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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

Sofia Lourenço Dos Santos, Isabelle Petropoulos, Bertrand Friguet
Cysteine and methionine residues are the amino acids most sensitive to oxidation by reactive oxygen species. However, in contrast to other amino acids, certain cysteine and methionine oxidation products can be reduced within proteins by dedicated enzymatic repair systems. Oxidation of cysteine first results in either the formation of a disulfide bridge or a sulfenic acid. Sulfenic acid can be converted to disulfide or sulfenamide or further oxidized to sulfinic acid. Disulfide can be easily reversed by different enzymatic systems such as the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase and the glutaredoxin/glutathione/glutathione reductase systems...
December 12, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Nicolas Navrot, Rikke Buhl Holstborg, Per Hägglund, Inge Lise Povlsen, Birte Svensson
Various redox compounds are known to influence the structure of the gluten network in bread dough, and hence its strength. The cereal thioredoxin system (NTS), composed of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR) and thioredoxin (Trx), is a major reducing enzymatic system that is involved in seed formation and germination. NTS is a particularly interesting tool for food processing due to its heat stability and its broad range of protein substrates. We show here that barley NTS is capable of remodeling the gluten network and weakening bread dough...
December 12, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Md Obyedul Kalam Azad, Jing Pei Piao, Cheol Ho Park, Dong Ha Cho
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of far infrared irradiation (FIR) on nutraceutical compounds, viz. total phenolic content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity, of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN). The FIR treatment was applied for 30 min with varied temperatures of 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, and 240 °C. Results showed that FIR increased total phenolic and flavonoid content in AGN at 220 °C. The HPLC results revealed higher quantities of decursin (62.48 mg/g) and decursinol angelate (41...
December 11, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Theodora Mantso, Dimitrios T Trafalis, Sotiris Botaitis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe, Mihalis I Panayiotidis
Skin cancer is among the most common cancer types accompanied by rapidly increasing incidence rates, thus making the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches a necessity. Recent studies have revealed the potential role of decosahexaenoic acid ester of phloridzin (PZDHA) in suppressing proliferation of liver, breast, and blood cancer cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic potential of PZDHA in an in vitro model of skin cancer consisting of melanoma (A375), epidermoid carcinoma (A431), and non-tumorigenic (HaCaT) cell lines...
December 11, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Yanyan Li, Tao Zhang, Grace Y Chen
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer, but despite advances in treatment, it remains the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Prevention may, therefore, be a key strategy in reducing colorectal cancer deaths. Given reports of an inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption with colorectal cancer risk, there has been significant interest in understanding the metabolism and bioactivity of flavonoids, which are highly abundant in fruits and vegetables and account for their pigmentation...
December 10, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Hakjoo Lee, Yisang Yoon
The maintenance of mitochondrial energetics requires the proper regulation of mitochondrial morphology, and vice versa. Mitochondrial dynamins control mitochondrial morphology by mediating fission and fusion. One of them, optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), is the mitochondrial inner membrane remodeling protein. OPA1 has a dual role in maintaining mitochondrial morphology and energetics through mediating inner membrane fusion and maintaining the cristae structure. OPA1 is expressed in multiple variant forms through alternative splicing and post-translational proteolytic cleavage, but the functional differences between these variants have not been completely understood...
December 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Catalina Marín-Echeverri, Christopher N Blesso, Maria Luz Fernández, Yeisson Galvis-Pérez, Gelmy Ciro-Gómez, Vitelbina Núñez-Rangel, Juan C Aristizábal, Jacqueline Barona-Acevedo
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with low-grade inflammation and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may improve these alterations. Agraz is a fruit rich in polyphenols (mainly anthocyanins); however, there is limited information about its effects on human health. We evaluated the effects of agraz consumption as compared to placebo on HDL function and inflammation in women with MetS. Forty volunteers (25⁻60 years) were included in this double-blind crossover study. Women consumed agraz or placebo over 4 weeks; separated by a 4-week washout period...
