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Nature Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924191/metabolic-crosstalk-regulates-porphyromonas-gingivalis-colonization-and-virulence-during-oral-polymicrobial-infection
#1
Masae Kuboniwa, John R Houser, Erik L Hendrickson, Qian Wang, Samar A Alghamdi, Akito Sakanaka, Daniel P Miller, Justin A Hutcherson, Tiansong Wang, David A C Beck, Marvin Whiteley, Atsuo Amano, Huizhi Wang, Edward M Marcotte, Murray Hackett, Richard J Lamont
Many human infections are polymicrobial in origin, and interactions among community inhabitants shape colonization patterns and pathogenic potential (1) . Periodontitis, which is the sixth most prevalent infectious disease worldwide (2) , ensues from the action of dysbiotic polymicrobial communities (3) . The keystone pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the accessory pathogen Streptococcus gordonii interact to form communities in vitro and exhibit increased fitness in vivo (3,4) . The mechanistic basis of this polymicrobial synergy, however, has not been fully elucidated...
September 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924189/communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-enhances-viral-infection-of-a-cosmopolitan-alga
#2
Daniella Schatz, Shilo Rosenwasser, Sergey Malitsky, Sharon G Wolf, Ester Feldmesser, Assaf Vardi
Communication between microorganisms in the marine environment has immense ecological impact by mediating trophic-level interactions and thus determining community structure (1) . Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by bacteria (2,3) , archaea (4) , protists (5) and metazoans, and can mediate pathogenicity (6) or act as vectors for intercellular communication. However, little is known about the involvement of EVs in microbial interactions in the marine environment (7) . Here we investigated the signalling role of EVs produced during interactions between the cosmopolitan alga Emiliania huxleyi and its specific virus (EhV, Phycodnaviridae) (8) , which leads to the demise of these large-scale oceanic blooms (9,10) ...
September 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924146/apols-with-low-ph-dependence-can-kill-all-african-trypanosomes
#3
Frédéric Fontaine, Laurence Lecordier, Gilles Vanwalleghem, Pierrick Uzureau, Nick Van Reet, Martina Fontaine, Patricia Tebabi, Benoit Vanhollebeke, Philippe Büscher, David Pérez-Morga, Etienne Pays
The primate-specific serum protein apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) is the only secreted member of a family of cell death promoting proteins (1-4) . APOL1 kills the bloodstream parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei, but not the human sleeping sickness agents T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense (3) . We considered the possibility that intracellular members of the APOL1 family, against which extracellular trypanosomes could not have evolved resistance, could kill pathogenic T. brucei subspecies. Here we show that recombinant APOL3 (rAPOL3) kills all African trypanosomes, including T...
September 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894177/a-viral-protein-antibiotic-inhibits-lipid-ii-flippase-activity
#4
Karthik R Chamakura, Lok-To Sham, Rebecca M Davis, Lorna Min, Hongbaek Cho, Natividad Ruiz, Thomas G Bernhardt, Ry Young
For bacteriophage infections, the cell walls of bacteria, consisting of a single highly polymeric molecule of peptidoglycan (PG), pose a major problem for the release of progeny virions. Phage lysis proteins that overcome this barrier can point the way to new antibacterial strategies (1) , especially small lytic single-stranded DNA (the microviruses) and RNA phages (the leviviruses) that effect host lysis using a single non-enzymatic protein (2) . Previously, the A2 protein of levivirus Qβ and the E protein of the microvirus ϕX174 were shown to be 'protein antibiotics' that inhibit the MurA and MraY steps of the PG synthesis pathway (2-4) ...
September 11, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894102/recovery-of-nearly-8-000-metagenome-assembled-genomes-substantially-expands-the-tree-of-life
#5
Donovan H Parks, Christian Rinke, Maria Chuvochina, Pierre-Alain Chaumeil, Ben J Woodcroft, Paul N Evans, Philip Hugenholtz, Gene W Tyson
Challenges in cultivating microorganisms have limited the phylogenetic diversity of currently available microbial genomes. This is being addressed by advances in sequencing throughput and computational techniques that allow for the cultivation-independent recovery of genomes from metagenomes. Here, we report the reconstruction of 7,903 bacterial and archaeal genomes from >1,500 public metagenomes. All genomes are estimated to be ≥50% complete and nearly half are ≥90% complete with ≤5% contamination...
