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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435893/opacification-domain-of-serum-opacity-factor-inhibits-beta-hemolysis-and-contributes-to-virulence-of-streptococcus-pyogenes
#1
Luchang Zhu, Randall J Olsen, James M Musser
Serum opacity factor (SOF) is a cell surface virulence factor made by the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We found that S. pyogenes strains with naturally occurring truncation mutations in the sof gene have markedly enhanced beta-hemolysis. Moreover, deletion of the sof gene in a SOF-positive parental strain resulted in significantly increased beta-hemolysis. Together, these observations suggest that SOF is an inhibitor of beta-hemolysis. SOF has two major functional domains, including an opacification domain and a fibronectin-binding domain...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435892/dramatic-improvement-of-crispr-cas9-editing-in-candida-albicans-by-increased-single-guide-rna-expression
#2
Henry Ng, Neta Dean
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat system with CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) has emerged as a versatile tool for genome editing in Candida albicans. Mounting evidence from other model systems suggests that the intracellular levels of single guide RNA (sgRNA) limit the efficiency of Cas9-dependent DNA cleavage. Here, we tested this idea and describe a new means of sgRNA delivery that improves previously described methods by ~10-fold. The efficiency of Cas9/sgRNA-dependent cleavage and repair of a single-copy yeast enhanced monomeric red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene was measured as a function of various parameters that are hypothesized to affect sgRNA accumulation, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional processing...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435891/detection-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-babesia-microti-borrelia-burgdorferi-borrelia-miyamotoi-and-powassan-virus-in-ticks-by-a-multiplex-real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr-assay
#3
Rafal Tokarz, Teresa Tagliafierro, D Moses Cucura, Ilia Rochlin, Stephen Sameroff, W Ian Lipkin
Ixodes scapularis ticks are implicated in transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus. We describe the establishment and implementation of the first multiplex real-time PCR assay with the capability to simultaneously detect and differentiate all five pathogens in a single reaction. The application of this assay for analysis of ticks at sites in New York and Connecticut revealed a high prevalence of B. microti in ticks from Suffolk County, NY...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435890/gene-expression-profile-of-human-cytokines-in-response-to-burkholderia-pseudomallei-infection
#4
Shivankari Krishnananthasivam, Harindra Darshana Sathkumara, Enoka Corea, Mohan Natesan, Aruna Dharshan De Silva
Melioidosis is an underreported infectious disease, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Understanding the disease susceptibility and pathogenesis is crucial for developing newer diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this life-threatening infection. In this study, we aimed to analyze the gene expression levels of important cytokines in melioidosis patients and establish useful correlates with disease biomarkers compared to cases of sepsis infection caused by other pathogens and healthy individuals...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435889/multidrug-resistance-salmonella-genomic-island-1-in-a-morganella-morganii-subsp-morganii-human-clinical-isolate-from-france
#5
Eliette Schultz, Olivier Barraud, Jean-Yves Madec, Marisa Haenni, Axel Cloeckaert, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Benoît Doublet
Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is a multidrug resistance integrative mobilizable element that harbors a great diversity of antimicrobial resistance gene clusters described in numerous Salmonella enterica serovars and also in Proteus mirabilis. A serious threat to public health was revealed in the recent description in P. mirabilis of a SGI1-derivative multidrug resistance island named PGI1 (Proteus genomic island 1) carrying extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase resistance genes, blaVEB-6 and blaNDM-1, respectively...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435888/continental-drift-and-speciation-of-the-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii-species-complexes
#6
Arturo Casadevall, Joudeh B Freij, Christopher Hann-Soden, John Taylor
Genomic analysis has placed the origins of two human-pathogenic fungi, the Cryptococcus gattii species complex and the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex, in South America and Africa, respectively. Molecular clock calculations suggest that the two species separated ~80 to 100 million years ago. This time closely approximates the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea, which gave rise to South America and Africa. On the basis of the geographic distribution of these two species complexes and the coincidence of the evolutionary divergence and Pangea breakup times, we propose that a spatial separation caused by continental drift resulted in the emergence of the C...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435887/correction-for-mahic-et-al-maternal-immunoreactivity-to-herpes-simplex-virus-2-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-male-offspring
#7
Milada Mahic, Siri Mjaaland, Hege Marie Bøvelstad, Nina Gunnes, Ezra Susser, Michaeline Bresnahan, Anne-Siri Øyen, Bruce Levin, Xiaoyu Che, Deborah Hirtz, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Synnve Schjølberg, Christine Roth, Per Magnus, Camilla Stoltenberg, Pål Surén, Mady Hornig, W Ian Lipkin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00016-17.].
