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Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging

Sarah-Naomi James, Celeste H M Cheung, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Philip Asherson, Jonna Kuntsi
BACKGROUND: Cognitive theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that high within-subject fluctuations of cognitive performance in ADHD, particularly reaction time (RT) variability (RTV), may reflect arousal dysregulation. However, direct evidence of arousal dysregulation and how it may account for fluctuating RTs in ADHD is limited. We used skin conductance (SC) as a measure of peripheral arousal and aimed to investigate its phenotypic and familial association with RTV in a large sample of ADHD and control sibling pairs...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Julia M Sheffield, Sridhar Kandala, Gregory C Burgess, Michael P Harms, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Psychosis is hypothesized to occur on a spectrum between psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. In the middle of the spectrum are individuals who endorse psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) that may not impact daily functioning or cause distress. Individuals with PLEs show alterations in both cognitive ability and functional connectivity of several brain networks, but the relationship between PLEs, cognition, and functional networks remains poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed resting-state fMRI data, a range of neuropsychological tasks, and questions from the Achenbach Adult Self Report (ASR) in 468 individuals from the Human Connectome Project...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Erin C Dowd, Michael J Frank, Anne Collins, James M Gold, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia (a reduced experience of pleasure) and avolition (a reduction in goal-directed activity) are common features of schizophrenia that have substantial effects on functional outcome, but are poorly understood and treated. Here, we examined whether alterations in reinforcement learning may contribute to these symptoms in schizophrenia by impairing the translation of reward information into goal-directed action. METHODS: 38 stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 37 healthy controls underwent fMRI during a probabilistic stimulus selection reinforcement learning task with dissociated choice- and feedback-related activation, followed by a behavioral transfer task allowing separate assessment of learning from positive versus negative outcomes...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Andre F Marquand, Thomas Wolfers, Maarten Mennes, Jan Buitelaar, Christian F Beckmann
Heterogeneity is a key feature of all psychiatric disorders that manifests on many levels, including symptoms, disease course, and biological underpinnings. These form a substantial barrier to understanding disease mechanisms and developing effective, personalized treatments. In response, many studies have aimed to stratify psychiatric disorders, aiming to find more consistent subgroups on the basis of many types of data. Such approaches have received renewed interest after recent research initiatives, such as the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria and the European Roadmap for Mental Health Research, both of which emphasize finding stratifications that are based on biological systems and that cut across current classifications...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Marianne Oldehinkel, Christian F Beckmann, Raimon H R Pruim, Erik S B van Oort, Barbara Franke, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
BACKGROUND: Cortico-striatal network dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally investigated by comparing functional connectivity of the main striatal sub-regions (i.e., putamen, caudate, and nucleus accumbens) between an ADHD and a control group. However, dimensional analyses based on continuous symptom measures might help to parse the high phenotypic heterogeneity in ADHD. Here, we focus on functional segregation of regions in the striatum and investigate cortico-striatal networks using both categorical and dimensional measures of ADHD...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ryan J Herringa, Cory A Burghy, Diane E Stodola, Michelle E Fox, Richard J Davidson, Marilyn J Essex
BACKGROUND: Much research has focused on the deleterious neurobiological effects of childhood adversity that may underlie internalizing disorders. While most youth show emotional adaptation following adversity, the corresponding neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. METHODS: In this longitudinal community study, we examined the associations among childhood family adversity, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and their interaction on regional brain activation and amygdala/hippocampus functional connectivity during emotion processing in 132 adolescents...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jacob N S Jackson, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have investigated delay discounting, a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, and its relevance to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but with mixed findings. The current meta-analysis synthesizes the literature on the relationship between monetary delay discounting and ADHD in studies using case-control designs. Specifically, the objectives were: 1) to characterize the aggregated differences in monetary delay discounting between individuals with ADHD (cases) and controls in studies using categorical case-control designs; 2) to examine potential differences based on sample age (<18 vs...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Autumn Kujawa, Minjie Wu, Heide Klumpp, Daniel S Pine, James E Swain, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Development of cortico-amygdala circuitry underlies the maturation of emotion processing and regulation, and age-related changes in amygdala connectivity with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have been shown to mediate normative developmental decreases in anxiety. It remains unclear whether developmental changes in this circuitry relate to pathological anxiety in youth. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study addresses this question by examining amygdala functional connectivity in anxious and healthy individuals spanning the developmental period from childhood through adulthood...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Rolf J F Ypma, Rachel L Moseley, Rosemary J Holt, Naresh Rughooputh, Dorothea L Floris, Lindsay R Chura, Michael D Spencer, Simon Baron-Cohen, John Suckling, Edward T Bullmore, Mikail Rubinov
BACKGROUND: Females and males differ significantly in the prevalence and presentation of autism spectrum conditions. One theory of this effect postulates that autistic traits lie on a sex-related continuum in the general population, and autism represents the extreme male end of this spectrum. This theory predicts that any feature of autism in males should 1) be present in autistic females, 2) differentiate between the sexes in the typical population, and 3) correlate with autistic traits...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Henry W Chase, Mary L Phillips
