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Nature Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211852/plasmodium-falciparum-crk4-directs-continuous-rounds-of-dna-replication-during-schizogony
#1
Markus Ganter, Jonathan M Goldberg, Jeffrey D Dvorin, Joao A Paulo, Jonas G King, Abhai K Tripathi, Aditya S Paul, Jing Yang, Isabelle Coppens, Rays H Y Jiang, Brendan Elsworth, David A Baker, Rhoel R Dinglasan, Steven P Gygi, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have evolved a unique cell division cycle in the clinically relevant asexual blood stage of infection(1). DNA replication commences approximately halfway through the intracellular development following invasion and parasite growth. The schizont stage is associated with multiple rounds of DNA replication and nuclear division without cytokinesis, resulting in a multinucleated cell. Nuclei divide asynchronously through schizogony, with only the final round of DNA replication and segregation being synchronous and coordinated with daughter cell assembly(2,3)...
February 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211845/crispr-cas-in-the-laboratory-classroom
#2
Luc Trudel, Michel Frenette, Sylvain Moineau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211844/a-tool-named-iris-for-versatile-high-throughput-phenotyping-in-microorganisms
#3
George Kritikos, Manuel Banzhaf, Lucia Herrera-Dominguez, Alexandra Koumoutsi, Morgane Wartel, Matylda Zietek, Athanasios Typas
Advances in our ability to systematically introduce and track controlled genetic variance in microorganisms have, in the past decade, fuelled high-throughput reverse genetics approaches. When coupled to quantitative readouts, such approaches are extremely powerful at elucidating gene function and providing insights into the underlying pathways and the overall cellular network organization. Yet, until now, all efforts to quantify microbial macroscopic phenotypes have been restricted to monitoring growth in a small number of model microorganisms...
February 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191904/n-terminomics-identifies-prli42-as-a-membrane-miniprotein-conserved-in-firmicutes-and-critical-for-stressosome-activation-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#4
Francis Impens, Nathalie Rolhion, Lilliana Radoshevich, Christophe Bécavin, Mélodie Duval, Jeffrey Mellin, Francisco García Del Portillo, M Graciela Pucciarelli, Allison H Williams, Pascale Cossart
To adapt to changing environments, bacteria have evolved numerous pathways that activate stress response genes. In Gram-positive bacteria, the stressosome, a cytoplasmic complex, relays external cues and activates the sigma B regulon. The stressosome is structurally well-characterized in Bacillus, but how it senses stress remains elusive. Here, we report a genome-wide N-terminomic approach in Listeria that strikingly led to the discovery of 19 internal translation initiation sites and 6 miniproteins, among which one, Prli42, is conserved in Firmicutes...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191900/dimethylsulfoniopropionate-biosynthesis-in-marine-bacteria-and-identification-of-the-key-gene-in-this-process
#5
Andrew R J Curson, Ji Liu, Ana Bermejo Martínez, Robert T Green, Yohan Chan, Ornella Carrión, Beth T Williams, Sheng-Hui Zhang, Gui-Peng Yang, Philip C Bulman Page, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Jonathan D Todd
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is one of the Earth's most abundant organosulfur molecules, a signalling molecule(1), a key nutrient for marine microorganisms(2,3) and the major precursor for gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS, another infochemical in signalling pathways(4), is important in global sulfur cycling(2) and affects the Earth's albedo, and potentially climate, via sulfate aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei production(5,6). It was thought that only eukaryotes produce significant amounts of DMSP(7-9), but here we demonstrate that many marine heterotrophic bacteria also produce DMSP, probably using the same methionine (Met) transamination pathway as macroalgae and phytoplankton(10)...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191895/erratum-espl-is-a-bacterial-cysteine-protease-effector-that-cleaves-rhim-proteins-to-block-necroptosis-and-inflammation
#6
Jaclyn S Pearson, Cristina Giogha, Sabrina Mühlen, Ueli Nachbur, Chi L L Pham, Ying Zhang, Joanne M Hildebrand, Clare V Oates, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Danielle Ingle, Laura F Dagley, Aleksandra Bankovacki, Emma J Petrie, Gunnar N Schroeder, Valerie F Crepin, Gad Frankel, Seth L Masters, James Vince, James M Murphy, Margaret Sunde, Andrew I Webb, John Silke, Elizabeth L Hartland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191884/dynamics-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Jonas Halfvarson, Colin J Brislawn, Regina Lamendella, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, William A Walters, Lisa M Bramer, Mauro D'Amato, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Daniel McDonald, Antonio Gonzalez, Erin E McClure, Mitchell F Dunklebarger, Rob Knight, Janet K Jansson
