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ERJ Open Research

Christopher C Butler, Samuel Coenen, Benjamin R Saville, Johanna Cook, Alike van der Velden, Jane Homes, Menno de Jong, Paul Little, Herman Goossens, Philippe Beutels, Margareta Ieven, Nick Francis, Pieter Moons, Emily Bongard, Theo Verheij
ALIC4 E is the first publicly funded, multicountry, pragmatic study determining whether antivirals should be routinely prescribed for influenza-like illness in primary care. The trial aims to go beyond determining the average treatment effect in a population to determining effects in patients with combinations of participant characteristics (age, symptom duration, illness severity, and comorbidities). It is one of the first platform, response-adaptive, open trial designs implemented in primary care, and this article aims to provide an accessible description of key aspects of the study design...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Vivek Dhawan, Jennifer Bown, Angela Lau, Deanne Langlois-Klassen, Dennis Kunimoto, Ravi Bhargava, Linda Chui, Simon M Collin, Richard Long
The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in high-income countries is increasingly dictated by immigration. The influence of this trend on paediatric TB and TB elimination are not well defined. We undertook a 25-year conventional and molecular epidemiologic study of paediatric TB in Alberta, one of four major immigrant-receiving provinces in Canada. All isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were DNA fingerprinted using standard methodology. Between 1990 and 2014, 176 children aged 0-14 years were diagnosed with TB...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Lesley Ann Saketkoo, Aryn Karpinski, Jessica Young, Ryan Adell, McCall Walker, Tamarin Hennebury, Melissa Wickremasinghe, Anne-Marie Russell
A modified mindfulness-based exercise intervention has beneficial impact on people living with sarcoidosis
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
David M G Halpin, Ruby Birk, Noushin Brealey, Gerard J Criner, Mark T Dransfield, Emma Hilton, David A Lomas, Chang-Qing Zhu, David A Lipson
Triple inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/long-acting β2 -agonist (LABA) therapy is recommended for symptomatic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and at risk of exacerbations. However, the benefits versus side-effects of triple inhaled therapy for COPD, based on distinct patient clinical profiles, are unclear. FULFIL, a phase III, randomised, double-blind study, compared 24 weeks of once-daily fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) 100/62...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Simon Bax, Charlene Bredy, Aleksander Kempny, Konstantinos Dimopoulos, Anand Devaraj, Simon Walsh, Joseph Jacob, Arjun Nair, Maria Kokosi, Gregory Keir, Vasileios Kouranos, Peter M George, Colm McCabe, Michael Wilde, Athol Wells, Wei Li, Stephen John Wort, Laura C Price
European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines recommend the assessment of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and severe pulmonary hypertension (PH), as defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥35 mmHg at right heart catheterisation (RHC). We developed and validated a stepwise echocardiographic score to detect severe PH using the tricuspid regurgitant velocity and right atrial pressure (right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP)) and additional echocardiographic signs. Consecutive ILD patients with suspected PH underwent RHC between 2005 and 2015...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Antonietta Cappuccio, Alessandro Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Massimo Verga, Stefano Nardini, Alessandro Policreti, Pasquale Alberto Porpiglia, Silvia Napolitano, Maria Giulia Marini
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by a progressive loss of pulmonary function. Often patients do not adhere to inhaled therapies and this leads clinicians to switch treatments in order to improve control of the symptoms. Narrative medicine is a useful approach that helps healthcare professionals to think over the doctor-patient relationship and how patients live with their disease. The aim of this training project was to teach pulmonologists the basics of narrative medicine: to carefully listen to patients and to practice reflective writing in their relationship with them...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Carol Ann Kelly, Andrew J Kirkcaldy, Melissa Pilkington, Matthew Hodson, Lindsay Welch, Janelle Yorke, Katherine Knighting
Respiratory nurses make a significant contribution to the delivery of respiratory healthcare, but there is a dearth of nurse-led, practice-focused, published research. Using a modified three-round Delphi, this study sought to identify research priorities for respiratory nursing to inform a national research strategy. Study information and the survey link were sent electronically to members of UK professional respiratory organisations. Round 1 had 78 items across 16 topics, informed by a systematic literature review...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Gloria Tridello, Carlo Castellani, Ilaria Meneghelli, Anna Tamanini, Baroukh M Assael
Newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) has been gradually established in several countries, but scant data are available on its long-term effects on survival. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term effects of CF NBS on survival. 586 patients, diagnosed and followed between 1971 and 2014 at the Verona CF Centre were analysed. Eligibility was confirmed in 342 cases diagnosed by NBS, 101 with meconium ileus and 143 through symptoms (44 out of 143 were NBS false negatives). The primary end-point was the 30-year overall survival in patients diagnosed by NBS...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Adrien Costantini, Jennifer Corny, Vincent Fallet, Sophie Renet, Sylvie Friard, Christos Chouaid, Boris Duchemann, Etienne Giroux-Leprieur, Laurent Taillade, Ludovic Doucet, Marina Nguenang, Stéphane Jouveshomme, Marie Wislez, Jean Tredaniel, Jacques Cadranel
Nivolumab for the treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) evaluated in phase III trials showed 50% progression at first evaluation, but better overall survival (OS), suggesting regained efficacy of treatments given thereafter. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of nivolumab and of next treatment received after nivolumab progression in patients with advanced NSCLC. Our multicentre retrospective study included all patients receiving nivolumab between January and December 2015. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS) of treatment given after nivolumab...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Courtney Heffernan, Alexander Doroshenko, Mary Lou Egedahl, James Barrie, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Richard Long
