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Gastrointestinal Tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071265/freezing-fort-knox-mesenteric-carcinoid-cryoablation
#1
Erik Soule, Arya Bagherpour, Jerry Matteo
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine malignancy is indolent, yet relentless in its propensity to metastasize to the liver, where it may cause bizarre paraneoplastic syndromes. The pathophysiologic mechanism behind this predilection for hepatic metastasis is twofold: the portal venous system drains the most likely primary sites for neuroendocrine tumors, and the relatively immunosuppressed environment within the hepatic parenchyma is permissive for tumor growth. The standard of care for patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor is surgical resection of at least 90% of the tumor burden...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071264/oncological-outcomes-following-rectal-cancer-surgery-with-high-or-low-ligation-of-the-inferior-mesenteric-artery
#2
Kenji Matsuda, Shozo Yokoyama, Tsukasa Hotta, Katsunari Takifuji, Takashi Watanabe, Koichi Tamura, Yasuyuki Mitani, Hiromitsu Iwamoto, Yuki Mizumoto, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND: The level of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) ligation for anterior resection of rectal cancer has several considerations concerning oncological outcomes. The primary endpoint of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to assess bowel function between high and low ligation. This study was intended to clarify oncological outcome as the secondary endpoint. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess in a prospective RCT whether the ligation level of the IMA in rectal cancer influences oncological outcomes...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071263/mortality-and-survival-after-surgical-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-aged-over-80-years
#3
Jyrki Tapani Mäkelä, Kai Hans Klintrup, Tero Tapani Rautio
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical factors and tumor characteristics that predict the outcome of colorectal cancer patients aged >80 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 186 patients aged >80 years with colorectal cancer were collected from a computer database, and the variables were analyzed by both uni- and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality was 4% and the 90-day mortality 10%. The 1-year survival was 76%, and 27 (61%) of the 44 deaths were unrelated to cancer...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071262/left-gastric-artery-reconstruction-after-distal-pancreatectomy-with-celiac-axis-en-bloc-resection-how-we-do-it
#4
Ken-Ichi Okada, Seiko Hirono, Manabu Kawai, Shinya Hayami, Shinichi Asamura, Yoshitaka Wada, Masaki Ueno, Motoki Miyazawa, Atsushi Shimizu, Yuji Kitahata, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ischemic gastropathy remains as a persistent problem after left gastric artery (LGA) resection in distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis en-bloc resection (DP-CAR). The middle colic artery (MCA) was found to be a useful vessel for compromised collateral flow. However, intraoperative gross evaluation of gastric ischemia is technically difficult even after artery reconstruction. METHODS: We performed LGA reconstruction by MCA-LGA bypass after LGA-resecting DP-CAR assisted by intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging (ICG) blood flow evaluation in a clinical trial (UMIN000020414)...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071261/diffuse-type-hepatoma-a-grave-prognostic-marker
#5
Rohan C Siriwardana, Chandika A H Liyanage, Bhagya Gunetilleke, Madunil A Niriella, Janaka de Silva, Anuradha S Dassanayake, Subani P Jayatunge
BACKGROUND: Data on diffuse-type hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rare. HCC in Sri Lanka is rising, and the majority is related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This study was planned to compare nodular- and diffuse-type HCC in this cohort. METHODS: CT scans of 227 patients with HCC negative for infective hepatitis were analyzed and grouped as nodular and diffuse from July 2011 to July 2014. Diffuse-type cancer was defined as a tumor without convex/distinct margin, diffusely infiltrating the hepatic parenchyma...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071260/effect-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-on-elderly-colorectal-cancer-patients-lack-of-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Ulrich Nitsche, Christian Stöss, Helmut Friess
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy has become the standard form of treatment for all patients with stage III colorectal cancer and is also recommended for patients with stage II disease and defined risk factors. However, clinical studies that evaluate the effect of adjuvant treatment regimens have a selection bias in favor of younger patients, so that even retrospective subgroup analyses cannot define the best therapeutic procedure in elderly patients with comorbidities. SUMMARY: As long as the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly colorectal cancer patients is not investigated in comprehensive trials, no clear recommendations are possible...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071259/scaffold-proteins-in-gastrointestinal-tumors-as-a-shortcut-to-oncoprotein-activation
