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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101536/host-range-restriction-of-insect-specific-flaviviruses-occurs-at-several-levels-of-the-viral-life-cycle
#1
Sandra Junglen, Marvin Korries, Wolfgang Grasse, Janett Wieseler, Anne Kopp, Kyra Hermanns, Moises León-Juárez, Christian Drosten, Beate Mareike Kümmerer
The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101535/the-case-for-adopting-the-species-complex-nomenclature-for-the-etiologic-agents-of-cryptococcosis
#2
Kyung J Kwon-Chung, John E Bennett, Brian L Wickes, Wieland Meyer, Christina A Cuomo, Kurt R Wollenburg, Tihana A Bicanic, Elizabeth Castañeda, Yun C Chang, Jianghan Chen, Massimo Cogliati, Françoise Dromer, David Ellis, Scott G Filler, Matthew C Fisher, Thomas S Harrison, Steven M Holland, Shigeru Kohno, James W Kronstad, Marcia Lazera, Stuart M Levitz, Michail S Lionakis, Robin C May, Popchai Ngamskulrongroj, Peter G Pappas, John R Perfect, Volker Rickerts, Tania C Sorrell, Thomas J Walsh, Peter R Williamson, Jianping Xu, Adrian M Zelazny, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcosis is a potentially lethal disease of humans/animals caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Distinction between the two species is based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Recently, it was proposed that C. neoformans be divided into two species and C. gattii into five species based on a phylogenetic analysis of 115 isolates. While this proposal adds to the knowledge about the genetic diversity and population structure of cryptococcosis agents, the published genotypes of 2,606 strains have already revealed more genetic diversity than is encompassed by seven species...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101534/pathogenicity-determinants-of-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum-have-ancient-origins
#3
Andrew J Brazier, Marion Avril, Maria Bernabeu, Maxwell Benjamin, Joseph D Smith
Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly of the human malaria parasites, is a member of the Laverania subgenus that also infects African Great Apes. The virulence of P. falciparum is related to cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes in microvasculature, but the origin of dangerous parasite adhesion traits is poorly understood. To investigate the evolutionary history of the P. falciparum cytoadhesion pathogenicity determinant, we studied adhesion domains from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi. We demonstrate that the P...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#4
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070562/biological-and-chemical-adaptation-to-endogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-production-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-d39
#5
John P Lisher, Ho-Ching Tiffany Tsui, Smirla Ramos-Montañez, Kristy L Hentchel, Julia E Martin, Jonathan C Trinidad, Malcolm E Winkler, David P Giedroc
The catalase-negative, facultative anaerobe Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 is naturally resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced endogenously by pyruvate oxidase (SpxB). Here, we investigate the adaptive response to endogenously produced H2O2. We show that lactate oxidase, which converts lactate to pyruvate, positively impacts pyruvate flux through SpxB and that ΔlctO mutants produce significantly lower H2O2. In addition, both the SpxB pathway and a candidate pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) pathway contribute to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) production during aerobic growth, and the pyruvate format lyase (PFL) pathway is the major acetyl-CoA pathway during anaerobic growth...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066815/acknowledgment-of-ad-hoc-reviewers
#6
EDITORIAL
Michael J Imperiale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066814/species-in-the-cryptococcus-gattii-complex-differ-in-capsule-and-cell-size-following-growth-under-capsule-inducing-conditions
#7
Kenya E Fernandes, Christine Dwyer, Leona T Campbell, Dee A Carter
Cryptococcus gattii causes invasive fungal infections that have been increasing in incidence and global distribution in recent years. The major molecular genotypes of C. gattii that were previously classified as VGI to VGIV have recently been described as four new species: C. gattii (VGI), C. deuterogattii (VGII), C. bacillisporus (VGIII), and C. tetragattii (VGIV). The main driver for their classification has been phylogeny, and phenotypic diversity has not yet been extensively characterized. This study examines variation in attributes related to virulence and pathogenicity, including capsule thickness, cell size, tolerance to temperature, oxidative and osmotic stress, and cell wall integrity...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066813/risks-posed-by-reston-the-forgotten-ebolavirus
#8
REVIEW
Diego Cantoni, Arran Hamlet, Martin Michaelis, Mark N Wass, Jeremy S Rossman
