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Nature Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224802/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-carrying-a-rifampicin-drug-resistance-mutation-reprograms-macrophage-metabolism-through-cell-wall-lipid-changes
#1
Nicole C Howard, Nancy D Marin, Mushtaq Ahmed, Bruce A Rosa, John Martin, Monika Bambouskova, Alexey Sergushichev, Ekaterina Loginicheva, Natalia Kurepina, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Robyn S Klein, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Jordi B Torrelles, Gaya K Amarasinghe, Makedonka Mitreva, Maxim N Artyomov, Fong-Fu Hsu, Barun Mathema, Shabaana A Khader
Tuberculosis is a significant global health threat, with one-third of the world's population infected with its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mtb that is resistant to the frontline anti-tubercular drugs rifampicin and isoniazid forces treatment with toxic second-line drugs. Currently, ~4% of new and ~21% of previously treated tuberculosis cases are either rifampicin-drug-resistant or MDR Mtb infections1 . The specific molecular host-pathogen interactions mediating the rapid worldwide spread of MDR Mtb strains remain poorly understood...
September 17, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224801/a-crispr-screen-identifies-ifi6-as-an-er-resident-interferon-effector-that-blocks-flavivirus-replication
#2
R Blake Richardson, Maikke B Ohlson, Jennifer L Eitson, Ashwani Kumar, Matthew B McDougal, Ian N Boys, Katrina B Mar, Pamela C De La Cruz-Rivera, Connor Douglas, Genevieve Konopka, Chao Xing, John W Schoggins
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an architecturally diverse organelle that serves as a membrane source for the replication of multiple viruses. Flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus and Zika virus, induce unique single-membrane ER invaginations that house the viral replication machinery1 . Whether this virus-induced ER remodelling is vulnerable to antiviral pathways is unknown. Here, we show that flavivirus replication at the ER is targeted by the interferon (IFN) response...
September 17, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224800/mini-viral-rnas-act-as-innate-immune-agonists-during-influenza-virus-infection
#3
Aartjan J W Te Velthuis, Joshua C Long, David L V Bauer, Rebecca L Y Fan, Hui-Ling Yen, Jane Sharps, Jurre Y Siegers, Marian J Killip, Hollie French, Maria José Oliva-Martín, Richard E Randall, Emmie de Wit, Debby van Riel, Leo L M Poon, Ervin Fodor
The molecular processes that determine the outcome of influenza virus infection in humans are multifactorial and involve a complex interplay between host, viral and bacterial factors1 . However, it is generally accepted that a strong innate immune dysregulation known as 'cytokine storm' contributes to the pathology of infections with the 1918 H1N1 pandemic or the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype2-4 . The RNA sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) plays an important role in sensing viral infection and initiating a signalling cascade that leads to interferon expression5 ...
September 17, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224799/salmonella-stimulates-pro-inflammatory-signalling-through-p21-activated-kinases-bypassing-innate-immune-receptors
#4
Hui Sun, Jana Kamanova, Maria Lara-Tejero, Jorge E Galán
Microbial infections are most often countered by inflammatory responses that are initiated through the recognition of conserved microbial products by innate immune receptors and result in pathogen expulsion1-6 . However, inflammation can also lead to pathology. Tissues such as the intestinal epithelium, which are exposed to microbial products, are therefore subject to stringent negative regulatory mechanisms to prevent signalling through innate immune receptors6-11 . This presents a challenge to the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium, which requires intestinal inflammation to compete against the resident microbiota and to acquire the nutrients and electron acceptors that sustain its replication12,13 ...
September 17, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224798/structural-basis-of-the-arbitrium-peptide-aimr-communication-system-in-the-phage-lysis-lysogeny-decision
#5
Qiang Wang, Zeyuan Guan, Kai Pei, Jing Wang, Zhu Liu, Ping Yin, Donghai Peng, Tingting Zou
A bacteriophage can replicate and release virions from a host cell in the lytic cycle or switch to a lysogenic process in which the phage integrates itself into the host genome as a prophage. In Bacillus cells, some types of phages employ the arbitrium communication system, which contains an arbitrium hexapeptide, the cellular receptor AimR and the lysogenic negative regulator AimX. This system controls the decision between the lytic and lysogenic cycles. However, both the mechanism of molecular recognition between the arbitrium peptide and AimR and how downstream gene expression is regulated remain unknown...