#7
REVIEW
Chushu Li, Huanbin Wang, Han Yao, Jing-Yuan Fang, Jie Xu
BACKGROUND: The development of cancer involves uncontrolled cell proliferation, and multiple signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation have been found to be dysregulated in cancers. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) is one of three major subtypes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) families. The MAPK/ERK pathway (RAS/RAF1/MEK/ERK) plays an important part in promoting cell proliferation in response to growth factors, thereby serving as a driving signal in gastrointestinal (GI) tumors...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611983/accuracy-of-multidetector-row-computed-tomography-in-the-preoperative-diagnosis-of-lymph-node-metastasis-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#8
Keisuke Kubota, Akihiro Suzuki, Hironori Shiozaki, Takeshi Wada, Tomoki Kyosaka, Akihiro Kishida
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Preoperative lymph node staging in gastric cancer patients is important. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in assessing lymph nodes in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 56 patients had undergone standardized gastric resection with lymphadenectomy between October 2013 and June 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The short axis diameter of the largest lymph node per station was recorded when reviewing the preoperative CT images...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611982/enucleation-versus-anatomic-resection-for-giant-hepatic-hemangioma-a-meta-analysis
#9
Yuhui Liu, Xuyong Wei, Kun Wang, Qiaonan Shan, Haojiang Dai, Haiyang Xie, Lin Zhou, Xiao Xu, Shusen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Hepatic hemangiomas are the most common benign liver tumors, and the management of giant hepatic hemangioma (GHH) is still in controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the postoperative outcomes of enucleation versus anatomic resection for GHH. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1988 to December 2015 to identify studies comparing the outcomes of enucleation versus anatomic resection for GHH...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611981/the-clinical-significance-of-alpha-fetoprotein-mrnas-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Shogo Kobayashi, Akira Tomokuni, Hidenori Takahashi, Hirofumi Akita, Keijiro Sugimura, Norikatsu Miyoshi, Jeong Ho Moon, Masayoshi Yasui, Takeshi Omori, Masayuki Ohue, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara, Masahiko Yano, Masato Sakon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA-expressing cells are candidates for circulating tumor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma. We analyzed portal vein blood, peripheral blood, and peritoneal lavage samples to detect the presence of AFP mRNA-expressing cells, and explored their relationship with metastasis. METHODS: We measured the AFP mRNA expression in 112 sets of portal vein and peripheral blood samples and 61 peritoneal lavage samples that had been obtained during surgery...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611980/there-is-no-role-for-colonoscopy-after-diverticulitis-among-asian-patients-less-than-50-years-of-age
#11
Dedrick Kok Hong Chan, Ker-Kan Tan
BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy is advocated following acute diverticulitis to ensure that malignancy is not missed. In an Asian population, diverticulitis is more common in the right colon and in younger patients. The purpose of this study is to examine the utility of colonoscopy amongst Asian patients <50 years of age who have had colonic diverticulitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients aged 50 years and under who were treated for colonic diverticulitis between 2012 and 2014 was performed...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611979/impact-of-preferentially-expressed-antigen-of-melanoma-on-the-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Kenji Oyama, Keita Kanki, Hiroki Shimizu, Yohei Kono, Junya Azumi, Kan Toriguchi, Etsuro Hatano, Goshi Shiota
BACKGROUND: Retinoids, vitamin A and its derivatives, have an antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The function of retinoids is exerted by the complex of retinoic acid (RA) with the heterodimer of retinoid X receptor and the RA receptor. The preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) acts as a dominant repressor of RA signaling by binding to the complex. The significance of PRAME on the prognosis of HCC remains to be clarified. METHODS: PRAME mRNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in both tumor and non-tumor tissues of 100 HCC patients who received surgical resection...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611978/periodontal-pathogens-in-the-etiology-of-pancreatic-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Mesut Öğrendik
