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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713859/fungus-causing-white-nose-syndrome-in-bats-accumulates-genetic-variability-in-north-america-with-no-sign-of-recombination
#1
Jigar Trivedi, Josianne Lachapelle, Karen J Vanderwolf, Vikram Misra, Craig K R Willis, John M Ratcliffe, Rob W Ness, James B Anderson, Linda M Kohn
Emerging fungal diseases of wildlife are on the rise worldwide, and the white-nose syndrome (WNS) epidemic in North American bats is a catastrophic example. The causal agent of WNS is a single clone of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Early evolutionary change in this clonal population has major implications for disease ecology and conservation. Accumulation of variation in the fungus through mutation, and shuffling of variation through recombination, could affect the virulence and transmissibility of the fungus and the durability of what appears to be resistance arising in some bat populations...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713858/life-stage-specific-cargo-receptors-facilitate-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-surface-coat-protein-transport-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#2
Emilia K Kruzel, George P Zimmett, James D Bangs
The critical virulence factor of bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei is the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit of VSG is GPI dependent and relies on a discrete subset of COPII machinery (TbSec23.2/TbSec24.1). In other systems, p24 transmembrane adaptor proteins selectively recruit GPI-anchored cargo into nascent COPII vesicles. Trypanosomes have eight putative p24s (TbERP1 to TbERP8) that are constitutively expressed at the mRNA level...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713857/a-new-clade-of-insect-specific-flaviviruses-from-australian-anopheles-mosquitoes-displays-species-specific-host-restriction
#3
Agathe M G Colmant, Jody Hobson-Peters, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Weng Kong Chow, Cheryl A Johansen, Jelke Fros, Peter Simmonds, Daniel Watterson, Chris Cazier, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari, Benjamin L Schulz, Nigel Beebe, Laura J Vet, Thisun B H Piyasena, Hong-Duyen Nguyen, Ross T Barnard, Roy A Hall
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses found worldwide and are responsible for significant human and veterinary diseases, including dengue, Zika, and West Nile fever. Some flaviviruses are insect specific and replicate only in mosquitoes. We report a genetically divergent group of insect-specific flaviviruses from Anopheles mosquitoes that do not replicate in arthropod cell lines or heterologous Anopheles species, exhibiting unprecedented specialization for their host species. Determination of the complete sequences of the RNA genomes of three of these viruses, Karumba virus (KRBV), Haslams Creek virus, and Mac Peak virus (McPV), that are found in high prevalence in some Anopheles mosquito populations and detection of virus-specific proteins, replicative double-stranded RNA, and small interfering RNA responses in the host mosquito species provided strong evidence of a functional replicating virus in the mosquito midgut...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685163/sulfide-generation-by-dominant-halanaerobium-microorganisms-in-hydraulically-fractured-shales
#4
Anne E Booker, Mikayla A Borton, Rebecca A Daly, Susan A Welch, Carrie D Nicora, David W Hoyt, Travis Wilson, Samuel O Purvine, Richard A Wolfe, Shikha Sharma, Paula J Mouser, David R Cole, Mary S Lipton, Kelly C Wrighton, Michael J Wilkins
Hydraulic fracturing of black shale formations has greatly increased United States oil and natural gas recovery. However, the accumulation of biomass in subsurface reservoirs and pipelines is detrimental because of possible well souring, microbially induced corrosion, and pore clogging. Temporal sampling of produced fluids from a well in the Utica Shale revealed the dominance of Halanaerobium strains within the in situ microbial community and the potential for these microorganisms to catalyze thiosulfate-dependent sulfidogenesis...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685162/in-vivo-indicators-of-cytoplasmic-vacuolar-and-extracellular-ph-using-phluorin2-in-candida-albicans
#5
Hélène Tournu, Arturo Luna-Tapia, Brian M Peters, Glen E Palmer
Environmental or chemically induced stresses often trigger physiological responses that regulate intracellular pH. As such, the capacity to detect pH changes in real time and within live cells is of fundamental importance to essentially all aspects of biology. In this respect, pHluorin, a pH-sensitive variant of green fluorescent protein, has provided an invaluable tool to detect such responses. Here, we report the adaptation of pHluorin2 (PHL2), a substantially brighter variant of pHluorin, for use with the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685161/behavioral-effects-of-a-chemorepellent-receptor-knockout-mutation-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#6
Dianxiong Zou, Todd M Hennessey
A conditioned supernatant from Tetrahymena thermophila contains a powerful chemorepellent for wild-type cells, and a gene called G37 is required for this response. This is the first genomic identification of a chemorepellent receptor in any eukaryotic unicellular organism. This conditioned supernatant factor (CSF) is small (<1 kDa), and its repellent effect is resistant to boiling, protease treatment, and nuclease digestion. External BAPTA eliminated the CSF response, suggesting that Ca(2+) entry is required for the classical avoiding reactions (AR) used for chemorepulsion...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680971/hendra-and-nipah-virus-infection-in-cultured-human-olfactory-epithelial-cells
