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Nature Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784978/genomes-of-all-known-members-of-a-plasmodium-subgenus-reveal-paths-to-virulent-human-malaria
#1
Thomas D Otto, Aude Gilabert, Thomas Crellen, Ulrike Böhme, Céline Arnathau, Mandy Sanders, Samuel O Oyola, Alain Prince Okouga, Larson Boundenga, Eric Willaume, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Nancy Diamella Moukodoum, Christophe Paupy, Patrick Durand, Virginie Rougeron, Benjamin Ollomo, François Renaud, Chris Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Franck Prugnolle
Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent agent of human malaria, shares a recent common ancestor with the gorilla parasite Plasmodium praefalciparum. Little is known about the other gorilla- and chimpanzee-infecting species in the same (Laverania) subgenus as P. falciparum, but none of them are capable of establishing repeated infection and transmission in humans. To elucidate underlying mechanisms and the evolutionary history of this subgenus, we have generated multiple genomes from all known Laverania species...
May 21, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784977/cryptococcus-neoformans-sexual-reproduction-is-controlled-by-a-quorum-sensing-peptide
#2
Xiuyun Tian, Guang-Jun He, Pengjie Hu, Lei Chen, Changyu Tao, Ying-Lu Cui, Lan Shen, Weixin Ke, Haijiao Xu, Youbao Zhao, Qijiang Xu, Fengyan Bai, Bian Wu, Ence Yang, Xiaorong Lin, Linqi Wang
Bacterial quorum sensing is a well-characterized communication system that governs a large variety of collective behaviours. By comparison, quorum sensing regulation in eukaryotic microbes remains poorly understood, especially its functional role in eukaryote-specific behaviours, such as sexual reproduction. Cryptococcus neoformans is a prevalent fungal pathogen that has two defined sexual cycles (bisexual and unisexual) and is a model organism for studying sexual reproduction in fungi. Here, we show that the quorum sensing peptide Qsp1 serves as an important signalling molecule for both forms of sexual reproduction...
May 21, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784976/microbial-metabolic-gatekeeping-in-the-jejunum
#3
Michiel Kleerebezem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784975/a-unique-cytoplasmic-atpase-complex-defines-the-legionella-pneumophila-type-iv-secretion-channel
#4
David Chetrit, Bo Hu, Peter J Christie, Craig R Roy, Jun Liu
Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are complex machines used by bacteria to deliver protein and DNA complexes into target host cells1-5 . Conserved ATPases are essential for T4SS function, but how they coordinate their activities to promote substrate transfer remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the DotB ATPase associates with the Dot-Icm T4SS at the Legionella cell pole through interactions with the DotO ATPase. The structure of the Dot-Icm apparatus was solved in situ by cryo-electron tomography at 3...
May 21, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784974/longing-for-hiv-protection
#5
Michelle Zanoni, David Palesch, Guido Silvestri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760463/marsarchaeota-are-an-aerobic-archaeal-lineage-abundant-in-geothermal-iron-oxide-microbial-mats
#6
Zackary J Jay, Jacob P Beam, Mensur Dlakić, Douglas B Rusch, Mark A Kozubal, William P Inskeep
The discovery of archaeal lineages is critical to our understanding of the universal tree of life and evolutionary history of the Earth. Geochemically diverse thermal environments in Yellowstone National Park provide unprecedented opportunities for studying archaea in habitats that may represent analogues of early Earth. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of a phylum-level archaeal lineage proposed and herein referred to as the 'Marsarchaeota', after the red planet. The Marsarchaeota contains at least two major subgroups prevalent in acidic, microaerobic geothermal Fe(III) oxide microbial mats across a temperature range from ~50-80 °C...
