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Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30533416/lipoproteins-in-cardiovascular-calcification-potential-targets-and-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Yin Tintut, Jeffrey J Hsu, Linda L Demer
Previously considered a degenerative process, cardiovascular calcification is now established as an active process that is regulated in several ways by lipids, phospholipids, and lipoproteins. These compounds serve many of the same functions in vascular and valvular calcification as they do in skeletal bone calcification. Hyperlipidemia leads to accumulation of lipoproteins in the subendothelial space of cardiovascular tissues, which leads to formation of mildly oxidized phospholipids, which are known bioactive factors in vascular cell calcification...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525044/single-cell-gene-expression-to-understand-the-dynamic-architecture-of-the-heart
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Massaia, Patricia Chaves, Sara Samari, Ricardo Júdice Miragaia, Kerstin Meyer, Sarah Amalia Teichmann, Michela Noseda
The recent development of single cell gene expression technologies, and especially single cell transcriptomics, have revolutionized the way biologists and clinicians investigate organs and organisms, allowing an unprecedented level of resolution to the description of cell demographics in both healthy and diseased states. Single cell transcriptomics provide information on prevalence, heterogeneity, and gene co-expression at the individual cell level. This enables a cell-centric outlook to define intracellular gene regulatory networks and to bridge toward the definition of intercellular pathways otherwise masked in bulk analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525043/arterial-stiffness-in-balkan-endemic-nephropathy-an-environmental-form-of-aristolochic-acid-nephropathy
#3
Vedran Premužić, Vanja Ivković, Ninoslav Leko, Želimir Stipančić, Sandra Karanović, Ana Jelaković, Ivana Vuković Brinar, Živka Dika, Bojan Jelaković
Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an environmental form of aristolochic acid nephropathy is characterized with later onset and milder forms of hypertension (HT). Thus, we hypothesized that arterial stiffness progresses slower in BEN patients resulting in lower CV mortality. A total of 186 hemodialysed (HD) patients (90 BEN, 96 non-BEN; 67.3 + 13.0 years) were enrolled and followed-up for 25 months. Brachial blood pressure (BP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were determined before mid-week dialysis. BEN patients were older (72...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30519562/stress-coping-strategies-in-the-heart-an-integrated-view
#4
REVIEW
Marek Michalak, Luis B Agellon
The heart is made up of an ordered amalgam of cardiac cell types that work together to coordinate four major processes, namely energy production, electrical conductance, mechanical work, and tissue remodeling. Over the last decade, a large body of information has been amassed regarding how different cardiac cell types respond to cellular stress that affect the functionality of their elaborate intracellular membrane networks, the cellular reticular network. In the context of the heart, the manifestations of stress coping strategies likely differ depending on the coping strategy outcomes of the different cardiac cell types, and thus may underlie the development of distinct cardiac disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488037/the-role-of-physical-activity-prescription-in-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-amongst-south-asian-canadians
#5
REVIEW
Tharmegan Tharmaratnam, Mina A Iskandar, Sally Doherty, Katrina A D'Urzo, Swana Kopalakrishnan, Tyler Cameron Tabobondung, Prasaanthan Gopee-Ramanan, Seyon Sivagurunathan, Nirunthan Sivananthan
Unequivocal evidence suggests an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) amongst South Asian Canadians (SACs) compared to other ethnic cohorts, due to a combination of their unique cardiometabolic profile and environmental factors. This unfavorable CVD profile is characterized by an elevated risk of dyslipidemia, high apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, hypertension, glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as increased BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal and visceral adiposity...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474032/the-conundrum-of-tricuspid-regurgitation-grading
#6
REVIEW
Yun Yun Go, Raluca Dulgheru, Patrizio Lancellotti
Findings from early percutaneous tricuspid intervention trials have shown that the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) far exceeded the current definition of severe TR. Also, the improvement in the amount of TR following tricuspid intervention is not accounted for by the current definition of TR as different degrees of severity at the severe end was grouped under the same umbrella term of "severe." There has been a recent call to expand the TR grading system, encompassing two more grades, namely "massive" and "torrential" TR, in the order of increasing severity...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474031/platelet-function-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-adult-patients-a-systematic-review
#7
Camilla Mains Balle, Anni Nørgaard Jeppesen, Steffen Christensen, Anne-Mette Hvas
