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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904885/a-novel-protective-vaccine-antigen-from-the-core-escherichia-coli-genome
#1
Danilo G Moriel, Lendl Tan, Kelvin G K Goh, Minh-Duy Phan, Deepak S Ipe, Alvin W Lo, Kate M Peters, Glen C Ulett, Scott A Beatson, Mark A Schembri
Escherichia coli is a versatile pathogen capable of causing intestinal and extraintestinal infections that result in a huge burden of global human disease. The diversity of E. coli is reflected by its multiple different pathotypes and mosaic genome composition. E. coli strains are also a major driver of antibiotic resistance, emphasizing the urgent need for new treatment and prevention measures. Here, we used a large data set comprising 1,700 draft and complete genomes to define the core and accessory genome of E...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904884/escherichia-coli-sequence-type-131-h30-is-the-main-driver-of-emerging-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-e-coli-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#2
James R Johnson, Brian Johnston, Paul Thuras, Bryn Launer, Evgeni V Sokurenko, Loren G Miller
The H30 strain of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) is a recently emerged, globally disseminated lineage associated with fluoroquinolone resistance and, via its H30Rx subclone, the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Here, we studied the clonal background and resistance characteristics of 109 consecutive recent E. coli clinical isolates (2015) and 41 historical ESBL-producing E. coli blood isolates (2004 to 2011) from a public tertiary care center in California with a rising prevalence of ESBL-producing E...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904883/interactions-of-respiratory-viruses-and-the-nasal-microbiota-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-healthy-infants
#3
Insa Korten, Moana Mika, Shkipe Klenja, Elisabeth Kieninger, Ines Mack, Maria Teresa Barbani, Meri Gorgievski, Urs Frey, Markus Hilty, Philipp Latzin
Traditional culture techniques have shown that increased bacterial colonization is associated with viral colonization; however, the influence of viral colonization on the whole microbiota composition is less clear. We thus aimed to understand the interaction of viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life to appraise their roles in disease development. Thirty-two healthy, unselected infants were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study within the first year of life. Biweekly nasal swabs (n = 559) were taken, and the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and 10 different viruses and 2 atypical bacteria were characterized by real-time PCR (combination of seven duplex samples)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904882/first-case-of-actinomycetoma-in-france-due-to-a-novel-nocardia-species-nocardia-boironii-sp-nov
#4
Jacques M Gilquin, Brigitte Riviere, Valme Jurado, Bernard Audouy, Jean-Baptiste Kouatche, Emmanuelle Bergeron, Delphine Mouniée, Thierry Molina, Philippe Faure, Cesáreo Saiz-Jimenez, Verónica Rodríguez-Nava
Bacterial mycetoma is a neglected disease mainly observed in tropical area countries and typically associated with rural conditions, making its presence in developed countries of temperate climate areas rare. However, we report the first case of an autochthonous mycetoma case in continental France that originated from a new Nocardia species. A Gram-positive filamentous bacterium (OFN 14.177(T)) was isolated from a pus sample from the mycetoma of a male French patient 92 years old suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904881/sfr1-a-tetrahymena-thermophila-sfi1-repeat-protein-modulates-the-production-of-cortical-row-basal-bodies
#5
Westley Heydeck, Alexander J Stemm-Wolf, Janin Knop, Christina C Poh, Mark Winey
Basal bodies are essential microtubule-based structures that template, anchor, and orient cilia at the cell surface. Cilia act primarily in the generation of directional fluid flow and sensory reception, both of which are utilized for a broad spectrum of cellular processes. Although basal bodies contribute to vital cell functions, the molecular contributors of their assembly and maintenance are poorly understood. Previous studies of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila revealed important roles for two centrin family members in basal body assembly, separation of new basal bodies, and stability...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904880/microbial-community-patterns-associated-with-automated-teller-machine-keypads-in-new-york-city
#6
Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904879/the-establishment-and-diversification-of-epidemic-associated-serogroup-w-meningococcus-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-1994-to-2012
#7
Adam C Retchless, Fang Hu, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Seydou Diarra, Kristen Knipe, Mili Sheth, Lori A Rowe, Lassana Sangaré, Absetou Ky Ba, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Dhwani Batra, Ryan T Novak, Rasmata Ouédraogo Traoré, Xin Wang