May 14, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760462/distinct-mechanisms-coordinate-transcription-and-translation-under-carbon-and-nitrogen-starvation-in-escherichia-coli
#7
Sukanya Iyer, Dai Le, Bo Ryoung Park, Minsu Kim
Bacteria adapt to environmental stress by producing proteins that provide stress protection. However, stress can severely perturb the kinetics of gene expression, disrupting protein production. Here, we characterized how Escherichia coli mitigates such perturbations under nutrient stress through the kinetic coordination of transcription and translation. We observed that, when translation became limiting under nitrogen starvation, transcription elongation slowed accordingly. This slowdown was mediated by (p)ppGpp, the alarmone whose primary role is thought to be promoter regulation...
May 14, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736038/human-cd45-is-an-f-component-specific-receptor-for-the-staphylococcal-toxin-panton-valentine-leukocidin
#8
Angelino T Tromp, Michiel Van Gent, Pauline Abrial, Amandine Martin, Joris P Jansen, Carla J C De Haas, Kok P M Van Kessel, Bart W Bardoel, Elisabeth Kruse, Emilie Bourdonnay, Michael Boettcher, Michael T McManus, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Gérard Lina, François Vandenesch, Jos A G Van Strijp, Robert Jan Lebbink, Pieter-Jan A Haas, Thomas Henry, András N Spaan
The staphylococcal bi-component leukocidins Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and γ-haemolysin CB (HlgCB) target human phagocytes. Binding of the toxins' S-components to human complement C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) contributes to cellular tropism and human specificity of PVL and HlgCB. To investigate the role of both leukocidins during infection, we developed a human C5aR1 knock-in (hC5aR1KI ) mouse model. HlgCB, but unexpectedly not PVL, contributed to increased bacterial loads in tissues of hC5aR1KI mice. Compared to humans, murine hC5aR1KI neutrophils showed a reduced sensitivity to PVL, which was mediated by the toxin's F-component LukF-PV...
May 7, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736037/broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-from-human-survivors-target-a-conserved-site-in-the-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-hr2-mper-region
#9
Andrew I Flyak, Natalia Kuzmina, Charles D Murin, Christopher Bryan, Edgar Davidson, Pavlo Gilchuk, Christopher P Gulka, Philipp A Ilinykh, Xiaoli Shen, Kai Huang, Palaniappan Ramanathan, Hannah Turner, Marnie L Fusco, Rebecca Lampley, Nurgun Kose, Hannah King, Gopal Sapparapu, Benjamin J Doranz, Thomas G Ksiazek, David W Wright, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Andrew B Ward, Alexander Bukreyev, James E Crowe
Ebola virus (EBOV) in humans causes a severe illness with high mortality rates. Several strategies have been developed in the past to treat EBOV infection, including the antibody cocktail ZMapp, which has been shown to be effective in nonhuman primate models of infection 1 and has been used under compassionate-treatment protocols in humans 2 . ZMapp is a mixture of three chimerized murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)3-6 that target EBOV-specific epitopes on the surface glycoprotein7,8 . However, ZMapp mAbs do not neutralize other species from the genus Ebolavirus, such as Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Reston virus (RESTV) or Sudan virus (SUDV)...
May 7, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686297/microbiota-accessible-carbohydrates-suppress-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-murine-model
#10
Andrew J Hryckowian, William Van Treuren, Samuel A Smits, Nicole M Davis, Jackson O Gardner, Donna M Bouley, Justin L Sonnenburg
Clostridium difficile is an opportunistic diarrhoeal pathogen, and C. difficile infection (CDI) represents a major health care concern, causing an estimated 15,000 deaths per year in the United States alone 1 . Several enteric pathogens, including C. difficile, leverage inflammation and the accompanying microbial dysbiosis to thrive in the distal gut 2 . Although diet is among the most powerful available tools for affecting the health of humans and their relationship with their microbiota, investigation into the effects of diet on CDI has been limited...
