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Nature Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643971/a-reference-gene-catalogue-of-the-pig-gut-microbiome
#1
Liang Xiao, Jordi Estellé, Pia Kiilerich, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Zhongkui Xia, Qiang Feng, Suisha Liang, Anni Øyan Pedersen, Niels Jørgen Kjeldsen, Chuan Liu, Emmanuelle Maguin, Joël Doré, Nicolas Pons, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Edi Prifti, Junhua Li, Huijue Jia, Xin Liu, Xun Xu, Stanislav D Ehrlich, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, Claire Rogel-Gaillard, Jun Wang
The pig is a major species for livestock production and is also extensively used as the preferred model species for analyses of a wide range of human physiological functions and diseases(1). The importance of the gut microbiota in complementing the physiology and genome of the host is now well recognized(2). Knowledge of the functional interplay between the gut microbiota and host physiology in humans has been advanced by the human gut reference catalogue(3,4). Thus, establishment of a comprehensive pig gut microbiome gene reference catalogue constitutes a logical continuation of the recently published pig genome(5)...
September 19, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643381/bacterial-cell-wall-biogenesis-is-mediated-by-seds-and-pbp-polymerase-families-functioning-semi-autonomously
#2
Hongbaek Cho, Carl N Wivagg, Mrinal Kapoor, Zachary Barry, Patricia D A Rohs, Hyunsuk Suh, Jarrod A Marto, Ethan C Garner, Thomas G Bernhardt
Multi-protein complexes organized by cytoskeletal proteins are essential for cell wall biogenesis in most bacteria. Current models of the wall assembly mechanism assume that class A penicillin-binding proteins (aPBPs), the targets of penicillin-like drugs, function as the primary cell wall polymerases within these machineries. Here, we use an in vivo cell wall polymerase assay in Escherichia coli combined with measurements of the localization dynamics of synthesis proteins to investigate this hypothesis. We find that aPBP activity is not necessary for glycan polymerization by the cell elongation machinery, as is commonly believed...
September 19, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642791/udp-galactose-and-acetyl-coa-transporters-as-plasmodium-multidrug-resistance-genes
#3
Michelle Yi-Xiu Lim, Gregory LaMonte, Marcus C S Lee, Christin Reimer, Bee Huat Tan, Victoria Corey, Bianca F Tjahjadi, Adeline Chua, Marie Nachon, René Wintjens, Peter Gedeck, Benoit Malleret, Laurent Renia, Ghislain M C Bonamy, Paul Chi-Lui Ho, Bryan K S Yeung, Eric D Chow, Liting Lim, David A Fidock, Thierry T Diagana, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Pablo Bifani
A molecular understanding of drug resistance mechanisms enables surveillance of the effectiveness of new antimicrobial therapies during development and deployment in the field. We used conventional drug resistance selection as well as a regime of limiting dilution at early stages of drug treatment to probe two antimalarial imidazolopiperazines, KAF156 and GNF179. The latter approach permits the isolation of low-fitness mutants that might otherwise be out-competed during selection. Whole-genome sequencing of 24 independently derived resistant Plasmodium falciparum clones revealed four parasites with mutations in the known cyclic amine resistance locus (pfcarl) and a further 20 with mutations in two previously unreported P...
September 19, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642668/cross-reactive-antibodies-enhance-live-attenuated-virus-infection-for-increased-immunogenicity
#4
Kuan Rong Chan, Xiaohui Wang, Wilfried A A Saron, Esther Shuyi Gan, Hwee Cheng Tan, Darren Z L Mok, Summer Li-Xin Zhang, Yie Hou Lee, Cui Liang, Limin Wijaya, Sujoy Ghosh, Yin Bun Cheung, Steven R Tannenbaum, Soman N Abraham, Ashley L St John, Jenny G H Low, Eng Eong Ooi
Vaccination has achieved remarkable successes in the control of childhood viral diseases. To control emerging infections, however, vaccines will need to be delivered to older individuals who, unlike infants, probably have had prior infection or vaccination with related viruses and thus have cross-reactive antibodies against the vaccines. Whether and how these cross-reactive antibodies impact live attenuated vaccination efficacy is unclear. Using an open-label randomized trial design, we show that subjects with a specific range of cross-reactive antibody titres from a prior inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccination enhanced yellow fever (YF) immunogenicity upon YF vaccination...
