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Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115499/selective-prefrontal-disinhibition-in-a-roving-auditory-oddball-paradigm-under-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-blockade
#1
Richard E Rosch, Ryszard Auksztulewicz, Pui Duen Leung, Karl J Friston, Torsten Baldeweg
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs)-as implicated in patients with schizophrenia-can cause regionally specific electrophysiological effects. Both animal models of NMDAR blockade and clinical studies in patients with schizophrenia have suggested that behavioral phenotypes are associated with reduction in inhibition within the frontal cortex. METHODS: Here we investigate event-related potentials to a roving auditory oddball paradigm under ketamine in healthy human volunteers (N= 18; double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design)...
August 13, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197049/association-of-whole-genome-and-netrin1-signaling-pathway-derived-polygenic-risk-scores-for-major-depressive-disorder-and-white-matter-microstructure-in-the-uk-biobank
#2
Miruna C Barbu, Yanni Zeng, Xueyi Shen, Simon R Cox, Toni-Kim Clarke, Jude Gibson, Mark J Adams, Mandy Johnstone, Chris S Haley, Stephen M Lawrie, Ian J Deary, Andrew M McIntosh, Heather C Whalley
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is a clinically heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a polygenic architecture. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of risk-associated variants across the genome and have reported growing evidence of NETRIN1 pathway involvement. Stratifying disease risk by genetic variation within the NETRIN1 pathway may provide important routes for identification of disease mechanisms by focusing on a specific process, excluding heterogeneous risk-associated variation in other pathways...
July 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143454/neural-correlates-of-compulsive-alcohol-seeking-in-heavy-drinkers
#3
Erica N Grodin, Lauren Sussman, Kelsey Sundby, Grace M Brennan, Nancy Diazgranados, Markus Heilig, Reza Momenan
BACKGROUND: Compulsive alcohol use, the tendency to continue alcohol seeking and taking despite negative consequences, is a hallmark of alcohol use disorder. Preclinical rodent studies have suggested a role for the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, and nucleus accumbens in compulsive alcohol seeking. It is presently unknown whether these findings translate to humans. We used a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm and tested the hypothesis that heavy drinkers would compulsively seek alcohol despite the risk of an aversive consequence, and that this behavior would be associated with the activity of frontostriatal circuitry...
July 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197048/controversies-in-computerized-cognitive-training
#4
REVIEW
Philip D Harvey, Susan R McGurk, Henry Mahncke, Til Wykes
Computerized cognitive training (CCT) to improve cognitive functioning is of enormous interest and has been applied in a broad range of populations with goals of improving both cognition and community functioning. Recent reviews presenting negative conclusions about CCT efficacy have inconsistent definitions of the treatment targets and cognitive improvement. They do not present an accurate representation of the typical process of CCT and cognitive remediation (CR), especially as delivered in major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia...
July 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093343/accelerated-and-premature-aging-characterizing-regional-cortical-volume-loss-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-contributions-from-alcohol-substance-use-and-hepatitis-c-coinfection
#5
Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr, Stephanie A Sassoon, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Edith V Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy of successfully treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is approaching normal longevity. The growing HIV population ≥50 years of age is now at risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, acquiring coinfection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and engaging in hazardous drinking or drug consumption that can adversely affect trajectories of the healthy aging of brain structures. METHODS: This cross-sectional/longitudinal study quantified regional brain volumes from 1101 magnetic resonance imaging scans collected over 14 years in 549 participants (25 to 75 years of age): 68 HIV-infected individuals without alcohol dependence, 60 HIV-infected individuals with alcohol dependence, 222 alcohol-dependent individuals, and 199 control subjects...