April 23, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679064/author-correction-ephrin-receptor-a2-is-an-epithelial-cell-receptor-for-epstein-barr-virus-entry
#11
Hua Zhang, Yan Li, Hong-Bo Wang, Ao Zhang, Mei-Ling Chen, Zhi-Xin Fang, Xiao-Dong Dong, Shi-Bing Li, Yong Du, Dan Xiong, Jiang-Yi He, Man-Zhi Li, Yan-Min Liu, Ai-Jun Zhou, Qian Zhong, Yi-Xin Zeng, Elliott Kieff, Zhiqiang Zhang, Benjamin E Gewurz, Bo Zhao, Mu-Sheng Zeng
In the version of this Letter originally published, the authors reported on the use of 2,5-dimethylpyrrolyl benzoic acid to block Ephrin receptors. In 2011, it was reported that newly synthesized 2,5-dimethylpyrrolyl benzoic acid lacked the previously reported EphA2 antagonizing activity1. However, the purchased compound did in fact have the activity initially reported, suggesting that an uncharacterized alteration occurred during storage. The authors therefore wish to clarify that the compound used in their study should be more accurately referred to as a 2,5-dimethylpyrrolyl benzoic acid derivative...
April 20, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662129/intracellular-replication-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-inside-splenic-macrophages-serves-as-a-reservoir-for-septicaemia
#12
Giuseppe Ercoli, Vitor E Fernandes, Wen Y Chung, Joseph J Wanford, Sarah Thomson, Christopher D Bayliss, Kornelis Straatman, Paul R Crocker, Ashley Dennison, Luisa Martinez-Pomares, Peter W Andrew, E Richard Moxon, Marco R Oggioni
Bacterial septicaemia is a major cause of mortality, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. In experimental pneumococcal murine intravenous infection, an initial reduction of bacteria in the blood is followed hours later by a fatal septicaemia. These events represent a population bottleneck driven by efficient clearance of pneumococci by splenic macrophages and neutrophils, but as we show in this study, accompanied by occasional intracellular replication of bacteria that are taken up by a subset of CD169+ splenic macrophages...
April 16, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662128/the-extracellular-domain-of-staphylococcus-aureus-ltas-binds-insulin-and-induces-insulin-resistance-during-infection
#13
Yu Liu, Fang-Jie Liu, Zhang-Chun Guan, Fang-Ting Dong, Jian-Hua Cheng, Ya-Ping Gao, Di Li, Jun Yan, Cheng-Hua Liu, Dian-Peng Han, Chun-Mei Ma, Jian-Nan Feng, Bei-Fen Shen, Guang Yang
Insulin resistance is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes and predisposes individuals to Staphylococcus aureus colonization; however, the contribution of S. aureus to insulin resistance remains unclear. Here, we show that S. aureus infection causes impaired glucose tolerance via secretion of an insulin-binding protein extracellular domain of LtaS, eLtaS, which blocks insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Notably, eLtaS transgenic mice (eLtaS trans ) exhibited a metabolic syndrome similar to that observed in patients, including increased food and water consumption, impaired glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic glycogen synthesis...
April 16, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632370/a-cynomolgus-macaque-model-for-crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever
#14
Elaine Haddock, Friederike Feldmann, David W Hawman, Marko Zivcec, Patrick W Hanley, Greg Saturday, Dana P Scott, Tina Thomas, Miša Korva, Tatjana Avšič-Županc, David Safronetz, Heinz Feldmann
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most medically significant tick-borne disease, being widespread in the Middle East, Asia, Africa and parts of Europe 1 . Increasing case numbers, westerly movement and broadly ranging case fatality rates substantiate the concern of CCHF as a public health threat. Ixodid ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the vector for CCHF virus (CCHFV), an arbovirus in the genus Orthonairovirus of the family Nairoviridae. CCHFV naturally infects numerous wild and domestic animals via tick bite without causing obvious disease2,3 ...
April 9, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632369/a-type-vi-secretion-system-effector-delivery-mechanism-dependent-on-paar-and-a-chaperone-co-chaperone-complex
#15
Brianne J Burkinshaw, Xiaoye Liang, Megan Wong, Alexander N H Le, Linh Lam, Tao G Dong
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is used by many Gram-negative bacteria as a molecular weapon to modulate neighbouring bacterial and eukaryotic cells, thereby affecting the dynamics of community structure in multiple species environments. The T6SS injects its inner-needle Hcp tube, the sharpening tip complex consisting of VgrG and PAAR, and toxic effectors into neighbouring cells. Its functions are largely determined by the activities of its delivered effectors. Six mechanisms of effector delivery have been described: two mediated by the inner tube and the others mediated by the VgrG and PAAR tip complex...