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chronic pancreatitis is frequently observed in patients with pancreatic cancer, and a significant relationship between orodigestive cancer-related deaths and chronic periodontitis has been detected. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, collectively called the Red complex, are the major pathogens responsible for chronic periodontitis and secrete peptidylarginine deiminase...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611977/clinicopathology-of-early-gastric-carcinoma-an-update-for-pathologists-and-gastroenterologists
#14
REVIEW
Qin Huang, Xiaoping Zou
BACKGROUND: The WHO defines early gastric carcinoma (EGC) as invasive carcinoma up to the submucosal layer, regardless of nodal metastasis. The recent study results indicate that EGC varies in location, histology, nodal metastasis, and prognosis. SUMMARY: The heterogeneity in EGC may be related to various types of epithelial stem cells. The most important stem cells include Lgr5(+) cells at the base of a gastric unit in the antrum-pylorus-cardia, Mist1(+) cells at the isthmus/Troy(+) cells at the base in the corpus-fundus, and Sox2(+) cells at the base in almost all regions...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904863/recent-updates-in-the-endoscopic-diagnosis-of-barrett-s-oesophagus
#15
REVIEW
Neel Sharma, Khek Yu Ho
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Despite the low risk of progression per annum, OAC is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 5-year survival of 10%. Furthermore, the incidence of OAC continues to rise globally. Therefore, it is imperative to detect the premalignant phase of BO and follow up such patients accordingly. SUMMARY: The mainstay diagnosis of BO is endoscopy and biopsy sampling...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904862/risk-factors-for-barrett-s-oesophagus
#16
REVIEW
Neel Sharma, Khek Yu Ho
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Globally, the incidence of OAC is rising. Furthermore, the prognosis regarding the morbidity and mortality of OAC is bleak, with an estimated 5-year survival of 10-15%. Hence, detection of the premalignant phase is paramount. Endoscopy and biopsy sampling is the mainstay of diagnosis. Patients may present with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or be completely asymptomatic...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904861/a-recent-advance-in-image-guided-locoregional-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Yaoping Shi, Bo Zhai
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Hepatic resection and liver transplantation are considered to be the preferred treatment for HCC. However, as novel therapeutic options such as image-guided locoregional therapies have emerged and been refined, the manner in which HCC is treated has changed dramatically compared with what it was considered just 2 decades earlier. SUMMARY: This study reviews the current results of various image-guided locoregional therapies for treating HCC, especially focusing on thermal ablative and transarterial techniques...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904860/interventional-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Jianwei Zhu, Zhendong Jin
BACKGROUND: Palliative therapy and primarily chemoradiotherapy are the mainstream treatments in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC). Conventional endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided interventional therapy has emerged as an important procedure for PC management. In this review, the progress in conventional endoscopy and EUS for PC management is discussed. SUMMARY: For local palliative therapy against PC, EUS-guided fine needle injection (FNI) could deliver different kinds of agents, such as radioactive seeds and fiducials...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904859/endoscopic-approach-for-superficial-colorectal-neoplasms
#19
REVIEW
Jun-Feng Xu, Lang Yang, Peng Jin, Jian-Qiu Sheng
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, with an estimated 1.4 million cases and 693,900 deaths in 2012. Colonoscopy is the cornerstone for the detection and prevention of CRC. In addition, endoscopic treatment for CRC at an early stage can effectively improve patients' quality of life and cure rate. SUMMARY: This review focuses on endoscopic approaches, including white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy and therapeutic endoscopy, for the evaluation and treatment of superficial colorectal neoplasms...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904858/interventional-therapy-of-esophageal-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Aiwu Mao
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China. Despite a lot of advances in diagnosis and therapy, the survival rate of patients with EC is low. There is urgent need for a variety of methods and techniques to improve the survival time and alleviate the lesions of EC. Nowadays, alternative and less invasive approaches to the treatment of ECs are being identified. Here, we review several main interventional methods at different stages of EC, including endoscopic resection, stent placement, arterial infusion, photodynamic therapy, and radiofrequency ablation...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
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