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Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224128/upregulation-of-th-il-17-pathway-related-genes-in-human-coronary-endothelial-cells-stimulated-with-serum-of-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes
#1
Giovanni Cimmino, Loreta Pia Ciuffreda, Giovanni Ciccarelli, Paolo Calabrò, Fiorella Angelica Valeria Ferraiolo, Alessia Rivellino, Raffaele De Palma, Paolo Golino, Francesco Rossi, Plinio Cirillo, Liberato Berrino
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays an essential role in the development and complications of atherosclerosis plaques, including acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Indeed, previous reports have shown that within the coronary circulation of ACS patients, several soluble mediators are released. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that endothelial dysfunction might play an important role in atherosclerosis as well as ACS pathophysiology. However, the mechanisms by which these soluble mediators might affect endothelial functions are still largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210619/a-useful-tool-as-a-medical-checkup-in-a-general-population-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis
#2
Mika Enomoto, Hisashi Adachi, Ako Fukami, Eita Kumagai, Sachiko Nakamura, Yume Nohara, Shoko Kono, Erika Nakao, Nagisa Morikawa, Tomoko Tsuru, Akiko Sakaue, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
Accumulation of visceral fat leads to metabolic syndrome and increases risks of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, which should be recognized and improved at the early stage in general population. Accurate measurement of visceral fat area (VFA) is commonly performed by the abdominal cross-sectional image measured by computed tomography scan, which is, however, limited due to the radiation exposure. The bioelectrical impedance analysis (OMRON, HDS-2000 DUALSCAN(R)) has been recently developed to measure VFA, which is more easily accessible modality...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194400/eating-the-dead-to-keep-atherosclerosis-at-bay
#3
REVIEW
Megan L Brophy, Yunzhou Dong, Hao Wu, H N Ashiqur Rahman, Kai Song, Hong Chen
Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite effective lipid-lowering therapies and prevention programs, atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of CHD in developing countries worldwide is rapidly increasing at a rate expected to overtake those of cancer and diabetes. Prominent risk factors include the hardening of arteries and high levels of cholesterol, which lead to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119918/cardiovascular-hypertensive-crisis-recent-evidence-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Christos Varounis, Vasiliki Katsi, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, John Lekakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Despite the high prevalence of hypertension (HTN), only a small proportion of the hypertensive patients will ultimately develop hypertensive crisis. In fact, some patients with hypertensive crisis do not report a history of HTN or previous use of antihypertensive medication. The majority of the patients with hypertensive crisis often report non-specific symptoms, whereas heart-related symptoms (dyspnea, chest pain, arrhythmias, and syncope) are less common. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergencies or hypertensive urgencies according to the presence or absence of acute target organ damage, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018907/the-use-of-the-ambulatory-arterial-stiffness-index-in-patients-suspected-of-secondary-hypertension
#5
Joshua R A Verbakel, Ahmet Adiyaman, Nicole Kraayvanger, Dirk G Dechering, Cornelis T Postma
The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is a marker of arterial stiffness and is derived from ambulatory 24-h blood pressure registration. We studied whether the AASI could be used as a predictive factor for the presence of renal artery stenosis (RAS) in patients with a suspicion of secondary hypertension and as such as a diagnostic tool for RAS. We included 169 patients with difficult-to-treat hypertension. They all underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring registration, imaging of the renal arteries, and cardiovascular risk measurement, including smoking, history, biometrics, blood pressure, renal function, lipids, and glucose metabolism...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999776/-freeze-don-t-move-how-to-arrest-a-suspect-in-heart-failure-a-review-on-available-grk2-inhibitors
#6
REVIEW
Daniela Sorriento, Michele Ciccarelli, Ersilia Cipolletta, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino
Cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF) still collect the largest toll of death in western societies and all over the world. A growing number of molecular mechanisms represent possible targets for new therapeutic strategies, which can counteract the metabolic and structural changes observed in the failing heart. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is one of such targets for which experimental and clinical evidence are established. Indeed, several strategies have been carried out in place to interface with the known GRK2 mechanisms of action in the failing heart...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965964/pulmonary-perfusion-and-ventilation-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-are-not-associated-with-improved-postoperative-outcomes-after-cardiac-surgery
