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Kathleen Nudel, Ryan McClure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A Genco
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of N. gonorrhoeae worldwide has resulted in limited therapeutic choices for this infection. Men who seek treatment often have symptomatic urethritis; in contrast, gonococcal cervicitis in women is usually minimally symptomatic, but may progress to pelvic inflammatory disease. Previously, we reported the first analysis of gonococcal transcriptome expression determined in secretions from women with cervical infection...
August 29, 2018: MSphere
Ryan Kean, Christopher Delaney, Leighann Sherry, Andrew Borman, Elizabeth M Johnson, Malcolm D Richardson, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Candida auris has emerged as a significant global nosocomial pathogen. This is primarily due to its antifungal resistance profile but also its capacity to form adherent biofilm communities on a range of clinically important substrates. While we have a comprehensive understanding of how other Candida species resist and respond to antifungal challenge within the sessile phenotype, our current understanding of C. auris biofilm-mediated resistance is lacking. In this study, we are the first to perform transcriptomic analysis of temporally developing C...
July 11, 2018: MSphere
Ruthie Birger, Haruka Morita, Devon Comito, Ioan Filip, Marta Galanti, Benjamin Lane, Chanel Ligon, Daniel Rosenbloom, Atinuke Shittu, Minhaz Ud-Dean, Rob Desalle, Paul Planet, Jeffrey Shaman
Most observation of human respiratory virus carriage is derived from medical surveillance; however, the infections documented by this surveillance represent only a symptomatic fraction of the total infected population. As the role of asymptomatic infection in respiratory virus transmission is still largely unknown and rates of asymptomatic shedding are not well constrained, it is important to obtain more-precise estimates through alternative sampling methods. We actively recruited participants from among visitors to a New York City tourist attraction...
July 11, 2018: MSphere
Sunayan S Ray, Christina L Wilkinson, Kimberly S Paul
To satisfy its fatty acid needs, the extracellular eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma brucei relies on two mechanisms: uptake of fatty acids from the host and de novo synthesis. We hypothesized that T. brucei modulates fatty acid synthesis in response to environmental lipid availability. The first committed step in fatty acid synthesis is catalyzed by acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase (ACC) and serves as a key regulatory point in other organisms. To test our hypothesis, T. brucei mammalian bloodstream and insect procyclic forms were grown in low-, normal-, or high-lipid media and the effect on T...
July 11, 2018: MSphere
Andrew Zukauskas, Randall J Mrsny, Paula Cortés Barrantes, Jerrold R Turner, John M Leong, Beth A McCormick
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a source of morbidity and mortality in both developed and underdeveloped nations of the world. Disease can manifest as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, depending on the localization of infection. Interestingly, there is a correlation in experimental murine infections between the development of bacteremia and influx of neutrophils into the pulmonary lumen. Reduction of this neutrophil influx has been shown to improve survivability during infection. In this study, we use in vitro biotinylation and neutrophil transmigration and in vivo murine infection to identify a system in which two epithelium-localized ATP-binding cassette transporters, MRP1 and MRP2, have inverse activities dictating neutrophil transmigration into the lumen of infected mouse lungs...
July 5, 2018: MSphere
Prashant R Desai, Klaus Lengeler, Mario Kapitan, Silas Matthias Janßen, Paula Alepuz, Ilse D Jacobsen, Joachim F Ernst
Extensive 5' untranslated regions (UTR) are a hallmark of transcripts determining hyphal morphogenesis in Candida albicans The major transcripts of the EFG1 gene, which are responsible for cellular morphogenesis and metabolism, contain a 5' UTR of up to 1,170 nucleotides (nt). Deletion analyses of the 5' UTR revealed a 218-nt sequence that is required for production of the Efg1 protein and its functions in filamentation, without lowering the level and integrity of the EFG1 transcript. Polysomal analyses revealed that the 218-nt 5' UTR sequence is required for efficient translation of the Efg1 protein...
