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Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445728/radiation-induced-cardiovascular-disease-mechanisms-and-importance-of-linear-energy-transfer
#1
REVIEW
Christopher B Sylvester, Jun-Ichi Abe, Zarana S Patel, K Jane Grande-Allen
Radiation therapy (RT) in the form of photons and protons is a well-established treatment for cancer. More recently, heavy charged particles have been used to treat radioresistant and high-risk cancers. Radiation treatment is known to cause cardiovascular disease (CVD) which can occur acutely during treatment or years afterward in the form of accelerated atherosclerosis. Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICVD) can be a limiting factor in treatment as well as a cause of morbidity and mortality in successfully treated patients...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423397/age-is-relative-impact-of-donor-age-on-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cell-functionality
#2
REVIEW
Elisabeth Tamara Strässler, Katriina Aalto-Setälä, Mostafa Kiamehr, Ulf Landmesser, Nicolle Kränkel
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) avoid many of the restrictions that hamper the application of human embryonic stem cells: limited availability of source material due to legal restrictions in some countries, immunogenic rejection and ethical concerns. Also, the donor's clinical phenotype is often known when working with iPSCs. Therefore, iPSCs seem ideal to tackle the two biggest tasks of regenerative medicine: degenerative diseases with genetic cause (e.g., Duchenne's muscular dystrophy) and organ replacement in age-related diseases (e...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417051/inflammation-in-vein-graft-disease
#3
REVIEW
Margreet R de Vries, Paul H A Quax
Bypass surgery is one of the most frequently used strategies to revascularize tissues downstream occlusive atherosclerotic lesions. For venous bypass surgery the great saphenous vein is the most commonly used vessel. Unfortunately, graft efficacy is low due to the development of vascular inflammation, intimal hyperplasia and accelerated atherosclerosis. Moreover, failure of grafts leads to significant adverse outcomes and even mortality. The last couple of decades not much has changed in the treatment of vein graft disease (VGD)...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404342/message-in-a-microbottle-modulation-of-vascular-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-by-extracellular-vesicles
#4
REVIEW
Emiel P C van der Vorst, Renske J de Jong, Marjo M P C Donners
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a novel intercellular communication system. By carrying bioactive lipids, miRNAs and proteins they can modulate target cell functions and phenotype. Circulating levels of EVs are increased in inflammatory conditions, e.g., cardiovascular disease patients, and their functional contribution to atherosclerotic disease development is currently heavily studied. This review will describe how EVs can modulate vascular cell functions relevant to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, particularly highlighting the role of EV-associated proteolytic activity and effector proteins involved...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404341/thrombosis-and-vascular-inflammation-in-diabetes-mechanisms-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#5
REVIEW
Nikoletta Pechlivani, Ramzi A Ajjan
Cardiovascular disease remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. The risk of vascular ischemia is increased in this population and outcome following an event is inferior compared to individuals with normal glucose metabolism. The reasons for the adverse vascular profile in diabetes are related to a combination of more extensive atherosclerotic disease coupled with an enhanced thrombotic environment. Long-term measures to halt the accelerated atherosclerotic process in diabetes have only partially addressed vascular pathology, while long-term antithrombotic management remains largely similar to individuals without diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393933/corrigendum-molecular-autopsy-for-sudden-death-in-the-young-is-data-aggregation-the-key
#6
Manuel Rueda, Jennifer L Wagner, Tierney C Phillips, Sarah E Topol, Evan D Muse, Jonathan R Lucas, Glenn N Wagner, Eric J Topol, Ali Torkamani
[This corrects the article on p. 72 in vol. 4, PMID: 29181379.].