Out of the five members of the Ebolavirus family, four cause life-threatening disease, whereas the fifth, Reston virus (RESTV), is nonpathogenic in humans. The reasons for this discrepancy remain unclear. In this review, we analyze the currently available information to provide a state-of-the-art summary of the factors that determine the human pathogenicity of Ebolaviruses. RESTV causes sporadic infections in cynomolgus monkeys and is found in domestic pigs throughout the Philippines and China. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that RESTV is most closely related to the Sudan virus, which causes a high mortality rate in humans...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066812/the-denture-associated-oral-microbiome-in-health-and-stomatitis
#9
Baochen Shi, Tingxi Wu, Jeffrey McLean, Anna Edlund, Youngik Young, Xuesong He, Hongyang Lv, Xuedong Zhou, Wenyuan Shi, Huiying Li, Renate Lux
While investigation of the microbiome on natural oral surfaces has generated a wealth of information, few studies have examined the microbial communities colonizing dentures and their relationship to oral health. To address this knowledge gap, we characterized the bacterial community associated with dentures and remaining teeth in healthy individuals and patients with denture stomatitis. The microbiome compositions of matched denture and tooth plaque samples of 10 healthy individuals and 9 stomatitis patients were determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028547/recent-outbreaks-of-shigellosis-in-california-caused-by-two-distinct-populations-of-shigella-sonnei-with-either-increased-virulence-or-fluoroquinolone-resistance
#10
Varvara K Kozyreva, Guillaume Jospin, Alexander L Greninger, James P Watt, Jonathan A Eisen, Vishnu Chaturvedi
Shigella sonnei has caused unusually large outbreaks of shigellosis in California in 2014 and 2015. Preliminary data indicated the involvement of two distinct bacterial populations, one from San Diego and San Joaquin (SDi/SJo) and one from the San Francisco (SFr) Bay area. Whole-genome analysis and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 68 outbreak and archival isolates of S. sonnei were performed to investigate the microbiological factors related to these outbreaks. Both SDi/SJo and SFr populations, as well as almost all of the archival S...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028546/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-rat-polyomavirus-2-in-a-colony-of-x-scid-rats-by-p-pit-assay
#11
Lora H Rigatti, Tuna Toptan, Joseph T Newsome, Patrick S Moore, Yuan Chang
Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are known to infect a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates and are associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancers, particularly in immune-suppressed hosts. A novel polyomavirus, designated rat polyomavirus 2 (RatPyV2), was identified from a breeding colony of rats having X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. Using a human panpolyomavirus immunohistochemistry test (P-PIT), RatPyV2 was initially detected in the parotid salivary gland of a colony member. Rolling circle amplification using DNA from harderian and parotid glands identified a novel 5...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028545/characterization-of-the-candida-albicans-amino-acid-permease-family-gap2-is-the-only-general-amino-acid-permease-and-gap4-is-an-s-adenosylmethionine-sam-transporter-required-for-sam-induced-morphogenesis
#12
Lucie Kraidlova, Sanne Schrevens, Hélène Tournu, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Hana Sychrova, Patrick Van Dijck
Amino acids are key sources of nitrogen for growth of Candida albicans. In order to detect and take up these amino acids from a broad range of different and changing nitrogen sources inside the host, this fungus must be able to adapt via its expression of genes for amino acid uptake and further metabolism. We analyzed six C. albicans putative general amino acid permeases based on their homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gap1 general amino acid permease. We generated single- and multiple-deletion strains and found that, based on growth assays and transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulation, Gap2 is the functional orthologue to ScGap1, with broad substrate specificity...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981238/new-insights-into-autoinducer-2-signaling-as-a-virulence-regulator-in-a-mouse-model-of-pneumonic-plague
#13
Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, Michelle L Kirtley, Jian Sha, Tatiana E Erova, Sadhana Chauhan, Vladimir L Motin, Ashok K Chopra
The Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the infamous Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, have a highly conserved interbacterial signaling system that is mediated by the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing molecule. The AI-2 system is implicated in regulating various bacterial virulence genes in diverse environmental niches. Deletion of the gene encoding the synthetic enzyme for the AI-2 substrate, luxS, leads to either no significant change or, paradoxically, an increase in in vivo bacterial virulence...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981237/dipicolinic-acid-release-by-germinating-clostridium-difficile-spores-occurs-through-a-mechanosensing-mechanism
