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Jonathan Arzt, Graham J Belsham, Louise Lohse, Anette Bøtner, Carolina Stenfeldt
Control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are impeded by the existence of a persistent, subclinical phase of infection in ruminants; animals with this status are referred to as carriers. However, the epidemiological significance of these FMD virus (FMDV) carriers is uncertain. In the current investigation, the contagion associated with FMDV carrier cattle was investigated by exposure of susceptible cattle and pigs to oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) samples or tissues harvested from persistently infected cattle...
September 12, 2018: MSphere
Sara Mercader, Marcia McGrew, Sun B Sowers, Nobia J Williams, William J Bellini, Carole J Hickman
Waning mumps IgG antibody and incomplete IgG avidity maturation may increase susceptibility to mumps virus infection in some vaccinees. To measure mumps IgG avidity, serum specimens serially diluted to the endpoint were incubated on a commercial mumps-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay and treated with the protein denaturant diethylamine (60 mM, pH 10). End titer avidity indices (etAIs [percent ratio of detected diethylamine-resistant IgG at endpoint]) were calculated. Unpaired serum specimens ( n = 108) from 15-month-old children living in a low-incidence setting were collected 1 month and 2 years after the first measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine dose (MMR1) and tested for mumps avidity...
September 12, 2018: MSphere
Rachael L Hardison, Derek R Heimlich, Alistair Harrison, Wandy L Beatty, Sarah Rains, M Arthur Moseley, J Will Thompson, Sheryl S Justice, Kevin M Mason
Nutrient limitation restricts bacterial growth in privileged sites such as the middle ear. Transient heme-iron restriction of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), the major causative agent of chronic and recurrent otitis media (OM), promotes new and diverse phenotypes that can influence planktonic, biofilm, and intracellular lifestyles of NTHI. However, the bacterial responses to nutrient restriction that impact intracellular fate and survival of NTHI are unknown. In this work, we provide evidence for the role of transient heme-iron restriction in promoting the formation of intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) of NTHI both in vitro and in vivo in a preclinical model of OM...
September 12, 2018: MSphere
Fuzhou Xu, Ximin Zeng, Atsushi Hinenoya, Jun Lin
Extensive use of colistin in food animals is deemed a major driving force for the emergence and transmission of mcr-1 However, a non-colistin usage factor(s) contributing to mobile colistin resistance may also exist in animal production systems. Given that polymyxin, a bacterium-derived peptide antibiotic, has been successfully used as a surrogate to study bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), acquisition of MCR-1 may confer cross-resistance to the unrelated AMPs implicated in practical applications...
September 5, 2018: MSphere
Yonglin Wang, Chenglin Deng, Longyan Tian, Dianguang Xiong, Chengming Tian, Steven J Klosterman
Iron homeostasis is essential for full virulence and viability in many pathogenic fungi. Here, we showed that the bZip transcription factor VdHapX functions as a key regulator of iron homeostasis for adaptation to iron-depleted and iron-excess conditions and is required for full virulence in the vascular wilt fungus, Verticillium dahliae Deletion of VdHapX impaired mycelial growth and conidiation under both iron starvation and iron sufficiency. Furthermore, disruption of VdHapX led to decreased formation of the long-lived survival structures of V...
September 5, 2018: MSphere
Travis J Kochan, Michelle S Shoshiev, Jessica L Hastie, Madeline J Somers, Yael M Plotnick, Daniela F Gutierrez-Munoz, Elissa D Foss, Alyxandria M Schubert, Ashley D Smith, Sally K Zimmerman, Paul E Carlson, Philip C Hanna
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive obligate anaerobe that forms spores in order to survive for long periods in the unfavorable environment outside a host. C. difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea worldwide. C. difficile infection (CDI) arises after a patient treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics ingests infectious spores. The first step in C. difficile pathogenesis is the metabolic reactivation of dormant spores within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through a process known as germination...