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379789/cathepsin-s-as-an-inhibitor-of-cardiovascular-inflammation-and-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Brena F Sena, Jose Luiz Figueiredo, Elena Aikawa
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for the majority of deaths in the developed world. Particularly, in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the imbalance of calcium and phosphate may lead to the acceleration of both vascular and valve inflammation and calcification. One in two patients with CKD are reported as dying from cardiovascular causes due to the resulting acceleration in the development of atherosclerosis plaques. In addition, CKD patients on hemodialysis are prone to aortic valve calcification and often need valve replacement before kidney transplantation...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379788/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-defective-efferocytosis-in-atherosclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Arif Yurdagul, Amanda C Doran, Bishuang Cai, Gabrielle Fredman, Ira A Tabas
Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells, termed efferocytosis, critically regulates normal homeostasis whereas defective uptake of apoptotic cells results in chronic and non-resolving inflammatory diseases, such as advanced atherosclerosis. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited into developing atherosclerotic lesions initially display efficient efferocytosis and temper inflammatory responses, processes that restrict plaque progression. However, during the course of plaque development, macrophages undergo cellular reprogramming that reduces efferocytic capacity, which results in post-apoptotic necrosis of apoptotic cells and inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376057/high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-is-a-predictor-of-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease
#9
David C Tong, Robert Whitbourn, Andrew MacIsaac, Andrew Wilson, Andrew Burns, Sonny Palmer, Jamie Layland
Background: Inflammation and microvascular dysfunction (MVD) are independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ischemic heart disease. This study aimed to assess the relationship between inflammation, MVD, and myocardial injury. Methods: Coronary microvascular function was assessed in 74 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using the index of microvascular resistance (IMR) by a pressure-temperature sensor-tipped wire...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359134/staff-recall-travel-time-for-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-impacted-by-traffic-congestion-and-distance-a-digitally-integrated-map-software-study
#10
Justin Cole, Richard Beare, Thanh G Phan, Velandai Srikanth, Andrew MacIsaac, Christianne Tan, David Tong, Susan Yee, Jesslyn Ho, Jamie Layland
Background: Recent evidence suggests hospitals fail to meet guideline specified time to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for a proportion of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) presentations. Implicit in achieving this time is the rapid assembly of crucial catheter laboratory staff. As a proof-of-concept, we set out to create regional maps that graphically show the impact of traffic congestion and distance to destination on staff recall travel times for STEMI, thereby producing a resource that could be used by staff to improve reperfusion time for STEMI...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326947/echocardiographic-image-quality-deteriorates-with-age-in-children-and-young-adults-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#11
Alyssa Power, Sabrina Poonja, Dal Disler, Kimberley Myers, David J Patton, Jean K Mah, Nowell M Fine, Steven C Greenway
Background: Advances in medical care for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have resulted in improved survival and an increased prevalence of cardiomyopathy. Serial echocardiographic surveillance is recommended to detect early cardiac dysfunction and initiate medical therapy. Clinical anecdote suggests that echocardiographic quality diminishes over time, impeding accurate assessment of left ventricular systolic function. Furthermore, evidence-based guidelines for the use of cardiac imaging in DMD, including cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), are limited...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326946/microvesicles-in-atherosclerosis-and-angiogenesis-from-bench-to-bedside-and-reverse
#12
REVIEW
Lina Badimon, Rosa Suades, Gemma Arderiu, Esther Peña, Gemma Chiva-Blanch, Teresa Padró
Atherosclerosis (AT) is a progressive chronic disease involving lipid accumulation, fibrosis, and inflammation in medium and large-sized arteries, and it is the main cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). AT is caused by dyslipidemia and mediated by both innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite lipid-lowering drugs have shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs), there is a significant burden of AT-related morbidity and mortality. Identification of subjects at increased risk for CVE as well as discovery of novel therapeutic targets for improved treatment strategies are still unmet clinical needs in CVD...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322046/extracellular-vesicles-as-mediators-of-cardiovascular-calcification
#13
REVIEW
Amirala Bakhshian Nik, Joshua D Hutcheson, Elena Aikawa
Involvement of cell-derived extracellular particles, coined as matrix vesicles (MVs), in biological bone formation was introduced by Bonucci and Anderson in mid-1960s. In 1983, Anderson et al. observed similar structures in atherosclerotic lesion calcification using electron microscopy. Recent studies employing new technologies and high- resolution microscopy have shown that although they exhibit characteristics similar to MVs, calcifying extracellular vesicles (EVs) in cardiovascular tissues are phenotypically distinct from their bone counterparts...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312961/anti-inflammatory-nanomedicine-for-cardiovascular-disease
