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Biomolecular Detection and Quantification

Tigst Demeke, Monika Eng
Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has been used for absolute quantification of genetically engineered (GE) events. Absolute quantification of GE events by duplex ddPCR requires the use of appropriate primers and probes for target and reference gene sequences in order to accurately determine the amount of GE materials. Single copy reference genes are generally preferred for absolute quantification of GE events by ddPCR. Study has not been conducted on a comparison of reference genes for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR...
May 2018: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Bhaja K Padhi, Manjeet Singh, Marianela Rosales, Guillaume Pelletier, Sabit Cakmak
Reverse Transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is applied to quantify gene transcript levels in a wide range of investigations. Proper assessment of RNA integrity is essential for reliable assessment of gene expression levels, as RNA molecules are acutely vulnerable to degradation. However, RNA quality control measures are still infrequently reported in rat toxicological studies, which impede proper evaluation of gene expression data reliability. The high operational cost of microfluidic capillary electrophoresis systems along with paucity of alternative methods for the quantitative assessment of rat RNA integrity constitute potential hurdles to the systematic implementation and reporting of RNA integrity assessment in rat studies...
May 2018: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Rebecca Sanders, Stephen Bustin, Jim Huggett, Deborah Mason
Human health and safety depend on reliable measurements in medical diagnosis and on tests that support the selection and evaluation of therapeutic intervention and newly discovered molecular biomarkers must pass a rigorous evaluation process if they are to be of benefit to patients. Measurement standardization helps to maximize data quality and confidence and ultimately improves the reproducibility of published research. Failure to consider how a given experiment may be standardized can be costly, both financially as well as in time and failure to perform and report pre-clinical research in an appropriately rigorous manner will hinder the development of diagnostic methods...
May 2018: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
S Stasik, C Schuster, C Ortlepp, U Platzbecker, M Bornhäuser, J Schetelig, G Ehninger, G Folprecht, C Thiede
Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) has become an important clinical aspect for early relapse detection during follow-up care after cancer treatment. Still, the sensitive detection of single base pair point mutations via Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is hampered mainly due to high substitution error rates. We evaluated the use of NGS for the detection of low-level variants on an Ion Torrent PGM system. As a model case we used the c.1849G > T (p.Val617Phe) mutation of the JAK2 -gene. Several reaction parameters (e...
May 2018: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
M G M Kok, M W J de Ronde, P D Moerland, J M Ruijter, E E Creemers, S J Pinto-Sietsma
Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), circulating miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers for disease. Consequently, many groups have tried to identify circulating miRNA biomarkers for various types of diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the replicability of these experiments has been disappointingly low. In order to identify circulating miRNA candidate biomarkers, in general, first an unbiased high-throughput screen is performed in which a large number of miRNAs is detected and quantified in the circulation...
May 2018: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Adrián Ruiz-Villalba, Elizabeth van Pelt-Verkuil, Quinn D Gunst, Jan M Ruijter, Maurice Jb van den Hoff
Quantitative PCR allows the precise measurement of DNA concentrations and is generally considered to be straightforward and trouble free. However, a survey with 93 validated assays for genes in the Wnt-pathway showed that the amplification of nonspecific products occurs frequently and is unrelated to Cq or PCR efficiency values. Titration experiments showed that the occurrence of low and high melting temperature artifacts was shown to be determined by annealing temperature, primer concentration and cDNA input...
December 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Yair Motro, Jacob Moran-Gilad
With the rapid advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, clinical and public health microbiology laboratories are increasingly adopting NGS technology in their workflows into their existing diagnostic cycles. In this bacteriology focused review, we review aspects and considerations for applying NGS in the clinical microbiology settings, and highlight the impact of such implementation on the analytical and post-analytical stages of diagnosis.
December 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Stephen Bustin, Jim Huggett
Primers are arguably the single most critical components of any PCR assay, as their properties control the exquisite specificity and sensitivity that make this method uniquely powerful. Consequently, poor design combined with failure to optimise reaction conditions is likely to result in reduced technical precision and false positive or negative detection of amplification targets. Despite the framework provided by the MIQE guidelines and the accessibility of wide-ranging support from peer-reviewed publications, books and online sources as well as commercial companies, the design of many published assays continues to be less than optimal: primers often lack intended specificity, can form dimers, compete with template secondary structures at the primer binding sites or hybridise only within a narrow temperature range...
December 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Mattias Van Heetvelde, Wouter Van Loocke, Wim Trypsteen, Annelot Baert, Katrien Vanderheyden, Brecht Crombez, Jo Vandesompele, Kim De Leeneer, Kathleen B M Claes
INTRODUCTION: For the relative quantification of isoform expression, RT-qPCR has been the gold standard for over a decade. More recently, digital PCR is becoming widely implemented, as it is promised to be more accurate, sensitive and less affected by inhibitors, without the need for standard curves. In this study we evaluated RT-qPCR versus RT-droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for the relative quantification of isoforms in controls and carriers of the splice site mutation BRCA1 c.212+3A>G, associated with increased expression of several isoforms...
September 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Ashfaque A Memon, Bengt Zöller, Anna Hedelius, Xiao Wang, Emelie Stenman, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content is a useful clinical biomarker for various diseases, however results are controversial as several analytical factors can affect measurement of mtDNA. MtDNA is often quantified by taking ratio between a target mitochondrial gene and a reference nuclear gene (mtDNA/nDNA) using quantitative real time PCR often on two separate experiments. It measures relative levels by using external calibrator which may not be comparable across laboratories. We have developed and optimized a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) based method for quantification of absolute copy number of both mtDNA and nDNA gene in whole blood...