December 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Matthew Lovatt, Khadijah Adnan, Gary S L Peh, Jodhbir S Mehta
The inner layer of the cornea, the corneal endothelium, is post-mitotic and unable to regenerate if damaged. The corneal endothelium is one of the most transplanted tissues in the body. Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the leading indication for corneal endothelial transplantation. FECD is thought to be an age-dependent disorder, with a major component related to oxidative stress. Prdx6 is an antioxidant with particular affinity for repairing peroxidised cell membranes. To address the role of Prdx6 in corneal endothelial cells, we used a combination of biochemical and functional studies...
December 4, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Rodolfo Sumayao, Philip Newsholme, Tara McMorrow
Cystinosin is a lysosomal transmembrane protein which facilitates transport of the disulphide amino acid cystine (CySS) from the lysosomes of the cell. This protein is encoded by the CTNS gene which is defective in the lysosomal storage disorder, cystinosis. Because of the apparent involvement of cystinosin in the intermediary thiol metabolism, its discovery has fuelled investigations into its role in modulating cellular redox homeostasis. The kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs) have become the focus of various studies on cystinosin since the protein is highly expressed in these cells and kidney proximal tubular transport dysfunction is the foremost clinical manifestation of cystinosis...
December 3, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Nancy Vargas-Mendoza, Miguel Vázquez-Velasco, Laura González-Torres, Juana Benedí, Francisco José Sánchez-Muniz, Jose Antonio Morales-González, Osmar Antonio Jaramillo-Morales, Carmen Valadez-Vega, Mirandeli Bautista
Geranium schiedeanum has been used in traditional therapies as an antiseptic, antipyretic, and as analgesic. The present study was designed to evaluate the pretreatment with G. schiedeanum total extract (GS) and its active metabolites on stimulating the endogenous antioxidant defense system (EADS): catalase (Cat), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione reduction index (RI GSH/GSSG) in rat liver treated with a sublethal dose (6.6 mmol/Kg) of thioacetamide (TAA) in order to probe the capacity of GS and the active compounds to reduce liver injury...
November 30, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
James D West, Trevor J Roston, Joseph B David, Kristin M Allan, Matthew A Loberg
Peroxiredoxins, a highly conserved family of thiol oxidoreductases, play a key role in oxidant detoxification by partnering with the thioredoxin system to protect against oxidative stress. In addition to their peroxidase activity, certain types of peroxiredoxins possess other biochemical activities, including assistance in preventing protein aggregation upon exposure to high levels of oxidants (molecular chaperone activity), and the transduction of redox signals to downstream proteins (redox switch activity)...
November 28, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Irantzu Pérez-Ruiz, Susana Meijide, María-Luisa Hérnandez, Rosaura Navarro, Zaloa Larreategui, Marcos Ferrando, María-Begoña Ruiz-Larrea, José-Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz
Oxidative stress is associated with obstetric complications during ovarian hyperstimulation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. The follicular fluid contains high levels of proteins, which are the main targets of free radicals. The aim of this work was to determine specific biomarkers of non-enzymatic oxidative modifications of proteins from follicular fluid in vivo, and the effect of ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins on these biomarkers. For this purpose, 27 fertile women underwent both a natural and a stimulated cycle...
November 27, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mohammad B Hossain, Justine Lebelle, Rares Birsan, Dilip K Rai
The present study extensively fractionated crude red onion extract in order to identify the polyphenols which contributed most in the total antioxidant capacity of the onion extract using a flash chromatography system. The flash separations produced 70 fractions which were tested for their total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Out of these 70 fractions, four fractions which were representatives of the four major peaks of the flash chromatograms, were further analysed for their constituent polyphenols using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
November 27, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Dina Cheaib, Nada El Darra, Hiba N Rajha, Iman El-Ghazzawi, Youssef Mouneimne, Adla Jammoul, Richard G Maroun, Nicolas Louka
The valorization of industrial food byproducts by means of environment-friendly extraction methods is becoming a major interest because of its environmental and economic values. In this study, the efficiency of many technologies, such as ultrasounds (US), microwaves (MW), and infrared (IR), was compared, in terms of polyphenol yield and bioactivity from apricot pomace. IR was the most effective method with the highest polyphenol (10 mg GAE/g DM), flavonoid (6 mg CE/g DM), and tannin (3.6 mg/L) yields. In terms of efficacy, IR was followed by MW, US, then solid-liquid (S/L) extraction...