September 11, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894098/structural-basis-for-the-shielding-function-of-the-dynamic-trypanosome-variant-surface-glycoprotein-coat
#6
Thomas Bartossek, Nicola G Jones, Christin Schäfer, Mislav Cvitković, Marius Glogger, Helen R Mott, Jochen Kuper, Martha Brennich, Mark Carrington, Ana-Sunčana Smith, Susanne Fenz, Caroline Kisker, Markus Engstler
The most prominent defence of the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei against the host immune system is a dense coat that comprises a variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). Despite the importance of the VSG family, no complete structure of a VSG has been reported. Making use of high-resolution structures of individual VSG domains, we employed small-angle X-ray scattering to elucidate the first two complete VSG structures. The resulting models imply that the linker regions confer great flexibility between domains, which suggests that VSGs can adopt two main conformations to respond to obstacles and changes of protein density, while maintaining a protective barrier at all times...
September 11, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871090/trim23-mediates-virus-induced-autophagy-via-activation-of-tbk1
#7
Konstantin M J Sparrer, Sebastian Gableske, Matthew A Zurenski, Zachary M Parker, Florian Full, Gavin J Baumgart, Jiro Kato, Gustavo Pacheco-Rodriguez, Chengyu Liang, Owen Pornillos, Joel Moss, Martha Vaughan, Michaela U Gack
Autophagy and interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity are critical antiviral defence mechanisms, and recent evidence indicated that tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are important regulators of both processes. Although the role of TRIM proteins in modulating antiviral cytokine responses has been well established, much less is known about their involvement in autophagy in response to different viral pathogens. Through a targeted RNAi screen examining the relevance of selected TRIM proteins in autophagy induced by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and influenza A virus (IAV), we identified several TRIM proteins that regulate autophagy in a virus-species-specific manner, as well as a few TRIM proteins that were essential for autophagy triggered by all three viruses and rapamycin, among them TRIM23...
September 4, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871089/cd81-association-with-samhd1-enhances-hiv-1-reverse-transcription-by-increasing-dntp-levels
#8
Vera Rocha-Perugini, Henar Suárez, Susana Álvarez, Soraya López-Martín, Gina M Lenzi, Felipe Vences-Catalán, Shoshana Levy, Baek Kim, María A Muñoz-Fernández, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Maria Yáñez-Mó
In this study, we report that the tetraspanin CD81 enhances human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 reverse transcription in HIV-1-infected cells. This is enabled by the direct interaction of CD81 with the deoxynucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase SAMHD1. This interaction prevents endosomal accumulation and favours the proteasome-dependent degradation of SAMHD1. Consequently, CD81 depletion results in SAMHD1 increased expression, decreasing the availability of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTP) and thus HIV-1 reverse transcription...
September 4, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871083/interspecies-quorum-sensing-in-co-infections-can-manipulate-trypanosome-transmission-potential
#9
Eleanor Silvester, Julie Young, Alasdair Ivens, Keith R Matthews
Quorum sensing (QS) is commonly used in microbial communities and some unicellular parasites to coordinate group behaviours (1,2) . An example is Trypanosoma brucei, which causes human African trypanosomiasis, as well as the livestock disease, nagana. Trypanosomes are spread by tsetse flies, their transmission being enabled by cell-cycle arrested 'stumpy forms' that are generated in a density-dependent manner in mammalian blood. QS is mediated through a small (<500 Da), non-proteinaceous, stable but unidentified 'stumpy induction factor' (3) , whose signal response pathway has been identified...
September 4, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848238/a-microfluidics-based-in-situ-chemotaxis-assay-to-study-the-behaviour-of-aquatic-microbial-communities
#10
Bennett S Lambert, Jean-Baptiste Raina, Vicente I Fernandez, Christian Rinke, Nachshon Siboni, Francesco Rubino, Philip Hugenholtz, Gene W Tyson, Justin R Seymour, Roman Stocker
Microbial interactions influence the productivity and biogeochemistry of the ocean, yet they occur in miniscule volumes that cannot be sampled by traditional oceanographic techniques. To investigate the behaviours of marine microorganisms at spatially relevant scales, we engineered an in situ chemotaxis assay (ISCA) based on microfluidic technology. Here, we describe the fabrication, testing and first field results of the ISCA, demonstrating its value in accessing the microbial behaviours that shape marine ecosystems...
August 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848230/specific-inhibition-of-nlrp3-in-chikungunya-disease-reveals-a-role-for-inflammasomes-in-alphavirus-induced-inflammation
#11
Weiqiang Chen, Suan-Sin Foo, Ali Zaid, Terk-Shin Teng, Lara J Herrero, Stefan Wolf, Kothila Tharmarajah, Luan D Vu, Caryn van Vreden, Adam Taylor, Joseph R Freitas, Rachel W Li, Trent M Woodruff, Richard Gordon, David M Ojcius, Helder I Nakaya, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Luke A J O'Neill, Avril A B Robertson, Nicholas J King, Andreas Suhrbier, Matthew A Cooper, Lisa F P Ng, Suresh Mahalingam
Mosquito-borne viruses can cause severe inflammatory diseases and there are limited therapeutic solutions targeted specifically at virus-induced inflammation. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging alphavirus responsible for several outbreaks worldwide in the past decade, causes debilitating joint inflammation and severe pain. Here, we show that CHIKV infection activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in humans and mice. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from CHIKV-infected patients showed elevated NLRP3, caspase-1 and interleukin-18 messenger RNA expression and, using a mouse model of CHIKV infection, we found that high NLRP3 expression was associated with peak inflammatory symptoms...
