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Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584882/increases-in-intrinsic-thalamocortical-connectivity-and-overall-cognition-following-cognitive-remediation-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#1
Ian S Ramsay, Tasha M Nienow, Angus W MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Thalamic projections to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are critical for cognition, and disruptions in these circuits are thought to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (REM) is a behavioral intervention that holds promise for improving cognition and functioning in schizophrenia, however the extent to which it affects thalamo-prefrontal connections has not been researched. This study sought to determine whether patients with schizophrenia who undergo a placebo-controlled trial of REM show increased functional connectivity between the thalamus and PFC, and whether these changes correspond to improvements in cognition...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480336/longitudinal-relationships-among-activity-in-attention-redirection-neural-circuitry-and-symptom-severity-in-youth
#2
Michele A Bertocci, Genna Bebko, Amanda Dwojak, Satish Iyengar, Cecile D Ladouceur, Jay C Fournier, Amelia Versace, Susan B Perlman, Jorge R C Almeida, Michael J Travis, Mary Kay Gill, Lisa Bonar, Claudiu Schirda, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Jeffrey L Sunshine, Scott K Holland, Robert A Kowatch, Boris Birmaher, David Axelson, Sarah M Horwitz, Thomas Frazier, L Eugene Arnold, Mary A Fristad, Eric A Youngstrom, Robert L Findling, Mary L Phillips
BACKGROUND: Changes in neural circuitry function may be associated with longitudinal changes in psychiatric symptom severity. Identification of these relationships may aid in elucidating the neural basis of psychiatric symptom evolution over time. We aimed to distinguish these relationships using data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) cohort. METHODS: Forty-one youth completed two study visits (mean=21.3 months). Elastic-net regression (Multiple response Gaussian family) identified emotional regulation neural circuitry that changed in association with changes in depression, mania, anxiety, affect lability, and positive mood and energy dysregulation, accounting for clinical and demographic variables...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435932/default-mode-network-subsystems-are-differentially-disrupted-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
Danielle R Miller, Scott M Hayes, Jasmeet P Hayes, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Ginette Lafleche, Mieke Verfaellie
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by debilitating re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms following trauma exposure. Recent evidence suggests that individuals with PTSD show disrupted functional connectivity in the default mode network, an intrinsic network that consists of a midline core, a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem, and a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) subsystem. The present study examined whether functional connectivity in these subsystems is differentially disrupted in PTSD...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435933/the-c677t-variant-in-mthfr-modulates-associations-between-brain-integrity-mood-and-cognitive-functioning-in-old-age
#4
Florence F Roussotte, Xue Hua, Katherine L Narr, Gary W Small, Paul M Thompson
INTRODUCTION: The C677T functional variant in the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene leads to reduced enzymatic activity and elevated blood levels of homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been linked with higher rates of cardiovascular diseases, cognitive decline, and late-life depression. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Here, 3D magnetic resonance imaging data was analyzed from 738 individuals (age: 75.5 ± 6.8 years; 438 men/300 women) including 173 Alzheimer's patients, 359 subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and 206 healthy older adults, scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424797/magnetoencephalography-as-a-tool-in-psychiatric-research-current-status-and-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Peter J Uhlhaas, Peter Liddle, David E J Linden, Anna C Nobre, Krish D Singh, Joachim Gross
The application of neuroimaging to provide mechanistic insights into circuit dysfunctions in major psychiatric conditions and the development of biomarkers are core challenges in current psychiatric research. We propose that recent technological and analytic advances in magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique that allows measurement of neuronal events directly and noninvasively with millisecond resolution, provides novel opportunities to address these fundamental questions. Because of its potential in delineating normal and abnormal brain dynamics, we propose that MEG provides a crucial tool to advance our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and the dementias...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503670/encoding-of-contextual-fear-memory-requires-de-novo-proteins-in-the-prelimbic-cortex
#6
Valerio Rizzo, Khalid Touzani, Bindu L Raveendra, Supriya Swarnkar, Joan Lora, Beena M Kadakkuzha, Xin-An Liu, Chao Zhang, Doron Betel, Robert W Stackman, Sathyanarayanan V Puthanveettil
BACKGROUND: Despite our understanding of the significance of the prefrontal cortex in the consolidation of long-term memories (LTM), its role in the encoding of LTM remains elusive. Here we investigated the role of new protein synthesis in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in encoding contextual fear memory. METHODS: Because a change in the association of mRNAs to polyribosomes is an indicator of new protein synthesis, we assessed the changes in polyribosome-associated mRNAs in the mPFC following contextual fear conditioning (CFC) in the mouse...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367515/shared-microstructural-features-of-behavioral-and-substance-addictions-revealed-in-areas-of-crossing-fibers