September 17, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202017/male-offspring-born-to-mildly-zikv-infected-mice-are-at-risk-of-developing-neurocognitive-disorders-in-adulthood
#6
Stephanie Stanelle-Bertram, Kerstin Walendy-Gnirß, Thomas Speiseder, Swantje Thiele, Ivy Asantewaa Asante, Carola Dreier, Nancy Mounogou Kouassi, Annette Preuß, Gundula Pilnitz-Stolze, Ursula Müller, Stefanie Thanisch, Melanie Richter, Robin Scharrenberg, Vanessa Kraus, Ronja Dörk, Lynn Schau, Vanessa Herder, Ingo Gerhauser, Vanessa Maria Pfankuche, Christopher Käufer, Inken Waltl, Thais Moraes, Julie Sellau, Stefan Hoenow, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Stephanie Jansen, Benjamin Schattling, Harald Ittrich, Udo Bartsch, Thomas Renné, Ralf Bartenschlager, Petra Arck, Daniel Cadar, Manuel A Friese, Olli Vapalahti, Hanna Lotter, Sany Benites, Lane Rolling, Martin Gabriel, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Fabio Morellini, Sabine M Hölter, Oana Amarie, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Wolfgang Löscher, Froylan Calderon de Anda, Gülsah Gabriel
Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) syndrome may cause fetal microcephaly in ~1% of affected newborns. Here, we investigate whether the majority of clinically inapparent newborns might suffer from long-term health impairments not readily visible at birth. Infection of immunocompetent pregnant mice with high-dose ZIKV caused severe offspring phenotypes, such as fetal death, as expected. By contrast, low-dose (LD) maternal ZIKV infection resulted in reduced fetal birth weight but no other obvious phenotypes. Male offspring born to LD ZIKV-infected mothers had increased testosterone (TST) levels and were less likely to survive in utero infection compared to their female littermates...
September 10, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202016/host-resistance-to-pulmonary-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-requires-cd153-expression
#7
Michelle A Sallin, Keith D Kauffman, Catherine Riou, Elsa Du Bruyn, Taylor W Foreman, Shunsuke Sakai, Stella G Hoft, Timothy G Myers, Paul J Gardina, Alan Sher, Rashida Moore, Temeri Wilder-Kofie, Ian N Moore, Alessandro Sette, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Robert J Wilkinson, Daniel L Barber
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (Mtb) is the leading cause of death due to a single infectious agent and is among the top ten causes of all human deaths worldwide1 . CD4 T cells are essential for resistance to Mtb infection, and for decades it has been thought that IFNγ production is the primary mechanism of CD4 T-cell-mediated protection2,3 . However, IFNγ responses do not correlate with host protection, and several reports demonstrate that additional anti-tuberculosis CD4 T-cell effector functions remain unaccounted for4-8 ...
September 10, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202015/autophagy-proteins-suppress-protective-type-i-interferon-signalling-in-response-to-the-murine-gut-microbiota
#8
Patricia K Martin, Amanda Marchiando, Ruliang Xu, Eugene Rudensky, Frank Yeung, Samantha L Schuster, Elisabeth Kernbauer, Ken Cadwell
As a conserved pathway that lies at the intersection between host defence and cellular homeostasis, autophagy serves as a rheostat for immune reactions. In particular, autophagy suppresses excess type I interferon (IFN-I) production in response to viral nucleic acids. It is unknown how this function of autophagy relates to the intestinal barrier where host-microbe interactions are pervasive and perpetual. Here, we demonstrate that mice deficient in autophagy proteins are protected from the intestinal bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium in a manner dependent on IFN-I signalling and nucleic acid sensing pathways...
September 10, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194345/publisher-correction-evolution-of-human-malaria
#9
Jane M Carlton
In the version of this News & Views originally published, the caption of Fig. 1 failed to acknowledge that the figure was adapted from Fig. 1 of E. J. Scully, U. Kanjee & M. T. Duraisingh Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 40, 21-31; 2017. This omission failed to recognize the scholarly work of Erik J. Scully, Usheer Kanjee and Manoj T. Duraisingh in generating the original version of the figure. Figure 1 has now been replaced in the News & Views with a new figure and caption (see below) describing the status of genome sequencing for primate-infecting species in the Plasmodium genus, and the paper by Scully et al...
