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Xiaocheng Wei, Dongfang Liu, Lirui Liao, Zhendong Wang, Wenjiao Li, Wenli Huang
The purpose of this work was to study the sulfur concentration on bioleaching of heavy metals from pig manure employing indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Also, the variations in physicochemical properties of pig manure before and after bioleaching were investigated. The results showed that sulfur concentration significantly affected the rate of acidification, sulfate production and metal solubilization during pig manure bioleaching process. A Michaelis-Menten type equation was utilized to interpret the relationships between sulfur concentration, sulfate production and metal solubilization in the bioleaching process...
September 2018: Heliyon
Katsumi Toda, Akiko Toda, Masafumi Ono, Toshiji Saibara
The importance of estrogens for glucose homeostasis has been demonstrated by clinical, pharmacological, and experimental studies. Male mice lacking the aromatase gene (ArKO mice), which encodes an enzyme involved in estrogen synthesis, develop glucose- and insulin-intolerance. However, it remains unclear whether insulin signaling is actually impaired in the liver and muscle of ArKO mice. We examined the effects of estrogen-deficiency on insulin signaling by quantifying phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt) in the liver and muscle and by examining the expression levels of insulin-target genes in the liver...
September 2018: Heliyon
Verónica Casmo, Marianne Lebbad, Salomão Maungate, Johan Lindh
Infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora belli are important causes of diarrhoea in HIV patients. Nevertheless, information concerning these two parasites is scarce in many African countries, including Mozambique. In this study occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and C. belli was investigated by microscopy of stool specimens from 108 adult diarrhoeal patients, most with a confirmed HIV diagnosis. The Cryptosporidium isolates were further characterized by molecular methods. Cryptosporidium and C...
September 2018: Heliyon
Ningning Cheng, Jingjing Zhang, Jingmei Yin, Shenmin Li
The harm of trans-fatty acids to health has aroused public concern. It is believed that the main source of trans-fatty acids in diets is the isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in edible oils during cooking. However, the information on the isomerization mechanism is very limited. In this paper, we used oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, as a simplified model for edible oil and investigated the mechanism of cis/trans isomerization by computation and experiments. The computational results show that Rc -O-O-H is a very important intermediate, and the cleavage of O-O bond in Rc -O-O-H is the rate-controlling step during the cis/trans isomerization...
September 2018: Heliyon
Su Su Maw, Chiyori Haga
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by significant impairment in social communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviour or interest. Intervention during early childhood could decrease ASD symptoms. We aimed to identify the most effective intervention based on cognitive, developmental, and behavioural approaches and the factors that impact the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing interventions for ASD in preschool-aged children...
September 2018: Heliyon
Sanja Kostić, Sandro Meier, Etienne Cabane, Ingo Burgert
Timber-concrete composites require reliable connections between both components, which are usually obtained by metal fasteners or slots in the wood. In this study, an alternative approach is presented based on a fully glued connection in combination with a primer treated wood surface, to enhance the compatibility and the adhesion properties at the interface between beech wood and concrete. Prior to the gluing and the concrete application in a wet-on-wet process, the wood surface was functionalised with a xerogel obtained by means of a sol-gel process, consisting of two layers of silane nanofilms, with different functional groups, which are capable of undergoing further chemical crosslinking reactions with the adhesive...
September 2018: Heliyon
Kerri Pedersen, Brandon S Schmit, Thomas J DeLiberto, Jason R Suckow, Amy J Davis, Dennis Slate, Richard B Chipman, Robert L Hale, Amy T Gilbert
Distribution of oral rabies vaccine baits has been used as a strategy for managing rabies in the United States since the 1990s. Since that time, efforts have been made to improve baiting strategies with a focus on bait density to maximize both efficiency and cost effectiveness. An optimal rabies management strategy includes a vaccine bait preferred by the target species that is distributed at the minimal density needed to achieve population immunity to prevent rabies spread. The purpose of our pilot study was to examine the effect of 75, 150, and 300 baits/km2 vaccine bait densities on rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) seroprevalence in raccoons ( Procyon lotor )...