#7
Sarah W Yip, Kristen P Morie, Jiansong Xu, R Todd Constable, Robert T Malison, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
BACKGROUND: Similarities between behavioral and substance addictions exist. However, direct neurobiological comparison between addictive disorders is rare. Determination of disorder-specificity (or lack thereof) of alterations within white-matter microstructures will advance understanding of the pathophysiology of addictions. METHODS: We compared white-matter microstructural features between individuals with gambling disorder (GD; n=38), cocaine-use disorder (CUD; n=38) and healthy comparison (HC; n=38) participants, as assessed using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367514/impulsive-antisocial-dimension-of-psychopathy-linked-to-enlargement-and-abnormal-functional-connectivity-of-the-striatum
#8
Cole Korponay, Maia Pujara, Philip Deming, Carissa Philippi, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Kent A Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy is a mental health disorder characterized by callous and impulsive antisocial behavior, and is associated with a high incidence of violent crime, substance abuse, and recidivism. Recent studies suggest that the striatum may be a key component of the neurobiological basis for the disorder, though structural findings have been mixed and functional connectivity of the striatum in psychopathy has yet to be fully examined. METHODS: We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of striatum volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a large sample of adult male prison inmates (N=124)...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299368/modafinil-improves-episodic-memory-and-working-memory-cognition-in-patients-with-remitted-depression-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#9
Muzaffer Kaser, Julia B Deakin, Albert Michael, Camilo Zapata, Rachna Bansal, Dragana Ryan, Francesca Cormack, James B Rowe, Barbara J Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of depression and tends to persist even after mood symptoms recover, leading to detrimental effects on clinical and functional outcomes. However, most currently available treatments have not typically addressed cognition. Modafinil has been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and therefore has the potential to improve cognition in depression. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on cognitive functions in patients with remitted depression...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584881/thalamocortical-dysconnectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-analysis-of-the-autism-brain-imaging-data-exchange
#10
Neil D Woodward, Monica Giraldo-Chica, Baxter Rogers, Carissa J Cascio
BACKGROUND: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit differences in basic sensorimotor processing as well as general cortical excitability. These observations converge to implicate thalamocortical connectivity as a potential unifying neural mechanism. The goal of this study was to clarify mixed findings on thalamocortical functional connectivity in a large sample of individuals with ASD. METHODS: Using the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE), we examined thalamocortical functional connectivity in 228 individuals with ASD and a matched comparison group of 228 typically developing individuals...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497126/vulnerability-to-depression-in-youth-advances-from-affective-neuroscience
#11
Autumn Kujawa, Katie L Burkhouse
Vulnerability models of depression posit that individual differences in trait-like vulnerabilities emerge early in life and increase risk for the later development of depression. In this review, we summarize advances from affective neuroscience using neural measures to assess vulnerabilities in youth at high risk for depression due to parental history of depression or temperament style, as well as prospective designs evaluating the predictive validity of these vulnerabilities for symptoms and diagnoses of depression across development...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367513/categorical-versus-dimensional-approaches-to-autism-associated-intermediate-phenotypes-in-22q11-2-microdeletion-syndrome
#12
Maria Jalbrzikowski, Khwaja Hamzah Ahmed, Arati Patel, Rachel Jonas, Leila Kushan, Carolyn Chow, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 Microdeletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with elevated rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although the diagnosis is controversial. In order to determine whether there is a biological substrate of ASD in 22q11DS, we examined neurocognitive and structural neuroanatomic differences between those with 22q11DS and an ASD diagnosis (22q11DS-ASD+) and those with 22q11DS without ASD (22q11DS-ASD-); we then determined whether these differences were better characterized within a categorical or dimensional framework...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217759/frontal-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-concentrations-are-associated-with-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#13
Eric C Porges, Adam J Woods, Richard A E Edden, Nicolaas A J Puts, Ashley D Harris, Huaihou Chen, Amanda M Garcia, Talia R Seider, Damon G Lamb, John B Williamson, Ronald A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the brain's principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with perceptual and attentional functioning. Recent application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides in vivo evidence for decreasing GABA concentrations during adulthood. It is unclear, however, how age-related decrements in cerebral GABA concentrations contribute to cognitive decline, or whether previously reported declines in cerebral GABA concentrations persist during healthy aging...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164168/doubling-down-increased-risk-taking-behavior-following-a-loss-by-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder-is-associated-with-striatal-and-anterior-cingulate-dysfunction