September 7, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177744/publisher-correction-human-cd45-is-an-f-component-specific-receptor-for-the-staphylococcal-toxin-panton-valentine-leukocidin
#10
Angelino T Tromp, Michiel Van Gent, Pauline Abrial, Amandine Martin, Joris P Jansen, Carla J C De Haas, Kok P M Van Kessel, Bart W Bardoel, Elisabeth Kruse, Emilie Bourdonnay, Michael Boettcher, Michael T McManus, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Gérard Lina, François Vandenesch, Jos A G Van Strijp, Robert Jan Lebbink, Pieter-Jan A Haas, Thomas Henry, András N Spaan
In the version of this Article originally published, the name of author Robert Jan Lebbink was coded wrongly, resulting in it being incorrect when exported to citation databases. This has now been corrected, though no visible changes will be apparent.
September 3, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177743/inducible-developmental-reprogramming-redefines-commitment-to-sexual-development-in-the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-berghei
#11
Robyn S Kent, Katarzyna K Modrzynska, Rachael Cameron, Nisha Philip, Oliver Billker, Andrew P Waters
During malaria infection, Plasmodium spp. parasites cyclically invade red blood cells and can follow two different developmental pathways. They can either replicate asexually to sustain the infection, or differentiate into gametocytes, the sexual stage that can be taken up by mosquitoes, ultimately leading to disease transmission. Despite its importance for malaria control, the process of gametocytogenesis remains poorly understood, partially due to the difficulty of generating high numbers of sexually committed parasites in laboratory conditions1 ...
September 3, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177742/mechanism-of-loading-and-translocation-of-type-vi-secretion-system-effector-tse6
#12
Dennis Quentin, Shehryar Ahmad, Premy Shanthamoorthy, Joseph D Mougous, John C Whitney, Stefan Raunser
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) primarily functions to mediate antagonistic interactions between contacting bacterial cells, but also mediates interactions with eukaryotic hosts. This molecular machine secretes antibacterial effector proteins by undergoing cycles of extension and contraction; however, how effectors are loaded into the T6SS and subsequently delivered to target bacteria remains poorly understood. Here, using electron cryomicroscopy, we analysed the structures of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa effector Tse6 loaded onto the T6SS spike protein VgrG1 in solution and embedded in lipid nanodiscs...
September 3, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177741/structure-of-a-hibernating-100s-ribosome-reveals-an-inactive-conformation-of-the-ribosomal-protein-s1
#13
Bertrand Beckert, Martin Turk, Andreas Czech, Otto Berninghausen, Roland Beckmann, Zoya Ignatova, Jürgen M Plitzko, Daniel N Wilson
To survive under conditions of stress, such as nutrient deprivation, bacterial 70S ribosomes dimerize to form hibernating 100S particles1 . In γ-proteobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, 100S formation requires the ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and the hibernation promoting factor (HPF)2-4 . Here we present single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structures of hibernating 70S and 100S particles isolated from stationary-phase E. coli cells at 3.0 Å and 7.9 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal the binding sites for HPF and RMF as well as the unexpected presence of deacylated E-site transfer RNA and ribosomal protein bS1...
September 3, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177740/global-spread-of-three-multidrug-resistant-lineages-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#14
Jean Y H Lee, Ian R Monk, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Torsten Seemann, Kyra Y L Chua, Angela Kearns, Robert Hill, Neil Woodford, Mette D Bartels, Birgit Strommenger, Frederic Laurent, Magali Dodémont, Ariane Deplano, Robin Patel, Anders R Larsen, Tony M Korman, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a conspicuous member of the human microbiome, widely present on healthy skin. Here we show that S. epidermidis has also evolved to become a formidable nosocomial pathogen. Using genomics, we reveal that three multidrug-resistant, hospital-adapted lineages of S. epidermidis (two ST2 and one ST23) have emerged in recent decades and spread globally. These lineages are resistant to rifampicin through acquisition of specific rpoB mutations that have become fixed in the populations. Analysis of isolates from 96 institutions in 24 countries identified dual D471E and I527M RpoB substitutions to be the most common cause of rifampicin resistance in S...
September 3, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150735/vector-biology-meets-disease-control-using-basic-research-to-fight-vector-borne-diseases
#15
REVIEW
W Robert Shaw, Flaminia Catteruccia
Human pathogens that are transmitted by insects are a global problem, particularly those vectored by mosquitoes; for example, malaria parasites transmitted by Anopheles species, and viruses such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya that are carried by Aedes mosquitoes. Over the past 15 years, the prevalence of malaria has been substantially reduced and virus outbreaks have been contained by controlling mosquito vectors using insecticide-based approaches. However, disease control is now threatened by alarming rates of insecticide resistance in insect populations, prompting the need to develop a new generation of specific strategies that can reduce vector-mediated transmission...