September 2018: Heliyon
Oluwasesan A Falaiye, Oladiran J Abimbola, Rachel T Pinker, Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, Alexander A Willoughby
Precipitable water vapor (PWV) is an important climate parameter indicative of available moisture in the atmosphere; it is also an important greenhouse gas. Observations of precipitable water vapor in sub-Sahel West Africa are almost non-existent. Several Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites have been established across West Africa, and observations from four of them, namely, Ilorin (4.34° E, 8.32° N), Cinzana (5.93° W, 13.28° N), Banizoumbou (2.67° E, 13.54° N) and Dakar (16.96° W, 14.39° N) are being used in this study...
September 2018: Heliyon
Julie Jean, David S Farrell, Angela M Farrelly, Sinead Toomey, James W Barlow
We designed and synthesised a series of novel chalcones, incorporating the heterocyclic framework of 2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-4(1H)-quinolinone, which was prepared via Sonogashira coupling of a substituted orthoaniline under aqueous conditions using Pd catalysis followed by acid-mediated cyclisation. The compounds were screened against the NCI-N87 and DLD-1 cancer cell lines, with most compounds showing low micromolar cytotoxic activity.
September 2018: Heliyon
Syed Rahin Ahmed, Seon Woo Kang, Sangjin Oh, Jaebeom Lee, Suresh Neethirajan
A synthetic way of chiral zirconium quantum dots (Zr QDs) was presented for the first time using L(+)-ascorbic acid acts as a surface as well as chiral ligands. Different spectroscopic and microscopic analysis was performed for thorough characterization of Zr QDs. As-synthesized QDs exhibited fluorescence and circular dichroism properties, and the peaks were located at 412 nm and 352 nm, respectively. MTT assay was performed to test the cytotoxicity of the synthesized Zr QDs against rat brain glioma C6 cells...
August 2018: Heliyon
Wolde Mekuria, Menale Wondie, Tadele Amare, Asmare Wubet, Tesfaye Feyisa, Birru Yitaferu
Establishing exclosures has become common in Ethiopia, especially in the central and northern highlands, where they serve as a response to persistent forest degradation, affecting forest resources and ecosystem services. We investigated changes in vegetation composition, aboveground biomass and soil properties after establishing an exclosure on degraded communal grazing land in Aba-Gerima watershed, North-Western Ethiopia. We selected 4-yr-old exclosure and paired the selected exclosure with an adjacent communal grazing land...
August 2018: Heliyon
Caetanie F Tchagang, Renlin Xu, David Overy, Barbara Blackwell, Denise Chabot, Keith Hubbard, Cyr Lézin Doumbou, Eden S P Bromfield, James T Tambong
Bacteria associated with corn roots inoculated with soils collected from the Canadian woodlands were isolated and characterized. Genus-level identification based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis classified the 161 isolates in 19 genera. The majority (64%) of the isolates were affiliated with the genus Pseudomonas . Further analysis of the Pseudomonas isolates based on BLASTn and rpo D- rpo B- gyr B concatenated gene phylogeny revealed three unique clusters that could not be assigned to known species. This study reports the taxonomic description of one of the distinct lineages represented by two strains (S1E40T and S1E44) with P...
August 2018: Heliyon
Dongang Nana Rodrigue Roman, Ngono Ngane Rosalie Anne, Vineeta Singh, Koanga Mogtomo Martin Luther, Ngonde Essome Marie Chantal, Mouelle Sone Albert
In this cross-sectional study, we investigated host genetic factors and ethnic variation in circulating Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 (msp-2) clones among children with asymptomatic malaria. Isolates from seventy two asymptomatic malaria children were used for genotyping block 3 of msp-2 gene by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sickle cell trait and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of DNA products from PCR targeting codons 6 and 68 of the beta-globin (HBB) and G6PD genes respectively...