#7
Viktoriya Borisevich, Mehmet Hakan Ozdener, Bilal Malik, Barry Rockx
Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses and causative agents of encephalitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are not known. Here, we evaluated the possible role of olfactory epithelium in virus entry into the CNS. We characterized Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) infection of primary human olfactory epithelial cultures. We show that henipaviruses can infect mature olfactory sensory neurons. Henipaviruses replicated efficiently, resulting in cytopathic effect and limited induction of host responses...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680970/nbiochip-a-lab-on-a-chip-platform-of-mono-and-polymicrobial-biofilms-for-high-throughput-downstream-applications
#8
Anand Srinivasan, Nelson S Torres, Kai P Leung, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Anand K Ramasubramanian
Current in vitro techniques for the culture of microorganisms, and particularly of delicate microbial biofilms, are still mostly limited to low-density plates and manual labor and are not amenable to automation and true high-throughput (HT) applications. We have developed a novel fully automated platform for the formation of mono- and polymicrobial biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans at the nanoscale level. The nBioChip is robotically printed, robustly handled, and scanned using a standard microarray reader...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680969/differential-antagonism-of-human-innate-immune-responses-by-tick-borne-phlebovirus-nonstructural-proteins
#9
Veronica V Rezelj, Ping Li, Vidyanath Chaudhary, Richard M Elliott, Dong-Yan Jin, Benjamin Brennan
In recent years, several newly discovered tick-borne viruses causing a wide spectrum of diseases in humans have been ascribed to the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. The nonstructural protein (NSs) of bunyaviruses is the main virulence factor and interferon (IFN) antagonist. We studied the molecular mechanisms of IFN antagonism employed by the NSs proteins of human apathogenic Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) and those of Heartland virus (HRTV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), both of which cause severe disease...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680968/bacterial-community-composition-and-dynamics-spanning-five-years-in-freshwater-bog-lakes
#10
Alexandra M Linz, Benjamin C Crary, Ashley Shade, Sarah Owens, Jack A Gilbert, Rob Knight, Katherine D McMahon
Bacteria play a key role in freshwater biogeochemical cycling, but long-term trends in freshwater bacterial community composition and dynamics are not yet well characterized. We used a multiyear time series of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data from eight bog lakes to census the freshwater bacterial community and observe annual and seasonal trends in abundance. The sites that we studied encompassed a range of water column mixing frequencies, which we hypothesized would be associated with trends in alpha and beta diversity...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657072/development-of-a-crispr-cas9-system-for-efficient-genome-editing-of-candida-lusitaniae
#11
Emily L Norton, Racquel K Sherwood, Richard J Bennett
Candida lusitaniae is a member of the Candida clade that includes a diverse group of fungal species relevant to both human health and biotechnology. This species exhibits a full sexual cycle to undergo interconversion between haploid and diploid forms. C. lusitaniae is also an emerging opportunistic pathogen that can cause serious bloodstream infections in the clinic and yet has often proven to be refractory to facile genetic manipulations. In this work, we develop a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated gene 9 (Cas9) system to enable genome editing of C...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657070/use-of-rna-protein-complexes-for-genome-editing-in-non-albicans-candida-species
#12
Nora Grahl, Elora G Demers, Alex W Crocker, Deborah A Hogan
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 genome modification systems have greatly facilitated the genetic analysis of fungal pathogens. In CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing methods designed for use in Candida albicans, DNAs that encode the necessary components are expressed in the target cells. Unfortunately, expression constructs that work efficiently in C. albicans are not necessarily expressed well in other pathogenic species within the genus Candida or the related genus Clavispora...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656178/gene-knockout-shows-that-pml-trim19-does-not-restrict-the-early-stages-of-hiv-1-infection-in-human-cell-lines
#13
Nasser Masroori, Pearl Cherry, Natacha Merindol, Jia-Xin Li, Caroline Dufour, Lina Poulain, Mélodie B Plourde, Lionel Berthoux
The PML (promyelocytic leukemia) protein is a member of the TRIM family, a large group of proteins that show high diversity in functions but possess a common tripartite motif giving the family its name. We and others recently reported that both murine PML (mPML) and human PML (hPML) strongly restrict the early stages of infection by HIV-1 and other lentiviruses when expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). This restriction activity was found to contribute to the type I interferon (IFN-I)-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 in MEFs...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656177/giardia-colonizes-and-encysts-in-high-density-foci-in-the-murine-small-intestine
#14
N R Barash, C Nosala, J K Pham, S G McInally, S Gourguechon, B McCarthy-Sinclair, S C Dawson