August 27, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150734/the-discovery-of-bombali-virus-adds-further-support-for-bats-as-hosts-of-ebolaviruses
#16
Tracey Goldstein, Simon J Anthony, Aiah Gbakima, Brian H Bird, James Bangura, Alexandre Tremeau-Bravard, Manjunatha N Belaganahalli, Heather L Wells, Jasjeet K Dhanota, Eliza Liang, Michael Grodus, Rohit K Jangra, Veronica A DeJesus, Gorka Lasso, Brett R Smith, Amara Jambai, Brima O Kamara, Sorie Kamara, William Bangura, Corina Monagin, Sagi Shapira, Christine K Johnson, Karen Saylors, Edward M Rubin, Kartik Chandran, W Ian Lipkin, Jonna A K Mazet
Here we describe the complete genome of a new ebolavirus, Bombali virus (BOMV) detected in free-tailed bats in Sierra Leone (little free-tailed (Chaerephon pumilus) and Angolan free-tailed (Mops condylurus)). The bats were found roosting inside houses, indicating the potential for human transmission. We show that the viral glycoprotein can mediate entry into human cells. However, further studies are required to investigate whether exposure has actually occurred or if BOMV is pathogenic in humans.
August 27, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150733/exp2-is-a-nutrient-permeable-channel-in-the-vacuolar-membrane-of-plasmodium-and-is-essential-for-protein-export-via-ptex
#17
Matthias Garten, Armiyaw S Nasamu, Jacquin C Niles, Joshua Zimmerberg, Daniel E Goldberg, Josh R Beck
Intraerythrocytic malaria parasites reside within a parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) generated during host cell invasion1 . Erythrocyte remodelling and parasite metabolism require the export of effector proteins and transport of small molecules across this barrier between the parasite surface and host cell cytosol2,3 . Protein export across the PVM is accomplished by the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) consisting of three core proteins, the AAA+ ATPase HSP101 and two additional proteins known as PTEX150 and EXP24 ...
August 27, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150732/structural-basis-for-receptor-recognition-by-lujo-virus
#18
Hadas Cohen-Dvashi, Itay Kilimnik, Ron Diskin
Lujo virus (LUJV) has emerged as a highly fatal human pathogen. Despite its membership among the Arenaviridae, LUJV does not classify with the known Old and New World groups of that viral family. Likewise, LUJV was recently found to use neuropilin-2 (NRP2) as a cellular receptor instead of the canonical receptors used by Old World and New World arenaviruses. The emergence of a deadly pathogen into human populations using an unprecedented entry route raises many questions regarding the mechanism of cell recognition...
August 27, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131524/author-correction-abundance-and-diversity-of-the-faecal-resistome-in-slaughter-pigs-and-broilers-in-nine-european-countries
#19
Patrick Munk, Berith Elkær Knudsen, Oksana Lukjancenko, Ana Sofia Ribeiro Duarte, Liese Van Gompel, Roosmarijn E C Luiken, Lidwien A M Smit, Heike Schmitt, Alejandro Dorado Garcia, Rasmus Borup Hansen, Thomas Nordahl Petersen, Alex Bossers, Etienne Ruppé, Ole Lund, Tine Hald, Sünje Johanna Pamp, Håkan Vigre, Dick Heederik, Jaap A Wagenaar, Dik Mevius, Frank M Aarestrup
In the version of this Article originally published, the surname of author Oksana Lukjancenko was spelt incorrectly as 'Lukjacenko'. This has now been corrected.
August 21, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127493/sphingolipid-biosynthesis-induces-a-conformational-change-in-the-murine-norovirus-receptor-and-facilitates-viral-infection
#20
Robert C Orchard, Craig B Wilen, Herbert W Virgin
Cellular susceptibility to viral infections is in part determined by the presence of a host cellular receptor. Here we use murine norovirus as a model to uncover an unappreciated connection between an intracellular lipid biosynthetic enzyme and a receptor conformation that is permissive for viral infection. The serine palmitoyltransferase complex is required for de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis and we find that its absence impairs the ability of murine norovirus to bind and enter cells. Although the serine palmitoyltransferase complex is dispensable for the surface expression of the norovirus receptor, CD300lf, serine palmitoyltransferase activity is required for CD300lf to adopt a conformation permissive for viral binding...
August 20, 2018: Nature Microbiology
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