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Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824924/circulating-prolidase-activity-in-patients-with-myocardial-infarction
#1
Adnan Sultan, Yuting Zheng, Patrick J Trainor, Yong Siow, Alok R Amraotkar, Bradford G Hill, Andrew P DeFilippis
BACKGROUND: Collagen is a major determinant of atherosclerotic plaque stability. Thus, identification of differences in enzymes that regulate collagen integrity could be useful for predicting susceptibility to atherothrombosis or for diagnosing plaque rupture. In this study, we sought to determine whether prolidase, the rate-limiting enzyme of collagen turnover, differs in human subjects with acute myocardial infarction (MI) versus those with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We measured serum prolidase activity in 15 patients with stable CAD and 49 patients with acute MI, of which a subset had clearly defined thrombotic MI (n = 22) or non-thrombotic MI (n = 12)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824923/activation-of-inflammatory-and-pro-thrombotic-pathways-in-acute-stress-cardiomyopathy
#2
Timothy P Fitzgibbons, Yvonne J K Edwards, Peter Shaw, Aline Iskandar, Mohamed Ahmed, Josiah Bote, Tejen Shah, Sumita Sinha, Robert E Gerszten, John F Keaney, Michael R Zile, Gerard P Aurigemma
Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) is a unique cardiac disorder that more often occurs in women. SCM presents in a similar fashion as acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with chest pain, ECG changes, and congestive heart failure. The primary distinguishing feature is the absence of thrombotic coronary occlusion in SCM. How this reduction in cardiac function occurs in the absence of coronary occlusion remains unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a targeted proteomic comparison of patients with acute SCM and AMI might identify relevant mechanistic differences...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824922/erythrocyte-efferocytosis-by-the-arterial-wall-promotes-oxidation-in-early-stage-atheroma-in-humans
#3
Sandrine Delbosc, Richard Graham Bayles, Jamila Laschet, Veronique Ollivier, Benoit Ho-Tin-Noé, Ziad Touat, Catherine Deschildre, Marion Morvan, Liliane Louedec, Laurent Gouya, Kevin Guedj, Antonino Nicoletti, Jean-Baptiste Michel
BACKGROUND: Since red blood cells (RBCs) are the predominant cellular blood component interacting with the arterial wall, we explored the role of RBCs efferocytosis by vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) in the initiation of human atheroma. METHODS AND RESULTS: The comparison of human healthy aortas with aortic fatty streaks or fibroatheromas revealed that RBC angiophagy is implicated from the earliest stages of atherogenesis, as documented by the concomitant detection of redox-active iron, hemoglobin, glycophorin A, and ceroids...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791297/vitamin-d-uptake-in-patients-treated-with-a-high-dosed-purified-omega-3-compound-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial-following-an-acute-myocardial-infarction
#4
Patrycja A Naesgaard, Heidi Grundt, Arne F Nordøy, Harry Staines, Dennis W T Nilsen
BACKGROUND: Fish is the natural dietary source of vitamin D. Reports on the influence of purified omega-3 fatty acids on its uptake are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of a purified high-dose omega-3 compound compared to corn oil on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels following an acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: 228 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a daily dose of either 4 g omega-3 (OMACOR(®)) or an equal dose of corn oil, administered double-blindly for 12 months...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770214/cardiac-stem-cells-for-myocardial-regeneration-they-are-not-alone
#5
REVIEW
Yin Yee Leong, Wai Hoe Ng, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes, Jun Jie Tan
Heart failure is the number one killer worldwide with ~50% of patients dying within 5 years of prognosis. The discovery of stem cells, which are capable of repairing the damaged portion of the heart, has created a field of cardiac regenerative medicine, which explores various types of stem cells, either autologous or endogenous, in the hope of finding the "holy grail" stem cell candidate to slow down and reverse the disease progression. However, there are many challenges that need to be overcome in the search of such a cell candidate...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770213/positron-emission-tomography-determined-hyperemic-flow-myocardial-flow-reserve-and-flow-gradient-quo-vadis
#6
REVIEW
Thorsten M Leucker, Ines Valenta, Thomas Hellmut Schindler
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) applied with positron-emitting flow tracers such as (13)N-ammonia and (82)Rubidium enables the quantification of both myocardial perfusion and myocardial blood flow (MBF) in milliliters per gram per minute for coronary artery disease (CAD) detection and characterization. The detection of a regional myocardial perfusion defect during vasomotor stress commonly identifies the culprit lesion or most severe epicardial narrowing, whereas adding regional hyperemic MBFs, myocardial flow reserve (MFR), and/or longitudinal flow decrease may also signify less severe but flow-limiting stenosis in multivessel CAD...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770212/commentary-tranexamic-acid-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-surgery
#7
COMMENT