#14
Joshua L Gowin, April C May, Marc Wittmann, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorders (CUDs) have been associated with increased risk-taking behavior. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that altered activity in reward and decision-making circuitry may underlie cocaine user's heightened risk-taking. It remains unclear if this behavior is driven by greater reward salience, lack of appreciation of danger, or another deficit in risk-related processing. METHODS: Twenty-nine CUD participants and forty healthy comparison participants completed the Risky Gains Task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255578/neuropil-pruning-in-early-course-schizophrenia-immunological-clinical-and-neurocognitive-correlates
#15
Konasale M Prasad, Ashley M Burgess, Matcheri S Keshavan, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Jeffrey A Stanley
INTRODUCTION: Neuropathological studies suggest neuropil reduction in schizophrenia. Altered synaptic pruning is proposed to underlie neuropil reduction. Underlying factors and clinical correlates of synaptic pruning are poorly understood. Using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS), it is feasible to assess membrane phospholipid (MPL) metabolites in the brain that specifically and sensitively reflect neuropil expansion (elevated MPL precursors) or contraction (elevated MPL catabolites)...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083566/within-and-between-session-changes-in-neural-activity-during-emotion-processing-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#16
Jay C Fournier, Henry W Chase, Jorge Almeida, Mary L Phillips
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar depression (UD) can be difficult to distinguish clinically, particularly during episodes of depression. In this study we test for differences between BD, UD, and healthy control (HC) adults regarding within- and between-session changes in BOLD response during implicit emotional processing. METHODS: During fMRI, HC adults (N=19) and depressed adults with UD (N=19) and BD (N=16) performed an implicit emotion-processing task...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990494/relationships-between-altered-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-activation-and-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-euthymic-bipolar-i-disorder
#17
Shantanu H Joshi, Nathalie Vizueta, Lara Foland-Ross, Jennifer D Townsend, Susan Y Bookheimer, Paul M Thompson, Katherine L Narr, Lori L Altshuler
BACKGROUND: Performance during cognitive control functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks are associated with frontal lobe hypoactivation in patients with bipolar disorder, even while euthymic. Here, we study the structural underpinnings for this functional abnormality simultaneously with brain activation data. METHODS: In a sample of ninety adults (45 with inter-episode Bipolar I disorder and 45 healthy controls), we explored whether abnormal functional activation patterns in bipolar euthymic subjects during a Go-NoGo fMRI task are associated with regional deficits in cortical gray matter thickness in the same regions...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840854/modifiable-arousal-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-its-etiological-association-with-fluctuating-reaction-times
#18
Sarah-Naomi James, Celeste H M Cheung, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Philip Asherson, Jonna Kuntsi
BACKGROUND: Cognitive theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that high within-subject fluctuations of cognitive performance in ADHD, particularly reaction time (RT) variability (RTV), may reflect arousal dysregulation. However, direct evidence of arousal dysregulation and how it may account for fluctuating RTs in ADHD is limited. We used skin conductance (SC) as a measure of peripheral arousal and aimed to investigate its phenotypic and familial association with RTV in a large sample of ADHD and control sibling pairs...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833940/cingulo-opercular-network-efficiency-mediates-the-association-between-psychotic-like-experiences-and-cognitive-ability-in-the-general-population
#19
Julia M Sheffield, Sridhar Kandala, Gregory C Burgess, Michael P Harms, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Psychosis is hypothesized to occur on a spectrum between psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. In the middle of the spectrum are individuals who endorse psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) that may not impact daily functioning or cause distress. Individuals with PLEs show alterations in both cognitive ability and functional connectivity of several brain networks, but the relationship between PLEs, cognition, and functional networks remains poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed resting-state fMRI data, a range of neuropsychological tasks, and questions from the Achenbach Adult Self Report (ASR) in 468 individuals from the Human Connectome Project...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626813/hallucinations-as-top-down-effects-on-perception
#20
R Powers Albert, Megan Kelley, Philip R Corlett
The problem of whether and how information is integrated across hierarchical brain networks embodies a fundamental tension in contemporary cognitive neuroscience, and by extension, cognitive neuropsychiatry. Indeed, the penetrability of perceptual processes in a 'top-down' manner by higher-level cognition-a natural extension of hierarchical models of perception-may contradict a strictly modular view of mental organization. Furthermore, some in the cognitive science community have challenged cognitive penetration as an unlikely, if not impossible, process...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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