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Nature Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418397/bap180-baf180-is-required-to-maintain-homeostasis-of-intestinal-innate-immune-response-in-drosophila-and-mice
#1
Xiaomeng He, Junjing Yu, Min Wang, Yang Cheng, Yanan Han, Shuo Yang, Guizhi Shi, Lei Sun, Ying Fang, Si-Tang Gong, Zhong Wang, Yang-Xin Fu, Lei Pan, Hong Tang
Immune homeostasis is a prerequisite to protective immunity against gastrointestinal infections. In Drosophila, immune deficiency (IMD) signalling (tumour necrosis factor receptor/interleukin-1 receptor, TNFR/IL-1R in mammals) is indispensable for intestinal immunity against invading bacteria. However, how this local antimicrobial immune response contributes to inflammatory regulation remains poorly defined. Here, we show that flies lacking intestinal Bap180 (a subunit of the chromatin-remodelling switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex) are susceptible to infection as a result of hyper-inflammation rather than bacterial overload...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418382/structure-of-the-hexagonal-surface-layer-on-caulobacter-crescentus-cells
#2
Tanmay A M Bharat, Danguole Kureisaite-Ciziene, Gail G Hardy, Ellen W Yu, Jessica M Devant, Wim J H Hagen, Yves V Brun, John A G Briggs, Jan Löwe
Many prokaryotic cells are encapsulated by a surface layer (S-layer) consisting of repeating units of S-layer proteins. S-layer proteins are a diverse class of molecules found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and most archaea(1-5). S-layers protect cells from the outside, provide mechanical stability and also play roles in pathogenicity. In situ structural information about this highly abundant class of proteins is scarce, so atomic details of how S-layers are arranged on the surface of cells have remained elusive...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418377/the-magnaporthe-oryzae-nitrooxidative-stress-response-suppresses-rice-innate-immunity-during-blast-disease
#3
Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, David Hartline, Janet D Wright, Christian Elowsky, Travis J Bourret, Richard A Wilson
Understanding how microorganisms manipulate plant innate immunity and colonize host cells is a major goal of plant pathology. Here, we report that the fungal nitrooxidative stress response suppresses host defences to facilitate the growth and development of the important rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in leaf cells. Nitronate monooxygenases encoded by NMO genes catalyse the oxidative denitrification of nitroalkanes. We show that the M. oryzae NMO2 gene is required for mitigating damaging lipid nitration under nitrooxidative stress conditions and, consequently, for using nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen sources...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394313/structure-of-the-mycobacterial-esx-5-type-vii-secretion-system-membrane-complex-by-single-particle-analysis
#4
Katherine S H Beckham, Luciano Ciccarelli, Catalin M Bunduc, Haydyn D T Mertens, Roy Ummels, Wolfgang Lugmayr, Julia Mayr, Mandy Rettel, Mikhail M Savitski, Dmitri I Svergun, Wilbert Bitter, Matthias Wilmanns, Thomas C Marlovits, Annabel H A Parret, Edith N G Houben
Mycobacteria are characterized by their impermeable outer membrane, which is rich in mycolic acids(1). To transport substrates across this complex cell envelope, mycobacteria rely on type VII (also known as ESX) secretion systems(2). In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, these ESX systems are essential for growth and full virulence and therefore represent an attractive target for anti-tuberculosis drugs(3). However, the molecular details underlying type VII secretion are largely unknown, due to a lack of structural information...
April 10, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368387/retroelement-guided-protein-diversification-abounds-in-vast-lineages-of-bacteria-and-archaea
#5
Blair G Paul, David Burstein, Cindy J Castelle, Sumit Handa, Diego Arambula, Elizabeth Czornyj, Brian C Thomas, Partho Ghosh, Jeff F Miller, Jillian F Banfield, David L Valentine
Major radiations of enigmatic Bacteria and Archaea with large inventories of uncharacterized proteins are a striking feature of the Tree of Life(1-5). The processes that led to functional diversity in these lineages, which may contribute to a host-dependent lifestyle, are poorly understood. Here, we show that diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs), which guide site-specific protein hypervariability(6-8), are prominent features of genomically reduced organisms from the bacterial candidate phyla radiation (CPR) and as yet uncultivated phyla belonging to the DPANN (Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota and Nanohaloarchaea) archaeal superphylum...
April 3, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368369/global-analysis-of-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-reveals-vast-potential-of-secondary-metabolite-production-in-penicillium-species
#6
Jens Christian Nielsen, Sietske Grijseels, Sylvain Prigent, Boyang Ji, Jacques Dainat, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Jens Christian Frisvad, Mhairi Workman, Jens Nielsen
Filamentous fungi produce a wide range of bioactive compounds with important pharmaceutical applications, such as antibiotic penicillins and cholesterol-lowering statins. However, less attention has been paid to fungal secondary metabolites compared to those from bacteria. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of 9 Penicillium species and, together with 15 published genomes, we investigated the secondary metabolism of Penicillium and identified an immense, unexploited potential for producing secondary metabolites by this genus...