#7
Yiliam F Rodriguez-Blanco, Angela Gologorsky, Tomas Antonio Salerno, Kaming Lo, Edward Gologorsky
OBJECTIVES: Clinical trials of either pulmonary perfusion or ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) are equivocal. We hypothesized that to achieve significant improvement in outcomes both interventions had to be concurrent. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTINGS: Major academic tertiary referral medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seventy-four consecutive patients who underwent open heart surgery with CBP 2009-2013...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933299/strategy-to-prime-the-host-and-cells-to-augment-therapeutic-efficacy-of-progenitor-cells-for-patients-with-myocardial-infarction
#8
REVIEW
Jeehoon Kang, Tae-Won Kim, Jin Hur, Hyo-Soo Kim
Cell therapy in myocardial infarction (MI) is an innovative strategy that is regarded as a rescue therapy to repair the damaged myocardium and to promote neovascularization for the ischemic border zone. Among several stem cell sources for this purpose, autologous progenitors from bone marrow or peripheral blood would be the most feasible and safest cell-source. Despite the theoretical benefit of cell therapy, this method is not widely adopted in the actual clinical practice due to its low therapeutic efficacy...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900323/unexpected-dual-left-anterior-descending-artery-as-a-source-of-percutaneous-coronary-revascularization-failure
#9
Steven D Hajdu, Salah D Qanadli
Dual left anterior descending artery (LAD) is rare. A 61-year-old patient was referred because of angina and a positive stress test. Coronary angiography revealed a short LAD originating from the left main coronary artery. Computed tomography showed a long LAD originating above the right coronary artery sinus.
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867942/quantification-of-calcified-particles-in-human-valve-tissue-reveals-asymmetry-of-calcific-aortic-valve-disease-development
#10
Katsumi Yabusaki, Joshua D Hutcheson, Payal Vyas, Sergio Bertazzo, Simon C Body, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
Recent studies indicated that small calcified particles observable by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) may initiate calcification in cardiovascular tissues. We hypothesized that if the calcified particles precede gross calcification observed in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), they would exhibit a regional asymmetric distribution associated with CAVD development, which always initiates at the base of aortic valve leaflets adjacent to the aortic outflow in a region known as the fibrosa. Testing this hypothesis required counting the calcified particles in histological sections of aortic valve leaflets...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833913/glycemic-control-with-ipragliflozin-a-novel-selective-sglt2-inhibitor-ameliorated-endothelial-dysfunction-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mouse
#11
Hotimah Masdan Salim, Daiju Fukuda, Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress is a critical initiator of macro- and micro-vascular disease development in diabetic patients. Ipragliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, offers a novel approach for the treatment of diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. The aim of this study was to examine whether ipragliflozin attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were treated with streptozotocin (150 mg/kg) by a single intraperitoneal injection to induce diabetes mellitus...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818991/percutaneous-device-to-narrow-the-coronary-sinus-shifting-paradigm-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-angina-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
Daniela Benedetto, Masieh Abawi, Pieter R Stella, Freek Nijhoff, Maxime D M Lakemeier, Friso Kortlandt, Pieter A Doevendans, Pierfrancesco Agostoni
Refractory angina pectoris is defined as a chronic debilitating condition characterized by the presence of chronic anginal symptoms due to a severe obstructive and/or diffuse coronary artery disease that cannot be controlled by the combination of medical therapy and/or revascularization (percutaneous or surgical). In addition, the presence of myocardial ischemia as a cause of the symptoms must have been documented. The coronary sinus reducer (CSR) is a recently introduced percutaneous device to treat patients with severe anginal symptoms refractory to optimal medical therapy and not amenable to conventional revascularization...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807535/rat-heterotopic-heart-transplantation-model-to-investigate-unloading-induced-myocardial-remodeling
#13
REVIEW
Xuebin Fu, Adrian Segiser, Thierry P Carrel, Hendrik T Tevaearai Stahel, Henriette Most
