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Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779726/multimodal-connectomics-in-psychiatry-bridging-scales-from-micro-to-macro
#1
REVIEW
Lianne H Scholtens, Martijn P van den Heuvel
The human brain is a highly complex system, with a large variety of microscale cellular morphologies and macroscale global properties. Working at multiple scales, it forms an efficient system for processing and integration of multimodal information. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between modalities of both microscales and macroscales of brain organization. These consistent observations point toward potential common organization principles where regions with a microscale architecture supportive of a larger computational load have more and stronger connections in the brain network on the macroscale...
April 19, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759821/using-multilevel-modeling-to-examine-blunted-neural-responses-to-reward-in-major-depression
#2
Christopher J Brush, Peter J Ehmann, Greg Hajcak, Edward A Selby, Brandon L Alderman
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a pernicious disorder characterized by deficits in reward processing. A better understanding of these deficits may help to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology and guide treatment development. METHODS: This study assessed reward positivity and feedback negativity event-related potentials and their difference scores elicited in response to monetary gains and losses among 100 young adults (52 with MDD). Multilevel modeling was used to assess individual- and trial-level change in neural responses over time...
April 17, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752216/primary-and-secondary-variants-of-psychopathy-in-a-volunteer-sample-are-associated-with-different-neurocognitive-mechanisms
#3
Arjun Sethi, Eamon McCrory, Vanessa Puetz, Ferdinand Hoffmann, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri, Essi Viding
BACKGROUND: Recent work has indicated that there at least two distinct subtypes of psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by low anxiety and thought to result from a genetic predisposition, whereas secondary psychopathy is characterized by high anxiety and thought to develop in response to environmental adversity. Primary psychopathy is robustly associated with reduced neural activation to others' emotions and, in particular, distress. However, it has been proposed that the secondary presentation has different neurocognitive correlates...
April 12, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#4
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729890/understanding-the-emergence-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-with-network-neuroscience
#5
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Major neuropsychiatric disorders such as psychosis are increasingly acknowledged to be disorders of brain connectivity. Yet tools to map, model, predict, and change connectivity are difficult to develop, largely because of the complex, dynamic, and multivariate nature of interactions between brain regions. Network neuroscience (NN) provides a theoretical framework and mathematical toolset to address these difficulties. Building on areas of mathematics such as graph theory, NN in its simplest form summarizes neuroimaging data by treating brain regions as nodes in a graph and by treating interactions or connections between nodes as edges in the graph...
April 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735404/impaired-expected-value-computations-coupled-with-overreliance-on-stimulus-response-learning-in-schizophrenia
#6
Dennis Hernaus, James M Gold, James A Waltz, Michael J Frank
BACKGROUND: While many have emphasized impaired reward prediction error signaling in schizophrenia, multiple studies suggest that some decision-making deficits may arise from overreliance on stimulus-response systems together with a compromised ability to represent expected value. Guided by computational frameworks, we formulated and tested two scenarios in which maladaptive representations of expected value should be most evident, thereby delineating conditions that may evoke decision-making impairments in schizophrenia...
April 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759822/multivariate-relationships-between-cognition-and-brain-anatomy-across-the-psychosis-spectrum
#7
Amanda L Rodrigue, Jennifer E McDowell, Neeraj Tandon, Matcheri S Keshavan, Carol A Tamminga, Godfrey D Pearlson, John A Sweeney, Robert D Gibbons, Brett A Clementz
BACKGROUND: Cognitive and structural brain abnormalities range from mild to severe in psychosis. The relation of specific cognitive functions to specific brain structures across the psychosis spectrum is less certain. METHODS: Participants (n = 678) with bipolar, schizoaffective, or schizophrenia psychoses and healthy control subjects were recruited via the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network for Intermediate Phenotypes. The Schizo-Bipolar Scale was used to create a psychosis continuum (from purely affective to purely nonaffective)...