August 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848228/efficient-invasion-by-toxoplasma-depends-on-the-subversion-of-host-protein-networks
#12
Amandine Guérin, Rosa Milagros Corrales, Michele L Parker, Mauld H Lamarque, Damien Jacot, Hiba El Hajj, Dominique Soldati-Favre, Martin J Boulanger, Maryse Lebrun
Apicomplexan parasites are important pathogens of humans and domestic animals, including Plasmodium species (the agents of malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii, which is responsible for toxoplasmosis. They replicate within the cells of their animal hosts, to which they gain access using a unique parasite-driven invasion process. At the core of the invasion machine is a structure at the interface between the invading parasite and host cell called the moving junction (MJ) (1) . The MJ serves as both a molecular doorway to the host cell and an anchor point enabling the parasite to engage its motility machinery to drive the penetration of the host cell (2) , ultimately yielding a protective vacuole (3) ...
August 28, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827718/broadly-protective-murine-monoclonal-antibodies-against-influenza-b-virus-target-highly-conserved-neuraminidase-epitopes
#13
Teddy John Wohlbold, Kira A Podolsky, Veronika Chromikova, Ericka Kirkpatrick, Veronica Falconieri, Philip Meade, Fatima Amanat, Jessica Tan, Benjamin R tenOever, Gene S Tan, Sriram Subramaniam, Peter Palese, Florian Krammer
A substantial proportion of influenza-related childhood deaths are due to infection with influenza B viruses, which co-circulate in the human population as two antigenically distinct lineages defined by the immunodominant receptor binding protein, haemagglutinin. While broadly cross-reactive, protective monoclonal antibodies against the haemagglutinin of influenza B viruses have been described, none targeting the neuraminidase, the second most abundant viral glycoprotein, have been reported. Here, we analyse a panel of five murine anti-neuraminidase monoclonal antibodies that demonstrate broad binding, neuraminidase inhibition, in vitro antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and in vivo protection against influenza B viruses belonging to both haemagglutinin lineages and spanning over 70 years of antigenic drift...
August 21, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827601/a-plasmid-from-an-antarctic-haloarchaeon-uses-specialized-membrane-vesicles-to-disseminate-and-infect-plasmid-free-cells
#14
Susanne Erdmann, Bernhard Tschitschko, Ling Zhong, Mark J Raftery, Ricardo Cavicchioli
The major difference between viruses and plasmids is the mechanism of transferring their genomic information between host cells. Here, we describe the archaeal plasmid pR1SE from an Antarctic species of haloarchaea that transfers via a mechanism similar to a virus. pR1SE encodes proteins that are found in regularly shaped membrane vesicles, and the vesicles enclose the plasmid DNA. The released vesicles are capable of infecting a plasmid-free strain, which then gains the ability to produce plasmid-containing vesicles...
August 21, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827581/asian-zika-virus-strains-target-cd14-blood-monocytes-and-induce-m2-skewed-immunosuppression-during-pregnancy
#15
Suan-Sin Foo, Weiqiang Chen, Yen Chan, James W Bowman, Lin-Chun Chang, Younho Choi, Ji Seung Yoo, Jianning Ge, Genhong Cheng, Alexandre Bonnin, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Patrícia Brasil, Jae U Jung
Blood CD14(+) monocytes are frontline immunomodulators categorized into classical, intermediate or non-classical subsets, and subsequently differentiated into M1 pro- or M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages on stimulation. Although the Zika virus (ZIKV) rapidly establishes viraemia, the target cells and immune responses, particularly during pregnancy, remain elusive. Furthermore, it is unknown whether African- and Asian-lineage ZIKV have different phenotypic impacts on host immune responses. Using human blood infection, we identified CD14(+) monocytes as the primary target for African- or Asian-lineage ZIKV infection...
