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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338603/antioxidant-properties-of-selenophene-thiophene-and-their-aminocarbonitrile-derivatives
#1
Levon A Tavadyan, Zaruhi H Manukyan, Lusik H Harutyunyan, Makich V Musayelyan, Adrine D Sahakyan, Hakob G Tonikyan
The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to detect the antiperoxyradical ability of organoselenium compounds: selenophene and its derivative, 2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-selenophene-3-carbonitrile (ATSe); while as a comparison, the sulfur-containing analogue of selenophene-thiophene and its derivative-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-thiophene-3-carbonitrile (ATS)-was selected. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and squarewave voltammetry (SWV) methods were used to determine the redox characteristics of organoselenium and organosulfur compounds...
March 24, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333068/effects-of-reactive-oxygen-species-on-tubular-transport-along-the-nephron
#2
REVIEW
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Jeffrey L Garvin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxygen-containing molecules naturally occurring in both inorganic and biological chemical systems. Due to their high reactivity and potentially damaging effects to biomolecules, cells express a battery of enzymes to rapidly metabolize them to innocuous intermediaries. Initially, ROS were considered by biologists as dangerous byproducts of respiration capable of causing oxidative stress, a condition in which overproduction of ROS leads to a reduction in protective molecules and enzymes and consequent damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA...
March 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300753/krebs-cycle-intermediates-protective-against-oxidative-stress-by-modulating-the-level-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-neuronal-ht22-cells
#3
Kenta Sawa, Takumi Uematsu, Yusuke Korenaga, Ryuya Hirasawa, Masatoshi Kikuchi, Kyohei Murata, Jian Zhang, Xiaoqing Gai, Kazuichi Sakamoto, Tomoyuki Koyama, Takumi Satoh
Krebs cycle intermediates (KCIs) are reported to function as energy substrates in mitochondria and to exert antioxidants effects on the brain. The present study was designed to identify which KCIs are effective neuroprotective compounds against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Here we found that pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoglutarate, but not lactate, citrate, iso-citrate, succinate, fumarate, or malate, protected HT22 cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity. These three intermediates reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide-activated reactive oxygen species, measured in terms of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335380/vitamin-e-nicotinate
#4
REVIEW
Kimbell R Duncan, Yuichiro J Suzuki
Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications...
March 13, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273843/effect-of-leaves-of-caesalpinia-decapetala-on-oxidative-stability-of-oil-in-water-emulsions
#5
María Gabriela Gallego, Monika Skowyra, Michael H Gordon, Nurul Aini Mohd Azman, María Pilar Almajano
Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy...
March 4, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257114/na-k-atpase-signaling-and-salt-sensitivity-the-role-of-oxidative-stress
#6
REVIEW
Jiang Liu, Yanling Yan, Ying Nie, Joseph I Shapiro
Other than genetic regulation of salt sensitivity of blood pressure, many factors have been shown to regulate renal sodium handling which contributes to long-term blood pressure regulation and have been extensively reviewed. Here we present our progress on the Na/K-ATPase signaling mediated sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules, from cardiotonic steroids-mediated to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling that contributes to experimental salt sensitivity.
March 2, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264499/current-insights-to-regulation-and-role-of-telomerase-in-human-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Mert Burak Ozturk, Yinghui Li, Vinay Tergaonkar
The telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex has a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and senescence of normal somatic cells as well as cancer cells. This complex is comprised mainly of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA component (TERC) and other associated proteins that function to elongate telomeres localized at the end of the chromosomes. While reactivation of telomerase is a major hallmark of most cancers, together with the synergistic activation of other oncogenic signals, deficiency in telomerase and telomeric proteins might lead to aging and senescence-associated disorders...
February 28, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241459/the-effect-of-gender-and-menstrual-phase-on-serum-creatine-kinase-activity-and-muscle-soreness-following-downhill-running
#8
Tanja Oosthuyse, Andrew N Bosch
Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity reflects muscle membrane disruption. Oestrogen has antioxidant and membrane stabilising properties, yet no study has compared the CK and muscle soreness (DOMS) response to unaccustomed exercise between genders when all menstrual phases are represented in women. Fifteen eumenorrhoeic women (early follicular, EF (n = 5); late follicular, LF (n = 5); mid-luteal, ML (n = 5) phase) and six men performed 20 min of downhill running (-10% gradient) at 9 km/h. Serum CK activity and visual analogue scale rating of perceived muscle soreness were measured before, immediately, 24-h, 48-h and 72-h after exercise...
February 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218725/treating-cancer-by-targeting-telomeres-and-telomerase
#9
REVIEW
Marko Ivancich, Zachary Schrank, Luke Wojdyla, Brandon Leviskas, Adijan Kuckovic, Ankita Sanjali, Neelu Puri
Telomerase is expressed in more than 85% of cancer cells. Tumor cells with metastatic potential may have a high telomerase activity, allowing cells to escape from the inhibition of cell proliferation due to shortened telomeres. Human telomerase primarily consists of two main components: hTERT, a catalytic subunit, and hTR, an RNA template whose sequence is complimentary to the telomeric 5'-dTTAGGG-3' repeat. In humans, telomerase activity is typically restricted to renewing tissues, such as germ cells and stem cells, and is generally absent in normal cells...
