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Nature Microbiology

Kaveh Emami, Aurelie Guyet, Yoshikazu Kawai, Jenny Devi, Ling J Wu, Nick Allenby, Richard A Daniel, Jeff Errington
The bacterial cell wall is a highly conserved essential component of most bacterial groups. It is the target for our most frequently used antibiotics and provides important small molecules that trigger powerful innate immune responses. The wall is composed of glycan strands crosslinked by short peptides. For many years, the penicillin-binding proteins were thought to be the key enzymes required for wall synthesis. RodA and possibly other proteins in the wider SEDS (shape, elongation, division and sporulation) family have now emerged as a previously unknown class of essential glycosyltranferase enzymes, which play key morphogenetic roles in bacterial cell wall synthesis...
January 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Jaclyn S Pearson, Cristina Giogha, Sabrina Mühlen, Ueli Nachbur, Chi L L Pham, Ying Zhang, Joanne M Hildebrand, Clare V Oates, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Danielle Ingle, Laura F Dagley, Aleksandra Bankovacki, Emma J Petrie, Gunnar N Schroeder, Valerie F Crepin, Gad Frankel, Seth L Masters, James Vince, James M Murphy, Margaret Sunde, Andrew I Webb, John Silke, Elizabeth L Hartland
Cell death signalling pathways contribute to tissue homeostasis and provide innate protection from infection. Adaptor proteins such as receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and Z-DNA-binding protein 1 (ZBP1)/DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) that contain receptor-interacting protein (RIP) homotypic interaction motifs (RHIM) play a key role in cell death and inflammatory signalling(1-3)...
January 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Rebekah M Dedrick, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Carlos A Guerrero Bustamante, Rebecca A Garlena, Travis N Mavrich, Welkin H Pope, Juan C Cervantes Reyes, Daniel A Russell, Tamarah Adair, Richard Alvey, J Alfred Bonilla, Jerald S Bricker, Bryony R Brown, Deanna Byrnes, Steven G Cresawn, William B Davis, Leon A Dickson, Nicholas P Edgington, Ann M Findley, Urszula Golebiewska, Julianne H Grose, Cory F Hayes, Lee E Hughes, Keith W Hutchison, Sharon Isern, Allison A Johnson, Margaret A Kenna, Karen K Klyczek, Catherine M Mageeney, Scott F Michael, Sally D Molloy, Matthew T Montgomery, James Neitzel, Shallee T Page, Marie C Pizzorno, Marianne K Poxleitner, Claire A Rinehart, Courtney J Robinson, Michael R Rubin, Joseph N Teyim, Edwin Vazquez, Vassie C Ware, Jacqueline Washington, Graham F Hatfull
Temperate phages are common, and prophages are abundant residents of sequenced bacterial genomes. Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis, encompass substantial genetic diversity and are commonly temperate. Characterization of ten Cluster N temperate mycobacteriophages revealed at least five distinct prophage-expressed viral defence systems that interfere with the infection of lytic and temperate phages that are either closely related (homotypic defence) or unrelated (heterotypic defence) to the prophage...
January 9, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Lisa E Lamberte, Gabriele Baniulyte, Shivani S Singh, Anne M Stringer, Richard P Bonocora, Mathew Stracy, Achillefs N Kapanidis, Joseph T Wade, David C Grainger
Horizontal gene transfer permits rapid dissemination of genetic elements between individuals in bacterial populations. Transmitted DNA sequences may encode favourable traits. However, if the acquired DNA has an atypical base composition, it can reduce host fitness. Consequently, bacteria have evolved strategies to minimize the harmful effects of foreign genes. Most notably, xenogeneic silencing proteins bind incoming DNA that has a higher AT content than the host genome. An enduring question has been why such sequences are deleterious...
January 9, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Amir Mor, Alexander White, Ke Zhang, Matthew Thompson, Matthew Esparza, Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Kazunori Koide, Kristen W Lynch, Adolfo García-Sastre, Beatriz M A Fontoura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Michael Gerth, Christoph Bleidorn
The genus Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria) comprises the most abundant inherited intracellular bacteria(1). Despite their relevance as manipulators of human pathogen transmission(2) and arthropod reproduction(3), many aspects of their evolutionary history are not well understood(4). In arthropods, Wolbachia infections are typically transient on evolutionary timescales(5,6) and co-divergence between hosts and Wolbachia is supposedly rare. Consequently, much of our knowledge of Wolbachia genome evolution derives from very recently diverged strains, and a timescale for Wolbachia is lacking...
December 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Kook Han, Brian Tjaden, Stephen Lory
The first step in the post-transcriptional regulatory function of most bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) is base pairing with partially complementary sequences of targeted transcripts. We present a simple method for identifying sRNA targets in vivo and defining processing sites of the regulated transcripts. The technique, referred to as global small non-coding RNA target identification by ligation and sequencing (GRIL-seq), is based on preferential ligation of sRNAs to the ends of base-paired targets in bacteria co-expressing T4 RNA ligase, followed by sequencing to identify the chimaeras...
