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Nature Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808299/gut-homing-%C3%AE-42pd1-v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-promote-innate-mucosal-damage-via-tlr4-during-acute-hiv-type-1-infection
#1
Allen Ka Loon Cheung, Hau-Yee Kwok, Yiru Huang, Min Chen, Yufei Mo, Xilin Wu, Ka-Shing Lam, Hoi-Kuan Kong, Terrence Chi Kong Lau, Jingying Zhou, Jingjing Li, Lin Cheng, Boon Kiat Lee, Qiaoli Peng, Xiaofan Lu, Minghui An, Hui Wang, Hong Shang, Boping Zhou, Hao Wu, Aimin Xu, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Zhiwei Chen
The innate immune cells underlying mucosal inflammatory responses and damage during acute HIV-1 infection remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a Vδ2 subset of gut-homing γδ T cells with significantly upregulated Δ42PD1 (a PD1 isoform) in acute (~20%) HIV-1 patients compared to chronic HIV-1 patients (~11%) and healthy controls (~2%). The frequency of Δ42PD1(+)Vδ2 cells correlates positively with plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty-acid-binding protein before detectable lipopolysaccharide in acute patients...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808258/hexahydroquinolines-are-antimalarial-candidates-with-potent-blood-stage-and-transmission-blocking-activity
#2
Manu Vanaerschot, Leonardo Lucantoni, Tao Li, Jill M Combrinck, Andrea Ruecker, T R Santha Kumar, Kelly Rubiano, Pedro E Ferreira, Giulia Siciliano, Sonia Gulati, Philipp P Henrich, Caroline L Ng, James M Murithi, Victoria C Corey, Sandra Duffy, Ori J Lieberman, M Isabel Veiga, Robert E Sinden, Pietro Alano, Michael J Delves, Kim Lee Sim, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Timothy J Egan, Stephen L Hoffman, Vicky M Avery, David A Fidock
Antimalarial compounds with dual therapeutic and transmission-blocking activity are desired as high-value partners for combination therapies. Here, we report the identification and characterization of hexahydroquinolines (HHQs) that show low nanomolar potency against both pathogenic and transmissible intra-erythrocytic forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This activity translates into potent transmission-blocking potential, as shown by in vitro male gamete formation assays and reduced oocyst infection and prevalence in Anopheles mosquitoes...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808230/environmental-drivers-of-a-microbial-genomic-transition-zone-in-the-ocean-s-interior
#3
Daniel R Mende, Jessica A Bryant, Frank O Aylward, John M Eppley, Torben Nielsen, David M Karl, Edward F DeLong
The core properties of microbial genomes, including GC content and genome size, are known to vary widely among different bacteria and archaea (1,2) . Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this genomic variability, but the fundamental drivers that shape bacterial and archaeal genomic properties remain uncertain (3-7) . Here, we report the existence of a sharp genomic transition zone below the photic zone, where bacterial and archaeal genomes and proteomes undergo a community-wide punctuated shift...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785103/clonal-differences-in-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-associated-mortality
#4
Mario Recker, Maisem Laabei, Michelle S Toleman, Sandra Reuter, Rebecca B Saunderson, Beth Blane, M Estee Török, Khadija Ouadi, Emily Stevens, Maho Yokoyama, Joseph Steventon, Luke Thompson, Gregory Milne, Sion Bayliss, Leann Bacon, Sharon J Peacock, Ruth C Massey
The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen for which the emergence of antibiotic resistance is a global public health concern. Infection severity, and in particular bacteraemia-associated mortality, has been attributed to several host-related factors, such as age and the presence of comorbidities. The role of the bacterium in infection severity is less well understood, as it is complicated by the multifaceted nature of bacterial virulence, which has so far prevented a robust mapping between genotype, phenotype and infection outcome...
August 7, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785078/a-myovirus-encoding-both-photosystem-i-and-ii-proteins-enhances-cyclic-electron-flow-in-infected-prochlorococcus-cells
#5
Svetlana Fridman, José Flores-Uribe, Shirley Larom, Onit Alalouf, Oded Liran, Iftach Yacoby, Faris Salama, Benjamin Bailleul, Fabrice Rappaport, Tamar Ziv, Itai Sharon, Francisco M Cornejo-Castillo, Alon Philosof, Christopher L Dupont, Pablo Sánchez, Silvia G Acinas, Forest L Rohwer, Debbie Lindell, Oded Béjà
Cyanobacteria are important contributors to primary production in the open oceans. Over the past decade, various photosynthesis-related genes have been found in viruses that infect cyanobacteria (cyanophages). Although photosystem II (PSII) genes are common in both cultured cyanophages and environmental samples (1-4) , viral photosystem I (vPSI) genes have so far only been detected in environmental samples (5,6) . Here, we have used a targeted strategy to isolate a cyanophage from the tropical Pacific Ocean that carries a PSI gene cassette with seven distinct PSI genes (psaJF, C, A, B, K, E, D) as well as two PSII genes (psbA, D)...
