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Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging

Trang T Le, Rayus Kuplicki, Hung-Wen Yeh, Robin L Aupperle, Sahib S Khalsa, W Kyle Simmons, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: The age of a person's brain can be estimated from structural brain images using an aggregate measure of variation in morphology across the whole brain. The brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE) score is computed as the difference between kernel-estimated brain age and chronological age. In this exploratory study, we investigated the application of the BrainAGE measure to identify potential novel effects of pharmacological agents on brain morphology. METHODS: Twenty healthy participants (23-47 years of age) completed three structural magnetic resonance imaging scans 45 minutes after administration of placebo or 200 or 600 mg of ibuprofen in a double-blind, crossover study...
June 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Andrea Reinecke, Michael Browning, Joppe Klein Breteler, Nils Kappelmann, Kerry J Ressler, Catherine J Harmer, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND: The antihypertensive drug losartan has been shown to improve memory in humans as well as learning and fear extinction in rodent models, highlighting its potential to have similar synergistic effects on exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. This study investigated the effect of losartan on neural correlates of processing threat versus safety stimuli in highly anxious individuals to identify potential pathways of how the drug might facilitate psychological treatment...
June 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Luigi A Maglanoc, Nils Inge Landrø, Rune Jonassen, Tobias Kaufmann, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Eva Hilland, Lars T Westlye
BACKGROUND: Depression is a complex disorder with large interindividual variability in symptom profiles that often occur alongside symptoms of other psychiatric domains, such as anxiety. A dimensional and symptom-based approach may help refine the characterization of depressive and anxiety disorders and thus aid in establishing robust biomarkers. We use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the brain functional connectivity correlates of a symptom-based clustering of individuals...
May 30, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Birgitte Klee Burton, Signe Vangkilde, Anders Petersen, Lene Theil Skovgaard, Jens Richardt Jepsen, Nicoline Hemager, Camilla Jerlang Christiani, Katrine Soeborg Spang, Ditte Ellersgaard, Aja Greve, Ditte Gantriis, Heike Eichele, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Anne Amalie Elgaard Thorup, Kerstin Jessica Plessen
BACKGROUND: Given the partially shared genetic liability between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, we aimed to assess whether 7-year-old children with a familial high risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder display specific deficits of sustained attention and interference control compared with each other and with control children. METHODS: An observational cohort was identified through Danish registries and consisted of 522 children 7 years of age with no, one, or two parents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder...
May 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Philip Lindner, Pär Flodin, Meenal Budhiraja, Ivanka Savic, Jussi Jokinen, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins
BACKGROUND: Psychopathic traits vary dimensionally in the population and are associated with multiple negative outcomes. The impaired integration theory (IIT) proposes that psychopathic traits are associated with abnormal neural network topology, such that disturbed integration of neural networks results in a self-perpetuating impairment in rapid integration and learning from multiple components of information. The IIT is based on findings from male offenders presenting high scores on all psychopathic traits...
May 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jaime S Ide, Simon Zhornitsky, Herta H Chao, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Wuyi Wang, John H Krystal, Chiang-Shan R Li
BACKGROUND: Error-related brain activities are altered in individuals with substance use disorders. Here we examined error-related activities in relation to problem drinking in nondependent alcohol drinkers. In particular, we investigated sex differences and whether altered error responses are related to post-error behavioral control. METHODS: A sample of 145 nondependent drinkers (77 women) performed the stop-signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Elischa Krause, Christoph Benke, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer, Alfons O Hamm, Christiane A Pané-Farré
BACKGROUND: Excessive fear and anxiety are core features of anxiety disorders. Defensive response mobilization varies dynamically with threat proximity. METHODS: We analyzed defensive responses in 48 healthy students to an approaching external, predator-like threat (an electric shock resembling a predator attack) versus an approaching threat from inside the body (feeling of dyspnea as evoked by forced breath-holding). Threats either were inevitable or could be avoided by button press...
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jonathan Savitz, Neil A Harrison
Despite a historical focus on neurally mediated interoceptive signaling mechanisms, humoral (and even cellular) signals also play an important role in communicating bodily physiological state to the brain. These signaling pathways can perturb neuronal structure, chemistry, and function, leading to discrete changes in behavior. They are also increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. The importance of these humoral signaling pathways is perhaps most powerfully illustrated in the context of infection and inflammation...
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Sahib S Khalsa, Ralph Adolphs, Oliver G Cameron, Hugo D Critchley, Paul W Davenport, Justin S Feinstein, Jamie D Feusner, Sarah N Garfinkel, Richard D Lane, Wolf E Mehling, Alicia E Meuret, Charles B Nemeroff, Stephen Oppenheimer, Frederike H Petzschner, Olga Pollatos, Jamie L Rhudy, Lawrence P Schramm, W Kyle Simmons, Murray B Stein, Klaas E Stephan, Omer Van den Bergh, Ilse Van Diest, Andreas von Leupoldt, Martin P Paulus
Interoception refers to the process by which the nervous system senses, interprets, and integrates signals originating from within the body, providing a moment-by-moment mapping of the body's internal landscape across conscious and unconscious levels. Interoceptive signaling has been considered a component process of reflexes, urges, feelings, drives, adaptive responses, and cognitive and emotional experiences, highlighting its contributions to the maintenance of homeostatic functioning, body regulation, and survival...