July 4, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093342/resting-state-connectivity-and-its-association-with-cognitive-performance-educational-attainment-and-household-income-in-the-uk-biobank
#6
Xueyi Shen, Simon R Cox, Mark J Adams, David M Howard, Stephen M Lawrie, Stuart J Ritchie, Mark E Bastin, Ian J Deary, Andrew M McIntosh, Heather C Whalley
BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability is an important predictor of lifelong physical and mental well-being, and impairments are associated with many psychiatric disorders. Higher cognitive ability is also associated with greater educational attainment and increased household income. Understanding neural mechanisms underlying cognitive ability is of crucial importance for determining the nature of these associations. In the current study, we examined the spontaneous activity of the brain at rest to investigate its relationships with not only cognitive ability but also educational attainment and household income...
July 4, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077576/identification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-networks-constructed-based-on-multiple-morphological-brain-features
#7
Weihao Zheng, Zhijun Yao, Yuanwei Xie, Jin Fan, Bin Hu
Structural brain markers are important for characterizing the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we constructed a multifeature-based network (MFN) for each individual using a sparse linear regression performed on six types of morphological features to promote the structure-based autodiagnosis. The categorization performance of the MFN was evaluated in 165 normal control subjects, 221 patients with MCI, and 142 patients with AD. We achieved 96.42% and 96.37% accuracy, respectively, in distinguishing the patients with AD and MCI from the normal control subjects, and reasonable discrimination of the two disease cohorts (70...
June 28, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064848/classification-accuracy-of-neuroimaging-biomarkers-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-effects-of-sample-size-and-circular-analysis
#8
Alfredo A Pulini, Wesley T Kerr, Sandra K Loo, Agatha Lenartowicz
BACKGROUND: Motivated by an inconsistency between reports of high diagnosis-classification accuracies and known heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study assessed classification accuracy in studies of ADHD as a function of methodological factors that can bias results. We hypothesized that high classification results in ADHD diagnosis are inflated by methodological factors. METHODS: We reviewed 69 studies (of 95 studies identified) that used neuroimaging features to predict ADHD diagnosis...
June 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170711/models-of-network-spread-and-network-degeneration-in-brain-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Ashish Raj, Fon Powell
Network analysis can provide insight into key organizational principles of brain structure and help identify structural changes associated with brain disease. Though static differences between diseased and healthy networks are well characterized, the study of network dynamics, or how brain networks change over time, is increasingly central to understanding ongoing brain changes throughout disease. Accordingly, we present a short review of network models of spread, network dynamics, and network degeneration...
September 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170710/computational-approaches-to-understanding-mental-dysfunction-progress-challenges-and-new-frontiers
#10
Alex Fornito, Andrew Zalesky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093344/biophysical-modeling-of-large-scale-brain-dynamics-and-applications-for-computational-psychiatry
#11
REVIEW
John D Murray, Murat Demirtaş, Alan Anticevic
Noninvasive neuroimaging has revolutionized the study of the organization of the human brain and how its structure and function are altered in psychiatric disorders. A critical explanatory gap lies in our mechanistic understanding of how systems-level neuroimaging biomarkers emerge from underlying synaptic-level perturbations associated with a disease state. We describe an emerging computational psychiatry approach leveraging biophysically based computational models of large-scale brain dynamics and their potential integration with clinical and pharmacological neuroimaging...
September 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082215/active-inference-in-openai-gym-a-paradigm-for-computational-investigations-into-psychiatric-illness
#12
Maell Cullen, Ben Davey, Karl J Friston, Rosalyn J Moran
BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence has recently attained humanlike performance in a number of gamelike domains. These advances have been spurred by brain-inspired architectures and algorithms such as hierarchical filtering and reinforcement learning. OpenAI Gym is an open-source platform in which to train, test, and benchmark algorithms-it provides a range of tasks, including those of classic arcade games such as Doom. Here we describe how the platform might be used as a simulation, test, and diagnostic paradigm for psychiatric conditions...
September 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789268/making-individual-prognoses-in-psychiatry-using-neuroimaging-and-machine-learning
#13
REVIEW
Ronald J Janssen, Janaina Mourão-Miranda, Hugo G Schnack
Psychiatric prognosis is a difficult problem. Making a prognosis requires looking far into the future, as opposed to making a diagnosis, which is concerned with the current state. During the follow-up period, many factors will influence the course of the disease. Combined with the usually scarcer longitudinal data and the variability in the definition of outcomes/transition, this makes prognostic predictions a challenging endeavor. Employing neuroimaging data in this endeavor introduces the additional hurdle of high dimensionality...
