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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211033/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antioxidant-and-anti-hyperglycemic-activities-of-moroccan-oat-cultivars
#1
Ilias Marmouzi, El Mostafa Karym, Nezha Saidi, Bouchra Meddah, Mourad Kharbach, Azlarab Masrar, Mounya Bouabdellah, Layachi Chabraoui, Khalid El Allali, Yahia Cherrah, My El Abbes Faouzi
Improvement of oat lines via introgression is an important process for food biochemical functionality. This work aims to evaluate the protective effect of phenolic compounds from hybrid Oat line (F11-5) and its parent (Amlal) on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and to establish the possible mechanisms of antidiabetic activity by digestive enzyme inhibition. Eight phenolic acids were quantified in our samples including ferulic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, salicylic, syringic, sinapic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids...
December 6, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210997/tempol-supplementation-restores-diaphragm-force-and-metabolic-enzyme-activities-in-mdx-mice
#2
David P Burns, Izza Ali, Clement Rieux, James Healy, Greg Jasionek, Ken D O'Halloran
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by striated muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Since oxidative stress is recognized as a secondary pathology in DMD, the efficacy of antioxidant intervention, using the superoxide scavenger tempol, was examined on functional and biochemical status of dystrophin-deficient diaphragm muscle. Diaphragm muscle function was assessed, ex vivo, in adult male wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, with and without a 14-day antioxidant intervention...
December 6, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207534/effects-of-the-macular-carotenoid-lutein-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#3
Xiaoming Gong, Christian S Draper, Geoffrey S Allison, Raju Marisiddaiah, Lewis P Rubin
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are central to retinal health and homoeostasis. Oxidative stress-induced damage to the RPE occurs as part of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and neovascular retinopathies (e.g., retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy). The xanthophyll carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, are selectively taken up by the RPE, preferentially accumulated in the human macula, and transferred to photoreceptors. These macular xanthophylls protect the macula (and the broader retina) via their antioxidant and photo-protective activities...
December 4, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194404/recent-advances-in-our-understanding-of-tocopherol-biosynthesis-in-plants-an-overview-of-key-genes-functions-and-breeding-of-vitamin-e-improved-crops
#4
REVIEW
Steffi Fritsche, Xingxing Wang, Christian Jung
Tocopherols, together with tocotrienols and plastochromanols belong to a group of lipophilic compounds also called tocochromanols or vitamin E. Considered to be one of the most powerful antioxidants, tocochromanols are solely synthesized by photosynthetic organisms including plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and, therefore, are an essential component in the human diet. Tocochromanols potent antioxidative properties are due to their ability to interact with polyunsaturated acyl groups and scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and quench reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus protecting fatty acids from lipid peroxidation...
December 1, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189731/differential-effects-of-superoxide-dismutase-mimetics-after-mechanical-overload-of-articular-cartilage
#5
Mitchell C Coleman, Marc J Brouillette, Nicholas S Andresen, Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan, James M Martin
Post-traumatic osteoarthritis can develop as a result of the initial mechanical impact causing the injury and also as a result of chronic changes in mechanical loading of the joint. Aberrant mechanical loading initiates excessive production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and stress that appears to damage mitochondria in the surviving chondrocytes. To probe the benefits of increasing superoxide removal with small molecular weight superoxide dismutase mimetics under severe loads, we applied both impact and overload injury scenarios to bovine osteochondral explants using characterized mechanical platforms with and without GC4403, MnTE-2-PyP, and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP...
November 30, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186823/the-subcellular-distribution-of-alpha-tocopherol-in-the-adult-primate-brain-and-its-relationship-with-membrane-arachidonic-acid-and-its-oxidation-products
#6
(no author information available yet)
The relationship between α-tocopherol, a known antioxidant, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, has not been directly investigated in the primate brain. This study characterized the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions and investigated the association between membrane α-tocopherol and PUFA content, as well as brain PUFA oxidation products. Nuclear, myelin, mitochondrial, and neuronal membranes were isolated using a density gradient from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (ST), and hippocampus (HC) of adult rhesus monkeys (n = 9), fed a stock diet containing vitamin E (α-, γ-tocopherol intake: ~0...
