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Gastrointestinal Tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594112/erratum
#1
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1159/000442831.].
February 2018: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594111/waiting-time-following-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer-does-it-really-matter
#2
Aris Plastiras, Michail Sideris, Andy Gaya, Amyn Haji, Joseph Nunoo-Mensah, Asif Haq, Savvas Papagrigoriadis
Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is considered the standard approach before any surgical intervention for locally advanced rectal tumors and has been proven to significantly improve the local recurrence rates of rectal cancer. However, the optimal timing of surgical resection after neoadjuvant CRT remains debatable. Objective and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 65 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgical resection in order to evaluate the optimal time for surgical treatment...
February 2018: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594110/is-colonoscopy-indicated-in-young-patients-with-hematochezia
#3
Frederick H Koh, Aaron Seah, Dedrick Chan, Jingyu Ng, Ker-Kan Tan
Background/Aims: While colonoscopy is indicated in patients >50 years old presenting with hematochezia, its role in those ≤50 remains debatable. This study aims to evaluate the role of colonoscopy in patients presenting with hematochezia who are ≤50 years old. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients aged ≤50 years who underwent colonoscopy for hematochezia in 2012 was conducted. Patient demographics, endoscopic details, and histological results were analyzed...
February 2018: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594109/impact-of-three-dimensional-surgical-simulation-on-pancreatic-surgery
#4
Ryoichi Miyamoto, Yukio Oshiro, Ken Nakayama, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Background/Aims: Anatomical variations are frequently encountered during hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgeries, requiring surgeons to have a precise understanding of the surgical anatomy in order to perform a safe surgery. We evaluated the impact of novel three-dimensional (3D) surgical simulation on pancreatic surgeries to enhance surgical residents' understanding. Methodology: Between January 2013 and May 2014, 61 preoperative 3D surgical simulations were performed...
February 2018: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594108/short-term-outcomes-of-extended-pancreatectomy-a-single-surgeon-experience
#5
Tze-Yi Low, Ye-Xin Koh, Jin-Yao Teo, Brian K P Goh
Background/Aims: The International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery recently published a consensus statement on the definition of extended pancreatectomy (EP). We aimed to determine the safety profile and short-term outcomes of EP compared to standard pancreatectomy (SP). To mitigate surgeon bias, only pancreatectomies performed by a single surgeon were included. Methods: Ninety consecutive patients who underwent pancreatectomy by a single surgeon over a period of 5 years and who met our study criteria were classified into an SP or an EP group...
February 2018: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594107/effects-of-enteral-immunonutrition-in-esophageal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Kenji Mimatsu, Nobutada Fukino, Yasuo Ogasawara, Yoko Saino, Takatsugu Oida
Background: Immunonutrition (IN) significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative infectious complications and the length of hospitalization in patients undergoing major elective surgery for gastrointestinal malignances. However, the clinical benefit of IN in patients who have undergone esophagectomy for esophageal cancer is unclear. Moreover, the effect of enteral IN in patients during preoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer is unknown...
