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Sarahi L Garcia, Anna J Szekely, Christoffer Bergvall, Martha Schattenhofer, Sari Peura
Climate change scenarios anticipate decreased spring snow cover in boreal and subarctic regions. Forest lakes are abundant in these regions and substantial contributors of methane emissions. To investigate the effect of reduced snow cover, we experimentally removed snow from an anoxic frozen lake. We observed that the removal of snow increased light penetration through the ice, increasing water temperature and modifying microbial composition in the different depths. Chlorophyll a and b concentrations increased in the upper water column, suggesting activation of algal primary producers...
January 9, 2019: MSphere
Tetsuo Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Tetsuro Matano
Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses are important to control the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Accumulating evidence suggests that the ability of a few immunodominant T-cell populations to detect and kill HIV/SIV-infected cells is important in individuals with a protective major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) allele. On the other hand, immunization with live(-attenuated) viruses may be effective against superinfection of virulent viral strains regardless of the host's MHC-I haplotypes, although the underlying mechanisms have not been fully documented...
January 9, 2019: MSphere
E G Dominguez, R Zarnowski, H L Choy, M Zhao, H Sanchez, Jeniel E Nett, D R Andes
Candida auris has emerged as an outbreak pathogen associated with high mortality. Biofilm formation and linked drug resistance are common among Candida species. Drug sequestration by the biofilm matrix accounts for much of the antifungal tolerance. In this study, we examine the biofilm matrix composition and function for a diverse set of C. auris isolates. We show that matrix sequesters nearly 70% of the available triazole antifungal. Like the biofilms formed by other Candida spp., we find that the matrix of C...
January 2, 2019: MSphere
Eyal Dafni, Iddo Weiner, Noam Shahar, Tamir Tuller, Iftach Yacoby
Many microbiological assays include colonies that produce a luminescent or fluorescent (here generalized as "luminescent") signal, often in the form of luminescent halos around the colonies. These signals are used as reporters for a trait of interest; therefore, exact measurements of the luminescence are often desired. However, there is currently a lack of high-throughput methods for analyzing these assays, as common automatic image analysis tools are unsuitable for identifying these halos in the presence of the inherent biological noise...
January 2, 2019: MSphere
Robert J Hogan, Eric R Lafontaine
Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. There is no vaccine to protect against these highly pathogenic bacteria, and there is concern regarding their emergence as global public health ( B. pseudomallei ) and biosecurity ( B. mallei ) threats. In this issue of mSphere , an article by Khakhum and colleagues (N. Khakhum, P. Bharaj, J. N. Myers, D. Tapia, et al., mSphere 4:e00570-18, 2019, describes a novel vaccination platform with excellent potential for cross-protection against both Burkholderia species...
January 2, 2019: MSphere
Nittaya Khakhum, Preeti Bharaj, Julia N Myers, Daniel Tapia, Paul B Kilgore, Brittany N Ross, David H Walker, Janice J Endsley, Alfredo G Torres
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe infectious disease found throughout the tropics. This organism is closely related to Burkholderia mallei , the etiological agent of glanders disease which primarily affects equines. These two pathogenic bacteria are classified as Tier 1 select agents due to their amenability to aerosolization, limited treatment options, and lack of an effective vaccine. We have previously successfully demonstrated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine strain, B...
January 2, 2019: MSphere
Maxim Rubin-Blum, Nicole Dubilier, Manuel Kleiner
Very few bacteria are able to fix carbon via both the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) and the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycles, such as symbiotic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria that are the sole carbon source for the marine tubeworm Riftia pachyptila , the fastest-growing invertebrate. To date, the coexistence of these two carbon fixation pathways had not been found in a cultured bacterium and could thus not be studied in detail. Moreover, it was not clear if these two pathways were encoded in the same symbiont individual, or if two symbiont populations, each with one of the pathways, coexisted within tubeworms...
January 2, 2019: MSphere
Michael J Imperiale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2018: MSphere
Michael J Imperiale, Ira Blader, Patricia Bradford, Sarah D'Orazio, W Paul Duprex, Craig D Ellermeier, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Katherine McMahon, Aaron Mitchell, Marcela F Pasetti, Susannah Tringe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2018: MSphere
Gregory R Wiedman, Yanan Zhao, David S Perlin
Clinicians need a better way to accurately monitor the concentration of antimicrobials in patient samples. In this report, we describe a novel, low-sample-volume method to monitor the azole-class antifungal drug posaconazole, as well as certain other long-chain azole-class antifungal drugs in human serum samples. Posaconazole represents an important target for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) due to its widespread use in treating invasive fungal infections and well-recognized variability of pharmacokinetics...
December 19, 2018: MSphere
Sanaz Salehi, Claudia M Hohn, Thomas A Penfound, James B Dale
The clinical development of group A streptococcal (GAS) vaccines will require the implementation of a standardized, high-throughput assay to measure the activity of functional opsonic antibodies in vaccine recipients. In the present study, we adapted and modified the HL-60-based protocol that was developed for the detection of opsonic antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae for use with multiple M types of GAS. Modifications of the assay conditions permitted the evaluation of 21 different M types of GAS in the assay...