Epidemics of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by meningococcal serogroup A have been eliminated from the sub-Saharan African so-called "meningitis belt" by the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MACV), and yet, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W remains a major cause of disease in the region, with most isolates belonging to clonal complex 11 (CC11). Here, the genetic variation within and between epidemic-associated strains was assessed by sequencing the genomes of 92 N...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904878/de-novo-pyrimidine-biosynthesis-connects-cell-integrity-to-amphotericin-b-susceptibility-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#8
Dithi Banerjee, Timothy C Umland, John C Panepinto
The use of amphotericin B (AmB) in conjunction with 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) is known to be the optimal therapy for treating cryptococcosis, but the mechanism by which 5-FC synergizes with AmB is unknown. In this study, we generated a Cryptococcus neoformans ura1Δ mutant lacking dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), which demonstrated temperature-sensitive growth due to a defect in cell integrity and sensitivity to cell wall-damaging agents. In addition, sensitivity to AmB was greatly increased. Inclusion of uracil or uridine in the medium did not suppress the cell wall or AmB phenotype, whereas complementation with the wild-type URA1 gene complemented the mutant phenotype...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841373/reply-to-triclocarban-and-health-the-jury-is-still-out
#9
COMMENT
Lauren Pischel, Angela C Poole, Catherine Ley, Gina Suh, Julia K Goodrich, Thomas D Haggerty, Ruth E Ley, Julie Parsonnet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840851/a-highly-conserved-residue-in-hiv-1-nef-alpha-helix-2-modulates-protein-expression
#10
Aaron L Johnson, Brennan S Dirk, Mathieu Coutu, S M Mansour Haeryfar, Eric J Arts, Andrés Finzi, Jimmy D Dikeakos
Extensive genetic diversity is a defining characteristic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and poses a significant barrier to the development of an effective vaccine. To better understand the impact of this genetic diversity on the HIV-1 pathogenic factor Nef, we compiled a panel of reference strains from the NIH Los Alamos HIV Database. Initial sequence analysis identified point mutations at Nef residues 13, 84, and 92 in subtype C reference strain C.BR92025 from Brazil. Functional analysis revealed impaired major histocompatibility complex class I and CD4 downregulation of strain C...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840850/interspecies-interactions-between-clostridium-difficile-and-candida-albicans
#11
Pim T van Leeuwen, Jasper M van der Peet, Floris J Bikker, Michel A Hoogenkamp, Ana M Oliveira Paiva, Sarantos Kostidis, Oleg A Mayboroda, Wiep Klaas Smits, Bastiaan P Krom
The facultative anaerobic polymorphic fungus Candida albicans and the strictly anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile are two opportunistic pathogens residing in the human gut. While a few studies have focused on the prevalence of C. albicans in C. difficile-infected patients, the nature of the interactions between these two microbes has not been studied thus far. In the current study, both chemical and physical interactions between C. albicans and C. difficile were investigated. In the presence of C...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830193/human-norovirus-aptamer-exhibits-high-degree-of-target-conformation-dependent-binding-similar-to-that-of-receptors-and-discriminates-particle-functionality
#12
Matthew D Moore, Benjamin G Bobay, Brittany Mertens, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Although two in vitro cultivation methods have been reported, discrimination of infectious human norovirus particles for study of viral inactivation is still a challenge, as both rely on reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR. Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding assays serve as a proxy for estimation of infectious particles; however, they are costly and difficult to purify/modify. Some evidence suggests that certain nucleic acid aptamers only bind intact target proteins, thus displaying a high degree of conformation-dependent binding...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830192/triclocarban-and-health-the-jury-is-still-out
#13
Rebekah C Kennedy, Paul D Terry, Jiangang Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830191/comparative-genome-analysis-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-sequence-type-131-strains-from-nepal-and-japan
#14
Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Jatan Bahadur Sherchan, Yohei Doi, Maki Nagamatsu, Jeevan B Sherchand, Sarmila Tandukar, Norio Ohmagari, Teruo Kirikae, Hiroshi Ohara, Kayoko Hayakawa
The global spread of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli) has largely been driven by the pandemic sequence type 131 (ST131). This study aimed to determine the molecular epidemiology of their spread in two Asian countries with contrasting prevalence. We conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of ESBL-E. coli ST131 strains collected prospectively from Nepal and Japan, two countries in Asia with a high and low prevalence of ESBL-E. coli, respectively. We also systematically compared these genomes with those reported from other regions using publicly available WGS data for E...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830190/phenotypic-screens-identify-parasite-genetic-factors-associated-with-malarial-fever-response-in-plasmodium-falciparum-piggybac-mutants