Bipolar disorder (BD), a mood disorder characterized by emotional lability and dysregulation, is associated with alterations in functional connectivity, particularly as assessed using functional MRI. Here, we provide an overview of the extant literature, and themes that have emerged within it. We identified published research describing functional connectivity in BD using PubMed and follow-up searches. The most consistent evidence favors abnormally heightened functional connectivity between the amygdala and the lateral regions of the ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC), both during rest or emotional processing...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Katherine H Karlsgodt
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful tool for the in-vivo assessment of white matter microstructure. The application of DTI methodologies to the study of schizophrenia has supported and advanced the hypothesis of schizophrenia as a disorder of disrupted connectivity. In the context of impaired structural connectivity, the extended time frame of white matter development may offer unique opportunities for treatment that can capitalize on the neural flexibility that is still present in the period leading up to and after disease onset...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Stephen F Smagula, Howard J Aizenstein
Disrupted brain connectivity might explain both the pathogenesis and consequences of late-life major depressive disorder (LLD). However, it remains difficult to ascertain whether and how specific circuits are affected. We reviewed literature regarding brain connectivity in LLD, and we specifically focused on the role of structural pathology. LLD is associated with greater levels of cerebrovascular disease, and greater levels of cerebrovascular disease are associated with both depression development and treatment responsiveness...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Vince D Calhoun, Jing Sui
It is becoming increasingly clear that combining multi-modal brain imaging data is able to provide more information for individual subjects by exploiting the rich multimodal information that exists. However, the number of studies that do true multimodal fusion (i.e. capitalizing on joint information among modalities) is still remarkably small given the known benefits. In part, this is because multi-modal studies require broader expertise in collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the results than do unimodal studies...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Annmarie MacNamara, Julia DiGangi, K Luan Phan
A number of brain regions have been implicated in the anxiety disorders, yet none of these regions in isolation has been distinguished as the sole or discrete site responsible for anxiety disorder pathology. Therefore, the identification of dysfunctional neural networks as represented by alterations in the temporal correlation of blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal across several brain regions in anxiety disorders has been increasingly pursued in the past decade. Here, we review task-independent (e.g...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ayşegül Yildiz, Burç Aydin, Necati Gökmen, Ayşegül Yurt, Bruce Cohen, Pembe Keskinoglu, Dost Öngür, Perry Renshaw
BACKGROUND: The antimanic efficacy of a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, tamoxifen, has been tested in several clinical trials, all reporting positive results. However, mechanisms underlying the observed clinical effects requires further confirmation through studies of biological markers. METHODS: We investigated the effect of tamoxifen versus placebo on brain metabolites via a proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study. Forty-eight adult bipolar I manic patients (mean Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score of 37...
March 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Benson Mwangi, Mon-Ju Wu, Bo Cao, Ives C Passos, Luca Lavagnino, Zafer Keser, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Khader M Hasan, Flavio Kapczinski, Jair C Soares
BACKGROUND: Neuroanatomical abnormalities in Bipolar disorder (BD) have previously been reported. However, the utility of these abnormalities in distinguishing individual BD patients from Healthy controls and stratify patients based on overall illness burden has not been investigated in a large cohort. METHODS: In this study, we examined whether structural neuroimaging scans coupled with a machine learning algorithm are able to distinguish individual BD patients from Healthy controls in a large cohort of 256 subjects...
March 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Emily S Kappenman, Steven J Luck
The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used for decades to answer important questions about sensory, cognitive, motor, and emotion-related processes in clinical disorders. However, ERP research with clinical populations often involves unique challenges above and beyond the general issues involved in conducting ERP studies in typical research participants. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the common challenges that arise in ERP research with clinical populations, including issues in experimental design, recording, analysis, and interpretation of ERPs...
March 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jodi M Gilman, Max T Curran, Vanessa Calderon, Randi M Schuster, A Eden Evins
Previous studies have reported that peer groups are one of the most important predictors of adolescent and young adult marijuana use, and yet the neural correlates of social processing in marijuana users have not yet been studied. In the current study, marijuana-using young adults (n = 20) and non-using controls (n = 22) participated in a neuroimaging social exclusion task called Cyberball, a computerized ball-tossing game in which the participant is excluded from the game after a pre-determined number of ball tosses...
March 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Leah H Rubin, Jessica J Connelly, James L Reilly, C Sue Carter, Lauren L Drogos, Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Anthony C Ruocco, Sarah K Keedy, Ian Matthew, Neeraj Tandon, Godfrey D Pearlson, Brett A Clementz, Carol A Tamminga, Elliot S Gershon, Matcheri S Keshavan, Jeffrey R Bishop, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: The oxytocin (OT) system, including receptor epigenetic mechanisms, has been shown to influence emotion processing, especially in females. Whether OT receptor (OXTR) epigenetic alterations occur across psychotic disorders in relation to illness-related disturbances in social cognition and brain anatomy is unknown. METHODS: Participants with affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders (92 women, 75 men) and healthy controls (38 women, 37 men) from the Chicago site of the BSNIP study completed the Penn Emotion Recognition Test (ER-40), a facial emotion recognition task...
March 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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