential-neuroprotective-effects
#7
Mohammad Z Hossain, Emily Shea, Mohsen Daneshtalab, John T Weber
Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754335/anthocyanin-accumulation-in-muscadine-berry-skins-is-influenced-by-the-expression-of-the-myb-transcription-factors-myba1-and-mybcs1
#8
Lillian Oglesby, Anthony Ananga, James Obuya, Joel Ochieng, Ernst Cebert, Violeta Tsolova
The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time...
October 12, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706020/berry-fruit-consumption-and-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Stefano Vendrame, Cristian Del Bo', Salvatore Ciappellano, Patrizia Riso, Dorothy Klimis-Zacas
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death both in the United States and worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that berry fruit consumption has a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of most risk factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its cardiovascular complications in the human population...
September 30, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657142/a-review-of-antioxidant-peptides-derived-from-meat-muscle-and-by-products
#10
REVIEW
Rui Liu, Lujuan Xing, Qingquan Fu, Guang-Hong Zhou, Wan-Gang Zhang
Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams...
September 20, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649250/phenolic-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-of-phalaenopsis-orchid-hybrids
#11
Truong Ngoc Minh, Do Tan Khang, Phung Thi Tuyen, Luong The Minh, La Hoang Anh, Nguyen Van Quan, Pham Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Thanh Quan, Nguyen Phu Toan, Abdelnaser Abdelghany Elzaawely, Tran Dang Xuan
Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of "Chian Xen Queen" contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11...
September 14, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618111/protandim-protects-oligodendrocytes-against-an-oxidative-insult
#12
Jamie L Lim, Susanne M A van der Pol, Wia Baron, Joe M McCord, Helga E de Vries, Jack van Horssen
Oligodendrocyte damage and loss are key features of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Oligodendrocytes appear to be particularly vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), which induce cell death and prevent the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Here, we investigated the efficacy of sulforaphane (SFN), monomethyl fumarate (MMF) and Protandim to induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme expression, and protect oligodendrocytes against ROS-induced cell death and ROS-and TNF-mediated inhibition of OPC differentiation...
September 7, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618910/effects-of-catechin-on-the-composition-phenolic-content-and-antioxidant-activity-of-full-fat-cheese-during-ripening-and-recovery-of-catechin-after-simulated-in-vitro-digestion
#13
Ali Rashidinejad, E John Birch, David W Everett
(+)-Catechin, the representative catechin in green tea, was incorporated into a full-fat cheese (at 125-500 ppm) followed by ripening for 90 days at 8 °C and digesting for six hours. Determination of pH, proximate composition, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) after manufacture and ripening demonstrated that the addition of (+)-catechin significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased the pH of both whey and curd during cheese manufacturing and ripening with no significant (p > 0.05) effect on the moisture, protein and fat contents...
August 27, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556495/pharmacognostic-and-antioxidant-properties-of-dracaena-sanderiana-leaves
#14
Mei Gee Ong, Siti Nur Aishah Mat Yusuf, Vuanghao Lim
Endogenous and exogenous antioxidants are used to neutralise free radicals and protect the body from free radicals by maintaining the redox balance. The antioxidant properties of Dracaena sanderiana leaves were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured. The classes of secondary metabolites were evaluated through pharmacognostic studies, and active compounds were identified by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). All ethanol-water extracts and D...
August 20, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548236/cranberries-and-cancer-an-update-of-preclinical-studies-evaluating-the-cancer-inhibitory-potential-of-cranberry-and-cranberry-derived-constituents
#15
REVIEW
Katherine M Weh, Jennifer Clarke, Laura A Kresty
Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents reported to influence a variety of health benefits, ranging from improved immune function and decreased infections to reduced cardiovascular disease and more recently cancer inhibition. A review of cranberry research targeting cancer revealed positive effects of cranberries or cranberry derived constituents against 17 different cancers utilizing a variety of in vitro techniques, whereas in vivo studies supported the inhibitory action of cranberries toward cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, bladder, prostate, glioblastoma and lymphoma...
August 18, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490574/antioxidant-properties-of-water-soluble-gum-from-flaxseed-hulls
#16
Fatma Bouaziz, Mohamed Koubaa, Francisco J Barba, Shahin Roohinejad, Semia Ellouz Chaabouni
Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2...
August 2, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472369/the-role-of-copper-chaperone-atox1-in-coupling-redox-homeostasis-to-intracellular-copper-distribution
#17
REVIEW
Yuta Hatori, Svetlana Lutsenko
Human antioxidant protein 1 (Atox1) is a small cytosolic protein with an essential role in copper homeostasis. Atox1 functions as a copper carrier facilitating copper transfer to the secretory pathway. This process is required for activation of copper dependent enzymes involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis, iron efflux, neovascularization, wound healing, and regulation of blood pressure. Recently, new cellular roles for Atox1 have emerged. Changing levels of Atox1 were shown to modulate response to cancer therapies, contribute to inflammatory response, and protect cells against various oxidative stresses...
July 27, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438860/beyond-diabetes-does-obesity-induced-oxidative-stress-drive-the-aging-process
#18
REVIEW
Adam B Salmon
Despite numerous correlative data, a causative role for oxidative stress in mammalian longevity has remained elusive. However, there is strong evidence that increased oxidative stress is associated with exacerbation of many diseases and pathologies that are also strongly related to advanced age. Obesity, or increased fat accumulation, is one of the most common chronic conditions worldwide and is associated with not only metabolic dysfunction but also increased levels of oxidative stress in vivo. Moreover, obesity is also associated with significantly increased risks of cardiovascular disease, neurological decline and cancer among many other diseases as well as a significantly increased risk of mortality...
July 18, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669317/tart-cherry-extracts-reduce-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-signaling-in-microglial-cells
#19
Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Megan E Kelly, Donna F Bielinski, Derek R Fisher
Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglial cells, leading to decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Thus, the present study sought to determine if tart cherries-which improved cognitive behavior in aged rats-would be efficacious in reducing inflammatory and OS signaling in HAPI rat microglial cells...
2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409641/electrochemical-potential-gradient-as-a-quantitative-in-vitro-test-platform-for-cellular-oxidative-stress
#20
Carson Bryant, Donald Atha, Vytas Reipa
Oxidative stress in a biological system is often defined as a redox imbalance within cells or groups of cells within an organism. Reductive-oxidative (redox) imbalances in cellular systems have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer. To better understand the redox environment within cellular systems, it is important to be able to characterize the relationship between the intensity of the oxidative environment, characterized by redox potential, and the biomolecular consequences of oxidative damage...
2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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