February 2018: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071265/freezing-fort-knox-mesenteric-carcinoid-cryoablation
#7
Erik Soule, Arya Bagherpour, Jerry Matteo
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine malignancy is indolent, yet relentless in its propensity to metastasize to the liver, where it may cause bizarre paraneoplastic syndromes. The pathophysiologic mechanism behind this predilection for hepatic metastasis is twofold: the portal venous system drains the most likely primary sites for neuroendocrine tumors, and the relatively immunosuppressed environment within the hepatic parenchyma is permissive for tumor growth. The standard of care for patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor is surgical resection of at least 90% of the tumor burden...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071264/oncological-outcomes-following-rectal-cancer-surgery-with-high-or-low-ligation-of-the-inferior-mesenteric-artery
#8
Kenji Matsuda, Shozo Yokoyama, Tsukasa Hotta, Katsunari Takifuji, Takashi Watanabe, Koichi Tamura, Yasuyuki Mitani, Hiromitsu Iwamoto, Yuki Mizumoto, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND: The level of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) ligation for anterior resection of rectal cancer has several considerations concerning oncological outcomes. The primary endpoint of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to assess bowel function between high and low ligation. This study was intended to clarify oncological outcome as the secondary endpoint. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess in a prospective RCT whether the ligation level of the IMA in rectal cancer influences oncological outcomes...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071263/mortality-and-survival-after-surgical-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-aged-over-80-years
#9
Jyrki Tapani Mäkelä, Kai Hans Klintrup, Tero Tapani Rautio
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical factors and tumor characteristics that predict the outcome of colorectal cancer patients aged >80 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 186 patients aged >80 years with colorectal cancer were collected from a computer database, and the variables were analyzed by both uni- and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality was 4% and the 90-day mortality 10%. The 1-year survival was 76%, and 27 (61%) of the 44 deaths were unrelated to cancer...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071262/left-gastric-artery-reconstruction-after-distal-pancreatectomy-with-celiac-axis-en-bloc-resection-how-we-do-it
#10
Ken-Ichi Okada, Seiko Hirono, Manabu Kawai, Shinya Hayami, Shinichi Asamura, Yoshitaka Wada, Masaki Ueno, Motoki Miyazawa, Atsushi Shimizu, Yuji Kitahata, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ischemic gastropathy remains as a persistent problem after left gastric artery (LGA) resection in distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis en-bloc resection (DP-CAR). The middle colic artery (MCA) was found to be a useful vessel for compromised collateral flow. However, intraoperative gross evaluation of gastric ischemia is technically difficult even after artery reconstruction. METHODS: We performed LGA reconstruction by MCA-LGA bypass after LGA-resecting DP-CAR assisted by intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging (ICG) blood flow evaluation in a clinical trial (UMIN000020414)...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071261/diffuse-type-hepatoma-a-grave-prognostic-marker
#11
Rohan C Siriwardana, Chandika A H Liyanage, Bhagya Gunetilleke, Madunil A Niriella, Janaka de Silva, Anuradha S Dassanayake, Subani P Jayatunge
BACKGROUND: Data on diffuse-type hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rare. HCC in Sri Lanka is rising, and the majority is related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This study was planned to compare nodular- and diffuse-type HCC in this cohort. METHODS: CT scans of 227 patients with HCC negative for infective hepatitis were analyzed and grouped as nodular and diffuse from July 2011 to July 2014. Diffuse-type cancer was defined as a tumor without convex/distinct margin, diffusely infiltrating the hepatic parenchyma...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071260/effect-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-on-elderly-colorectal-cancer-patients-lack-of-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Ulrich Nitsche, Christian Stöss, Helmut Friess
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy has become the standard form of treatment for all patients with stage III colorectal cancer and is also recommended for patients with stage II disease and defined risk factors. However, clinical studies that evaluate the effect of adjuvant treatment regimens have a selection bias in favor of younger patients, so that even retrospective subgroup analyses cannot define the best therapeutic procedure in elderly patients with comorbidities. SUMMARY: As long as the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly colorectal cancer patients is not investigated in comprehensive trials, no clear recommendations are possible...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071259/scaffold-proteins-in-gastrointestinal-tumors-as-a-shortcut-to-oncoprotein-activation
#13
REVIEW
Chushu Li, Huanbin Wang, Han Yao, Jing-Yuan Fang, Jie Xu