July 5, 2018: MSphere
S Michelle Todd, Robert E Settlage, Kevin K Lahmers, Daniel J Slade
Understanding the virulence mechanisms of human pathogens from the genus Fusobacterium has been hindered by a lack of properly assembled and annotated genomes. Here we report the first complete genomes for seven Fusobacterium strains, as well as resequencing of the reference strain Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (total of seven species; total of eight genomes). A highly efficient and cost-effective sequencing pipeline was achieved using sample multiplexing for short-read Illumina (150 bp) and long-read Oxford Nanopore MinION (>80 kbp) platforms, coupled with genome assembly using the open-source software Unicycler...
July 5, 2018: MSphere
Blake E Sanders, Ariana Umana, Justin A Lemkul, Daniel J Slade
Here we present FusoPortal, an interactive repository of Fusobacterium genomes that were sequenced using a hybrid MinION long-read sequencing pipeline, followed by assembly and annotation using a diverse portfolio of predominantly open-source software. Significant efforts were made to provide genomic and bioinformatic data as downloadable files, including raw sequencing reads, genome maps, gene annotations, protein functional analysis and classifications, and a custom BLAST server for FusoPortal genomes. FusoPortal has been initiated with eight complete genomes, of which seven were previously only drafts that ranged from 24 to 67 contigs...
July 5, 2018: MSphere
Adit Chaudhary, Imrose Kauser, Anirban Ray, Rachel Poretsky
Urban streams are susceptible to stormwater and sewage inputs that can impact their ecological health and water quality. Microbial communities in streams play important functional roles, and their composition and metabolic potential can help assess ecological state and water quality. Although these environments are highly heterogenous, little is known about the influence of isolated perturbations, such as those resulting from rain events on urban stream microbiota. Here, we examined the microbial community composition and diversity in an urban stream during dry and wet weather conditions with both 16S rRNA gene sequencing across multiple years and shotgun metagenomics to more deeply analyze a single storm flow event...
July 5, 2018: MSphere
Vikas Yadav, Kaustuv Sanyal
Kinetochore clustering, frequently observed in yeasts, plays a key role in genome organization and chromosome segregation. In the absence of the metaphase plate arrangement, kinetochore clustering in yeast species is believed to facilitate timely kinetochore-microtubule interactions to achieve bivalent attachments of chromosomes during metaphase. The factors determining the dynamics of kinetochore clustering remain largely unknown. We previously reported that kinetochores oscillate between an unclustered and a clustered state during the mitotic cell cycle in the basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans Based on tubulin localization patterns, while kinetochore clustering appears to be microtubule dependent, an indirect interaction of microtubules with kinetochores is expected in C...
July 5, 2018: MSphere
David Tyssen, Ying-Ying Wang, Joshua A Hayward, Paul A Agius, Kevin DeLong, Muriel Aldunate, Jacques Ravel, Thomas R Moench, Richard A Cone, Gilda Tachedjian
Women of reproductive age with a Lactobacillus- dominated vaginal microbiota have a reduced risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and a vaginal pH of ~4 due to the presence of ~1% (wt/vol) lactic acid. While lactic acid has potent HIV virucidal activity in vitro , whether lactic acid present in the vaginal lumen inactivates HIV has not been investigated. Here we evaluated the anti-HIV-1 activity of native, minimally diluted cervicovaginal fluid obtained from women of reproductive age ( n = 20) with vaginal microbiota dominated by Lactobacillus spp...