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by flares of inflammation with a periodic need for increased medication and sometimes even surgery. The aetiology of IBD is partly attributed to a deregulated immune response to gut microbiome dysbiosis. Cross-sectional studies have revealed microbial signatures for different IBD subtypes, including ulcerative colitis, colonic Crohn's disease and ileal Crohn's disease. Although IBD is dynamic, microbiome studies have primarily focused on single time points or a few individuals...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191883/loap-is-a-broadly-conserved-antiterminator-protein-that-regulates-antibiotic-gene-clusters-in-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#8
Jonathan R Goodson, Steven Klupt, Chengxi Zhang, Paul Straight, Wade C Winkler
A valuable resource available in the search for new natural products is the diverse microbial life that spans the planet. A large subset of these microorganisms synthesize complex specialized metabolites exhibiting biomedically important activities. A limiting step to the characterization of these compounds is an elucidation of the genetic regulatory mechanisms that oversee their production. Although proteins that control transcription initiation of specialized metabolite gene clusters have been identified, those affecting transcription elongation have not been broadly investigated...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165472/comprehensive-resistome-analysis-reveals-the-prevalence-of-ndm-and-mcr-1-in-chinese-poultry-production
#9
Yang Wang, Rongmin Zhang, Jiyun Li, Zuowei Wu, Wenjuan Yin, Stefan Schwarz, Jonathan M Tyrrell, Yongjun Zheng, Shaolin Wang, Zhangqi Shen, Zhihai Liu, Jianye Liu, Lei Lei, Mei Li, Qidi Zhang, Congming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Yongning Wu, Timothy R Walsh, Jianzhong Shen
By 2030, the global population will be 8.5 billion, placing pressure on international poultry production, of which China is a key producer(1). From April 2017, China will implement the withdrawal of colistin as a growth promoter, removing over 8,000 tonnes per year from the Chinese farming sector(2). To understand the impact of banning colistin and the epidemiology of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli (using blaNDM and mcr-1 as marker genes), we sampled poultry, dogs, sewage, wild birds and flies...
February 6, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165471/antibody-independent-mechanisms-regulate-the-establishment-of-chronic-plasmodium-infection
#10
Thibaut Brugat, Adam James Reid, Jing-Wen Lin, Deirdre Cunningham, Irene Tumwine, Garikai Kushinga, Sarah McLaughlin, Philip Spence, Ulrike Böhme, Mandy Sanders, Solomon Conteh, Ellen Bushell, Tom Metcalf, Oliver Billker, Patrick E Duffy, Chris Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Jean Langhorne
Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium. All human-infecting Plasmodium species can establish long-lasting chronic infections(1-5), creating an infectious reservoir to sustain transmission(1,6). It is widely accepted that the maintenance of chronic infection involves evasion of adaptive immunity by antigenic variation(7). However, genes involved in this process have been identified in only two of five human-infecting species: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi. Furthermore, little is understood about the early events in the establishment of chronic infection in these species...
February 6, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165460/programmable-transcriptional-repression-in-mycobacteria-using-an-orthogonal-crispr-interference-platform
#11
Jeremy M Rock, Forrest F Hopkins, Alejandro Chavez, Marieme Diallo, Michael R Chase, Elias R Gerrick, Justin R Pritchard, George M Church, Eric J Rubin, Christopher M Sassetti, Dirk Schnappinger, Sarah M Fortune
The development of new drug regimens that allow rapid, sterilizing treatment of tuberculosis has been limited by the complexity and time required for genetic manipulations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) promises to be a robust, easily engineered and scalable platform for regulated gene silencing. However, in M. tuberculosis, the existing Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9-based CRISPRi system is of limited utility because of relatively poor knockdown efficiency and proteotoxicity. To address these limitations, we screened eleven diverse Cas9 orthologues and identified four that are broadly functional for targeted gene knockdown in mycobacteria...