November 27, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Cristian O'Flaherty
The spermatozoon is a terminal cell with the unique purpose of delivering the paternal genome to the oocyte during fertilization. Once spermatozoa enter into the female reproductive tract, they count on only the antioxidant protection that they received during spermatogenesis and epididymal maturation. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs), particularly PRDX6, are important players in the antioxidant protection and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in spermatozoa. PRDX6, through its peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase A₂ activities, plays a major role in the regulation of ROS to maintain viability and motility and allow the spermatozoon to achieve fertilizing ability during the complex process of capacitation...
November 24, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
José A Arevalo, José Pablo Vázquez-Medina
Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6, 1-cys peroxiredoxin) is a unique member of the peroxiredoxin family that, in contrast to other mammalian peroxiredoxins, lacks a resolving cysteine and uses glutathione and π glutathione S-transferase to complete its catalytic cycle. Prdx6 is also the only peroxiredoxin capable of reducing phospholipid hydroperoxides through its glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activity. In addition to its peroxidase activity, Prdx6 expresses acidic calcium-independent phospholipase A₂ (aiPLA₂) and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl transferase (LPCAT) activities in separate catalytic sites...
November 24, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Stéphane D Lemaire, Daniele Tedesco, Pierre Crozet, Laure Michelet, Simona Fermani, Mirko Zaffagnini, Julien Henri
Protein disulfide reduction by thioredoxins (TRXs) controls the conformation of enzyme active sites and their multimeric complex formation. TRXs are small oxidoreductases that are broadly conserved in all living organisms. In photosynthetic eukaryotes, TRXs form a large multigenic family, and they have been classified in different types: f, m, x, y, and z types are chloroplastic, while o and h types are located in mitochondria and cytosol. In the model unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , the TRX family contains seven types, with f- and h-types represented by two isozymes...
November 23, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Gabriele Serreli, Monica Deiana
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols beneficial effects have widely been debated throughout the last three decades, with greater attention to hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, which are by far the most studied. The main concern about the evaluation of EVOO phenols activities in vitro and in vivo is that the absorption and metabolism of these compounds once ingested lead to the production of different metabolites in the human body. EVOO phenols in the ingested forms are less concentrated in human tissues than their glucuronide, sulfate and methyl metabolites; on the other hand, metabolites may undergo deconjugation before entering the cells and thus act as free forms or may be reformed inside the cells so acting as conjugated forms...
November 22, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Anna Dreyer, Karl-Josef Dietz
Cold temperatures restrict plant growth, geographical extension of plant species, and agricultural practices. This review deals with cold stress above freezing temperatures often defined as chilling stress. It focuses on the redox regulatory network of the cell under cold temperature conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as the final electron sink in this network which consists of redox input elements, transmitters, targets, and sensors. Following an introduction to the critical network components which include nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent thioredoxin reductases, thioredoxins, and peroxiredoxins, typical laboratory experiments for cold stress investigations will be described...
November 21, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Daniela E Nordzieke, Iria Medraño-Fernandez
Membranes are of outmost importance to allow for specific signal transduction due to their ability to localize, amplify, and direct signals. However, due to the double-edged nature of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-toxic at high concentrations but essential signal molecules-subcellular localization of ROS-producing systems to the plasma membrane has been traditionally regarded as a protective strategy to defend cells from unwanted side-effects. Nevertheless, specialized regions, such as lipid rafts and caveolae, house and regulate the activated/inhibited states of important ROS-producing systems and concentrate redox targets, demonstrating that plasma membrane functions may go beyond acting as a securing lipid barrier...
November 20, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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