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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617308/nox2-induced-activation-of-arginase-and-diabetes-induced-retinal-endothelial-cell-senescence
#1
Modesto Rojas, Tahira Lemtalsi, Haroldo A Toque, Zhimin Xu, David Fulton, Robert William Caldwell, Ruth B Caldwell
Increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases in nitric oxide (NO) have been linked to vascular dysfunction during diabetic retinopathy (DR). Diabetes can reduce NO by increasing ROS and by increasing activity of arginase, which competes with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for their commons substrate l-arginine. Increased ROS and decreased NO can cause premature endothelial cell (EC) senescence leading to defective vascular repair. We have previously demonstrated the involvement of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-derived ROS, decreased NO and overactive arginase in DR...
June 15, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594389/the-role-of-nox4-and-trx2-in-angiogenesis-and-their-potential-cross-talk
#2
REVIEW
Chaofei Chen, Li Li, Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Wang Min
The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) family is the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular system. In this family, NOX4, a constitutive active form of NOXs, plays an important role in angiogenesis. Thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) is a key mitochondrial redox protein that maintains normal protein function and also provides electrons to peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) to scavenge H₂O₂ in mitochondria. Angiogenesis, a process of new blood vessel formation, is involved in a variety of physiological processes and pathological conditions...
June 8, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594364/undernutrition-and-overnutrition-burden-for-diseases-in-developing-countries-the-role-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-to-assess-disease-risk-and-interventional-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Francesca Mastorci, Cristina Vassalle, Kyriazoula Chatzianagnostou, Claudio Marabotti, Khawer Siddiqui, Ahmed Ould Eba, Soueid Ahmed Sidi Mhamed, Arun Bandopadhyay, Marco Stefano Nazzaro, Mirko Passera, Alessandro Pingitore
The increased life expectancy, urbanization, and unhealthy lifestyle characterized by a shift towards a sedentary lifestyle and decreased energy expenditure are considered the main drivers of epidemiological transition. In particular, developing countries are facing a double burden caused by coexisting under- and over-nutrition, which causes a change in the disease profile from infectious diseases to a chronic degenerative pattern. This review discusses the under- and over-nutrition context in Mauritania and India, two countries that are experiencing a nutritional transition, and where we began a collaboration with local medical staff to integrate interventional and diagnostic guidelines...
June 8, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587189/roles-of-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-nadph-oxidase-in-angiogenesis-isoform-specific-effects
#4
REVIEW
Haibo Wang, M Elizabeth Hartnett
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones and is implicated in physiologic vascular development, pathologic blood vessel growth, and vascular restoration. This is in contrast to vasculogenesis, which is de novo growth of vessels from vascular precursors, or from vascular repair that occurs when circulating endothelial progenitor cells home into an area and develop into blood vessels. The objective of this review is to discuss the isoform-specific role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) in physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis and vascular repair, but will not specifically address vasculogenesis...
June 3, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587060/is-root-catalase-a-bifunctional-catalase-peroxidase
#5
Vasileia Chioti, George Zervoudakis
Plant catalases exhibit spatial and temporal distribution of their activity. Moreover, except from the typical monofunctional catalase, a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the leaf and root catalases from six different plant species (Lactuca sativa, Cichorium endivia, Apium graveolens, Petroselinum crispum, Lycopersicon esculentum, and Solanum melongena) correspond to the monofunctional or the bifunctional type based on their sensitivity to the inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT)...
May 25, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545257/the-reactive-sulfur-species-concept-15-years-on
#6
REVIEW
Gregory I Giles, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Wesam Ali, Claus Jacob
Fifteen years ago, in 2001, the concept of "Reactive Sulfur Species" or RSS was advocated as a working hypothesis. Since then various organic as well as inorganic RSS have attracted considerable interest and stimulated many new and often unexpected avenues in research and product development. During this time, it has become apparent that molecules with sulfur-containing functional groups are not just the passive "victims" of oxidative stress or simple conveyors of signals in cells, but can also be stressors in their own right, with pivotal roles in cellular function and homeostasis...