Giardia lamblia is a highly prevalent yet understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Hosts ingest Giardia cysts from contaminated sources. In the gastrointestinal tract, cysts excyst to become motile trophozoites, colonizing and attaching to the gut epithelium. Trophozoites later differentiate into infectious cysts that are excreted and contaminate the environment. Due to the limited accessibility of the gut, the temporospatial dynamics of giardiasis in the host are largely inferred from laboratory culture and thus may not mirror Giardia physiology in the host...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656176/a-three-dimensional-cell-culture-system-to-model-rna-virus-infections-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#15
John C Bramley, Coyne G Drummond, Nicholas J Lennemann, Charles A Good, Kwang Sik Kim, Carolyn B Coyne
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) comprises the foremost protective barrier in the brain and is composed in part of a layer of microvascular endothelial cells that line the capillaries surrounding the brain. Here, we describe a human three-dimensional (3-D) cell-based model of the BBB microvascular endothelium that recapitulates properties of these cells in vivo, including physiologically relevant transcriptional profiles, the capacity to induce potent antimicrobial innate immune signaling, and the ability to resist infection by diverse RNA viruses, including members of the enterovirus (coxsackievirus B, echovirus 11, enterovirus 71, poliovirus) and flavivirus (dengue virus, Zika virus [ZIKV]) families...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656175/epidemiological-and-serological-investigation-into-the-role-of-gestational-maternal-influenza-virus-infection-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Milada Mahic, Xiaoyu Che, Ezra Susser, Bruce Levin, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Per Magnus, Camilla Stoltenberg, Lokendrasingh Chauhan, Thomas Briese, Michaeline Bresnahan, Pål Surén, Mady Hornig, Siri Mjaaland, W Ian Lipkin
The literature concerning gestational maternal influenza virus infection and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is inconclusive. To address this uncertainty, we obtained information from questionnaires and samples from the Autism Birth Cohort, a prospective birth cohort comprising mothers, fathers, and offspring recruited in Norway in 1999 to 2008. Through questionnaires, referrals, and linkages to the Norwegian National Patient Registry, we identified 338 mothers of children with ASD and 348 frequency-matched controls for whom plasma samples that had been collected midpregnancy and after delivery were available for influenza virus serology via luciferase immunoprecipitation and hemagglutinin inhibition assays for influenza virus strains circulating during the study period...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656174/human-cytomegalovirus-infected-glioblastoma-cells-display-stem-cell-like-phenotypes
#17
Che Liu, Paul A Clark, John S Kuo, Robert F Kalejta
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common brain tumor in adults. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genomes are present in GBM tumors, yielding hope that antiviral treatments could prove therapeutic and improve the poor prognosis of GBM patients. We discovered that GBM cells infected in vitro with HCMV display properties of cancer stem cells. HCMV-infected GBM cells grow more slowly than mock-infected controls, demonstrate a higher capacity for self-renewal determined by a sphere formation assay, and display resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656173/heparin-mimics-extracellular-dna-in-binding-to-cell-surface-localized-proteins-and-promoting-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#18
Surabhi Mishra, Alexander R Horswill
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Biofilms form on these implants and are held together by a matrix composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Heparin is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan that is routinely used in central venous catheters to prevent thrombosis, but it has been shown to stimulate S. aureus biofilm formation through an unknown mechanism. Data presented here reveal that heparin enhances biofilm capacity in many S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains, and it is incorporated into the USA300 methicillin-resistant S...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656172/sulfide-homeostasis-and-nitroxyl-intersect-via-formation-of-reactive-sulfur-species-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Hui Peng, Jiangchuan Shen, Katherine A Edmonds, Justin L Luebke, Anne K Hickey, Lauren D Palmer, Feng-Ming James Chang, Kevin A Bruce, Thomas E Kehl-Fie, Eric P Skaar, David P Giedroc
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal human pathogen and a major cause of nosocomial infections. As gaseous signaling molecules, endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO·) protect S. aureus from antibiotic stress synergistically, which we propose involves the intermediacy of nitroxyl (HNO). Here, we examine the effect of exogenous sulfide and HNO on the transcriptome and the formation of low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiol persulfides of bacillithiol, cysteine, and coenzyme A as representative of reactive sulfur species (RSS) in wild-type and ΔcstR strains of S...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635996/reply-to-engelthaler-and-meyer-furthering-the-continental-drift-speciation-hypothesis-in-the-pathogenic-cryptococcus-species-complexes
#20
COMMENT
Arturo Casadevall, Joudeh B Freij, Christopher Hann-Soden, John Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: MSphere
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