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Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083566/within-and-between-session-changes-in-neural-activity-during-emotion-processing-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#1
Jay C Fournier, Henry W Chase, Jorge Almeida, Mary L Phillips
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar depression (UD) can be difficult to distinguish clinically, particularly during episodes of depression. In this study we test for differences between BD, UD, and healthy control (HC) adults regarding within- and between-session changes in BOLD response during implicit emotional processing. METHODS: During fMRI, HC adults (N=19) and depressed adults with UD (N=19) and BD (N=16) performed an implicit emotion-processing task...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990494/relationships-between-altered-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-activation-and-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-euthymic-bipolar-i-disorder
#2
Shantanu H Joshi, Nathalie Vizueta, Lara Foland-Ross, Jennifer D Townsend, Susan Y Bookheimer, Paul M Thompson, Katherine L Narr, Lori L Altshuler
BACKGROUND: Performance during cognitive control functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks are associated with frontal lobe hypoactivation in patients with bipolar disorder, even while euthymic. Here, we study the structural underpinnings for this functional abnormality simultaneously with brain activation data. METHODS: In a sample of ninety adults (45 with inter-episode Bipolar I disorder and 45 healthy controls), we explored whether abnormal functional activation patterns in bipolar euthymic subjects during a Go-NoGo fMRI task are associated with regional deficits in cortical gray matter thickness in the same regions...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840854/modifiable-arousal-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-its-etiological-association-with-fluctuating-reaction-times
#3
Sarah-Naomi James, Celeste H M Cheung, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Philip Asherson, Jonna Kuntsi
BACKGROUND: Cognitive theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that high within-subject fluctuations of cognitive performance in ADHD, particularly reaction time (RT) variability (RTV), may reflect arousal dysregulation. However, direct evidence of arousal dysregulation and how it may account for fluctuating RTs in ADHD is limited. We used skin conductance (SC) as a measure of peripheral arousal and aimed to investigate its phenotypic and familial association with RTV in a large sample of ADHD and control sibling pairs...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833940/cingulo-opercular-network-efficiency-mediates-the-association-between-psychotic-like-experiences-and-cognitive-ability-in-the-general-population
#4
Julia M Sheffield, Sridhar Kandala, Gregory C Burgess, Michael P Harms, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Psychosis is hypothesized to occur on a spectrum between psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. In the middle of the spectrum are individuals who endorse psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) that may not impact daily functioning or cause distress. Individuals with PLEs show alterations in both cognitive ability and functional connectivity of several brain networks, but the relationship between PLEs, cognition, and functional networks remains poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed resting-state fMRI data, a range of neuropsychological tasks, and questions from the Achenbach Adult Self Report (ASR) in 468 individuals from the Human Connectome Project...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018986/a-roadmap-for-the-development-of-applied-computational-psychiatry
#5
Martin P Paulus, Quentin J M Huys, Tiago V Maia
BACKGROUND: Computational psychiatry is a burgeoning field that utilizes mathematical approaches to investigate psychiatric disorders, derive quantitative predictions, and integrate data across multiple levels of description. Computational psychiatry has already led to many new insights into the neurobehavioral mechanisms that underlie several psychiatric disorders, but its usefulness from a clinical standpoint is only now starting to be considered. METHODS: Examples of computational psychiatry are highlighted, and a phase-based pipeline for the development of clinical computational-psychiatry applications is proposed, similar to the phase-based pipeline used in drug development...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833939/probabilistic-reinforcement-learning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-relationships-to-anhedonia-and-avolition
#6
Erin C Dowd, Michael J Frank, Anne Collins, James M Gold, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia (a reduced experience of pleasure) and avolition (a reduction in goal-directed activity) are common features of schizophrenia that have substantial effects on functional outcome, but are poorly understood and treated. Here, we examined whether alterations in reinforcement learning may contribute to these symptoms in schizophrenia by impairing the translation of reward information into goal-directed action. METHODS: 38 stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 37 healthy controls underwent fMRI during a probabilistic stimulus selection reinforcement learning task with dissociated choice- and feedback-related activation, followed by a behavioral transfer task allowing separate assessment of learning from positive versus negative outcomes...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642641/beyond-lumping-and-splitting-a-review-of-computational-approaches-for-stratifying-psychiatric-disorders