May 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531132/effects-of-%C3%AE-carotene-and-its-cleavage-products-in-primary-pneumocyte-type-ii-cells
#7
Cornelia Haider, Franziska Ferk, Ekramije Bojaxhi, Giuseppe Martano, Hanno Stutz, Nikolaus Bresgen, Siegfried Knasmüller, Avdulla Alija, Peter M Eckl
β-Carotene has been shown to increase the risk of developing lung cancer in smokers and asbestos workers in two large scale trails, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) and the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Trial (ATBC). Based on this observation, it was proposed that genotoxic oxidative breakdown products may cause this effect. In support of this assumption, increased levels of sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, and chromosomal aberrations were found in primary hepatocyte cultures treated with a mixture of cleavage products (CPs) and the major product apo-8'carotenal...
May 21, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534811/hormetic-property-of-ginseng-steroids-on-anti-oxidant-status-against-exercise-challenge-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#8
Ming-Fen Hsu, Szu-Hsien Yu, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Wei-Horng Jean, Shin-Da Lee, Chih-Yang Huang, Yi-Hung Liao, Jessica Lu, Chia-Hua Kuo
BACKGROUND: Existing literature on anti-oxidant capacity of ginseng has been inconsistent due to variance in the profile of ginseng steroids (Ginsenosides) that is because of differences in seasons and species. METHODS: We used various doses of ginseng steroids to determine its effect on oxidative stress and anti-oxidant capacity of rat skeletal muscle against exercise. RESULTS: Under non-exercise conditions, we found increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels and decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) in rat skeletal muscle as dose increases (p < 0...
May 19, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524089/green-synthesized-zinc-oxide-zno-nanoparticles-induce-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-lathyrus-sativus-l-root-bioassay-system
#9
Kamal K Panda, Dambaru Golari, A Venugopal, V Mohan M Achary, Ganngam Phaomei, Narasimham L Parinandi, Hrushi K Sahu, Brahma B Panda
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn(2+) from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L(-1) for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂(•-), H₂O₂ and (•)OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L...
May 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513570/a-study-of-the-protective-properties-of-iraqi-olive-leaves-against-oxidation-and-pathogenic-bacteria-in-food-applications
#10
Ammar B Altemimi
There is an ancient and prodigious history of olive trees because of their nutritional, medicinal, and traditional uses. Intensive studies have been conducted on olive leaves because they have many positive and beneficial effects for human health. In this study, different solvents were used to examine the olive leaves for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and their possible food applications. The obtained results showed that the amounts of phenolic compounds of the olive leaf were 190.44 ± 0.50, 173 ± 1...
May 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513539/the-interplay-between-oncogenic-signaling-networks-and-mitochondrial-dynamics
#11
REVIEW
Sarbajeet Nagdas, David F Kashatus
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that alter their organization in response to a variety of cellular cues. Mitochondria are central in many biologic processes, such as cellular bioenergetics and apoptosis, and mitochondrial network morphology can contribute to those physiologic processes. Some of the biologic processes that are in part governed by mitochondria are also commonly deregulated in cancers. Furthermore, patient tumor samples from a variety of cancers have revealed that mitochondrial dynamics machinery may be deregulated in tumors...
May 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505091/the-importance-of-nadph-oxidases-and-redox-signaling-in-angiogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Rodrigo Prieto-Bermejo, Angel Hernández-Hernández
Eukaryotic cells have to cope with the constant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although the excessive production of ROS might be deleterious for cell biology, there is a plethora of evidence showing that moderate levels of ROS are important for the control of cell signaling and gene expression. The family of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NADPH oxidases or Nox) has evolved to produce ROS in response to different signals; therefore, they fulfil a central role in the control of redox signaling...
May 13, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475131/ho-1-induction-in-cancer-progression-a-matter-of-cell-adaptation
#13
REVIEW
Mariapaola Nitti, Sabrina Piras, Umberto M Marinari, Lorenzo Moretta, Maria A Pronzato, Anna Lisa Furfaro
The upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is one of the most important mechanisms of cell adaptation to stress. Indeed, the redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 is the pivotal regulator of HO-1 induction. Through the antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and antinflammatory properties of its metabolic products, HO-1 plays a key role in healthy cells in maintaining redox homeostasis and in preventing carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence have highlighted the role of HO-1 in cancer progression and its expression correlates with tumor growth, aggressiveness, metastatic and angiogenetic potential, resistance to therapy, tumor escape, and poor prognosis, even though a tumor- and tissue-specific activity has been observed...