September 5, 2018: MSphere
Robin R Rohwer, Joshua J Hamilton, Ryan J Newton, Katherine D McMahon
Taxonomy assignment of freshwater microbial communities is limited by the minimally curated phylogenies used for large taxonomy databases. Here we introduce TaxAss, a taxonomy assignment workflow that classifies 16S rRNA gene amplicon data using two taxonomy reference databases: a large comprehensive database and a small ecosystem-specific database rigorously curated by scientists within a field. We applied TaxAss to five different freshwater data sets using the comprehensive SILVA database and the freshwater-specific FreshTrain database...
September 5, 2018: MSphere
Matthias Wehrmann, Charlotte Berthelot, Patrick Billard, Janosch Klebensberger
In Pseudomonas putida KT2440, two pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent ethanol dehydrogenases (PQQ-EDHs) are responsible for the periplasmic oxidation of a broad variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Depending on the availability of rare earth elements (REEs) of the lanthanide series (Ln3+ ), we have recently reported that the transcription of the genes encoding the Ca2+ -utilizing enzyme PedE and the Ln3+ -utilizing enzyme PedH are inversely regulated. With adaptive evolution experiments, site-specific mutations, transcriptional reporter fusions, and complementation approaches, we now demonstrate that the PedS2/PedR2 (PP_2671/PP_2672) two-component system (TCS) plays a central role in the observed REE-mediated switch of PQQ-EDHs in P...
August 29, 2018: MSphere
Michelle L Verant, Carol U Meteyer, Benjamin Stading, David S Blehert
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is causing significant declines in populations of North American hibernating bats, and recent western and southern expansions of the disease have placed additional species at risk. Understanding differences in species susceptibility and identifying management actions to reduce mortality of bats from WNS are top research priorities. However, the use of wild-caught susceptible bats, such as Myotis lucifugus , as model species for WNS research is problematic and places additional pressure on remnant populations...
August 29, 2018: MSphere
Kelly V Ruggles, Jincheng Wang, Angelina Volkova, Monica Contreras, Oscar Noya-Alarcon, Orlana Lander, Hortensia Caballero, Maria G Dominguez-Bello
People living traditional lifestyles have higher gut microbiota diversity than urban subjects. We hypothesized that shifting lifestyles from an urban environment to a traditional rainforest village would lead to changes in the microbiota of visitors, which would become more similar to the microbiota of villagers. Here, we characterized at different time points the microbiota of 7 urban visitors (5 adults and 2 children) staying in a rainforest Amerindian village for 16 days and compared them with a reference collection of samples from age-matched local villagers...
August 29, 2018: MSphere
Kathleen Nudel, Ryan McClure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A Genco
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of N. gonorrhoeae worldwide has resulted in limited therapeutic choices for this infection. Men who seek treatment often have symptomatic urethritis; in contrast, gonococcal cervicitis in women is usually minimally symptomatic, but may progress to pelvic inflammatory disease. Previously, we reported the first analysis of gonococcal transcriptome expression determined in secretions from women with cervical infection...
August 29, 2018: MSphere
Floris Schoeters, Carol A Munro, Christophe d'Enfert, Patrick Van Dijck
Candida albicans is a human fungal pathogen that does not follow the universal codon usage, as it translates the CUG codon into serine rather than leucine. This makes it difficult to study protein-protein interactions using the standard yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae Due to the lack of adapted tools, only a small number of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have been detected or studied using C. albicans -optimized tools despite the importance of PPIs to understand cell biology...
August 22, 2018: MSphere
Osman Cen, Karuppiah Kannan, Jessica Huck Sappal, Jie Yu, Mengkun Zhang, Muzaffer Arikan, Ali Ucur, Duran Ustek, Yeter Cen, Leo Gordon, Richard Longnecker
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several B and epithelial cell cancers. EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) contributes to cellular transformation by mimicking B cell receptor signaling. LMP2A/MYC double transgenic mice develop splenomegaly and B cell lymphoma much faster than MYC transgenic mice do. In this study, we explored the potential therapeutic efficacy of a novel spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and FLT3 inhibitor TAK-659 for development of a treatment option for EBV-associated malignancies...