August 21, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808299/gut-homing-%C3%AE-42pd1-v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-promote-innate-mucosal-damage-via-tlr4-during-acute-hiv-type-1-infection
#16
Allen Ka Loon Cheung, Hau-Yee Kwok, Yiru Huang, Min Chen, Yufei Mo, Xilin Wu, Ka-Shing Lam, Hoi-Kuan Kong, Terrence Chi Kong Lau, Jingying Zhou, Jingjing Li, Lin Cheng, Boon Kiat Lee, Qiaoli Peng, Xiaofan Lu, Minghui An, Hui Wang, Hong Shang, Boping Zhou, Hao Wu, Aimin Xu, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Zhiwei Chen
The innate immune cells underlying mucosal inflammatory responses and damage during acute HIV-1 infection remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a Vδ2 subset of gut-homing γδ T cells with significantly upregulated Δ42PD1 (a PD1 isoform) in acute (~20%) HIV-1 patients compared to chronic HIV-1 patients (~11%) and healthy controls (~2%). The frequency of Δ42PD1(+)Vδ2 cells correlates positively with plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty-acid-binding protein before detectable lipopolysaccharide in acute patients...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808258/hexahydroquinolines-are-antimalarial-candidates-with-potent-blood-stage-and-transmission-blocking-activity
#17
Manu Vanaerschot, Leonardo Lucantoni, Tao Li, Jill M Combrinck, Andrea Ruecker, T R Santha Kumar, Kelly Rubiano, Pedro E Ferreira, Giulia Siciliano, Sonia Gulati, Philipp P Henrich, Caroline L Ng, James M Murithi, Victoria C Corey, Sandra Duffy, Ori J Lieberman, M Isabel Veiga, Robert E Sinden, Pietro Alano, Michael J Delves, Kim Lee Sim, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Timothy J Egan, Stephen L Hoffman, Vicky M Avery, David A Fidock
Antimalarial compounds with dual therapeutic and transmission-blocking activity are desired as high-value partners for combination therapies. Here, we report the identification and characterization of hexahydroquinolines (HHQs) that show low nanomolar potency against both pathogenic and transmissible intra-erythrocytic forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This activity translates into potent transmission-blocking potential, as shown by in vitro male gamete formation assays and reduced oocyst infection and prevalence in Anopheles mosquitoes...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808230/environmental-drivers-of-a-microbial-genomic-transition-zone-in-the-ocean-s-interior
#18
Daniel R Mende, Jessica A Bryant, Frank O Aylward, John M Eppley, Torben Nielsen, David M Karl, Edward F DeLong
The core properties of microbial genomes, including GC content and genome size, are known to vary widely among different bacteria and archaea (1,2) . Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this genomic variability, but the fundamental drivers that shape bacterial and archaeal genomic properties remain uncertain (3-7) . Here, we report the existence of a sharp genomic transition zone below the photic zone, where bacterial and archaeal genomes and proteomes undergo a community-wide punctuated shift...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785103/clonal-differences-in-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-associated-mortality
#19
Mario Recker, Maisem Laabei, Michelle S Toleman, Sandra Reuter, Rebecca B Saunderson, Beth Blane, M Estee Török, Khadija Ouadi, Emily Stevens, Maho Yokoyama, Joseph Steventon, Luke Thompson, Gregory Milne, Sion Bayliss, Leann Bacon, Sharon J Peacock, Ruth C Massey
The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen for which the emergence of antibiotic resistance is a global public health concern. Infection severity, and in particular bacteraemia-associated mortality, has been attributed to several host-related factors, such as age and the presence of comorbidities. The role of the bacterium in infection severity is less well understood, as it is complicated by the multifaceted nature of bacterial virulence, which has so far prevented a robust mapping between genotype, phenotype and infection outcome...
August 7, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785078/a-myovirus-encoding-both-photosystem-i-and-ii-proteins-enhances-cyclic-electron-flow-in-infected-prochlorococcus-cells
#20
Svetlana Fridman, José Flores-Uribe, Shirley Larom, Onit Alalouf, Oded Liran, Iftach Yacoby, Faris Salama, Benjamin Bailleul, Fabrice Rappaport, Tamar Ziv, Itai Sharon, Francisco M Cornejo-Castillo, Alon Philosof, Christopher L Dupont, Pablo Sánchez, Silvia G Acinas, Forest L Rohwer, Debbie Lindell, Oded Béjà
Cyanobacteria are important contributors to primary production in the open oceans. Over the past decade, various photosynthesis-related genes have been found in viruses that infect cyanobacteria (cyanophages). Although photosystem II (PSII) genes are common in both cultured cyanophages and environmental samples (1-4) , viral photosystem I (vPSI) genes have so far only been detected in environmental samples (5,6) . Here, we have used a targeted strategy to isolate a cyanophage from the tropical Pacific Ocean that carries a PSI gene cassette with seven distinct PSI genes (psaJF, C, A, B, K, E, D) as well as two PSII genes (psbA, D)...
August 7, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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