February 6, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165453/architecture-of-the-vibrio-cholerae-toxin-coregulated-pilus-machine-revealed-by-electron-cryotomography
#12
Yi-Wei Chang, Andreas Kjær, Davi R Ortega, Gabriela Kovacikova, John A Sutherland, Lee A Rettberg, Ronald K Taylor, Grant J Jensen
Type IV pili (T4P) are filamentous appendages found on many Bacteria and Archaea. They are helical fibres of pilin proteins assembled by a multi-component macromolecular machine we call the basal body. Based on pilin features, T4P are classified into type IVa pili (T4aP) and type IVb pili (T4bP)(1,2). T4aP are more widespread and are involved in cell motility(3), DNA transfer(4), host predation(5) and electron transfer(6). T4bP are less prevalent and are mainly found in enteropathogenic bacteria, where they play key roles in host colonization(7)...
February 6, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134924/a-novel-pre-fusion-conformation-specific-neutralizing-epitope-on-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein
#13
Jarrod J Mousa, Nurgun Kose, Pranathi Matta, Pavlo Gilchuk, James E Crowe
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a major human pathogen, infecting the majority of infants before age two and causing re-infection throughout life. Despite decades of RSV research, there is no licensed RSV vaccine. Most candidate vaccines studied to date have incorporated the RSV fusion (F) surface glycoprotein, because the sequence of F is highly conserved among strains of RSV. To better define the human B cell response to RSV F, we isolated from a single donor 13 new neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize the RSV F protein in the pre-fusion conformation...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134918/continental-scale-pollution-of-estuaries-with-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#14
Yong-Guan Zhu, Yi Zhao, Bing Li, Chu-Long Huang, Si-Yu Zhang, Shen Yu, Yong-Shan Chen, Tong Zhang, Michael R Gillings, Jian-Qiang Su
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have moved from the environmental resistome into human commensals and pathogens, driven by human selection with antimicrobial agents. These genes have increased in abundance in humans and domestic animals, to become common components of waste streams. Estuarine habitats lie between terrestrial/freshwater and marine ecosystems, acting as natural filtering points for pollutants. Here, we have profiled ARGs in sediments from 18 estuaries over 4,000 km of coastal China using high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and investigated their relationship with bacterial communities, antibiotic residues and socio-economic factors...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134917/the-signal-recognition-particle-contacts-ul23-and-scans-substrate-translation-inside-the-ribosomal-tunnel
#15
Kärt Denks, Nadine Sliwinski, Veronika Erichsen, Bogdana Borodkina, Andrea Origi, Hans-Georg Koch
The signal recognition particle (SRP) delivers ∼25% of all bacterial proteins to the membrane for cotranslational insertion. However, a comprehensive model on how the low-abundant SRP scans the vast number of translating ribosomes to identify the correct substrates is lacking. Here, we show that the C-terminal helix of the signal-sequence-binding domain of SRP penetrates into the ribosomal tunnel and contacts the intra-tunnel loop of ribosomal protein uL23. This allows SRP to obtain information about the translational status of the ribosome and possibly the character of the approaching nascent chain...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134915/structural-basis-for-antibody-cross-neutralization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus
#16
Xiaolin Wen, Jarrod J Mousa, John T Bates, Robert A Lamb, James E Crowe, Theodore S Jardetzky
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two closely related viruses that cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and the elderly(1), with a significant health burden(2-6). There are no licensed vaccines or small-molecule antiviral treatments specific to these two viruses at present. A humanized murine monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) is approved to treat high-risk infants for RSV infection(7,8), but other treatments, as well as vaccines, for both viruses are still in development...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134912/corrigendum-roda-as-the-missing-glycosyltransferase-in-bacillus-subtilis-and-antibiotic-discovery-for-the-peptidoglycan-polymerase-pathway
#17
Kaveh Emami, Aurelie Guyet, Yoshikazu Kawai, Jenny Devi, Ling J Wu, Nick Allenby, Richard A Daniel, Jeff Errington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120934/microbiome-keeping-rhythm-with-your-gut
#18
Liping Zhao, Chenhong Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120932/immune-evasion-face-changing-in-the-fungal-opera
#19
Jean-Paul Latgé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120931/sowing-the-seeds-of-science
#20
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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