journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

MSphere

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769381/tosr-mediated-regulation-of-adhesins-and-biofilm-formation-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#1
Courtney L Luterbach, Valerie S Forsyth, Michael D Engstrom, Harry L T Mobley
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains utilize a variety of adherence factors that assist in colonization of the host urinary tract. TosA (<u>t</u>ype <u>o</u>ne <u>s</u>ecretion <u>A</u>) is a nonfimbrial adhesin that is predominately expressed during murine urinary tract infection (UTI), binds to kidney epithelial cells, and promotes survival during invasive infections. The tosRCBDAEF operon encodes the secretory machinery necessary for TosA localization to the E...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769380/pneumococcal-metabolic-adaptation-and-colonization-are-regulated-by-the-two-component-regulatory-system-08
#2
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Stephanie Hirschmann, Viktor Kluger, Hermann Rath, Sebastian Böhm, Franziska Voss, Niamatullah Kakar, Lothar Petruschka, Uwe Völker, Reinhold Brückner, Ulrike Mäder, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae two-component regulatory systems (TCS) enable adaptation and ensure its maintenance in host environments. This study deciphers the impact of TCS08 on pneumococcal gene expression and its role in metabolic and pathophysiological processes. Transcriptome analysis and real-time PCR demonstrated a regulatory effect of TCS08 on genes involved mainly in environmental information processing, intermediary metabolism, and colonization by S. pneumoniae D39 and TIGR4. Striking examples are genes for fatty acid biosynthesis, genes of the arginine deiminase system, and the psa operon encoding the manganese ABC transport system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769379/activation-of-bacterial-histidine-kinases-insights-into-the-kinetics-of-the-cis-autophosphorylation-mechanism
#3
Gaurav D Sankhe, Narendra M Dixit, Deepak K Saini
Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) are central to bacterial adaptation. However, the mechanisms underlying the reactions involving TCS proteins and their reaction rates are largely undetermined. Here, we employed a combined experimental and theoretical approach to elucidate the kinetics of autophosphorylation of three histidine kinases (HKs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , viz. , MtrB, PrrB, and PhoR, all known to play a role in regulating its virulence. Using wild-type and mutant proteins, we performed dimerization assays, thermophoretic-affinity measurements, and competition-based phosphorylation assays to establish that for HK, MtrB autophosphorylation occurs in cis , similar to what has been proposed for the PhoR and PrrB HKs...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769378/food-starch-structure-impacts-gut-microbiome-composition
#4
Frederick J Warren, Naoki M Fukuma, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Bernadine M Flanagan, Barbara A Williams, Allan T Lisle, Páraic Ó Cuív, Mark Morrison, Michael J Gidley
Starch is a major source of energy in the human diet and is consumed in diverse forms. Resistant starch (RS) escapes small intestinal digestion and is fermented in the colon by the resident microbiota, with beneficial impacts on colonic function and host health, but the impacts of the micro- and nanoscale structure of different physical forms of food starch on the broader microbial community have not been described previously. Here, we use a porcine in vitro fermentation model to establish that starch structure dramatically impacts microbiome composition, including the key amylolytic species, and markedly alters both digestion kinetics and fermentation outcomes...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769377/-ex-vivo-cytokine-release-determined-by-a-multiplex-cytokine-assay-in-response-to-coccidioidal-antigen-stimulation-of-whole-blood-among-subjects-with-recently-diagnosed-primary-pulmonary-coccidioidomycosis
#5
Neil M Ampel, Ian Robey, Chinh T Nguyen, Brentin Roller, Jessica August, Kenneth S Knox, Demosthenes Pappagianis
The elements of the cellular immune response in human coccidioidomycosis remain undefined. We examined the ex vivo release of an array of inflammatory proteins in response to incubation with a coccidioidal antigen preparation to ascertain which of these might be associated with diagnosis and outcome. Patients with a recent diagnosis of primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis and a control group of healthy subjects were studied. Blood samples were incubated for 18 h with T27K, a soluble coccidioidal preparation containing multiple glycosylated antigens, and the supernatant was assayed for inflammatory proteins using the multiplex Luminex system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769376/-lactobacillus-mucosal-vaccine-vectors-immune-responses-against-bacterial-and-viral-antigens
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan S LeCureux, Gregg A Dean
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been utilized since the 1990s for therapeutic heterologous gene expression. The ability of LAB to elicit an immune response against expressed foreign antigens has led to their exploration as potential mucosal vaccine candidates. LAB vaccine vectors offer many attractive advantages: simple, noninvasive administration (usually oral or intranasal), the acceptance and stability of genetic modifications, relatively low cost, and the highest level of safety possible. Experimentation using LAB of the genus Lactobacillus has become popular in recent years due to their ability to elicit strong systemic and mucosal immune responses...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743202/macrophages-and-dendritic-cells-are-the-predominant-cells-infected-in-measles-in-humans