#7
Andre F Marquand, Thomas Wolfers, Maarten Mennes, Jan Buitelaar, Christian F Beckmann
Heterogeneity is a key feature of all psychiatric disorders that manifests on many levels, including symptoms, disease course, and biological underpinnings. These form a substantial barrier to understanding disease mechanisms and developing effective, personalized treatments. In response, many studies have aimed to stratify psychiatric disorders, aiming to find more consistent subgroups on the basis of many types of data. Such approaches have received renewed interest after recent research initiatives, such as the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria and the European Roadmap for Mental Health Research, both of which emphasize finding stratifications that are based on biological systems and that cut across current classifications...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812554/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-coincide-with-altered-striatal-connectivity
#8
Marianne Oldehinkel, Christian F Beckmann, Raimon H R Pruim, Erik S B van Oort, Barbara Franke, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
BACKGROUND: Cortico-striatal network dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally investigated by comparing functional connectivity of the main striatal sub-regions (i.e., putamen, caudate, and nucleus accumbens) between an ADHD and a control group. However, dimensional analyses based on continuous symptom measures might help to parse the high phenotypic heterogeneity in ADHD. Here, we focus on functional segregation of regions in the striatum and investigate cortico-striatal networks using both categorical and dimensional measures of ADHD...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725969/enhanced-prefrontal-amygdala-connectivity-following-childhood-adversity-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-internalizing-in-adolescence
#9
Ryan J Herringa, Cory A Burghy, Diane E Stodola, Michelle E Fox, Richard J Davidson, Marilyn J Essex
BACKGROUND: Much research has focused on the deleterious neurobiological effects of childhood adversity that may underlie internalizing disorders. While most youth show emotional adaptation following adversity, the corresponding neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. METHODS: In this longitudinal community study, we examined the associations among childhood family adversity, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and their interaction on regional brain activation and amygdala/hippocampus functional connectivity during emotion processing in 132 adolescents...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722208/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-monetary-delay-discounting-a-meta-analysis-of-case-control-studies
#10
Jacob N S Jackson, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have investigated delay discounting, a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, and its relevance to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but with mixed findings. The current meta-analysis synthesizes the literature on the relationship between monetary delay discounting and ADHD in studies using case-control designs. Specifically, the objectives were: 1) to characterize the aggregated differences in monetary delay discounting between individuals with ADHD (cases) and controls in studies using categorical case-control designs; 2) to examine potential differences based on sample age (<18 vs...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525316/altered-development-of-amygdala-anterior-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-in-anxious-youth-and-young-adults
#11
Autumn Kujawa, Minjie Wu, Heide Klumpp, Daniel S Pine, James E Swain, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Development of cortico-amygdala circuitry underlies the maturation of emotion processing and regulation, and age-related changes in amygdala connectivity with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have been shown to mediate normative developmental decreases in anxiety. It remains unclear whether developmental changes in this circuitry relate to pathological anxiety in youth. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study addresses this question by examining amygdala functional connectivity in anxious and healthy individuals spanning the developmental period from childhood through adulthood...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430030/default-mode-hypoconnectivity-underlies-a-sex-related-autism-spectrum
#12
Rolf J F Ypma, Rachel L Moseley, Rosemary J Holt, Naresh Rughooputh, Dorothea L Floris, Lindsay R Chura, Michael D Spencer, Simon Baron-Cohen, John Suckling, Edward T Bullmore, Mikail Rubinov
BACKGROUND: Females and males differ significantly in the prevalence and presentation of autism spectrum conditions. One theory of this effect postulates that autistic traits lie on a sex-related continuum in the general population, and autism represents the extreme male end of this spectrum. This theory predicts that any feature of autism in males should 1) be present in autistic females, 2) differentiate between the sexes in the typical population, and 3) correlate with autistic traits...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083565/the-disrupted-connectivity-hypothesis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-time-for-the-next-phase-in-research