December 19, 2018: MSphere
Marcos J Ramos-Benitez, Caleb Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose J Rosado-Franco, Willy D Ramos-Pérez, Loyda B Mendez, Antonio Osuna, Ana M Espino
Sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacteria is the consequence of an unrestrained infection that continuously releases lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the bloodstream, which triggers an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response leading to multiorgan failure and death. After scrutinizing the immune modulation exerted by a recombinant Fasciola hepatica fatty acid binding protein termed Fh15, our group demonstrated that addition of Fh15 to murine macrophages 1 h prior to LPS stimulation significantly suppresses the expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL1-β)...
December 19, 2018: MSphere
Ayako Sakuda, Chiho Suzuki-Minakuchi, Kazunori Okada, Hideaki Nojiri
Understanding the mechanisms underlying plasmid behavior under conditions of various environments is important to predict the fate of plasmids in nature. Most previous studies on plasmid transfer employed two strains: one as a donor and the other as a recipient. However, in natural environments, there are usually different recipient cells available to which plasmid can be transferred. In this study, to reveal the underlying mechanisms, we assessed the transferability of plasmids from one donor strain to either of two recipient candidates as the most simplified model...
December 19, 2018: MSphere
Simon Langer, Angela Vogts, Heide N Schulz-Vogt
Here we report on a new nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) approach based on enzyme-mediated oxygen isotope exchange, which combines the visualization of general metabolic activity in the cytoplasm with insights into the activity of enzymes related to polyphosphate (polyP) inclusions. The polyP-accumulating strain of the large sulfur bacterium Beggiatoa was used as a model organism. Beggiatoa cultures were grown under oxic and anoxic conditions when exposed to either low- or high-sulfide conditions, which are known to influence polyP metabolism in this strain...
December 19, 2018: MSphere
Ruthie Birger, Haruka Morita, Devon Comito, Ioan Filip, Marta Galanti, Benjamin Lane, Chanel Ligon, Daniel Rosenbloom, Atinuke Shittu, Minhaz Ud-Dean, Rob Desalle, Paul Planet, Jeffrey Shaman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: MSphere
Richard M B M Girard, Marcell Crispim, Mayke Bezerra Alencar, Ariel Mariano Silber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: MSphere
Diana V Pastrana, Alberto Peretti, Nicole L Welch, Cinzia Borgogna, Carlotta Olivero, Raffaele Badolato, Lucia D Notarangelo, Marisa Gariglio, Peter C FitzGerald, Carl E McIntosh, Jesse Reeves, Gabriel J Starrett, Valery Bliskovsky, Daniel Velez, Isaac Brownell, Robert Yarchoan, Kathleen M Wyvill, Thomas S Uldrick, Frank Maldarelli, Andrea Lisco, Irini Sereti, Christopher M Gonzalez, Elliot J Androphy, Alison A McBride, Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Francisco Garcia, Israel Dvoretzky, Joceline S Liu, Justin Han, Philip M Murphy, David H McDermott, Christopher B Buck
Several immunodeficiencies are associated with high susceptibility to persistent and progressive human papillomavirus (HPV) infection leading to a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal lesions. However, the HPV types most commonly associated with such clinical manifestations in these patients have not been systematically defined. Here, we used virion enrichment, rolling circle amplification, and deep sequencing to identify circular DNA viruses present in skin swabs and/or wart biopsy samples from 48 patients with rare genetic immunodeficiencies, including patients with warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, or epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)...
December 12, 2018: MSphere
Christopher P Randall, Arya Gupta, Bret Utley-Drew, Siu Yi Lee, Genevieve Morrison-Williams, Alex J O'Neill
Resistance to the lantibiotic nisin (NIS) arises readily in Staphylococcus aureus as a consequence of mutations in the nsaS gene, which encodes the sensor kinase of the NsaRS two-component regulatory system. Here we present a series of studies to establish how these mutational changes result in reduced NIS susceptibility. Comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed upregulation of the NsaRS regulon in a NIS-resistant mutant of S. aureus versus its otherwise-isogenic progenitor, indicating that NIS resistance mutations prompt gain-of-function in NsaS...
December 12, 2018: MSphere
Anthony P Neumann, Garret Suen
Members of the genus Fibrobacter are cellulose-degrading bacteria and common constituents of the gastrointestinal microbiota of herbivores. Although considerable phylogenetic diversity is observed among members of this group, few functional differences explaining the distinct ecological distributions of specific phylotypes have been described. In this study, we sequenced and performed a comparative analysis of whole genomes from 38 novel Fibrobacter strains against the type strains for the two formally described Fibrobacter species F...
December 12, 2018: MSphere
Rie Nakajima, Medalyn Supnet, Algis Jasinskas, Aarti Jain, Omid Taghavian, Joshua Obiero, Donald K Milton, Wilbur H Chen, Michael Grantham, Richard Webby, Florian Krammer, Darrick Carter, Philip L Felgner, D Huw Davies
Current seasonal influenza virus vaccines engender antibody-mediated protection that is hemagglutinin (HA) subtype specific and relatively short-lived. Coverage for other subtypes or even variants within a subtype could be improved from a better understanding of the factors that promote HA-specific antibody cross-reactivity. Current assays to evaluate cross-reactivity, such as the ELISA, require a separate test for each antigen and are neither high-throughput nor sample-sparing. To address this need, we produced an array of 283 purified HA proteins from influenza A virus subtypes H1 to H16 and H18 and influenza B virus...
December 12, 2018: MSphere
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