#14
REVIEW
Shunsuke Katsuki, Tetsuya Matoba, Jun-Ichiro Koga, Kaku Nakano, Kensuke Egashira
Coronary artery disease, in the development of which inflammation mediated by innate immune cells plays a critical role, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are a widely used lipid-lowering drug that has lipid-independent vasculoprotective effects, such as improvement of endothelial dysfunction, antioxidant properties, and inhibitory effects on inflammation. Despite recent advances in lipid-lowering therapy, clinical trials of statins suggest that anti-inflammatory therapy beyond lipid-lowering therapy is indispensible to further reduce cardiovascular events...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312960/should-we-maintain-anticoagulation-after-successful-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-the-need-for-a-randomized-study
#15
Giuseppe Santarpia, Salvatore De Rosa, Jolanda Sabatino, Antonio Curcio, Ciro Indolfi
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a high risk of thromboembolic stroke and oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) is able to reduce the rate of ischemic events. Nevertheless, the actual benefit of prolonged OAT after successful radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is not clear yet. Methods: Scientific investigations were assumed suitable if they assessed the clinical significance of the use of anticoagulation versus no anticoagulation in AF patients undergoing successful RFCA...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312959/an-interleukin-6-receptor-antibody-suppresses-atherosclerosis-in-atherogenic-mice
#16
Koji Akita, Kikuo Isoda, Yayoi Sato-Okabayashi, Tomoyasu Kadoguchi, Kenichi Kitamura, Fumie Ohtomo, Kazunori Shimada, Hiroyuki Daida
IκBNS is a nuclear IκB protein which negatively regulates nuclear factor-κB activity. We demonstrated that IκBNS deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice via increased interleukin (IL)-6 production by macrophages. Previous studies showed that the increase in IL-6 might contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. However, whether an anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) can protect atherosclerotic lesions in atherogenic mice remains to be elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312958/mechanotransduction-mechanisms-in-mitral-valve-physiology-and-disease-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Leah A Pagnozzi, Jonathan T Butcher
The mitral valve exists in a mechanically demanding environment, with the stress of each cardiac cycle deforming and shearing the native fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Cells and their extracellular matrix exhibit a dynamic reciprocity in the growth and formation of tissue through mechanotransduction and continuously adapt to physical cues in their environment through gene, protein, and cytokine expression. Valve disease is the most common congenital heart defect with watchful waiting and valve replacement surgery the only treatment option...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312957/patrolling-mechanics-of-non-classical-monocytes-in-vascular-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Konrad Buscher, Paola Marcovecchio, Catherine C Hedrick, Klaus Ley
Non-classical monocytes have emerged as the preeminent vascular housekeepers. Continuous intravascular screening is enabled by slow patrolling on the endothelium and allows a rapid response to local perturbations. Intravital imaging has been crucial to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and migratory phenotype of patrolling. In this review, we discuss technical requirements of intravital microscopy such as imaging modalities, labeling strategies, and data analysis. We further focus on patrolling kinetics and adhesion receptors in different organs and vascular beds including arteries during homeostasis and vascular inflammation and define pertinent questions in the field...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270409/defective-protein-catabolism-in-atherosclerotic-vascular-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Takuro Miyazaki, Akira Miyazaki
Vascular inflammation in atheroprone vessels propagates throughout the arterial tree in dyslipidemic patients, thereby accelerating atherosclerotic progression. To elucidate the mechanism of vascular inflammation, most previous studies have focused on inflammation-related signals that are sent in response to vasoactive stimuli. However, it is also important to understand how normal blood vessels become defective and start degenerating. Growing evidence suggests that major protein catabolism pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome, autophagy, and calpain systems, are disturbed in atheroprone vessels and contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259974/the-kv7-channel-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#20
REVIEW
Andreas L Fosmo, Øyvind B Skraastad
Potassium channels play a pivotal role in the regulation of excitability in cells such as neurons, cardiac myocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells. The KCNQ (Kv7) family of voltage-activated K+ channels hyperpolarizes the cell and stabilizes the membrane potential. Here, we outline how Kv7 channel activity may contribute to the development of the cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Questions and hypotheses regarding previous and future research have been raised. Alterations in the Kv7 channel may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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