March 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724684/the-neural-bases-of-interoceptive-encoding-and-recall-in-healthy-adults-and-adults-with-depression
#8
Danielle C DeVille, Kara L Kerr, Jason A Avery, Kaiping Burrows, Jerzy Bodurka, Justin Feinstein, Sahib S Khalsa, Martin P Paulus, W Kyle Simmons
BACKGROUND: Theoretical models assert that the brain's interoceptive network links external stimuli with their interoceptive consequences, thereby supporting later recall of these associations to guide the selection of healthy behaviors. If these accounts are correct, previously reported interoceptive abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD) should lead to altered recall of associations between external stimuli and their interoceptive (somatic) consequences. To date, the processes underlying interoceptive recall have never been experimentally investigated...
March 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753591/emotion-regulation-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-unaffected-siblings-and-unrelated-healthy-control-participants
#9
Anders L Thorsen, Stella J de Wit, Froukje E de Vries, Danielle C Cath, Dick J Veltman, Ysbrand D van der Werf, David Mataix-Cols, Bjarne Hansen, Gerd Kvale, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging endophenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been suggested during executive tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether behavioral and neural responses during emotion processing and regulation also represent an endophenotype of OCD. METHODS: Forty-three unmedicated adult OCD patients, 19 of their unaffected siblings, and 38 healthy control participants underwent 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging during an emotion regulation task including neutral, fear-inducing, and OCD-related visual stimuli...
March 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706587/frontostriatal-dysfunction-during-decision-making-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current paper is to provide the first comparison of computational mechanisms and neurofunctional substrates in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during decision making under ambiguity. METHODS: Sixteen boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD, and 20 matched control subjects (12-18 years of age) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Iowa Gambling Task...
March 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681519/blunted-frontostriatal-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-predict-stimulant-and-marijuana-use
#11
Melanie A Blair, Jennifer L Stewart, April C May, Martina Reske, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Occasional recreational stimulant (amphetamine and cocaine) use is an important public health problem among young adults because 16% of those who experiment develop stimulant use disorder. This study aimed to determine whether behavioral and/or neural processing measures can forecast the transition from occasional to problematic stimulant use. METHODS: Occasional stimulant users completed a Risky Gains Task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and were followed up 3 years later...
March 21, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680475/a-link-between-childhood-adversity-and-trait-anger-reflects-relative-activity-of-the-amygdala-and-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#12
M Justin Kim, Matthew A Scult, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Tracy C d'Arbeloff, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
BACKGROUND: Trait anger, or the dispositional tendency to experience a wide range of situations as annoying or frustrating, is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The experience of adversity during childhood is one risk factor for the later emergence of high trait anger. This association has been hypothesized to reflect alterations in neural circuits supporting bottom-up threat processing and top-down executive control. METHODS: Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-report questionnaire data from 220 volunteers, we examined how individual differences in top-down prefrontal executive control and bottom-up amygdala threat activity modulate the association between childhood adversity and trait anger during young adulthood...
March 21, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571586/personalized-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-psychiatry
#13
REVIEW
Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that allows for modulating the activity of local neural populations and related neural networks. TMS is touted as a viable intervention to normalize brain activity and alleviate some psychiatric symptoms. However, TMS interventions are known to be only moderately reliable, and the efficacy of such therapies remains to be proven for psychiatric disorders other than depression. We review new opportunities to personalize TMS interventions using neuroimaging and computational modeling, aiming to optimize treatment to suit particular individuals and clinical subgroups...
March 20, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661516/lisdexamfetamine-targets-amygdala-mechanisms-that-bias-cognitive-control-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Kurt P Schulz, Beth Krone, Lenard A Adler, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Stephanie Duhoux, Juan Pedraza, Sanweda Mahagabin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal-limbic circuits that form the neural architecture for emotion to influence behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and represent a potentially important target of medication treatment that has not been substantively evaluated. This study tested the effect of the psychostimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on amygdala activation and connectivity during the emotional bias of response execution and inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703679/a-network-neuroscience-approach-to-typical-and-atypical-brain-development
#15
REVIEW
Sarah E Morgan, Simon R White, Edward T Bullmore, Petra E Vértes
Human brain networks based on neuroimaging data have already proven useful in characterizing both normal and abnormal brain structure and function. However, many brain disorders are neurodevelopmental in origin, highlighting the need to go beyond characterizing brain organization in terms of static networks. Here, we review the fast-growing literature shedding light on developmental changes in network phenotypes. We begin with an overview of recent large-scale efforts to map healthy brain development, and we describe the key role played by longitudinal data including repeated measurements over a long period of follow-up...