February 19, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212297/inorganic-reactive-sulfur-nitrogen-species-intricate-release-mechanisms-or-cacophony-in-yellow-blue-and-red
#10
Marian Grman, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Roman Leontiev, Anton Misak, Veronika Jakusova, Karol Ondrias, Claus Jacob
Since the heydays of Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS) research during the first decade of the Millennium, numerous sulfur species involved in cellular regulation and signalling have been discovered. Yet despite the general predominance of organic species in organisms, recent years have also seen the emergence of inorganic reactive sulfur species, ranging from inorganic polysulfides (HSx(-)/Sx(2-)) to thionitrous acid (HSNO) and nitrosopersulfide (SSNO(-)). These inorganic species engage in a complex interplay of reactions in vitro and possibly also in vivo...
February 15, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216602/selenium-and-tellurium-based-antioxidants-for-modulating-inflammation-and-effects-on-osteoblastic-activity
#11
Xi Lu, Gemma Mestres, Vijay Pal Singh, Pedram Effati, Jia-Fei Poon, Lars Engman, Marjam Karlsson Ott
Increased oxidative stress plays a significant role in the etiology of bone diseases. Heightened levels of H2O2 disrupt bone homeostasis, leading to greater bone resorption than bone formation. Organochalcogen compounds could act as free radical trapping agents or glutathione peroxidase mimetics, reducing oxidative stress in inflammatory diseases. In this report, we synthesized and screened a library of organoselenium and organotellurium compounds for hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, using macrophagic cell lines RAW264...
February 14, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165396/proanthocyanidin-characterization-and-bioactivity-of-extracts-from-different-parts-of-uncaria-tomentosa-l-cat-s-claw
#12
Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos, Rosa Lebrón-Aguilar, Jesús E Quintanilla-López, Carolina Cueva, David Hevia, Silvia Quesada, Gabriela Azofeifa, M Victoria Moreno-Arribas, María Monagas, Begoña Bartolomé
Apart from alkaloids, bioactive properties of Uncaria tomentosa L. have been attributed to its phenolic constituents. Although there are some reports concerning low-molecular-weight polyphenols in U. tomentosa, its polymeric phenolic composition has been scarcely studied. In this study, phenolic-rich extracts from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 14) of Uncaria tomentosa plants from several regions of Costa Rica were obtained and analysed in respect to their proanthocyanidin profile determined by a quadrupole-time-of-flight analyser (ESI-QTOF MS)...
February 4, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165379/in-vitro-lipophilic-antioxidant-capacity-antidiabetic-and-antibacterial-activity-of-citrus-fruits-extracts-from-aceh-indonesia
#13
Ernawita, Ruri Agung Wahyuono, Jana Hesse, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner, Volker Böhm
This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin...
February 3, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134834/hydroxybenzoic-acids-are-significant-contributors-to-the-antioxidant-effect-of-borututu-bark-cochlospermum-angolensis-welw-ex-oliv
#14
Ehab A Abourashed, Hao Wen Fu
Borututu (Cochlospermum angolensis) is an African tree whose bark has recently emerged as a herbal dietary supplement with claims for antioxidant activity. In order to substantiate the claimed activity of borututu supplements, we performed an activity-guided fractionation of the total extract utilizing a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Subsequent flash and centrifugal chromatography resulted in the isolation of gallic acid (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) as the main antioxidant constituents...
January 28, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134785/a-comparative-study-of-the-phenolic-and-technological-maturities-of-red-grapes-grown-in-lebanon
#15
Hiba N Rajha, Nada El Darra, Sally El Kantar, Zeina Hobaika, Nicolas Louka, Richard G Maroun
Grape harvest date is determined according to the technological and phenolic maturities. These parameters were calculated for different red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Franc) over four years (2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011) (642 samples). Titratable acidity and sugar content of the grapes were used to determine the technological maturity, whereas Glories (1 and 2) and ITV (Institut Technique de la Vigne et du Vin) methods were used to monitor their phenolic maturity...
January 26, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106822/red-fruits-extraction-of-antioxidants-phenolic-content-and-radical-scavenging-determination-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Gádor-Indra Hidalgo, María Pilar Almajano
Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic...
January 19, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106721/exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-responses-in-the-pediatric-population
#17
REVIEW
Alexandra Avloniti, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Chariklia K Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Diamanda Leontsini, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, George Mastorakos, Ioannis G Fatouros
Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development...
January 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085082/use-of-saliva-biomarkers-to-monitor-efficacy-of-vitamin-c-in-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress
#18
REVIEW
Levi W Evans, Stanley T Omaye
Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health status. A popular topic of discussion in medical research is the potential association between oxidative stress and negative outcomes. Systemic biomarkers that represent oxidative stress can be found in saliva. It is unclear, however, if saliva is an accurate biospecimen as is blood and/or plasma...
January 12, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042817/think-yellow-and-keep-green-role-of-sulfanes-from-garlic-in-agriculture
#19
REVIEW
Awais Anwar, Emma Gould, Ryan Tinson, Murree Groom, Chris J Hamilton
Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils...
December 30, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036057/green-tea-and-other-tea-polyphenols-effects-on-sebum-production-and-acne-vulgaris
#20
REVIEW
Suzana Saric, Manisha Notay, Raja K Sivamani
Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris...
December 29, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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