Background: Hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications are common during treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. This emphasizes the clinical relevance of understanding hemostatic changes occurring during ECMO treatment. As platelets are key players in hemostasis, detailed knowledge on how ECMO treatment affects platelet function is of great importance. We therefore aimed to systematically summarize and discuss existing knowledge on platelet function during ECMO treatment in adult patients...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30467547/s100-rage-mediated-inflammation-and-modified-cholesterol-lipoproteins-as-mediators-of-osteoblastic-differentiation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#8
REVIEW
Bijoy Chellan, Nadia R Sutton, Marion A Hofmann Bowman
Arterial calcification is a feature of atherosclerosis and shares many risk factors including diabetes, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and age. Although there is overlap in risk factors, anti-atherosclerotic therapies, including statins, fail to reduce arterial, and aortic valve calcifications. This suggests that low density lipoprotein (LDL) may not be the main driver for aortic valve disease and arterial calcification. This review focuses on modified LDLs and their role in mediating foam cell formation in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), with special emphasis on enzyme modified non-oxidized LDL (ELDL)...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460247/the-genetic-regulation-of-aortic-valve-development-and-calcific-disease
#9
REVIEW
Vinal Menon, Joy Lincoln
Heart valves are dynamic, highly organized structures required for unidirectional blood flow through the heart. Over an average lifetime, the valve leaflets or cusps open and close over a billion times, however in over 5 million Americans, leaflet function fails due to biomechanical insufficiency in response to wear-and-tear or pathological stimulus. Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common valve pathology and leads to stiffening of the cusp and narrowing of the aortic orifice leading to stenosis and insufficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460246/electrophysiological-basis-for-early-repolarization-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Rubén Casado Arroyo, Juan Sieira, Maciej Kubala, Decebal Gabriel Latcu, Shigo Maeda, Pedro Brugada
During last centuries, Early Repolarization pattern has been interpreted as an ECG manifestation not linked to serious cardiovascular events. This view has been challenged on the basis of sporadic clinical observations that linked the J-wave with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The particular role of this characteristic pattern in initiating ventricular fibrillation has been sustained by clinical descriptions of a marked and consistent J-wave elevation preceding the onset of the ventricular arrhythmia...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460245/cell-sources-for-tissue-engineering-strategies-to-treat-calcific-valve-disease
#11
REVIEW
Eva Jover, Marco Fagnano, Gianni Angelini, Paolo Madeddu
Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor and an established predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. Despite concomitant factors leading to atherosclerosis and heart valve disease (VHD), the latter has been identified as an independent pathological entity. Calcific aortic valve stenosis is the most common form of VDH resulting of either congenital malformations or senile "degeneration." About 2% of the population over 65 years is affected by aortic valve stenosis which represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460244/exploring-coronary-artery-disease-gwas-targets-with-functional-links-to-immunometabolism
#12
REVIEW
Maria F Hughes, Yvonne M Lenighan, Catherine Godson, Helen M Roche
Finding genetic variants that cause functional disruption or regulatory change among the many implicated GWAs variants remains a key challenge to translating the findings from GWAs to therapeutic treatments. Defining the causal mechanisms behind the variants require functional screening experiments that can be complex and costly. Prioritizing variants for functional characterization using techniques that capture important functional and regulatory elements can assist this. The genetic architecture of complex traits such as cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes comprise an enormously large number of variants of small effect contributing to heritability and spread throughout the genome...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460243/long-noncoding-rna-anril-lnc-ing-genetic-variation-at-the-chromosome-9p21-locus-to-molecular-mechanisms-of-atherosclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Lesca M Holdt, Daniel Teupser
Ever since the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on coronary artery disease (CAD), the Chr9p21 risk locus has emerged as a top signal in GWAS of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, including stroke and peripheral artery disease. The CAD risk SNPs on Chr9p21 lie within a stretch of 58 kilobases of non-protein-coding DNA, containing the gene body of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) antisense non coding RNA in the INK4 locus ( ANRIL ). How risk is affected by the Chr9p21 locus in molecular detail is a matter of ongoing research...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460242/activation-of-toll-like-receptor-9-impairs-blood-flow-recovery-after-hind-limb-ischemia