#13
Roma A Vasa, Stewart H Mostofsky, Joshua B Ewen
During the past decade, the disrupted connectivity theory has generated considerable interest as a pathophysiological model for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This theory postulates that deficiencies in the way the brain coordinates and synchronizes activity amongst different regions may account for the clinical symptoms of ASD. This review critically examines the current structural and functional connectivity data in ASD and evaluates unresolved assumptions and gaps in knowledge that limit the interpretation of these data...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713929/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-science-in-development
#14
F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453953/elucidating-neural-network-functional-connectivity-abnormalities-in-bipolar-disorder-toward-a-harmonized-methodological-approach
#15
Henry W Chase, Mary L Phillips
Bipolar disorder (BD), a mood disorder characterized by emotional lability and dysregulation, is associated with alterations in functional connectivity, particularly as assessed using functional MRI. Here, we provide an overview of the extant literature, and themes that have emerged within it. We identified published research describing functional connectivity in BD using PubMed and follow-up searches. The most consistent evidence favors abnormally heightened functional connectivity between the amygdala and the lateral regions of the ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC), both during rest or emotional processing...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453952/diffusion-imaging-of-white-matter-in-schizophrenia-progress-and-future-directions
#16
Katherine H Karlsgodt
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful tool for the in-vivo assessment of white matter microstructure. The application of DTI methodologies to the study of schizophrenia has supported and advanced the hypothesis of schizophrenia as a disorder of disrupted connectivity. In the context of impaired structural connectivity, the extended time frame of white matter development may offer unique opportunities for treatment that can capitalize on the neural flexibility that is still present in the period leading up to and after disease onset...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430029/brain-structural-connectivity-in-late-life-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Stephen F Smagula, Howard J Aizenstein
Disrupted brain connectivity might explain both the pathogenesis and consequences of late-life major depressive disorder (LLD). However, it remains difficult to ascertain whether and how specific circuits are affected. We reviewed literature regarding brain connectivity in LLD, and we specifically focused on the role of structural pathology. LLD is associated with greater levels of cerebrovascular disease, and greater levels of cerebrovascular disease are associated with both depression development and treatment responsiveness...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347565/multimodal-fusion-of-brain-imaging-data-a-key-to-finding-the-missing-link-s-in-complex-mental-illness
#18
Vince D Calhoun, Jing Sui
It is becoming increasingly clear that combining multi-modal brain imaging data is able to provide more information for individual subjects by exploiting the rich multimodal information that exists. However, the number of studies that do true multimodal fusion (i.e. capitalizing on joint information among modalities) is still remarkably small given the known benefits. In part, this is because multi-modal studies require broader expertise in collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the results than do unimodal studies...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141532/aberrant-spontaneous-and-task-dependent-functional-connections-in-the-anxious-brain
#19
Annmarie MacNamara, Julia DiGangi, K Luan Phan
A number of brain regions have been implicated in the anxiety disorders, yet none of these regions in isolation has been distinguished as the sole or discrete site responsible for anxiety disorder pathology. Therefore, the identification of dysfunctional neural networks as represented by alterations in the temporal correlation of blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal across several brain regions in anxiety disorders has been increasingly pursued in the past decade. Here, we review task-independent (e.g...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231722/antimanic-treatment-with-tamoxifen-affects-brain-chemistry-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#20
Ayşegül Yildiz, Burç Aydin, Necati Gökmen, Ayşegül Yurt, Bruce Cohen, Pembe Keskinoglu, Dost Öngür, Perry Renshaw
BACKGROUND: The antimanic efficacy of a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, tamoxifen, has been tested in several clinical trials, all reporting positive results. However, mechanisms underlying the observed clinical effects requires further confirmation through studies of biological markers. METHODS: We investigated the effect of tamoxifen versus placebo on brain metabolites via a proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study. Forty-eight adult bipolar I manic patients (mean Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score of 37...
March 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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