Unloading of the failing left ventricle in order to achieve myocardial reverse remodeling and improvement of contractile function has been developed as a strategy with the increasing frequency of implantation of left ventricular assist devices in clinical practice. But, reverse remodeling remains an elusive target, with high variability and exact mechanisms still largely unclear. The small animal model of heterotopic heart transplantation (hHTX) in rodents has been widely implemented to study the effects of complete and partial unloading on cardiac failing and non-failing tissue to better understand the structural and molecular changes that underlie myocardial recovery...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800483/tocotrienol-rich-tocomin-attenuates-oxidative-stress-and-improves-endothelium-dependent-relaxation-in-aortae-from-rats-fed-a-high-fat-western-diet
#14
Saher F Ali, Jason C D Nguyen, Trisha A Jenkins, Owen L Woodman
We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high-fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat) or control rat chow (standard diet, 6% fat) for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc) or its vehicle (peanut oil) was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790620/immune-modulation-of-cardiac-repair-and-regeneration-the-art-of-mending-broken-hearts
#15
REVIEW
Ivana Zlatanova, Cristina Pinto, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre
The accumulation of immune cells is among the earliest responses that manifest in the cardiac tissue after injury. Both innate and adaptive immunity coordinate distinct and mutually non-exclusive events governing cardiac repair, including elimination of the cellular debris, compensatory growth of the remaining cardiac tissue, activation of resident or circulating precursor cells, quantitative and qualitative modifications of the vascular network, and formation of a fibrotic scar. The present review summarizes the mounting evidence suggesting that the inflammatory response also guides the regenerative process following cardiac damage...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790619/sirt3-in-cardiac-physiology-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Christoph Koentges, Christoph Bode, Heiko Bugger
Functional defects in mitochondrial biology causally contribute to various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Impairment in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and increased opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore add to the underlying mechanisms of heart failure or myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Recent evidence demonstrated that the mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) may regulate these mitochondrial functions by reversible protein lysine deacetylation...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777932/multi-biomarker-profiling-and-recurrent-hospitalizations-in-heart-failure
#17
Antoni Bayes-Genis, Julio Núñez, Eduardo Núñez, Jaume Barallat Martínez, Maria-Cruz Pastor Ferrer, Marta de Antonio, Elisabet Zamora, Juan Sanchis, Josep Lupón Rosés
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in pharmacologic therapy and devices, patients with heart failure (HF) continue to have significant rehospitalization rates and risk prediction remains challenging. We sought to explore the value of a multi-biomarker panel [including NT-proBNP, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT), and ST2] on top of clinical assessment for long-term prediction of recurrent hospitalizations in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: NT-proBNP, hs-TnT, and ST2 (suppression of tumorigenicity-2) levels were measured in 891 consecutive ambulatory HF patients...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777931/mitochondrial-ros-versus-er-ros-which-comes-first-in-myocardial-calcium-dysregulation
#18
Ruchi Chaube, Geoff H Werstuck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774451/the-hyponatremia-epidemic-a-frontier-too-far
#19
Angela J Drake-Holland, Mark I M Noble
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality and is often neglected, especially in elderly and seemingly terminal patients. Hyponatremia can be asymptomatic or can cause symptoms ranging from nausea and lethargy to convulsions and coma. This condition has become increasingly common over time with a similar time course to the increase in adoption of low salt diets. The popularization of low salt may not be justified in people with normal kidney function in whom the compatible statistically based evidence that salt causes hypertension has been challenged by experimental evidence to the contrary...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713880/an-algorithm-measuring-donor-cell-free-dna-in-plasma-of-cellular-and-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-that-does-not-require-donor-or-recipient-genotyping
#20
Paul M K Gordon, Aneal Khan, Umair Sajid, Nicholas Chang, Varun Suresh, Leo Dimnik, Ryan E Lamont, Jillian S Parboosingh, Steven R Martin, Richard T Pon, Jene Weatherhead, Shelly Wegener, Debra Isaac, Steven C Greenway
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has significant potential in the diagnosis and monitoring of clinical conditions. However, accurately and easily distinguishing the relative proportion of DNA molecules in a mixture derived from two different sources (i.e., donor and recipient tissues after transplantation) is challenging. In human cellular transplantation, there is currently no useable method to detect in vivo engraftment, and blood-based non-invasive tests for allograft rejection in solid organ transplantation are either non-specific or absent...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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