Our objective was to investigate whether pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) can be predicted from features of a targeted medical history and basic laboratory investigations in immigrants. A retrospective cohort of 391 foreign-born adults referred to the Edmonton Tuberculosis Clinic (Edmonton, AB, Canada) was studied using multiple logistic regression analysis to predict PTB. Seven characteristics of disease were used as explanatory variables. Cross-validation assessed performance. Each predictor was tested on two outcomes: "culture-positive" and "smear-positive"...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Ravi Mahadeva, Zaid Zoumot
Access to lung volume reduction for advanced emphysema
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Anna R Jackson, James H Hull, James G Hopker, John W Dickinson
Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in elite football players and assess subsequent impact of therapy on airway health and exercise performance. 97 male professional football players completed an airway health assessment with a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) challenge to diagnose EIB. Players demonstrating a positive result (EVH+ ) were prescribed inhaler therapy depending on severity, including inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled short-acting β2 -agonists, and underwent repeat assessment after 9 weeks of treatment...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Jesús Sancho, Daniel Martínez, Enric Bures, José Luis Díaz, Alejandro Ponz, Emilio Servera
There is general agreement that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) prolongs survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and that the main cause of NIV failure is the severity of bulbar dysfunction. However, there is no evidence that bulbar impairment is a contraindication for NIV. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bulbar impairment on survival in ALS patients with NIV. ALS patients for whom NIV was indicated were included. Those patients who refused NIV were taken as the control group. 120 patients who underwent NIV and 20 who refused NIV were included...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Monique C Suarez-Giron, Valentina Isetta, Juan F Masa, Carlos Egea, Renata L Riha, Maria R Bonsignore, Josep M Montserrat
Sleep medicine: a new approach
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Shan F Brunel, Janet A Willment, Gordon D Brown, Graham Devereux, Adilia Warris
Aspergillus fumigatus infects up to 50% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and may play a role in progressive lung disease. As cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is expressed in cells of the innate immune system, we hypothesised that impaired antifungal immune responses play a role in CF-related Aspergillus lung disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and monocytes were isolated from blood samples taken from CF patients and healthy volunteers. Live-cell imaging and colorimetric assays were used to assess antifungal activity in vitro ...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Roland Diel, Stefan Niemann, Albert Nienhaus
Data from a prospective molecular-epidemiological study (1997-2015) of patients with culture-confirmed tuberculosis in Hamburg, Germany, were evaluated to assess the occupational risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transmission in a low-incidence setting. Isolates of M. tuberculosis complex were genotyped using IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results of structured questionnaires, geographical mapping and additional patient interviews were used for confirming epidemiological links...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Mikhail P Kostinov, Alexander P Cherdantsev, Nelli K Akhmatova, Daria A Praulova, Aristitsa M Kostinova, Elina A Akhmatova, Evgeniia O Demina
Pregnancy is a condition of modulated immune suppression, so this group of patients has increased risk of infectious diseases. Trivalent subunit vaccines, unadjusted Agrippal S1 (group I) and immunoadjuvant Grippol Plus (group II), containing 5 μg of actual influenza virus strains, were administered respectively to 37 and 42 women in the second and third trimester of physiological pregnancy. The administration of subunit influenza vaccines was accompanied by the development of local reactions in no more than 10% of patients, compared with 4...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Marieke L Duiverman
Long-term noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to treat chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure is still controversial in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, with the introduction of high-intensity NIV, important benefits from this therapy have also been shown in COPD. In this review, the focus will be on the arguments for long-term NIV at home in patients with COPD. The rise of (high-intensity) NIV in COPD and the randomised controlled trials showing positive effects with this mode of ventilation will be discussed...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Anne-Kathrin Brill, Rachel Pickersgill, Mohammad Moghal, Mary J Morrell, Anita K Simonds
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different masks, ventilator settings and body positions on the pressure exerted on the nasal bridge by the mask and subjective comfort during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We measured the pressure over the nasal bridge in 20 healthy participants receiving NIV via four different NIV masks (three oronasal masks, one nasal mask) at three different ventilator settings and in the seated or supine position. Objective pressure measurements were obtained with an I-Scan pressure-mapping system...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Akash Verma, Soon Keng Goh, Dessmon Y H Tai, Ai Ching Kor, Chun Ian Soo, Debra G F Seow, Zin Nge Nge Sein, Jens Samol, Akhil Chopra, John Abisheganaden
Patients with central airway obstruction (CAO) from advanced lung cancer present with significant morbidity and are assumed to have lower survival. Hence, they are offered only palliative support. We asked if patients who have advanced lung cancer with CAO (recanalised and treated) will behave similarly to those with advanced lung cancer without CAO. This study was a retrospective review of the medical records of the patients managed for advanced lung cancer during 2010 and 2015 at our institution. 85 patients were studied...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
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