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435886/discovery-of-a-novel-antifungal-agent-in-the-pathogen-box
#8
François L Mayer, James W Kronstad
Human fungal pathogens cause over 2 million infections per year and are major drivers of morbidity and mortality. Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans are two of the most common fungal pathogens of humans, together accounting for a staggering 1.4 million infections annually, with very high mortality rates. Patients with dysfunctional immune systems, such as individuals with HIV/AIDS, are particularly susceptible to fungal infections. Unfortunately, relatively few antifungal drugs are currently available and fungi frequently develop resistance, further complicating treatment approaches...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435885/phylogenomic-reconstruction-of-the-oomycete-phylogeny-derived-from-37-genomes
#9
Charley G P McCarthy, David A Fitzpatrick
The oomycetes are a class of microscopic, filamentous eukaryotes within the Stramenopiles-Alveolata-Rhizaria (SAR) supergroup which includes ecologically significant animal and plant pathogens, most infamously the causative agent of potato blight Phytophthora infestans. Single-gene and concatenated phylogenetic studies both of individual oomycete genera and of members of the larger class have resulted in conflicting conclusions concerning species phylogenies within the oomycetes, particularly for the large Phytophthora genus...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409568/reply-to-magaret-and-wald-autism-link-to-herpes-simplex-virus-2-antibody-in-pregnancy-likely-to-be-spurious
#10
COMMENT
Milada Mahic, Siri Mjaaland, Ezra Susser, Michaeline Bresnahan, Xiaoyu Che, Bruce Levin, Mady Hornig, W Ian Lipkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405633/genomic-analysis-of-factors-associated-with-low-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-sequence-type-95-strains
#11
Craig M Stephens, Sheila Adams-Sapper, Manraj Sekhon, James R Johnson, Lee W Riley
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains belonging to multilocus sequence type 95 (ST95) are globally distributed and a common cause of infections in humans and domestic fowl. ST95 isolates generally show a lower prevalence of acquired antimicrobial resistance than other pandemic ExPEC lineages. We took a genomic approach to identify factors that may underlie reduced resistance. We fully assembled genomes for four ST95 isolates representing the four major fimH-based lineages within ST95 and also analyzed draft-level genomes from another 82 ST95 isolates, largely from the western United States...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405632/evidence-of-intercontinental-spread-and-uncommon-variants-of-low-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-viruses-in-ducks-overwintering-in-guatemala
#12
Ana S Gonzalez-Reiche, Martha I Nelson, Mathew Angel, Maria L Müller, Lucia Ortiz, Jayeeta Dutta, Harm van Bakel, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Daniel R Perez
Over a hundred species of aquatic birds overwinter in Central America's wetlands, providing opportunities for the transmission of influenza A viruses (IAVs). To date, limited IAV surveillance in Central America hinders our understanding of the evolution and ecology of IAVs in migratory hosts within the Western Hemisphere. To address this gap, we sequenced the genomes of 68 virus isolates obtained from ducks overwintering along Guatemala's Pacific Coast during 2010 to 2013. High genetic diversity was observed, including 9 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes, 7 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes, and multiple avian IAV lineages that have been detected at low levels (<1%) in North America...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405631/electric-cell-substrate-impedance-sensing-to-monitor-viral-growth-and-study-cellular-responses-to-infection-with-alphaherpesviruses-in-real-time
#13
Matthew R Pennington, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) measures changes in an electrical circuit formed in a culture dish. As cells grow over a gold electrode, they block the flow of electricity and this is read as an increase in electrical impedance in the circuit. ECIS has previously been used in a variety of applications to study cell growth, migration, and behavior in response to stimuli in real time and without the need for cellular labels. Here, we demonstrate that ECIS is also a valuable tool with which to study infection by alphaherpesviruses...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405630/efficient-and-robust-paramyxoviridae-reverse-genetics-systems
#14
Shannon M Beaty, Arnold Park, Sohui T Won, Patrick Hong, Michael Lyons, Frederic Vigant, Alexander N Freiberg, Benjamin R tenOever, W Paul Duprex, Benhur Lee