March 14, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680476/longitudinal-effects-of-alcohol-consumption-on-the-hippocampus-and-parahippocampus-in-college-students
#16
Shashwath A Meda, Keith A Hawkins, Alecia D Dager, Howard Tennen, Sabin Khadka, Carol S Austad, Rebecca M Wood, Sarah Raskin, Carolyn R Fallahi, Godfrey D Pearlson
BACKGROUND: The hazardous effects of alcohol consumption on both the hippocampus and memory have been well established. However, the longitudinal effects of ethanol on the developing brain and related consequences on memory are not well explored. Given the above, we investigated the longitudinal effects of college drinking on hippocampal volume in emerging college adults. METHODS: Data were derived from the longitudinal Brain and Alcohol Research with College Students study...
March 14, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656950/the-elicitation-of-relaxation-and-interoceptive-awareness-using-floatation-therapy-in-individuals-with-high-anxiety-sensitivity
#17
Justin S Feinstein, Sahib S Khalsa, Hung-Wen Yeh, Obada Al Zoubi, Armen C Arevian, Colleen Wohlrab, Marie K Pantino, Laci J Cartmell, W Kyle Simmons, Murray B Stein, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Floatation-REST (Reduced Environmental Stimulation Therapy), an intervention that attenuates exteroceptive sensory input to the nervous system, has recently been found to reduce state anxiety across a diverse clinical sample with high levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS). To further examine this anxiolytic effect, the present study investigated the affective and physiological changes induced by Floatation-REST and assessed whether individuals with high AS experienced any alterations in their awareness for interoceptive sensation while immersed in an environment lacking exteroceptive sensation...
March 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628433/sensory-prediction-errors-are-less-modulated-by-global-context-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Judith Goris, Senne Braem, Annabel D Nijhof, Davide Rigoni, Eliane Deschrijver, Sander Van de Cruys, Jan R Wiersema, Marcel Brass
BACKGROUND: Recent predictive coding accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that a key deficit in ASD concerns the inflexibility in modulating local prediction errors as a function of global top-down expectations. As a direct test of this central hypothesis, we used electroencephalography to investigate whether local prediction error processing was less modulated by global context (i.e., global stimulus frequency) in ASD. METHODS: A group of 18 adults with ASD was compared with a group of 24 typically developed adults on a well-validated hierarchical auditory oddball task in which participants listened to short sequences of either five identical sounds (local standard) or four identical sounds and a fifth deviant sound (local deviant)...
March 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735157/neural-correlates-of-drug-biased-choice-in-currently-using-and-abstinent-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#19
Scott J Moeller, Anna Zilverstand, Anna B Konova, Prantik Kundu, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rebecca Preston-Campbell, Keren Bachi, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
BACKGROUND: The choice for drugs over alternative reinforcers is a translational hallmark feature of drug addiction. The neural basis of such drug-biased choice is not well understood, particularly in individuals with protracted drug abstinence who cannot ethically participate in studies that offer drug-using opportunities. METHODS: We developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging drug-choice task to examine the choice for viewing drug-related images, rather than for actually consuming a drug...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735156/subjective-cognitive-decline-is-associated-with-altered-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-individuals-with-a-family-history-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Sander C J Verfaillie, Alexa Pichet Binette, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Shirin Tabrizi, Mélissa Savard, Pierre Bellec, Rik Ossenkoppele, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, John C S Breitner, Sylvia Villeneuve
BACKGROUND: Both subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) portend risk of brain abnormalities and progression to dementia. Posterior default mode network (pDMN) connectivity is altered early in the course of AD. It is unclear whether SCD predicts similar outcomes in cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD. METHODS: We studied 124 asymptomatic individuals with a family history of AD (age 64 ± 5 years)...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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