November 26, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168774/carotenoids-from-marine-organisms-biological-functions-and-industrial-applications
#7
REVIEW
Christian Galasso, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Clementina Sansone
As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene) that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein), which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen...
November 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165370/vitamin-e-bioavailability-mechanisms-of-intestinal-absorption-in-the-spotlight
#8
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Reboul
Vitamin E is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient whose effects on human health can be attributed to both antioxidant and non-antioxidant properties. A growing number of studies aim to promote vitamin E bioavailability in foods. It is thus of major interest to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of vitamin E absorption, which remain only partly understood. It was long assumed that vitamin E was absorbed by passive diffusion, but recent data has shown that this process is actually far more complex than previously thought...
November 22, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160838/symposium-on-vitamin-c-15th-september-2017-part-of-the-linus-pauling-institute-s-9th-international-conference-on-diet-and-optimum-health
#9
Anitra C Carr
The Linus Pauling Institute's 9th International Conference on Diet and Optimum Health took place on 13-15 September 2017 in Corvallis, OR, USA, on the beautiful Oregon State University campus [...].
November 21, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156559/tocotrienols-a-family-of-molecules-with-specific-biological-activities
#10
REVIEW
Raffaella Comitato, Roberto Ambra, Fabio Virgili
Vitamin E is a generic term frequently used to group together eight different molecules, namely: α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and the corresponding tocotrienols. The term tocopherol and eventually Vitamin E and its related activity was originally based on the capacity of countering foetal re-absorption in deficient rodents or the development of encephalomalacia in chickens. In humans, Vitamin E activity is generally considered to be solely related to the antioxidant properties of the tocolic chemical structure...
November 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149089/mnsod-and-cyclin-b1-coordinate-a-mito-checkpoint-during-cell-cycle-response-to-oxidative-stress
#11
Amanda L Kalen, Iman M Ahmad, Maher Y Abdalla, Yunxia Q O'Malley, Prabhat C Goswami, Ehab H Sarsour
Communication between the nucleus and mitochondrion could coordinate many cellular processes. While the mechanisms regulating this communication are not completely understood, we hypothesize that cell cycle checkpoint proteins coordinate the cross-talk between nuclear and mitochondrial functions following oxidative stress. Human normal skin fibroblasts, representative of the G₂-phase, were irradiated with 6 Gy of ionizing radiation and assayed for cyclin B1 translocation, mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and cytotoxicity...
November 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144438/bioactive-components-in-moringa-oleifera-leaves-protect-against-chronic-disease
#12
REVIEW
Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Manal Mused Almatrafi, Maria Luz Fernandez
Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation...
November 16, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135921/nox-reactive-oxygen-species-and-regulation-of-vascular-cell-fate
#13
REVIEW
Denise Burtenshaw, Roya Hakimjavadi, Eileen M Redmond, Paul A Cahill
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an imbalance of antioxidant defence mechanisms can result in oxidative stress. Several pro-atherogenic stimuli that promote intimal-medial thickening (IMT) and early arteriosclerotic disease progression share oxidative stress as a common regulatory pathway dictating vascular cell fate. The major source of ROS generated within the vascular system is the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family of enzymes (Nox), of which seven members have been characterized...
November 14, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120354/trans-plasma-membrane-electron-transport-and-ascorbate-efflux-by-skeletal-muscle
#14
Amanda M Eccardt, Thomas P Bell, Lyn Mattathil, Rohan Prasad, Shannon C Kelly, Jonathan S Fisher
Trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET) and the antioxidant roles of ascorbate reportedly play a role in protection of cells from damage by reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in causing metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle comprises the largest whole-body organ fraction suggesting a potential role of tPMET and ascorbate export as a major source of extracellular antioxidant. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle is capable of tPMET and ascorbate efflux. To measure these processes, we assayed the ability of cultured muscle cells, satellite cells, and isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) to reduce two extracellular electron acceptors, water soluble tetrazolium salt 1 (WST-1), and dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP)...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112149/polyphenols-as-promising-drugs-against-main-breast-cancer-signatures
#15
REVIEW
María Losada-Echeberría, María Herranz-López, Vicente Micol, Enrique Barrajón-Catalán
Breast cancer is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide, and in spite of clinical and pharmacological advances, it is still a clinical problem, causing morbidity and mortality. On the one hand, breast cancer shares with other neoplasms some molecular signatures such as an imbalanced redox state, cell cycle alterations, increased proliferation and an inflammatory status. On the other hand, breast cancer shows differential molecular subtypes that determine its prognosis and treatment. These are characterized mainly by hormone receptors especially estrogen receptors (ERs) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)...