September 19, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922015/cryoem-structure-of-the-methanospirillum-hungatei-archaellum-reveals-structural-features-distinct-from-the-bacterial-flagellum-and-type-iv-pili
#5
Nicole Poweleit, Peng Ge, Hong H Nguyen, Rachel R Ogorzalek Loo, Robert P Gunsalus, Z Hong Zhou
Archaea use flagella known as archaella-distinct both in protein composition and structure from bacterial flagella-to drive cell motility, but the structural basis of this function is unknown. Here, we report an atomic model of the archaella, based on the cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) structure of the Methanospirillum hungatei archaellum at 3.4 Å resolution. Each archaellum contains ∼61,500 archaellin subunits organized into a curved helix with a diameter of 10 nm and average length of 10,000 nm...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918528/origin-of-modern-syphilis-and-emergence-of-a-pandemic-treponema-pallidum-cluster
#6
Natasha Arora, Verena J Schuenemann, Günter Jäger, Alexander Peltzer, Alexander Seitz, Alexander Herbig, Michal Strouhal, Linda Grillová, Leonor Sánchez-Busó, Denise Kühnert, Kirsten I Bos, Leyla Rivero Davis, Lenka Mikalová, Sylvia Bruisten, Peter Komericki, Patrick French, Paul R Grant, María A Pando, Lucía Gallo Vaulet, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepin, Antonio Martinez, Arturo Centurion Lara, Lorenzo Giacani, Steven J Norris, David Šmajs, Philipp P Bosshard, Fernando González-Candelas, Kay Nieselt, Johannes Krause, Homayoun C Bagheri
The abrupt onslaught of the syphilis pandemic that started in the late fifteenth century established this devastating infectious disease as one of the most feared in human history(1). Surprisingly, despite the availability of effective antibiotic treatment since the mid-twentieth century, this bacterial infection, which is caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), has been re-emerging globally in the last few decades with an estimated 10.6 million cases in 2008 (ref. 2). Although resistance to penicillin has not yet been identified, an increasing number of strains fail to respond to the second-line antibiotic azithromycin(3)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918527/induction-and-suppression-of-antiviral-rna-interference-by-influenza-a-virus-in-mammalian-cells
#7
Yang Li, Megha Basavappa, Jinfeng Lu, Shuwei Dong, D Alexander Cronkite, John T Prior, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Paul Hertzog, Yanhong Han, Wan-Xiang Li, Sihem Cheloufi, Fedor V Karginov, Shou-Wei Ding, Kate L Jeffrey
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, and is one of the best-characterized human RNA viral pathogens(1). However, a physiologically relevant role for the RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor activity of the IAV non-structural protein 1 (NS1), reported over a decade ago(2), remains unknown(3). Plant and insect viruses have evolved diverse virulence proteins to suppress RNAi as their hosts produce virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct specific antiviral defence(4-7) by an RNAi mechanism dependent on the slicing activity of Argonaute proteins (AGOs)(8,9)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918526/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-esxh-inhibits-escrt-dependent-cd4-t-cell-activation
#8
Cynthia Portal-Celhay, JoAnn M Tufariello, Smita Srivastava, Aleena Zahra, Thais Klevorn, Patricia S Grace, Alka Mehra, Heidi S Park, Joel D Ernst, William R Jacobs, Jennifer A Philips
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) establishes a persistent infection, despite inducing antigen-specific T-cell responses. Although T cells arrive at the site of infection, they do not provide sterilizing immunity. The molecular basis of how Mtb impairs T-cell function is not clear. Mtb has been reported to block major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen presentation; however, no bacterial effector or host-cell target mediating this effect has been identified. We recently found that Mtb EsxH, which is secreted by the Esx-3 type VII secretion system, directly inhibits the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918496/bacterial-pathogenesis-a-sand-grain-in-antigen-processing
#9
Olivier Neyrolles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892936/influence-of-early-life-exposure-host-genetics-and-diet-on-the-mouse-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome
#10
Antoine M Snijders, Sasha A Langley, Young-Mo Kim, Colin J Brislawn, Cecilia Noecker, Erika M Zink, Sarah J Fansler, Cameron P Casey, Darla R Miller, Yurong Huang, Gary H Karpen, Susan E Celniker, James B Brown, Elhanan Borenstein, Janet K Jansson, Thomas O Metz, Jian-Hua Mao
Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease(1), we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut. We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system(2) to discover that early life history impacts the microbiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892926/dual-specificity-phosphatase-6-deficiency-regulates-gut-microbiome-and-transcriptome-response-against-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#11
Jhen-Wei Ruan, Sarah Statt, Chih-Ting Huang, Yi-Ting Tsai, Cheng-Chin Kuo, Hong-Lin Chan, Yu-Chieh Liao, Tse-Hua Tan, Cheng-Yuan Kao