The notoriously low efficiency of Paramyxoviridae reverse genetics systems has posed a limiting barrier to the study of viruses in this family. Previous approaches to reverse genetics have utilized a wide variety of techniques to overcome the technical hurdles. Although robustness (i.e., the number of attempts that result in successful rescue) has been improved in some systems with the use of stable cell lines, the efficiency of rescue (i.e., the proportion of transfected cells that yield at least one successful rescue event) has remained low...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405629/human-norovirus-evolution-in-a-chronically-infected-host
#15
Sylvie Y Doerflinger, Stefan Weichert, Anna Koromyslova, Martin Chan, Christian Schwerk, Ruediger Adam, Stefan Jennewein, Grant S Hansman, Horst Schroten
Typically, human noroviruses cause symptoms of acute gastroenteritis for 2 to 4 days. Often, the virions are shed in stool for several days after the symptoms recede, which in turn can lead to further contamination and transmission. Moreover, a number of reports have considered that chronic norovirus infections, i.e., lasting months and years, might even function as reservoirs for the generation of novel strains that can escape the herd immunity or have modified binding interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs)...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405628/autism-link-to-herpes-simplex-virus-2-antibody-in-pregnancy-likely-to-be-spurious
#16
Amalia S Magaret, Anna Wald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405627/bacterial-community-composition-associated-with-pyrogenic-organic-matter-biochar-varies-with-pyrolysis-temperature-and-colonization-environment
#17
Zhongmin Dai, Albert Barberán, Yong Li, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
Microbes that colonize pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) (also called biochar) play an important role in PyOM mineralization and crucially affect soil biogeochemical cycling, while the microbial community composition associated with PyOM particles is poorly understood. We generated two manure-based PyOMs with different characteristics (PyOM pyrolyzed at the low temperature of 300°C [i.e., PyOM300] and at the high temperature of 700°C [i.e., PyOM700]) and added them to high-carbon (4.15%) and low-C (0.37%) soil for microbial colonization...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405626/basic-scholarship-in-biosafety-is-critically-needed-to-reduce-risk-of-laboratory-accidents
#18
Ryan Ritterson, Rocco Casagrande
Our firm conducted a risk/benefit assessment of "gain-of-function" research, as part of the deliberative process following a U.S. moratorium on the research (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Government Gain-of-Function Deliberative Process and Research Funding Pause on Selected Gain-of-Function Research Involving Influenza, MERS, and SARS Viruses, 2014). Due to significant missing but theoretically acquirable data, our biosafety assessment faced limitations, and we were forced to provide a relative, instead of absolute, measure of risk (Gryphon Scientific, LLC, Risk and Benefit Analysis of Gain of Function Research, 2016)...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357414/a-novel-staphylococcus-podophage-encodes-a-unique-lysin-with-unusual-modular-design
#19
Katie Cater, Vidya Sree Dandu, S M Nayeemul Bari, Kim Lackey, Gabriel F K Everett, Asma Hatoum-Aslan
Drug-resistant staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, are leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. Bacteriophages and their peptidoglycan hydrolytic enzymes (lysins) are currently being explored as alternatives to conventional antibiotics; however, only a limited diversity of staphylococcal phages and their lysins has yet been characterized. Here, we describe a novel staphylococcal phage and its lysins. Bacteriophage Andhra is the first reported S. epidermidis phage belonging to the family Podoviridae...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357413/next-generation-sequencing-combined-with-specific-pcr-assays-to-determine-the-bacterial-16s-rrna-gene-profiles-of-middle-ear-fluid-collected-from-children-with-acute-otitis-media
#20
Saara Sillanpää, Lenka Kramna, Sami Oikarinen, Markku Sipilä, Markus Rautiainen, Janne Aittoniemi, Jussi Laranne, Heikki Hyöty, Ondrej Cinek
The aim of the study was to analyze the bacteriome of acute otitis media with a novel modification of next-generation sequencing techniques. Outpatient children with acute otitis media were enrolled in the study, and middle ear fluids were collected during 90 episodes from 79 subjects aged 5 to 42 months (median age, 19 months). The bacteriome profiles of middle ear fluid samples were determined by a nested-PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene (V4 region), followed by mass sequencing. The profiling results were compared to the results of specific PCR assays targeting selected prevalent pathogens...
March 2017: MSphere
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