September 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Zura Kakushadze, Willie Yu
We present *K-means clustering algorithm and source code by expanding statistical clustering methods applied in to quantitative finance. *K-means is statistically deterministic without specifying initial centers, etc. We apply *K-means to extracting cancer signatures from genome data without using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). *K-means' computational cost is a fraction of NMF's. Using 1389 published samples for 14 cancer types, we find that 3 cancers (liver cancer, lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) stand out and do not have cluster-like structures...
September 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
C Ozongwu, Y Personne, G Platt, C Jeanes, S Aydin, N Kozato, V Gant, J O'Grady, V I Enne
BACKGROUND: O'Neill's recent Review on Antimicrobial Resistance expressed the view that by 2020 high-income countries should make it mandatory to support antimicrobial prescribing with rapid diagnostic evidence whenever possible. METHODS: Routine microbiology diagnosis of 95 respiratory specimens from patients with severe infection were compared with those generated by the Unyvero P55 test, which detects 20 pathogens and 19 antimicrobial resistance markers. Supplementary molecular testing for antimicrobial resistance genes, comprehensive culture methodology and 16S rRNA sequencing were performed...
September 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Stephen A Bustin
Reducing the time taken to run qPCR assays on today's qPCR cyclers is rather straightforward and requires no specialised reagents or instruments. As the first article in a new series of short technical reports, I demonstrate that it is possible to reduce significantly both denaturation temperatures and cycling times, whilst retaining sensitivity and specificity of the original qPCR conditions.
June 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Stephen Bustin
Attendance at this year's European Calcified Tissue Society's (ECTS) Congress reveals that the methods used to obtain qPCR results continue to be significantly flawed and that and their reporting remain inadequate.
June 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Amin Forootan, Robert Sjöback, Jens Björkman, Björn Sjögreen, Lucas Linz, Mikael Kubista
Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, better known as qPCR, is the most sensitive and specific technique we have for the detection of nucleic acids. Even though it has been around for more than 30 years and is preferred in research applications, it has yet to win broad acceptance in routine practice. This requires a means to unambiguously assess the performance of specific qPCR analyses. Here we present methods to determine the limit of detection (LoD) and the limit of quantification (LoQ) as applicable to qPCR...
June 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Katharina Stoecker, Steffen Sass, Fabian J Theis, Hans Hauner, Michael W Pfaffl
The process of adipogenesis is controlled in a highly orchestrated manner, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. In developing 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, this program can be interrupted by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To examine this inhibiting impact by ATRA, we generated large-scale transcriptomic data on the microRNA and mRNA level. Non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs represent a field in RNA turnover, which is very important for understanding the regulation of mRNA gene expression. High throughput mRNA and microRNA expression profiling was performed using mRNA hybridisation microarray technology and multiplexed expression assay for microRNA quantification...
March 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Alexander Templar, Desmond M Schofield, Darren N Nesbeth
We measured the impact of the presence of total Escherichia coli (E. coli) cellular material on the performance of the Linear Regression of Efficiency (LRE) method of absolute quantitative PCR (LRE qPCR), which features the putatively universal CAL1 calibration reaction, which we propose as a synthetic biology standard. We firstly used a qPCR reaction in which a sequence present in the lone genomic BirA locus is amplified. Amplification efficiency for this reaction, a key metric for many quantitative qPCR methods, was inhibited by cellular material from bioreactor cultivation to a greater extent than material from shake flask cultivation...
March 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Mary Alikian, Robert Peter Gale, Jane F Apperley, Letizia Foroni
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the paradigm for targeted cancer therapy. RT-qPCR is the gold standard for monitoring response to tyrosine kinase-inhibitor (TKI) therapy based on the reduction of blood or bone marrow BCR-ABL1. Some patients with CML and very low or undetectable levels of BCR-ABL1 transcripts can stop TKI-therapy without CML recurrence. However, about 60 percent of patients discontinuing TKI-therapy have rapid leukaemia recurrence. This has increased the need for more sensitive and specific techniques to measure residual CML cells...
March 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Stephen A Bustin, Jim F Huggett
Many journal editors are a failing to implement their own authors' instructions, resulting in the publication of many articles that do not meet basic standards of transparency, employ unsuitable data analysis methods and report overly optimistic conclusions. This problem is particularly acute where quantitative measurements are made and results in the publication of papers that lack scientific rigor and contributes to the concerns with regard to the reproducibility of biomedical research. This hampers research areas such as biomarker identification, as reproducing all but the most striking changes is challenging and translation to patient care rare...
March 2017: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Somanath Bhat, Kerry R Emslie
Accurate, reliable and reproducible quantification of nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) is important for many diagnostic applications and in routine laboratory testing, for example, for pathogen detection and detection of genetically modified organisms in food. To ensure reliable nucleic acid measurement, reference materials (RM) that are accurately characterised for quantity of target nucleic acid sequences (in copy number or copy number concentration) with a known measurement uncertainty are needed. Recently developed digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) technology allows absolute and accurate quantification of nucleic acid target sequences without need for a reference standard...
December 2016: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
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