August 7, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785032/an-anti-crispr-from-a-virulent-streptococcal-phage-inhibits-streptococcus-pyogenes-cas9
#6
Alexander P Hynes, Geneviève M Rousseau, Marie-Laurence Lemay, Philippe Horvath, Dennis A Romero, Christophe Fremaux, Sylvain Moineau
The CRISPR-Cas system owes its utility as a genome-editing tool to its origin as a prokaryotic immune system. The first demonstration of its activity against bacterial viruses (phages) is also the first record of phages evading that immunity (1) . This evasion can be due to point mutations (1) , large-scale deletions (2) , DNA modifications (3) , or phage-encoded proteins that interfere with the CRISPR-Cas system, known as anti-CRISPRs (Acrs) (4) . The latter are of biotechnological interest, as Acrs can serve as off switches for CRISPR-based genome editing (5) ...
August 7, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784982/group-a-streptococcal-m-protein-activates-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#7
J Andrés Valderrama, Angelica M Riestra, Nina J Gao, Christopher N LaRock, Naveen Gupta, Syed Raza Ali, Hal M Hoffman, Partho Ghosh, Victor Nizet
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is among the top ten causes of infection-related mortality in humans. M protein is the most abundant GAS surface protein, and M1 serotype GAS strains are associated with invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. Here, we report that released, soluble M1 protein triggers programmed cell death in macrophages (Mϕ). M1 served as a second signal for caspase-1-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation, inducing maturation and release of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and macrophage pyroptosis...
August 7, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759047/correction-stop-neglecting-fungi
#8
(no author information available yet)
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2017.120.
July 31, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758990/coordinated-regulation-of-growth-activity-and-transcription-in-natural-populations-of-the-unicellular-nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacterium-crocosphaera
#9
Samuel T Wilson, Frank O Aylward, Francois Ribalet, Benedetto Barone, John R Casey, Paige E Connell, John M Eppley, Sara Ferrón, Jessica N Fitzsimmons, Christopher T Hayes, Anna E Romano, Kendra A Turk-Kubo, Alice Vislova, E Virginia Armbrust, David A Caron, Matthew J Church, Jonathan P Zehr, David M Karl, Edward F DeLong
The temporal dynamics of phytoplankton growth and activity have large impacts on fluxes of matter and energy, yet obtaining in situ metabolic measurements of sufficient resolution for even dominant microorganisms remains a considerable challenge. We performed Lagrangian diel sampling with synoptic measurements of population abundances, dinitrogen (N2) fixation, mortality, productivity, export and transcription in a bloom of Crocosphaera over eight days in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). Quantitative transcriptomic analyses revealed clear diel oscillations in transcript abundances for 34% of Crocosphaera genes identified, reflecting a systematic progression of gene expression in diverse metabolic pathways...
July 31, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741610/stop-neglecting-fungi
#10
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741609/synthetic-biology-engineered-stable-ecosystems
#11
Alfonso Jaramillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741608/archaeal-evolution-the-methanogenic-roots-of-archaea
#12
Anja Spang, Thijs J G Ettema
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741607/the-importance-of-anabolism-in-microbial-control-over-soil-carbon-storage
#13
Chao Liang, Joshua P Schimel, Julie D Jastrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741606/making-magic-bullets
#14
Jessica Blair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737755/biphasic-growth-dynamics-control-cell-division-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#15
Shiladitya Banerjee, Klevin Lo, Matthew K Daddysman, Alan Selewa, Thomas Kuntz, Aaron R Dinner, Norbert F Scherer
Cell size is specific to each species and impacts cell function. Various phenomenological models for cell size regulation have been proposed, but recent work in bacteria has suggested an 'adder' model, in which a cell increments its size by a constant amount between each division. However, the coupling between cell size, shape and constriction remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate size control and the cell cycle dependence of bacterial growth using multigenerational cell growth and shape data for single Caulobacter crescentus cells...