BACKGROUND: The development of cancer involves uncontrolled cell proliferation, and multiple signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation have been found to be dysregulated in cancers. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) is one of three major subtypes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) families. The MAPK/ERK pathway (RAS/RAF1/MEK/ERK) plays an important part in promoting cell proliferation in response to growth factors, thereby serving as a driving signal in gastrointestinal (GI) tumors...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611983/accuracy-of-multidetector-row-computed-tomography-in-the-preoperative-diagnosis-of-lymph-node-metastasis-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#14
Keisuke Kubota, Akihiro Suzuki, Hironori Shiozaki, Takeshi Wada, Tomoki Kyosaka, Akihiro Kishida
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Preoperative lymph node staging in gastric cancer patients is important. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in assessing lymph nodes in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 56 patients had undergone standardized gastric resection with lymphadenectomy between October 2013 and June 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The short axis diameter of the largest lymph node per station was recorded when reviewing the preoperative CT images...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611982/enucleation-versus-anatomic-resection-for-giant-hepatic-hemangioma-a-meta-analysis
#15
Yuhui Liu, Xuyong Wei, Kun Wang, Qiaonan Shan, Haojiang Dai, Haiyang Xie, Lin Zhou, Xiao Xu, Shusen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Hepatic hemangiomas are the most common benign liver tumors, and the management of giant hepatic hemangioma (GHH) is still in controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the postoperative outcomes of enucleation versus anatomic resection for GHH. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1988 to December 2015 to identify studies comparing the outcomes of enucleation versus anatomic resection for GHH...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611981/the-clinical-significance-of-alpha-fetoprotein-mrnas-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Shogo Kobayashi, Akira Tomokuni, Hidenori Takahashi, Hirofumi Akita, Keijiro Sugimura, Norikatsu Miyoshi, Jeong Ho Moon, Masayoshi Yasui, Takeshi Omori, Masayuki Ohue, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara, Masahiko Yano, Masato Sakon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA-expressing cells are candidates for circulating tumor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma. We analyzed portal vein blood, peripheral blood, and peritoneal lavage samples to detect the presence of AFP mRNA-expressing cells, and explored their relationship with metastasis. METHODS: We measured the AFP mRNA expression in 112 sets of portal vein and peripheral blood samples and 61 peritoneal lavage samples that had been obtained during surgery...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611980/there-is-no-role-for-colonoscopy-after-diverticulitis-among-asian-patients-less-than-50-years-of-age
#17
Dedrick Kok Hong Chan, Ker-Kan Tan
BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy is advocated following acute diverticulitis to ensure that malignancy is not missed. In an Asian population, diverticulitis is more common in the right colon and in younger patients. The purpose of this study is to examine the utility of colonoscopy amongst Asian patients <50 years of age who have had colonic diverticulitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients aged 50 years and under who were treated for colonic diverticulitis between 2012 and 2014 was performed...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611979/impact-of-preferentially-expressed-antigen-of-melanoma-on-the-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Kenji Oyama, Keita Kanki, Hiroki Shimizu, Yohei Kono, Junya Azumi, Kan Toriguchi, Etsuro Hatano, Goshi Shiota
BACKGROUND: Retinoids, vitamin A and its derivatives, have an antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The function of retinoids is exerted by the complex of retinoic acid (RA) with the heterodimer of retinoid X receptor and the RA receptor. The preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) acts as a dominant repressor of RA signaling by binding to the complex. The significance of PRAME on the prognosis of HCC remains to be clarified. METHODS: PRAME mRNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in both tumor and non-tumor tissues of 100 HCC patients who received surgical resection...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611978/periodontal-pathogens-in-the-etiology-of-pancreatic-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Mesut Öğrendik
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chronic pancreatitis is frequently observed in patients with pancreatic cancer, and a significant relationship between orodigestive cancer-related deaths and chronic periodontitis has been detected. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, collectively called the Red complex, are the major pathogens responsible for chronic periodontitis and secrete peptidylarginine deiminase...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611977/clinicopathology-of-early-gastric-carcinoma-an-update-for-pathologists-and-gastroenterologists
#20
REVIEW
Qin Huang, Xiaoping Zou
BACKGROUND: The WHO defines early gastric carcinoma (EGC) as invasive carcinoma up to the submucosal layer, regardless of nodal metastasis. The recent study results indicate that EGC varies in location, histology, nodal metastasis, and prognosis. SUMMARY: The heterogeneity in EGC may be related to various types of epithelial stem cells. The most important stem cells include Lgr5+ cells at the base of a gastric unit in the antrum-pylorus-cardia, Mist1+ cells at the isthmus/Troy+ cells at the base in the corpus-fundus, and Sox2+ cells at the base in almost all regions...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
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