August 22, 2018: MSphere
Simon H Williams, Samuel Cordey, Nishit Bhuva, Florian Laubscher, Mary-Anne Hartley, Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Zainab Mbarack, Josephine Samaka, Tarsis Mlaganile, Komal Jain, Valerie d'Acremont, Laurent Kaiser, W Ian Lipkin
High-throughput sequencing can provide insights into epidemiology and medicine through comprehensive surveys of viral genetic sequences in environmental and clinical samples. Here, we characterize the plasma virome of Tanzanian patients with unexplained febrile illness by using two high-throughput sequencing methods: unbiased sequencing and VirCapSeq-VERT (a positive selection system). Sequences from dengue virus 2, West Nile virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, human pegivirus, and Epstein-Barr virus were identified in plasma...
August 22, 2018: MSphere
Leen Delang, Pei-Shi Yen, Thomas Vallet, Marie Vazeille, Marco Vignuzzi, Anna-Bella Failloux
The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, mostly present in (sub)tropical regions. No antivirals are available to treat CHIKV infections. If antiviral drugs are proven efficient to treat CHIKV-infected patients, it will be pivotal to determine whether drug-resistant viruses can be transmitted from one human to another by their mosquito vectors. We orally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a blood meal containing wild-type or drug-resistant CHIKV variants (i...
August 22, 2018: MSphere
Christopher D Dupont, Ingrid L Scully, Ross M Zimnisky, Brinda Monian, Christina P Rossitto, Ellen B O'Connell, Kathrin U Jansen, Annaliesa S Anderson, J Christopher Love
Staphylococcus aureus causes severe disease in humans for which no licensed vaccine exists. A novel S. aureus vaccine (SA4Ag) is in development, targeting the capsular polysaccharides (CPs) and two virulence-associated surface proteins. Vaccine-elicited antibody responses to CPs are efficacious against serious infection by other encapsulated bacteria. Studies of natural S. aureus infection have also shown a role for TH 17 and/or TH 1 responses in protection. Single-antigen vaccines, including CPs, have not been effective against S...
August 22, 2018: MSphere
Robert M Mulhall, Desiree Bennett, Robert Cunney, Ray Borrow, Jay Lucidarme, Jamie Findlow, Keith A Jolley, James Bray, Martin C J Maiden, Monica Moschioni, Laura Serino, Maria Stella, Duccio Medini
Neisseria meningitidis is a common cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults worldwide. The 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero), developed to combat meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) disease, contains subcapsular antigens that may induce immunity against strains of N. meningitidis , regardless of serogroup. Owing to differential levels of expression and peptide diversity in vaccine antigens across meningococcal strains, the <u>m</u>eningococcal <u>a</u>ntigen <u>t</u>yping <u>s</u>ystem (MATS) was developed to estimate the potential MenB strain coverage of 4CMenB...
August 22, 2018: MSphere
Michael W Henson, David M Pitre, Jessica Lee Weckhorst, V Celeste Lanclos, Austen T Webber, J Cameron Thrash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2018: MSphere
Megan R Kiedrowski, Jordan R Gaston, Brian R Kocak, Stefanie L Coburn, Stella Lee, Joseph M Pilewski, Michael M Myerburg, Jennifer M Bomberger
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of chronic respiratory infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We recently showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits enhanced biofilm formation during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) coinfection on human CF airway epithelial cells (AECs). The impact of respiratory viruses on other bacterial pathogens during polymicrobial infections in CF remains largely unknown. To investigate if S. aureus biofilm growth in the CF airways is impacted by virus coinfection, we evaluated S...
August 15, 2018: MSphere
Mikari Asakawa, Toru Takeshita, Michiko Furuta, Shinya Kageyama, Kenji Takeuchi, Jun Hata, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Yoshihisa Yamashita
Tongue microbiota are a dominant source of oral microbial populations that are ingested with saliva, and therefore careful attention is required for the maintenance of health of elderly adults, who are susceptible to aspiration of oral contents. This study aimed to investigate the variation in tongue microbiota among community-dwelling elderly adults. Following a dental examination, tongue coating was collected from a 15-mm-diameter circular area at the center of the tongue dorsum of 506 elderly adults aged 70 to 80 years inhabiting the town of Hisayama, Japan...
August 15, 2018: MSphere
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