May 5, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475126/phenolic-compositions-and-antioxidant-properties-in-bark-flower-inner-skin-kernel-and-leaf-extracts-of-castanea-crenata-sieb-et-zucc
#14
Phung Thi Tuyen, Tran Dang Xuan, Do Tan Khang, Ateeque Ahmad, Nguyen Van Quan, Truong Thi Tu Anh, La Hoang Anh, Truong Ngoc Minh
In this study, different plant parts (barks, flowers, inner skins, kernels and leaves) of Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut) were analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching methods. The highest total phenolic and tannin contents were found in the inner skins (1034 ± 7.21 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 253...
May 5, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420078/natural-phenol-polymers-recent-advances-in-food-and-health-applications
#15
REVIEW
Lucia Panzella, Alessandra Napolitano
Natural phenol polymers are widely represented in nature and include a variety of classes including tannins and lignins as the most prominent. Largely consumed foods are rich sources of phenol polymers, notably black foods traditionally used in East Asia, but other non-edible, easily accessible sources, e.g., seaweeds and wood, have been considered with increasing interest together with waste materials from agro-based industries, primarily grape pomace and other byproducts of fruit and coffee processing. Not in all cases were the main structural components of these materials identified because of their highly heterogeneous nature...
April 14, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394280/acute-pre-post-treatment-with-8th-day-sod-like-supreme-a-free-radical-scavenging-health-product-protects-against-oxidant-induced-injury-in-cultured-cardiomyocytes-and-hepatocytes-in-vitro-as-well-as-in-mouse-myocardium-and-liver-in-vivo
#16
Pou Kuan Leong, Jihang Chen, Wing Man Chan, Hoi Yan Leung, Lincoln Chan, Kam Ming Ko
8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD)-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product) is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in AML12 hepatocytes as well as oxidant-induced injury in the mouse myocardium and liver were investigated. SOD-Like Supreme was found to possess potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro as assessed by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay...
April 10, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383481/strange-bedfellows-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-like-2-nrf2-and-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-hif-1-in-tumor-hypoxia
#17
REVIEW
Rachel K Toth, Noel A Warfel
The importance of the tumor microenvironment for cancer progression and therapeutic resistance is an emerging focus of cancer biology. Hypoxia, or low oxygen, is a hallmark of solid tumors that promotes metastasis and represents a significant obstacle to successful cancer therapy. In response to hypoxia, cancer cells activate a transcriptional program that allows them to survive and thrive in this harsh microenvironment. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is considered the main effector of the cellular response to hypoxia, stimulating the transcription of genes involved in promoting angiogenesis and altering cellular metabolism...
April 6, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379200/green-tea-catechins-for-prostate-cancer-prevention-present-achievements-and-future-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Valeria Naponelli, Ileana Ramazzina, Chiara Lenzi, Saverio Bettuzzi, Federica Rizzi
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are a family of chemically related compounds usually classified as antioxidant molecules. Epidemiological evidences, supported by interventional studies, highlighted a more than promising role for GTCs in human prostate cancer (PCa) chemoprevention. In the last decades, many efforts have been made to gain new insights into the mechanism of action of GTCs. Now it is clear that GTCs' anticancer action can no longer be simplistically limited to their direct antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties...
April 5, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379197/abnormalities-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Ju Gao, Luwen Wang, Jingyi Liu, Fei Xie, Bo Su, Xinglong Wang
Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and devastating neurological disorders characterized by the progressive loss of the structure and function of neurons in the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system. Mitochondria, organelles found in most eukaryotic cells, are essential for neuronal survival and are involved in a number of neuronal functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been demonstrated as a common prominent early pathological feature of a variety of common neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD)...
April 5, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353636/zinc-and-oxidative-stress-current-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz, Jennifer Beatriz Silva Morais, Jéssica Batista Beserra, Juliana Soares Severo, Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira
Oxidative stress is a metabolic dysfunction that favors the oxidation of biomolecules, contributing to the oxidative damage of cells and tissues. This consequently contributes to the development of several chronic diseases. In particular, zinc is one of the most relevant minerals to human health, because of its antioxidant properties. This review aims to provide updated information about the mechanisms involved in the protective role of zinc against oxidative stress. Zinc acts as a co-factor for important enzymes involved in the proper functioning of the antioxidant defense system...
March 29, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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