August 2018: Heliyon
N E Manturova, V A Stupin, G O Smirnova, E V Silina
The main aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness and safety of lifting operations in women with varying degrees of involuntary changes of facial skin, in particular when applying pharmacological conditioning, with the objectification of the role of the latter. Materials and methods: A research and surgical treatment were conducted to eliminate involutional changes of various degrees in the facial skin of 461 women aged 35-75 years. Surface lifting was performed in 20.2% of patients, SMAS-lifting - 49...
August 2018: Heliyon
Md Mamunur Roshid, Harun-Or Roshid
Two nonlinear evolution equations, namely the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation which describes the dynamics of soliton and nonlinear wave in the field of fluid dynamics, plasma physics and the Oskolkov equation which describes the dynamics of an incompressible visco-elastic Kelvin-Voigt fluid are investigated. We deliberate exact traveling wave solutions, specially kink wave, cusp wave, periodic breather waves and periodic wave solutions of the models applying the modified simple equation method. The solutions can be expressed explicitly...
August 2018: Heliyon
Youngjoo Kwon
The use of plant polyphenols to prevent cancer has been studied extensively. However, recent findings regarding the cancer-promoting effects of some antioxidants have led to reservations regarding the therapeutic use of food-derived antioxidants including polyphenols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of food-derived polyphenols and their use and safety in cancer patients. The free-radical scavenging ability of sulforaphane and various food-derived polyphenols including curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, pelargonidin, and resveratrol was compared with their growth inhibitory effect on ovarian cancer cells...
August 2018: Heliyon
Gizachew Kebede Biratu, Eyasu Elias, Pheneas Ntawuruhunga, Gudeta W Sileshi
Cassava is Africa's second most important food source in terms of calories consumed per capita. However, farmers use little or no fertilizer on cassava and scant information is available regarding the cassava yield response to mineral and organic fertilizer inputs in Zambia. This study was undertaken to determine the response of cassava to the integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources in two contrasting agroecological zones of Zambia; Mansa located in Zone III and Kabangwe located in Zone II...
August 2018: Heliyon
Rima R Sahay, Pragya D Yadav, Triparna Majumdar, Swapnil Patil, Prasad Sarkale, Anita M Shete, Gouri Chaubal, Vinay R Dange, Savita Patil, Dimpal A Nyayanit, Jayanthi Shastri, Devendra T Mourya
Background: Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is consistently in circulation and shows an increase in disease burden during the spring season. Due to a wide range of clinical presentation from a vesicular rash to bleeding or neurological complications, it makes the clinical diagnosis difficult. The present study aims to understand whether the same strain of virus is responsible for the increase in the seasonal outbreaks occurring in different parts of the country with reference to the samples from Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Gujarat states of India...
August 2018: Heliyon
Atsushi Suzuki, Takeo Oku
Additive effects of transition metals (M = Cr2+ , Co2+ , Cu2+ and Y3+ ) on the electronic structures and magnetic properties of formamidinium lead halide perovskite compounds (FAPbI3 , where FA = NH2 CHNH2 + ) were investigated by first-principle calculation using density functional theory. In the case of Cr2+ , Cu2+ and Y3+ -incorporated FAPbI3 perovskite crystals, the electron density distribution of d-p hybrid orbital on the transition metal and iodine halogen-atoms were delocalized at frontier orbital. The total and partial density of state appeared the 3 d-p hybrid orbital near the frontier orbital with narrowing band gap, yielding the wide broad absorption in the near-infrared region...
August 2018: Heliyon
Hiroyuki Masaki, Shinji Yasuike, Kenji Matsumoto, Masaru Tajiri, Yoshihiro Yoshioka, Seiji Inoba
Coal fly ash (CFA), a by-product from coal-fired power plants, has many applications. However, there are concerns that the trace elements in CFA-based materials may contaminate groundwater. Therefore, many methods have been developed to rapidly measure these trace elements in CFA in order to management and/or screening their leachability. However, satisfactory methods to measure boron alone have not been reported. In this study, we developed an instrument for the non-contact analysis of boron in CFA samples...
August 2018: Heliyon
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