#15
Phaedra Thomas, Jennifer Sedillo, Jenna Oberstaller, Suzanne Li, Min Zhang, Naresh Singh, Chengqi C Q Wang, Kenneth Udenze, Rays H Y Jiang, John H Adams
Malaria remains one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide, with 90% of the malaria deaths in Africa in 2013 attributable to Plasmodium falciparum. The clinical symptoms of malaria include cycles of fever, corresponding to parasite rupture from red blood cells every 48 h. Parasite pathways involved in the parasite's ability to survive the host fever response, and indeed, the functions of ~40% of P. falciparum genes as a whole, are still largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the potential of scalable forward-genetic screening methods to identify genes involved in the host fever response...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830189/characterization-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-from-air-and-surfaces-of-the-international-space-station
#16
Benjamin P Knox, Adriana Blachowicz, Jonathan M Palmer, Jillian Romsdahl, Anna Huttenlocher, Clay C C Wang, Nancy P Keller, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
One mission of the Microbial Observatory Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is to examine the traits and diversity of fungal isolates to gain a better understanding of how fungi may adapt to microgravity environments and how this may affect interactions with humans in a closed habitat. Here, we report an initial characterization of two isolates, ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4, of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from the ISS and a comparison to the experimentally established clinical isolates Af293 and CEA10...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777985/norovirus-polymerase-fidelity-contributes-to-viral-transmission-in-vivo
#17
Armando Arias, Lucy Thorne, Elsa Ghurburrun, Dalan Bailey, Ian Goodfellow
Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences viral pathogenesis using the murine norovirus model, as increasing viral mutation frequency using a mutagenic nucleoside resulted in clearance of a persistent infection in mice. Given the role of replication fidelity and genetic diversity in pathogenesis, we have now investigated whether polymerase fidelity can also impact virus transmission between susceptible hosts...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777984/molecular-epidemiology-of-colonizing-and-infecting-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#18
Rebekah M Martin, Jie Cao, Sylvain Brisse, Virginie Passet, Weisheng Wu, Lili Zhao, Preeti N Malani, Krishna Rao, Michael A Bachman
Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most common causes of hospital-acquired infections and has emerged as an urgent threat to public health due to carbapenem antimicrobial resistance. K. pneumoniae commonly colonizes hospitalized patients and causes extraintestinal infections such as urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection (septicemia), and pneumonia. If colonization is an intermediate step before infection, then detection and characterization of colonizing isolates could enable strategies to prevent or empirically treat K...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777983/shewanella-baltica-ecotypes-have-wide-transcriptional-variation-under-the-same-growth-conditions
#19
W S Hambright, Jie Deng, James M Tiedje, Ingrid Brettar, Jorge L M Rodrigues
In bacterial populations, subtle expressional differences may promote ecological specialization through the formation of distinct ecotypes. In a barrier-free habitat, this process most likely precedes population divergence and may predict speciation events. To examine this, we used four sequenced strains of the bacterium Shewanella baltica, OS155, OS185, OS195, and OS223, as models to assess transcriptional variation and ecotype formation within a prokaryotic population. All strains were isolated from different depths throughout a water column of the Baltic Sea, occupying different ecological niches characterized by various abiotic parameters...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747300/multi-body-site-microbiome-and-culture-profiling-of-military-trainees-suffering-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-at-fort-benning-georgia
#20
Jatinder Singh, Ryan C Johnson, Carey D Schlett, Emad M Elassal, Katrina B Crawford, Deepika Mor, Jeffrey B Lanier, Natasha N Law, William A Walters, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Jason W Bennett, Eric R Hall, Eugene V Millar, Michael W Ellis, D Scott Merrell
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common in the general population, with increased prevalence among military trainees. Previous research has revealed numerous nasal microbial signatures that correlate with SSTI development and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Thus, we hypothesized that the ecology of the inguinal, oropharynx, and perianal regions may also be altered in response to SSTI and/or S. aureus colonization. We collected body site samples from 46 military trainees with purulent abscess (SSTI group) as well as from 66 asymptomatic controls (non-SSTI group)...
September 2016: MSphere
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