#7
Ingrid V Allen, Stephen McQuaid, Rosana Penalva, Martin Ludlow, W Paul Duprex, Bertus K Rima
Characterization of human measles cases is essential in order to better assess the data generated in model systems of morbillivirus infection. To this end, we collected formalin-fixed tissue samples from 23 natural measles cases from different areas in the world and different phases of disease ranging from prodromal and acute measles to a persistent infection in an immunocompromised subject. We show that the vast majority of measles virus (MV)-infected cells in epithelia were intraepithelial immune cells that were, in most cases, positive for the CD11c myeloid cell marker...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743201/what-is-the-role-of-archaea-in-plants-new-insights-from-the-vegetation-of-alpine-bogs
#8
Julian Taffner, Armin Erlacher, Anastasia Bragina, Christian Berg, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Gabriele Berg
The Archaea represent a significant component of the plant microbiome, whereas their function is still unclear. Different plant species representing the natural vegetation of alpine bogs harbor a substantial archaeal community originating from five phyla, 60 genera, and 334 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). We identified a core archaeome for all bog plants and ecosystem-specific, so far unclassified Archaea In the metagenomic data set, Archaea were found to have the potential to interact with plants by (i) possible plant growth promotion through auxin biosynthesis, (ii) nutrient supply, and (iii) protection against abiotic (especially oxidative and osmotic) stress...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743200/experimental-evolution-as-a-high-throughput-screen-for-genetic-adaptations
#9
Vaughn S Cooper
Experimental evolution is a method in which populations of organisms, often microbes, are founded by one or more ancestors of known genotype and then propagated under controlled conditions to study the evolutionary process. These evolving populations are influenced by all population genetic forces, including selection, mutation, drift, and recombination, and the relative contributions of these forces may be seen as mysterious. Here, I describe why the outcomes of experimental evolution should be viewed with greater certainty because the force of selection typically dominates...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743199/evaluation-of-dried-blood-spots-and-oral-fluids-as-alternatives-to-serum-for-human-papillomavirus-antibody-surveillance
#10
Karly S Louie, Jama Dalel, Caroline Reuter, Sara L Bissett, Michelle Kleeman, Lesley Ashdown-Barr, Rawinder Banwait, Anna Godi, Peter Sasieni, Simon Beddows
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination elicits high-titer genotype-specific antibody responses that are associated with a reduced risk of cervical disease caused by vaccine-incorporated genotypes. Our objective was to evaluate dried blood spots (DBSs) and oral mucosal transudate (OMT) as alternative samples to serum to confirm HPV vaccine antibody status. A study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of detecting HPV16 and HPV18 antibodies in OMT, DBSs, and sera among women who self-reported being unvaccinated or fully vaccinated with the HPV vaccine...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720529/in-defense-of-an-academic-career-in-microbiology
#11
Patrick D Schloss
The rise of Quit Lit describing the myriad reasons for leaving academia and constant complaining by mentors leave many trainees with little desire for an academic career. Although there are clearly structural and social problems in academia, I feel that they are outweighed by the benefits of working and living in an academic environment. Every academic values different things about their job, and here I outline the factors that keep me in academia. To make sure that our best scientists are not scared away from academia, we must provide balance to the negativity that regularly surrounds discussions of careers in academia...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720528/invasive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-usa500-strains-from-the-u-s-emerging-infections-program-constitute-three-geographically-distinct-lineages
#12
M B Frisch, S Castillo-Ramírez, R A Petit, M M Farley, S M Ray, V S Albrecht, B M Limbago, J Hernandez, I See, S W Satola, T D Read
USA500 isolates are clonal complex 8 (CC8) Staphylococcus aureus strains closely related to the prominent community- and hospital-associated USA300 group. Despite being relatively understudied, USA500 strains cause a significant burden of disease and are the third most common methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains identified in the U.S. Emerging Infections Program (EIP) invasive S. aureus surveillance. To better understand the genetic relationships of the strains, we sequenced the genomes of 539 USA500 MRSA isolates from sterile site infections collected through the EIP between 2005 and 2013 in the United States...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720527/improved-subtyping-of-staphylococcus-aureus-clonal-complex-8-strains-based-on-whole-genome-phylogenetic-analysis
#13
Jolene R Bowers, Elizabeth M Driebe, Valerie Albrecht, Linda K McDougal, Mitchell Granade, Chandler C Roe, Darrin Lemmer, J Kamile Rasheed, David M Engelthaler, Paul Keim, Brandi M Limbago