April 9, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632368/topical-application-of-aminoglycoside-antibiotics-enhances-host-resistance-to-viral-infections-in-a-microbiota-independent-manner
#16
Smita Gopinath, Myoungjoo V Kim, Tasfia Rakib, Patrick W Wong, Michael van Zandt, Natasha A Barry, Tsuneyasu Kaisho, Andrew L Goodman, Akiko Iwasaki
Antibiotics are widely used to treat infections in humans. However, the impact of antibiotic use on host cells is understudied. Here we identify an antiviral effect of commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotics. We show that topical mucosal application of aminoglycosides prophylactically increased host resistance to a broad range of viral infections including herpes simplex viruses, influenza A virus and Zika virus. Aminoglycoside treatment also reduced viral replication in primary human cells. This antiviral activity was independent of the microbiota, because aminoglycoside treatment protected germ-free mice...
April 9, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632367/proteotype-profiling-unmasks-a-viral-signalling-network-essential-for-poxvirus-assembly-and-transcriptional-competence
#17
Karel Novy, Samuel Kilcher, Ulrich Omasits, Christopher Karl Ernst Bleck, Corina Beerli, Jakob Vowinckel, Caroline K Martin, Mohammedyaseen Syedbasha, Alessio Maiolica, Ian White, Jason Mercer, Bernd Wollscheid
To orchestrate context-dependent signalling programmes, poxviruses encode two dual-specificity enzymes, the F10 kinase and the H1 phosphatase. These signalling mediators are essential for poxvirus production, yet their substrate profiles and systems-level functions remain enigmatic. Using a phosphoproteomic screen of cells infected with wild-type, F10 and H1 mutant vaccinia viruses, we systematically defined the viral signalling network controlled by these enzymes. Quantitative cross-comparison revealed 33 F10 and/or H1 phosphosites within 17 viral proteins...
April 9, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632366/structural-insight-into-the-assembly-of-the-type-ii-secretion-system-pilotin-secretin-complex-from-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#18
Meng Yin, Zhaofeng Yan, Xueming Li
Secretin is a large outer-membrane channel found in secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria, facilitating the last step for transfer of proteins into the extracellular environment. In the type II secretion system, a lipoprotein called pilotin is essential to bind and target its corresponding secretin to the outer membrane. However, there is only limited structural information available about the interaction and assembly of the pilotin-secretin complex. Here we report the first near-atomic-resolution structure of a full-length Vibrio-type pilotin-secretin (AspS-GspD) complex from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by cryo-electron microscopy, which reveals the detailed assembly mode of the full-length pilotin-secretin complex...
April 9, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632365/mining-for-novel-bacterial-defence-systems
#19
Rodolphe Barrangou, John van der Oost
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610517/differential-bacterial-capture-and-transport-preferences-facilitate-co-growth-on-dietary-xylan-in-the-human-gut
#20
Maria Louise Leth, Morten Ejby, Christopher Workman, David Adrian Ewald, Signe Schultz Pedersen, Claus Sternberg, Martin Iain Bahl, Tine Rask Licht, Finn Lillelund Aachmann, Bjørge Westereng, Maher Abou Hachem
Metabolism of dietary glycans is pivotal in shaping the human gut microbiota. However, the mechanisms that promote competition for glycans among gut commensals remain unclear. Roseburia intestinalis, an abundant butyrate-producing Firmicute, is a key degrader of the major dietary fibre xylan. Despite the association of this taxon to a healthy microbiota, insight is lacking into its glycan utilization machinery. Here, we investigate the apparatus that confers R. intestinalis growth on different xylans. R...
April 2, 2018: Nature Microbiology
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