July 5, 2018: MSphere
Selim Omrane, Colette Audéon, Amandine Ignace, Clémentine Duplaix, Lamia Aouini, Gert Kema, Anne-Sophie Walker, Sabine Fillinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Matthew L Jenior, Jhansi L Leslie, Vincent B Young, Patrick D Schloss
Susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is primarily associated with previous exposure to antibiotics, which compromise the structure and function of the gut bacterial community. Specific antibiotic classes correlate more strongly with recurrent or persistent C. difficile infection. As such, we utilized a mouse model of infection to explore the effect of distinct antibiotic classes on the impact that infection has on community-level transcription and metabolic signatures shortly following pathogen colonization and how those changes may associate with persistence of C...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Oscar R Diaz, Cameron V Sayer, David L Popham, Aimee Shen
Clostridium difficile , also known as Clostridioides difficile , is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. C. difficile infections begin when its metabolically dormant spores germinate to form toxin-producing vegetative cells. Successful spore germination depends on the degradation of the cortex, a thick layer of modified peptidoglycan that maintains dormancy. Cortex degradation is mediated by the SleC cortex lytic enzyme, which is thought to recognize the cortex-specific modification muramic-δ-lactam...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
David L Goldman, Edward Nieves, Antonio Nakouzi, Johanna Rivera, Ei Ei Phyu, Than Htut Win, Jacqueline M Achkar, Arturo Casadevall
Much of our understanding of the activity of anthrax toxin is based on in vitro systems, which delineate the interaction between Bacillus anthracis toxins and the cell surface. However, these systems fail to account for the intimate association of B. anthracis with the circulatory system, including the contribution of serum proteins to the host response and processing of anthrax toxins. Using a variety of immunological techniques to inhibit serum processing of B. anthracis protective antigen (PA) along with mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrate that serum digests PA via 2 distinct reactions...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
James B Anderson, Dahlia Kasimer, Wenjing Xia, Nicolas C H Schröder, Patrick Cichowicz, Silvio Lioniello, Rudrakshi Chakrabarti, Eashwar Mohan, Linda M Kohn
One might expect yeasts in soil to be highly dispersed via water or insects, forming ephemeral, genetically heterogeneous populations subject to competition and environmental stochasticity. Here, we report persistence of genotypes of the yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus in space and time. Within 1 km2 in a mixed hardwood forest on scales from centimeters to tens of meters, we detected persistence over 3 years of native genotypes, identified by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genome-wide, of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus growing around Quercus rubra and Quercus alba Yeasts were recovered by enrichment in ethanol-containing medium, which measures only presence or absence, not abundance...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Joseph T Smith, Ujjal K Singha, Smita Misra, Minu Chaudhuri
The small Tim proteins belong to a group of mitochondrial intermembrane space chaperones that aid in the import of mitochondrial inner membrane proteins with internal targeting signals. Trypanosoma brucei , the protozoan parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, possesses multiple small Tim proteins that include homologues of T. brucei Tim9 (TbTim9) and Tim10 (TbTim10) and a unique small Tim that shares homology with both Tim8 and Tim13 (TbTim8/13). Here, we found that these three small TbTims are expressed as soluble mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Jeong Yoon Lee, Ji Sun Lee, Emma C Materne, Rahul Rajala, Ashrafali M Ismail, Donald Seto, David W Dyer, Jaya Rajaiya, James Chodosh
Adenovirus infections in humans are common and sometimes lethal. Adenovirus-derived vectors are also commonly chosen for gene therapy in human clinical trials. We have shown in previous work that homologous recombination between adenoviral genomes of human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D), the largest and fastest growing HAdV species, is responsible for the rapid evolution of this species. Because adenovirus infection initiates in mucosal epithelia, particularly at the gastrointestinal, respiratory, genitourinary, and ocular surfaces, we sought to determine a possible role for mucosal microbiota in adenovirus genome diversity...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Luana Rossato, Leandro Ferreira Moreno, Azadeh Jamalian, Benjamin Stielow, Sandro Rogério de Almeida, Sybren de Hoog, Joanna Freeke
Sporothrix brasiliensis is the prevalent agent of a large zoonotic outbreak in Brazil. With the involvement of several thousands of cases, this is the largest cohort of human and animal sporotrichosis on record in the world. Infections are characterized by local cutaneous dissemination in humans without underlying disease. S. brasiliensis has shown a high degree of virulence in a mouse model compared to the remaining Sporothrix species, including the ancestral species, Sporothrix schenckii The present paper investigates a genomic and expressed-proteome comparison of S...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Alexander L Greninger, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Hong Xie, Amanda Casto, Anne Cent, Gregory Pepper, David M Koelle, Meei-Li Huang, Anna Wald, Christine Johnston, Keith R Jerome
Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are difficult to sequence due to their large DNA genome, high GC content, and the presence of repeats. To date, most HSV genomes have been recovered from culture isolates, raising concern that these genomes may not accurately represent circulating clinical strains. We report the development and validation of a DNA oligonucleotide hybridization panel to recover nearly complete HSV genomes at abundances up to 50,000-fold lower than previously reported. Using copy number information on herpesvirus and host DNA background via quantitative PCR, we developed a protocol for pooling for cost-effective recovery of more than 50 HSV-1 or HSV-2 genomes per MiSeq run...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
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