Strains of Staphylococcus aureus in clonal complex 8 (CC8), including USA300, USA500, and the Iberian clone, are prevalent pathogens in the United States, both inside and outside health care settings. Methods for typing CC8 strains are becoming obsolete as the strains evolve and diversify, and whole-genome sequencing has shown that some strain types fall into multiple sublineages within CC8. In this study, we attempt to clarify the strain nomenclature of CC8, classifying the major strain types based on whole-genome sequence phylogenetics using both methicillin-resistant S...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720526/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-protease-iv-exacerbates-pneumococcal-pneumonia-and-systemic-disease
#14
Jessica L Bradshaw, Armando R Caballero, Michael A Bierdeman, Kristen V Adams, Haley R Pipkins, Aihua Tang, Richard J O'Callaghan, Larry S McDaniel
Pneumonia is a pulmonary disease affecting people of all ages and is consistently a leading cause of childhood mortality and adult hospitalizations. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major lung pathogens commonly associated with community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Additionally, mixed lung infections involving these bacterial pathogens are increasing in prevalence and are frequently more severe than single infections. The cooperative interactions of these two pathogens that impact pulmonary disease severity are understudied...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720525/antibodies-to-the-glycoprotein-gp2-subunit-cross-react-between-old-and-new-world-arenaviruses
#15
Fatima Amanat, James Duehr, Lisa Oestereich, Kathryn M Hastie, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Florian Krammer
Arenaviruses pose a major public health threat and cause numerous infections in humans each year. Although most viruses belonging to this family do not cause disease in humans, some arenaviruses, such as Lassa virus and Machupo virus, are the etiological agents of lethal hemorrhagic fevers. The absence of a currently licensed vaccine and the highly pathogenic nature of these viruses both make the necessity of developing viable vaccines and therapeutics all the more urgent. Arenaviruses have a single glycoprotein on the surface of virions, the glycoprotein complex (GPC), and this protein can be used as a target for vaccine development...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720524/high-rate-of-infection-by-only-oncogenic-human-papillomavirus-in-amerindians
#16
Daniela Vargas-Robles, Magda Magris, Natalia Morales, Maurits N C de Koning, Iveth Rodríguez, Tahidid Nieves, Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Gloria I Sánchez, Luis David Alcaraz, Larry J Forney, María-Eglée Pérez, Luis García-Briceño, Leen-Jan van Doorn, María Gloria Domínguez-Bello
Human papillomavirus (HPV), an etiological agent of cervical cancer (CC), has infected humans since ancient times. Amerindians are the furthest migrants out of Africa, and they reached the Americas more than 14,000 years ago. Some groups still remain isolated, and some migrate to towns, forming a gradient spanning urbanization. We hypothesized that, by virtue of their history, lifestyle, and isolation from the global society, remote Amerindian women have lower HPV diversity than do urban women (Amerindian or mestizo)...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720523/conservation-of-mannan-synthesis-in-fungi-of-the-zygomycota-and-ascomycota-reveals-a-broad-diagnostic-target
#17
Amanda R Burnham-Marusich, Breeana Hubbard, Alexander J Kvam, Marcellene Gates-Hollingsworth, Heather R Green, Eric Soukup, Andrew H Limper, Thomas R Kozel
Ascomycetes and zygomycetes account for the majority of (i) fungi responsible for cutaneous, subcutaneous, and invasive human fungal infections, (ii) plant fungal pathogens, (iii) fungi that threaten global biodiversity, (iv) fungal agents of agricultural spoilage, and (v) fungi in water-damaged buildings. Rapid recognition of fungal infection (or contamination) enables early treatment (or remediation). A bioinformatics search found homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mnn9p present in members of the Zygomycota and Ascomycota phyla and absent in members of the Chytridiomycota and Basidiomycota...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695627/reply-to-jobling-ectopic-expression-of-the-ydas-and-ydat-genes-of-the-cryptic-prophage-rac-of-escherichia-coli-k-12-may-be-toxic-but-do-they-really-encode-toxins-a-case-for-using-genetic-context-to-understand-function
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695626/rapid-gene-concatenation-for-genetic-rescue-of-multigene-mutants-in-candida-albicans
#19
Manning Y Huang, Carol A Woolford, Aaron P Mitchell
The biological function of a gene is often probed through its interactions with other genes. This general approach has been especially useful to build knowledge about poorly understood genes upon the bedrock of well-characterized genes. Genetic interaction analysis requires the construction of strains with mutations in two or more genes. Single-gene mutants of microbial pathogens are generally validated through introduction of a wild-type copy of the affected gene to create a complemented or reconstituted strain, followed by testing for restoration of a wild-type phenotype...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695625/ectopic-expression-of-the-ydas-and-ydat-genes-of-the-cryptic-prophage-rac-of-escherichia-coli-k-12-may-be-toxic-but-do-they-really-encode-toxins-a-case-for-using-genetic-context-to-understand-function
#20
LETTER
journal
journal
52743
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"