September 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779726/multimodal-connectomics-in-psychiatry-bridging-scales-from-micro-to-macro
#14
REVIEW
Lianne H Scholtens, Martijn P van den Heuvel
The human brain is a highly complex system, with a large variety of microscale cellular morphologies and macroscale global properties. Working at multiple scales, it forms an efficient system for processing and integration of multimodal information. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between modalities of both microscales and macroscales of brain organization. These consistent observations point toward potential common organization principles where regions with a microscale architecture supportive of a larger computational load have more and stronger connections in the brain network on the macroscale...
September 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729890/understanding-the-emergence-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-with-network-neuroscience
#15
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Major neuropsychiatric disorders such as psychosis are increasingly acknowledged to be disorders of brain connectivity. Yet tools to map, model, predict, and change connectivity are difficult to develop, largely because of the complex, dynamic, and multivariate nature of interactions between brain regions. Network neuroscience (NN) provides a theoretical framework and mathematical toolset to address these difficulties. Building on areas of mathematics such as graph theory, NN in its simplest form summarizes neuroimaging data by treating brain regions as nodes in a graph and by treating interactions or connections between nodes as edges in the graph...
September 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703679/a-network-neuroscience-approach-to-typical-and-atypical-brain-development
#16
REVIEW
Sarah E Morgan, Simon R White, Edward T Bullmore, Petra E Vértes
Human brain networks based on neuroimaging data have already proven useful in characterizing both normal and abnormal brain structure and function. However, many brain disorders are neurodevelopmental in origin, highlighting the need to go beyond characterizing brain organization in terms of static networks. Here, we review the fast-growing literature shedding light on developmental changes in network phenotypes. We begin with an overview of recent large-scale efforts to map healthy brain development, and we describe the key role played by longitudinal data including repeated measurements over a long period of follow-up...
September 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571586/personalized-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-psychiatry
#17
REVIEW
Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that allows for modulating the activity of local neural populations and related neural networks. TMS is touted as a viable intervention to normalize brain activity and alleviate some psychiatric symptoms. However, TMS interventions are known to be only moderately reliable, and the efficacy of such therapies remains to be proven for psychiatric disorders other than depression. We review new opportunities to personalize TMS interventions using neuroimaging and computational modeling, aiming to optimize treatment to suit particular individuals and clinical subgroups...
September 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092917/functional-neuroimaging-evidence-for-distinct-neurobiological-pathways-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Michael C Stevens, Godfrey D Pearlson, Vince D Calhoun, Katie L Bessette
BACKGROUND: A challenge facing clinical neuroscientists is how best to synthesize diverse and sometimes inconsistent evidence for neuropsychological deficits and brain system dysfunction found in psychiatric disorders into models that guide etiological and treatment research. Multiple-pathway models suggest that psychiatric symptoms might arise from pathophysiology in different neural systems. This study tested dual-pathway model predictions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that reward and executive function cognitive deficits should be related to abnormalities in corresponding functionally specialized neural systems...
August 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092916/atypicality-of-the-n170-event-related-potential-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#19
Erin Kang, Cara M Keifer, Emily J Levy, Jennifer H Foss-Feig, James C McPartland, Matthew D Lerner
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with impaired face processing. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) has been considered a promising neural marker of this impairment. However, no quantitative review to date has integrated the literature to assess whether the N170 response to faces in individuals with ASD differs from that of typically developing (TD) individuals. METHODS: This meta-analysis examined the corpus of literature investigating difference in N170 response to faces in individuals with ASD and without ASD...
August 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092915/parsing-cannabis-exposure-and-predisposing-risk-effects-does-adolescent-cannabis-use-cause-neurocognitive-impairment-or-result-from-it
#20
Joseph P Schacht
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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