November 7, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113120/the-sod-mimic-mnte-2-pyp-protects-from-chronic-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-irradiated-normal-pelvic-tissues
#16
Shashank Shrishrimal, Elizabeth A Kosmacek, Arpita Chatterjee, McDonald J Tyson, Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan
Pelvic radiation for cancer therapy can damage a variety of normal tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that radiation causes acute changes to pelvic fibroblasts such as the transformation to myofibroblasts and the induction of senescence, which persist months after radiation. The addition of the manganese porphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP, resulted in protection of these acute changes in fibroblasts and this protection persisted months following radiation exposure. Specifically, at two months post-radiation, MnTE-2-PyP inhibited the number of α-smooth muscle actin positive fibroblasts induced by radiation and at six months post-radiation, MnTE-2-PyP significantly reduced collagen deposition (fibrosis) in the skin and bladder tissues of irradiated mice...
November 6, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099803/insights-into-the-dichotomous-regulation-of-sod2-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Yeon Soo Kim, Piyushi Gupta Vallur, Rébécca Phaëton, Karthikeyan Mythreye, Nadine Hempel
While loss of antioxidant expression and the resultant oxidant-dependent damage to cellular macromolecules is key to tumorigenesis, it has become evident that effective oxidant scavenging is conversely necessary for successful metastatic spread. This dichotomous role of antioxidant enzymes in cancer highlights their context-dependent regulation during different stages of tumor development. A prominent example of an antioxidant enzyme with such a dichotomous role and regulation is the mitochondria-localized manganese superoxide dismutase SOD2 (MnSOD)...
November 3, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104232/treatment-with-a-catalytic-superoxide-dismutase-sod-mimetic-improves-liver-steatosis-insulin-sensitivity-and-inflammation-in-obesity-induced-type-2-diabetes
#18
Gina M Coudriet, Meghan M Delmastro-Greenwood, Dana M Previte, Meghan L Marré, Erin C O'Connor, Elizabeth A Novak, Garret Vincent, Kevin P Mollen, Sojin Lee, H Henry Dong, Jon D Piganelli
Oxidative stress and persistent inflammation are exaggerated through chronic over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle, resulting in insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes (T2D), impaired insulin signaling leads to hyperglycemia and long-term complications, including metabolic liver dysfunction, resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The manganese metalloporphyrin superoxide dismustase (SOD) mimetic, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnP), is an oxidoreductase known to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine production, by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation...
November 1, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088075/effects-of-cocoa-antioxidants-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
REVIEW
Sonia Ramos, María Angeles Martín, Luis Goya
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D) is the most common form of diabetes and one of the most common chronic diseases. Control of hyperglycaemia by hypoglycaemic drugs is insufficient in for patients and nutritional approaches are currently being explored. Natural dietary compounds such as flavonoids, abundant in fruits and vegetables, have received broad attention because of their potential capacity to act as anti-diabetic agents. Especially cocoa flavonoids have been proved to ameliorate important hallmarks of T2D...
October 31, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084153/on-the-origin-of-superoxide-dismutase-an-evolutionary-perspective-of-superoxide-mediated-redox-signaling
#20
REVIEW
Adam J Case
The field of free radical biology originated with the discovery of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in 1969. Over the last 5 decades, a plethora of research has been performed in species ranging from bacteria to mammals that has elucidated the molecular reaction, subcellular location, and specific isoforms of SOD. However, while humans have only begun to study this class of enzymes over the past 50 years, it has been estimated that these enzymes have existed for billions of years, and may be some of the original enzymes found in primitive life...
October 30, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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