December 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Nicole Poweleit, Peng Ge, Hong H Nguyen, Rachel R Ogorzalek Loo, Robert P Gunsalus, Z Hong Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Diana Downs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Jonathan P Zehr, Irina N Shilova, Hanna M Farnelid, Maria Del Carmen Muñoz-MarínCarmen, Kendra A Turk-Kubo
Nitrogen fixation - the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) gas to biologically available nitrogen (N) - is an important source of N for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial environments, N2-fixing symbioses involve multicellular plants, but in the marine environment these symbioses occur with unicellular planktonic algae. An unusual symbiosis between an uncultivated unicellular cyanobacterium (UCYN-A) and a haptophyte picoplankton alga was recently discovered in oligotrophic oceans. UCYN-A has a highly reduced genome, and exchanges fixed N for fixed carbon with its host...
December 20, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Tatyana A Sysoeva, Briana M Burton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Nature Microbiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Glen C Ulett, Mark A Schembri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Corina P D Brussaard, Kay D Bidle, Carlos Pedrós-Alió, Catherine Legrand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Nature Microbiology
B Jesse Shapiro, Inès Levade, Gabriela Kovacikova, Ronald K Taylor, Salvador Almagro-Moreno
Some microorganisms can transition from an environmental lifestyle to a pathogenic one(1-3). This ecological switch typically occurs through the acquisition of horizontally acquired virulence genes(4,5). However, the genomic features that must be present in a population before the acquisition of virulence genes and emergence of pathogenic clones remain unknown. We hypothesized that virulence adaptive polymorphisms (VAPs) circulate in environmental populations and are required for this transition. We developed a comparative genomic framework for identifying VAPs, using Vibrio cholerae as a model...
December 19, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Ekta Lachmandas, Lily Boutens, Jacqueline M Ratter, Anneke Hijmans, Guido J Hooiveld, Leo A B Joosten, Richard J Rodenburg, Jack A M Fransen, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea, Rinke Stienstra
Microbial stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce robust metabolic rewiring in immune cells known as the Warburg effect. It is unknown whether this increase in glycolysis and decrease in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is a general characteristic of monocytes that have encountered a pathogen. Using CD14(+) monocytes from healthy donors, we demonstrated that most microbial stimuli increased glycolysis, but that only stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 with LPS led to a decrease in OXPHOS. Instead, activation of other TLRs, such as TLR2 activation by Pam3CysSK4 (P3C), increased oxygen consumption and mitochondrial enzyme activity...
December 19, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Christian Harak, Max Meyrath, Inés Romero-Brey, Christian Schenk, Claire Gondeau, Philipp Schult, Katharina Esser-Nobis, Mohsan Saeed, Petra Neddermann, Paul Schnitzler, Daniel Gotthardt, Sofia Perez-Del-Pulgar, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Robert Thimme, Philip Meuleman, Florian W R Vondran, Raffaele De Francesco, Charles M Rice, Ralf Bartenschlager, Volker Lohmann
With a single exception, all isolates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) require adaptive mutations to replicate efficiently in cell culture. Here, we show that a major class of adaptive mutations regulates the activity of a cellular lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KA). HCV needs to stimulate PI4KA to create a permissive phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate-enriched membrane microenvironment in the liver and in primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). In contrast, in Huh7 hepatoma cells, the virus must acquire loss-of-function mutations that prevent PI4KA overactivation...
December 19, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Paul Carini, Patrick J Marsden, Jonathan W Leff, Emily E Morgan, Michael S Strickland, Noah Fierer
Extracellular DNA from dead microorganisms can persist in soil for weeks to years(1-3). Although it is implicitly assumed that the microbial DNA recovered from soil predominantly represents intact cells, it is unclear how extracellular DNA affects molecular analyses of microbial diversity. We examined a wide range of soils using viability PCR based on the photoreactive DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide(4). We found that, on average, 40% of both prokaryotic and fungal DNA was extracellular or from cells that were no longer intact...
December 19, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Andrew K Fenton, Lamya El Mortaji, Derek T C Lau, David Z Rudner, Thomas G Bernhardt
Most bacterial cells are surrounded by a peptidoglycan cell wall that is essential for their integrity. The major synthases of this exoskeleton are called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs)(1,2). Surprisingly little is known about how cells control these enzymes, given their importance as drug targets. In the model Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, outer membrane lipoproteins are critical activators of the class A PBPs (aPBPs)(3,4), bifunctional synthases capable of polymerizing and crosslinking peptidoglycan to build the exoskeletal matrix(1)...
December 12, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Elizabeth R Ballou, Gabriela M Avelar, Delma S Childers, Joanna Mackie, Judith M Bain, Jeanette Wagener, Stavroula L Kastora, Mirela D Panea, Sarah E Hardison, Louise A Walker, Lars P Erwig, Carol A Munro, Neil A R Gow, Gordon D Brown, Donna M MacCallum, Alistair J P Brown
As they proliferate, fungi expose antigens at their cell surface that are potent stimulators of the innate immune response, and yet the commensal fungus Candida albicans is able to colonize immuno competent individuals. We show that C. albicans may evade immune detection by presenting a moving immunological target. We report that the exposure of β-glucan, a key pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) located at the cell surface of C. albicans and other pathogenic Candida species, is modulated in response to changes in the carbon source...
December 12, 2016: Nature Microbiology
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