The gut microbiota plays profound roles in host metabolism and the inflammatory response associated with the development of obesity. Dusp6-deficient mice have been shown to be resistant to diet-induced obesity, but the mechanism behind this remains unclear. 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis demonstrated that dusp6-deficient mice harbour unique gut microbiota with resistance to diet-induced-obesity-mediated alteration of the gut microbiome. Using a germ-free mouse model, we found that faecal/gut microbiota derived from dusp6-deficient mice significantly increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain in recipient wild-type mice fed on a high-fat diet...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892925/a-mouse-model-for-mers-coronavirus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
Adam S Cockrell, Boyd L Yount, Trevor Scobey, Kara Jensen, Madeline Douglas, Anne Beall, Xian-Chun Tang, Wayne A Marasco, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel virus that emerged in 2012, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia-like symptoms and multi-organ failure, with a case fatality rate of ∼36%. Limited clinical studies indicate that humans infected with MERS-CoV exhibit pathology consistent with the late stages of ARDS, which is reminiscent of the disease observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Models of MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease have been difficult to achieve, and small-animal models traditionally used to investigate viral pathogenesis (mouse, hamster, guinea-pig and ferret) are naturally resistant to MERS-CoV...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892921/an-essential-role-for-bacterial-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-staphylococcus-aureus-electron-transfer-and-colonization
#13
Traci L Kinkel, Smirla Ramos-Montañez, Jasmine M Pando, Daniel V Tadeo, Erin N Strom, Stephen J Libby, Ferric C Fang
Nitric oxide (NO(•)) is a ubiquitous molecular mediator in biology. Many signalling actions of NO(•) generated by mammalian NO(•) synthase (NOS) result from targeting of the haem moiety of soluble guanylate cyclase. Some pathogenic and environmental bacteria also produce a NOS that is evolutionary related to the mammalian enzymes, but a bacterial haem-containing receptor for endogenous enzymatically generated NO(•) has not been identified previously. Here, we show that NOS of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, in concert with an NO(•)-metabolizing flavohaemoprotein, regulates electron transfer by targeting haem-containing cytochrome oxidases under microaerobic conditions to maintain membrane bioenergetics...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886200/it-takes-a-village
#14
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886196/reply-to-is-luca-a-thermophilic-progenote
#15
Madeline C Weiss, Sinje Neukirchen, Mayo Roettger, Natalia Mrnjavac, Shijulal Nelson-Sathi, William F Martin, Filipa L Sousa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886195/is-luca-a-thermophilic-progenote
#16
Johann Peter Gogarten, David Deamer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886193/antimicrobials-constraints-on-microbial-warfare
#17
Jeremy M Chacón, William R Harcombe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886190/dysbiosis-is-not-an-answer
#18
Scott W Olesen, Eric J Alm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869793/lyme-disease-spirochaete-borrelia-burgdorferi-does-not-require-thiamin
#19
Kai Zhang, Jiang Bian, Yijie Deng, Alexis Smith, Roy E Nunez, Michael B Li, Utpal Pal, Ai-Ming Yu, Weigang Qiu, Steven E Ealick, Chunhao Li
Thiamin pyrophosphate (ThDP), the active form of thiamin (vitamin B1), is believed to be an essential cofactor for all living organisms(1,2). Here, we report the unprecedented result that thiamin is dispensable for the growth of the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb)(3). Bb lacks genes for thiamin biosynthesis and transport as well as known ThDP-dependent enzymes(4), and we were unable to detect thiamin or its derivatives in Bb cells. We showed that eliminating thiamin in vitro and in vivo using BcmE, an enzyme that degrades thiamin, has no impact on Bb growth and survival during its enzootic infectious cycle...
November 21, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869792/genomic-diversity-in-onchocerca-volvulus-and-its-wolbachia-endosymbiont
#20
Young-Jun Choi, Rahul Tyagi, Samantha N McNulty, Bruce A Rosa, Philip Ozersky, John Martin, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Thomas R Unnasch, Carmelle T Norice, Thomas B Nutman, Gary J Weil, Peter U Fischer, Makedonka Mitreva
Ongoing elimination efforts have altered the global distribution of Onchocerca volvulus, the agent of river blindness, and further population restructuring is expected as efforts continue. Therefore, a better understanding of population genetic processes and their effect on biogeography is needed to support elimination goals. We describe O. volvulus genome variation in 27 isolates from the early 1990s (before widespread mass treatment) from four distinct locales: Ecuador, Uganda, the West African forest and the West African savanna...
November 21, 2016: Nature Microbiology
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