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Marcelo Q Hoexter, Marcelo C Batistuzzo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Sahib S Khalsa, Justin S Feinstein, W Kyle Simmons, Martin P Paulus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Danielle C DeVille, Kara L Kerr, Jason A Avery, Kaiping Burrows, Jerzy Bodurka, Justin S Feinstein, Sahib S Khalsa, Martin P Paulus, W Kyle Simmons
BACKGROUND: Theoretical models assert that the brain's interoceptive network links external stimuli with their interoceptive consequences, thereby supporting later recall of these associations to guide the selection of healthy behaviors. If these accounts are correct, previously reported interoceptive abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD) should lead to altered recall of associations between external stimuli and their interoceptive (somatic) consequences. To date, the processes underlying interoceptive recall have never been experimentally investigated...
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Justin S Feinstein, Sahib S Khalsa, Hung Yeh, Obada Al Zoubi, Armen C Arevian, Colleen Wohlrab, Marie K Pantino, Laci J Cartmell, W Kyle Simmons, Murray B Stein, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Floatation-REST (Reduced Environmental Stimulation Therapy), an intervention that attenuates exteroceptive sensory input to the nervous system, has recently been found to reduce state anxiety across a diverse clinical sample with high levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS). To further examine this anxiolytic effect, the present study investigated the affective and physiological changes induced by Floatation-REST and assessed whether individuals with high AS experienced any alterations in their awareness for interoceptive sensation while immersed in an environment lacking exteroceptive sensation...
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Alicia E Meuret, Thomas Ritz, Frank H Wilhelm, Walton T Roth, David Rosenfield
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that hypoventilation therapy reduces panic symptoms in part by increasing basal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 ) levels. We tested an additional pathway by which hypoventilation therapy could exert its therapeutic effects: through repeated interoceptive exposure to sensations of dyspnea. METHODS: A total of 35 patients with panic disorder were trained to perform exercises to raise their end-tidal PCO2 levels using a portable capnometry device...
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Anders Lillevik Thorsen, Pernille Hagland, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Gerd Kvale, Bjarne Hansen, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience aversive emotions in response to obsessions, motivating avoidance and compulsive behaviors. However, there is considerable ambiguity regarding the brain circuitry involved in emotional processing in OCD, especially whether activation is altered in the amygdala. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review and performed a meta-analysis-seed-based d mapping-of 25 whole-brain neuroimaging studies (including 571 patients and 564 healthy control subjects) using functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography, comparing brain activation of patients with OCD and healthy control subjects during presentation of emotionally valenced versus neutral stimuli...
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Scott J Moeller, Anna Zilverstand, Anna B Konova, Prantik Kundu, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rebecca Preston-Campbell, Keren Bachi, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
BACKGROUND: The choice for drugs over alternative reinforcers is a translational hallmark feature of drug addiction. The neural basis of such drug-biased choice is not well understood, particularly in individuals with protracted drug abstinence who cannot ethically participate in studies that offer drug-using opportunities. METHODS: We developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging drug-choice task to examine the choice for viewing drug-related images, rather than for actually consuming a drug...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Sander C J Verfaillie, Alexa Pichet Binette, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Shirin Tabrizi, Mélissa Savard, Pierre Bellec, Rik Ossenkoppele, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, John C S Breitner, Sylvia Villeneuve
BACKGROUND: Both subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) portend risk of brain abnormalities and progression to dementia. Posterior default mode network (pDMN) connectivity is altered early in the course of AD. It is unclear whether SCD predicts similar outcomes in cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD. METHODS: We studied 124 asymptomatic individuals with a family history of AD (age 64 ± 5 years)...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Todd A Tishler, George Bartzokis, Po H Lu, Erika P Raven, Mher Khanoyan, Chandra J Kirkpatrick, Meghan H Pyle, J Pablo Villablanca, Lori L Altshuler, Jim Mintz, Joseph Ventura, Laurie R Casaus, Kenneth L Subotnik, Keith H Nuechterlein, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Postmortem and imaging studies provide converging evidence that the frontal lobe myelination trajectory is dysregulated in schizophrenia (SZ) and suggest that early in treatment, antipsychotic medications increase intracortical myelin (ICM). We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ICM trajectory in SZ is dysregulated and altered by antipsychotic treatment. METHODS: We examined 93 subjects with SZ (64 men and 29 women) taking second-generation oral antipsychotics with medication exposures of 0-333 months in conjunction with 80 healthy control subjects (52 men and 28 women)...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Anita D Barber, Martin A Lindquist, Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
BACKGROUND: Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are associated with lower social and occupational functioning, and lower executive function. Emerging evidence also suggests that PLEs reflect neural dysfunction resembling that of psychotic disorders. METHODS: The present study examined dynamic connectivity related to a measure of PLEs derived from the Achenbach Adult Self-Report, in an otherwise-healthy sample of adults from the Human Connectome Project. A total of 76 PLE-endorsing and 153 control participants were included in the final sample...
May 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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