April 3, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350002/why-prokaryotes-have-pangenomes
#7
James O McInerney, Alan McNally, Mary J O'Connell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349976/geomicrobiology-of-the-built-environment
#8
Geoffrey Michael Gadd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349966/on-the-wrong-side-of-history
#9
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349951/parasite-pathogenesis-the-dynamics-of-chronic-malaria
#10
Kirk W Deitsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349936/bacterial-pathogenesis-pathogenic-bacteria-attack-rhim
#11
Thiago DeSouza-Vieira, Francis Ka-Ming Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349932/microbial-communities-rock
#12
Cláudio Nunes-Alves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346454/viral-pathogenesis-dengue-virus-takes-on-cgas
#13
Michiel van Gent, Michaela U Gack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346446/dengue-virus-ns2b-protein-targets-cgas-for-degradation-and-prevents-mitochondrial-dna-sensing-during-infection
#14
Sebastian Aguirre, Priya Luthra, Maria T Sanchez-Aparicio, Ana M Maestre, Jenish Patel, Francise Lamothe, Anthony C Fredericks, Shashank Tripathi, Tongtong Zhu, Jessica Pintado-Silva, Laurence G Webb, Dabeiba Bernal-Rubio, Alexander Solovyov, Benjamin Greenbaum, Viviana Simon, Christopher F Basler, Lubbertus C F Mulder, Adolfo García-Sastre, Ana Fernandez-Sesma
During the last few decades, the global incidence of dengue virus (DENV) has increased dramatically, and it is now endemic in more than 100 countries. To establish a productive infection in humans, DENV uses different strategies to inhibit or avoid the host innate immune system. Several DENV proteins have been shown to strategically target crucial components of the type I interferon system. Here, we report that the DENV NS2B protease cofactor targets the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) for lysosomal degradation to avoid the detection of mitochondrial DNA during infection...
March 27, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319087/erratum-model-based-projections-of-zika-virus-infections-in-childbearing-women-in-the-americas
#15
T Alex Perkins, Amir S Siraj, Corrine W Ruktanonchai, Moritz U G Kraemer, Andrew J Tatem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319084/structural-and-mechanistic-insights-into-an-archaeal-dna-guided-argonaute-protein
#16
Sarah Willkomm, Christine A Oellig, Adrian Zander, Tobias Restle, Ronan Keegan, Dina Grohmann, Sabine Schneider
Argonaute (Ago) proteins in eukaryotes are known as key players in post-transcriptional gene silencing(1), while recent studies on prokaryotic Agos hint at their role in the protection against invading DNA(2,3). Here, we present crystal structures of the apo enzyme and a binary Ago-guide complex of the archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mj) Ago. Binding of a guide DNA leads to large structural rearrangements. This includes the structural transformation of a hinge region containing a switch helix, which has been shown for human Ago2 to be critical for the dynamic target search process(4-6)...
March 20, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319081/guide-independent-dna-cleavage-by-archaeal-argonaute-from-methanocaldococcus-jannaschii
#17
Adrian Zander, Sarah Willkomm, Sapir Ofer, Marleen van Wolferen, Luisa Egert, Sabine Buchmeier, Sarah Stöckl, Philip Tinnefeld, Sabine Schneider, Andreas Klingl, Sonja-Verena Albers, Finn Werner, Dina Grohmann
Prokaryotic Argonaute proteins acquire guide strands derived from invading or mobile genetic elements, via an unknown pathway, to direct guide-dependent cleavage of foreign DNA. Here, we report that Argonaute from the archaeal organism Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjAgo) possesses two modes of action: the canonical guide-dependent endonuclease activity and a non-guided DNA endonuclease activity. The latter allows MjAgo to process long double-stranded DNAs, including circular plasmid DNAs and genomic DNAs...
March 20, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288098/mefloquine-targets-the-plasmodium-falciparum-80s-ribosome-to-inhibit-protein-synthesis
#18
Wilson Wong, Xiao-Chen Bai, Brad E Sleebs, Tony Triglia, Alan Brown, Jennifer K Thompson, Katherine E Jackson, Eric Hanssen, Danushka S Marapana, Israel S Fernandez, Stuart A Ralph, Alan F Cowman, Sjors H W Scheres, Jake Baum
Malaria control is heavily dependent on chemotherapeutic agents for disease prevention and drug treatment. Defining the mechanism of action for licensed drugs, for which no target is characterized, is critical to the development of their second-generation derivatives to improve drug potency towards inhibition of their molecular targets. Mefloquine is a widely used antimalarial without a known mode of action. Here, we demonstrate that mefloquine is a protein synthesis inhibitor. We solved a 3.2 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome with the (+)-mefloquine enantiomer bound to the ribosome GTPase-associated centre...
March 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288095/trypanosoma-brucei-metabolism-is-under-circadian-control
#19
Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Daniel Pinto-Neves, Nuno L Barbosa-Morais, Joseph S Takahashi, Luisa M Figueiredo
The Earth's rotation forced life to evolve under cyclic day and night environmental changes. To anticipate such daily cycles, prokaryote and eukaryote free-living organisms evolved intrinsic clocks that regulate physiological and behavioural processes. Daily rhythms have been observed in organisms living within hosts, such as parasites. Whether parasites have intrinsic molecular clocks or whether they simply respond to host rhythmic physiological cues remains unknown. Here, we show that Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human sleeping sickness, has an intrinsic circadian clock that regulates its metabolism in two different stages of the life cycle...
March 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288094/identification-of-zika-virus-epitopes-reveals-immunodominant-and-protective-roles-for-dengue-virus-cross-reactive-cd8-t-cells
#20
Jinsheng Wen, William Weihao Tang, Nicholas Sheets, Julia Ellison, Alessandro Sette, Kenneth Kim, Sujan Shresta
CD8(+) T cells play an important role in controlling Flavivirus infection, including Zika virus (ZIKV). Here, we have identified 25 HLA-B*0702-restricted epitopes and 1 HLA-A*0101-restricted epitope using interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in ZIKV-infected IFN-α/β receptor-deficient HLA transgenic mice. The cross-reactivity of ZIKV epitopes to dengue virus (DENV) was tested using IFN-γ-ELISPOT and IFN-γ-ICS on CD8(+) T cells from DENV-infected mice, and five cross-reactive HLA-B*0702-binding peptides were identified by both assays...
March 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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