July 24, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737752/mechanical-strain-sensing-implicated-in-cell-shape-recovery-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Felix Wong, Lars D Renner, Gizem Özbaykal, Jayson Paulose, Douglas B Weibel, Sven van Teeffelen, Ariel Amir
The shapes of most bacteria are imparted by the structures of their peptidoglycan cell walls, which are determined by many dynamic processes that can be described on various length scales ranging from short-range glycan insertions to cellular-scale elasticity(1-11). Understanding the mechanisms that maintain stable, rod-like morphologies in certain bacteria has proved to be challenging due to an incomplete understanding of the feedback between growth and the elastic and geometric properties of the cell wall(3,4,12-14)...
July 24, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715405/identification-and-pathological-characterization-of-persistent-asymptomatic-ebola-virus-infection-in-rhesus-monkeys
#17
Xiankun Zeng, Candace D Blancett, Keith A Koistinen, Christopher W Schellhase, Jeremy J Bearss, Sheli R Radoshitzky, Shelley P Honnold, Taylor B Chance, Travis K Warren, Jeffrey W Froude, Kathleen A Cashman, John M Dye, Sina Bavari, Gustavo Palacios, Jens H Kuhn, Mei G Sun
Ebola virus (EBOV) persistence in asymptomatic humans and Ebola virus disease (EVD) sequelae have emerged as significant public health concerns since the 2013-2016 EVD outbreak in Western Africa. Until now, studying how EBOV disseminates into and persists in immune-privileged sites was impossible due to the absence of a suitable animal model. Here, we detect persistent EBOV replication coinciding with systematic inflammatory responses in otherwise asymptomatic rhesus monkeys that had survived infection in the absence of or after treatment with candidate medical countermeasures...
July 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714967/architecture-of-the-type-iv-coupling-protein-complex-of-legionella-pneumophila
#18
Mi-Jeong Kwak, J Dongun Kim, Hyunmin Kim, Cheolhee Kim, James W Bowman, Seonghoon Kim, Keehyoung Joo, Jooyoung Lee, Kyeong Sik Jin, Yeon-Gil Kim, Nam Ki Lee, Jae U Jung, Byung-Ha Oh
Many bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila, rely on the type IV secretion system to translocate a repertoire of effector proteins into the hosts for their survival and growth. Type IV coupling protein (T4CP) is a hexameric ATPase that links translocating substrates to the transenvelope secretion conduit. Yet, how a large number of effector proteins are selectively recruited and processed by T4CPs remains enigmatic. DotL, the T4CP of L. pneumophila, contains an ATPase domain and a C-terminal extension whose function is unknown...
July 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692019/bacteriophage-evolution-differs-by-host-lifestyle-and-genome
#19
Travis N Mavrich, Graham F Hatfull
Bacteriophages play key roles in microbial evolution(1,2), marine nutrient cycling(3) and human disease(4). Phages are genetically diverse, and their genome architectures are characteristically mosaic, driven by horizontal gene transfer with other phages and host genomes(5). As a consequence, phage evolution is complex and their genomes are composed of genes with distinct and varied evolutionary histories(6,7). However, there are conflicting perspectives on the roles of mosaicism and the extent to which it generates a spectrum of genome diversity(8) or genetically discrete populations(9,10)...
July 10, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665414/etx2514-is-a-broad-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-for-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-including-acinetobacter-baumannii
#20
Thomas F Durand-Réville, Satenig Guler, Janelle Comita-Prevoir, Brendan Chen, Neil Bifulco, Hoan Huynh, Sushmita Lahiri, Adam B Shapiro, Sarah M McLeod, Nicole M Carter, Samir H Moussa, Camilo Velez-Vega, Nelson B Olivier, Robert McLaughlin, Ning Gao, Jason Thresher, Tiffany Palmer, Beth Andrews, Robert A Giacobbe, Joseph V Newman, David E Ehmann, Boudewijn de Jonge, John O'Donnell, John P Mueller, Rubén A Tommasi, Alita A Miller
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections are a serious threat to public health. Among the most alarming resistance trends is the rapid rise in the number and diversity of β-lactamases, enzymes that inactivate β-lactams, a class of antibiotics that has been a therapeutic mainstay for decades. Although several new β-lactamase inhibitors have been approved or are in clinical trials, their spectra of activity do not address MDR pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii. This report describes the rational design and characterization of expanded-spectrum serine β-lactamase inhibitors that potently inhibit clinically relevant class A, C and D β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins, resulting in intrinsic antibacterial activity against Enterobacteriaceae and restoration of β-lactam activity in a broad range of MDR Gram-negative pathogens...
June 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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