Xiang-Dong Wu, Ke-Jia Hu, Wei Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770211/prognostic-value-of-circulating-inflammatory-cells-in-patients-with-stable-and-acute-coronary-artery-disease
#8
REVIEW
John A L Meeuwsen, Marian Wesseling, Imo E Hoefer, Saskia C A de Jager
Atherosclerosis is a lipid driven chronic inflammatory disease underlying the majority of ischemic events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Clinical management of ischemic events has improved considerably in the past decades. Accordingly, survival rates have increased. Nevertheless, 12% of patients die within 6 months after the initial event. To improve secondary prevention, appropriate risk prediction is key. However, up to date, there is no clinically available routine marker to identify patients at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740848/patient-characteristics-and-clinical-outcomes-with-low-dose-dabigatran
#9
Ramin Ebrahimi, Janet K Han, Seung H Goe, Michelle Treadwell, Zenaida Feliciano
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dabigatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor, is used in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation to reduce thromboembolic events. Whereas the 150 mg dosing regimen has been extensively studied in clinical setting, to date, there is no clinical data on the 75 mg (low dose, "LD") regimen. In this study, we evaluated patient characteristics and clinical outcomes in 49 patients treated with LD dabigatran. METHODS: Electronic medical records were utilized to compare patients from one medical center treated with LD dabigatran to those from the warfarin arm of the RE-LY trial...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676852/cd40l-and-its-receptors-in-atherothrombosis-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Nathaly Anto Michel, Andreas Zirlik, Dennis Wolf
CD40L (CD154), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, is a co-stimulatory molecule that was first discovered on activated T cells. Beyond its fundamental role in adaptive immunity-ligation of CD40L to its receptor CD40 is a prerequisite for B cell activation and antibody production-evidence from more than two decades has expanded our understanding of CD40L as a powerful modulator of inflammatory pathways. Although inhibition of CD40L with neutralizing antibodies has induced life-threatening side effects in clinical trials, the discovery of cell-specific effects and novel receptors with distinct functional consequences has opened a new path for therapies that specifically target detrimental properties of CD40L...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649568/a-prothrombotic-score-based-on-genetic-polymorphisms-of-the-hemostatic-system-differs-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke-myocardial-infarction-or-peripheral-arterial-occlusive-disease
#11
Juliane Herm, Berthold Hoppe, Bob Siegerink, Christian H Nolte, Jürgen Koscielny, Karl Georg Haeusler
BACKGROUND: While twin studies indicate a genetic component in arterial thrombosis such as ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), the clinical relevance of hemostatic polymorphisms in arterial thrombosis is a matter of debate. METHODS: We analyzed the prevalence of 13 hemostatic polymorphisms [PAI-1, PLAT, F5 (including factor V Leiden and HR2 haplotype), F2, F7, F13A, FGB, TFPI, THBD, MTHFR, ACE, and ITGA2] in patients referred to a tertiary referral center...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620608/a-path-to-implement-precision-child-health-cardiovascular-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Marlin Touma, Brian Reemtsen, Nancy Halnon, Juan Alejos, J Paul Finn, Stanley F Nelson, Yibin Wang
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) affect approximately 1% of live births and are a major source of childhood morbidity and mortality even in countries with advanced healthcare systems. Along with phenotypic heterogeneity, the underlying etiology of CHDs is multifactorial, involving genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental contributors. Clear dissection of the underlying mechanism is a powerful step to establish individualized therapies. However, the majority of CHDs are yet to be clearly diagnosed for the underlying genetic and environmental factors, and even less with effective therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620607/metabolic-and-biochemical-stressors-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#13
REVIEW
Vasundhara Kain, Ganesh V Halade
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) or diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction is a direct consequence of uncontrolled metabolic syndrome and is widespread in US population and worldwide. Despite of the heterogeneous and distinct features of DCM, the clinical relevance of DCM is now becoming established. DCM progresses to pathological cardiac remodeling with the higher risk of heart attack and subsequent heart failure in diabetic patients. In this review, we emphasize lipid substrate quality and the phenotypic, metabolic, and biochemical stressors of DCM in the rodent and human pathophysiology...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612009/cardiac-cell-senescence-and-redox-signaling
#14
REVIEW
Daniela Cesselli, Aneta Aleksova, Sandro Sponga, Celeste Cervellin, Carla Di Loreto, Gianluca Tell, Antonio Paolo Beltrami