#14
Michael B Francis, Joseph A Sorg
Classically, dormant endospores are defined by their resistance properties, particularly their resistance to heat. Much of the heat resistance is due to the large amount of dipicolinic acid (DPA) stored within the spore core. During spore germination, DPA is released and allows for rehydration of the otherwise-dehydrated core. In Bacillus subtilis, 7 proteins are encoded by the spoVA operon and are important for DPA release. These proteins receive a signal from the activated germinant receptor and release DPA...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981236/a-phylogeny-based-global-nomenclature-system-and-automated-annotation-tool-for-h1-hemagglutinin-genes-from-swine-influenza-a-viruses
#15
Tavis K Anderson, Catherine A Macken, Nicola S Lewis, Richard H Scheuermann, Kristien Van Reeth, Ian H Brown, Sabrina L Swenson, Gaëlle Simon, Takehiko Saito, Yohannes Berhane, Janice Ciacci-Zanella, Ariel Pereda, C Todd Davis, Ruben O Donis, Richard J Webby, Amy L Vincent
The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAVs) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from nonswine hosts, swine H1 viruses have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based on colloquial context, leading to a proliferation of inconsistent regional naming conventions. In this study, we propose rigorous phylogenetic criteria to establish a globally consistent nomenclature of swine H1 virus hemagglutinin (HA) evolution...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981235/mspheredirect-author-initiated-peer-review-of-manuscripts
#16
EDITORIAL
Michael J Imperiale, Thomas Shenk, Stefano Bertuzzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981234/coordinate-regulation-of-antimycin-and-candicidin-biosynthesis
#17
Thomas C McLean, Paul A Hoskisson, Ryan F Seipke
Streptomyces species produce an incredible array of high-value specialty chemicals and medicinal therapeutics. A single species typically harbors ~30 biosynthetic pathways, but only a few them are expressed in the laboratory; thus, poor understanding of how natural-product biosynthesis is regulated is a major bottleneck in drug discovery. Antimycins are a large family of anticancer compounds widely produced by Streptomyces species, and their regulation is atypical compared to that of most other natural products...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981233/temporal-and-racial-differences-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis-staphylococcusaureus-and-encoded-virulence-factors
#18
Joseph A Merriman, Elizabeth A Mueller, Michael P Cahill, Lisa A Beck, Amy S Paller, Jon M Hanifin, Peck Y Ong, Lynda Schneider, Denise C Babineau, Gloria David, Alexandre Lockhart, Keli Artis, Donald Y M Leung, Patrick M Schlievert
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition strongly associated with Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection. S. aureus strains shift in populations in ~10-year intervals depending on virulence factors. Shifts in S. aureus virulence factors may in part explain the racial differences observed in the levels of prevalence and severity of AD. AD S. aureus isolates collected from 2011 to 2014 (103 isolates) and in 2008 (100 isolates) were examined for the prevalence of genes encoding superantigens (SAgs)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981232/strain-dependent-recognition-of-a-unique-degradation-motif-by-clpxp-in-streptococcus-mutans
#19
Biswanath Jana, Liang Tao, Indranil Biswas
Streptococcus mutans, a dental pathogen, has a remarkable ability to cope with environmental stresses. Under stress conditions, cytoplasmic proteases play a major role in controlling the stability of regulatory proteins and preventing accumulation of damaged and misfolded proteins. ClpXP, a well-conserved cytoplasmic proteolytic system, is crucial in maintaining cellular homeostasis in bacteria. ClpX is primarily responsible for recognition of substrates and subsequent translocation of unfolded substrates into the ClpP proteolytic compartment for degradation...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921082/global-role-of-cyclic-amp-signaling-in-ph-dependent-responses-in-candida-albicans
#20
Jeffrey M Hollomon, Nora Grahl, Sven D Willger, Katja Koeppen, Deborah A Hogan
Candida albicans behaviors are affected by pH, an important environmental variable. Filamentous growth is a pH-responsive behavior, where alkaline conditions favor hyphal growth and acid conditions favor growth as yeast. We employed filamentous growth as a tool to study the impact of pH on the hyphal growth regulator Cyr1, and we report that downregulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling by acidic pH contributes to the inhibition of hyphal growth in minimal medium with GlcNAc. Ras1 and Cyr1 are generally required for efficient hyphal growth, and the effects of low pH on Ras1 proteolysis and GTP binding are consistent with diminished cAMP output...
November 2016: MSphere
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