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of the ability of the organism to cope with stressors and to repair tissue damage. As a result, chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, increase their prevalence with aging, underlining the existence of common mechanisms that lead to frailty and age-related diseases. In this frame, the progressive decline of the homeostatic and reparative function of primitive cells has been hypothesized to play a major role in the evolution of cardiac pathology to heart failure...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612008/hybrid-instantaneous-wave-free-ratio-fractional-flow-reserve-versus-fractional-flow-reserve-in-the-real-world
#15
Kara Shuttleworth, Kristina Smith, Jonathan Watt, Jamie A L Smith, Stephen J Leslie
BACKGROUND: The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a novel method to assess the ischemic potential of coronary artery stenoses. Clinical trial data have shown that iFR has acceptable diagnostic agreement with fractional flow reserve (FFR), the reference standard for the functional assessment of coronary stenoses. This study compares iFR measurements with FFR measurements in a real world, single-center setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Instantaneous wave-free ratio and FFR were measured in 50 coronary artery lesions in 42 patients, with FFR ≤ 0...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596958/circulating-cellular-adhesion-molecules-and-cognitive-function-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-study
#16
Cynthia Yursun Yoon, Lyn M Steffen, Myron D Gross, Lenore J Launer, Andrew Odegaard, Alexander Reiner, Otto Sanchez, Kristine Yaffe, Stephen Sidney, David R Jacobs
OBJECTIVE: Higher circulating concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) can be used as markers of endothelial dysfunction. Given that the brain is highly vascularized, we assessed whether endothelial function is associated with cognitive performance. METHOD: Within the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, excluding N = 54 with stroke before year 25, we studied CAMs among N = 2,690 black and white men and women in CARDIA year 7 (1992-1993, ages 25-37) and N = 2,848 in CARDIA year 15 (2000-2001, ages 33-45)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596957/heterogeneous-vascular-bed-responses-to-pulmonary-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-exposure
#17
Alaeddin B Abukabda, Phoebe A Stapleton, Carroll R McBride, Jinghai Yi, Timothy R Nurkiewicz
A growing body of research links engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure to adverse cardiovascular endpoints. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of ENM exposure on vascular reactivity in discrete segments so that we may determine the most sensitive levels of the vasculature where these negative cardiovascular effects are manifest. We hypothesized that acute nano-TiO2 exposure differentially affects reactivity with a more robust impairment in the microcirculation. Sprague-Dawley rats (8-10 weeks) were exposed to nano-TiO2via intratracheal instillation (20, 100, or 200 µg suspended per 250 µL of vehicle) 24 h prior to vascular assessments...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589128/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-1-signaling-in-angiogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Hua Mao, Liang Xie, Xinchun Pi
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) plays multifunctional roles in lipid homeostasis, signaling transduction, and endocytosis. It has been recognized as an endocytic receptor for many ligands and is involved in the signaling pathways of many growth factors or cytokines. Dysregulation of LRP1-dependent signaling events contributes to the development of pathophysiologic processes such as Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and coagulation. Interestingly, recent studies have linked LRP1 with endothelial function and angiogenesis, which has been underappreciated for a long time...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589127/function-and-therapeutic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Feifei Li, Xia Guo, Shi-You Chen
Atherosclerosis is a complicated disorder and largely attributable to dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. Despite therapeutic advances over past decades, atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Due to their capability of immunomodulation and tissue regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have evolved as an attractive therapeutic agent in various diseases including atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidences support the protective role of MSCs in all stages of atherosclerosis. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of MSCs including their characteristics such as molecular markers, tissue distribution, migratory property, immune-modulatory competence, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589126/myocardial-architecture-mechanics-and-fibrosis-in-congenital-heart-disease
#20
REVIEW
Sarah Ghonim, Inga Voges, Peter D Gatehouse, Jennifer Keegan, Michael A Gatzoulis, Philip J Kilner, Sonya V Babu-Narayan
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common category of birth defect, affecting 1% of the population and requiring cardiovascular surgery in the first months of life in many patients. Due to advances in congenital cardiovascular surgery and patient management, most children with CHD now survive into adulthood. However, residual and postoperative defects are common resulting in abnormal hemodynamics, which may interact further with scar formation related to surgical procedures. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become an important diagnostic imaging modality in the long-term management of CHD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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