#14
Sachiko Nishimoto, Kunduziayi Aini, Daiju Fukuda, Yasutomi Higashikuni, Kimie Tanaka, Yoichiro Hirata, Shusuke Yagi, Kenya Kusunose, Hirotsugu Yamada, Takeshi Soeki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
Background: Peripheral artery disease causes significant functional disability and results in impaired quality of life. Ischemic tissue injury releases various endogenous ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLRs), suggesting the involvement of TLRs in blood flow recovery. However, the role of TLR9, which was originally known as a sensor for bacterial DNA, remains unknown. This study investigated the role of TLR9 in blood flow recovery in the ischemic limb using a mouse hind-limb ischemia model. Methods and Results: Unilateral femoral artery ligation was performed in TLR9-deficient ( Tlr9 -/- ) mice and wild-type mice...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460241/tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-pazopanib-inhibits-platelet-procoagulant-activity-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#15
Bibian M E Tullemans, Magdolna Nagy, Siamack Sabrkhany, Arjan W Griffioen, Mirjam G A Oude Egbrink, Maureen Aarts, Johan W M Heemskerk, Marijke J E Kuijpers
Pazopanib is an angiostatic tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) presently used for cancer treatment, particularly in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This treatment can be accompanied by mild bleeding as an adverse effect. Given the role of protein tyrosine kinases in platelet activation processes, we investigated whether and how pazopanib can affect platelet functions in purified systems and during treatment of advanced RCC patients. In isolated platelets from healthy volunteers, pazopanib dose-dependently reduced collagen-induced integrin activation and secretion, as well as platelet aggregation...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460240/echocardiography-differentiates-lethally-irradiated-whole-body-from-partial-body-exposed-rats
#16
Taeko Inoue, Janice A Zawaski, Vivien Sheehan, Celeste Kanne, Alireza Paikari, Caterina C Kaffes, Poonam Sarkar, Omaima M Sabek, M Waleed Gaber
Background: Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) affects morbidity and mortality dependent on the amount of body exposed. We propose the use of echocardiography (EC) to differentiate between survivors and non-survivors by measuring changes in cardiac function (CF) and pulmonary arterial function (PAF). We also investigate the role of rheology in our observed changes. Methods and Results: Rats were irradiated to the whole body (WB) or partial body with two-legs shielded (2LS) at a lethal dose of 7.5Gy. EC and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, and rheological measurements conducted...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460239/complex-left-atrial-appendage-morphology-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-cryptogenic-ischemic-stroke
#17
Indranill Basu-Ray, Deepthi Sudhakar, Gregory Schwing, Dominique Monlezun, Lucy Zhang, Sumit K Shah, Deep Pujara, Kevin Ting, Nidal Abi Rafeh, Gholam Ali, Mark Cassidy, Kenneth Ellenbogen, Glen Levine, Wilson Lam, Nilesh Mathuria, Mohammad Saeed, Jared Bunch, Sheryl Martin-Schild, Michael Gold, Arash Aryana, Mehdi Razavi, Abdi Rasekh
Importance: Ischemic strokes pose a significant health burden. However, the etiology of between 20 and 40% of these events remains unknown. Left atrial appendage morphology may influence the occurrence of thromboembolic events. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the role of LAA morphology in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardioembolic-associated stroke and patients with cryptogenic stroke without atrial fibrillation. LAA morphology is classified into two groups: (1) simple (chicken-wing) vs...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30456215/transcriptional-profiling-of-hypoxia-regulated-non-coding-rnas-in-human-primary-endothelial-cells
#18
Pierre R Moreau, Tiit Örd, Nicholas L Downes, Henri Niskanen, Maria Bouvy-Liivrand, Einari Aavik, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Minna U Kaikkonen
Hypoxia occurs in human atherosclerotic lesions and has multiple adverse effects on endothelial cell metabolism. Recently, key roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the development of atherosclerosis have begun to emerge. In this study, we investigate the lncRNA profiles of human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to hypoxia using global run-on sequencing (GRO-Seq). We demonstrate that hypoxia regulates the nascent transcription of ~1800 lncRNAs. Interestingly, we uncover evidence that promoter-associated lncRNAs are more likely to be induced by hypoxia compared to enhancer-associated lncRNAs, which exhibit an equal distribution of up- and downregulated transcripts...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443550/heterocellularity-and-cellular-cross-talk-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#19
REVIEW
Filippo Perbellini, Samuel A Watson, Ifigeneia Bardi, Cesare M Terracciano
Cellular specialization and interactions with other cell types are the essence of complex multicellular life. The orchestrated function of different cell populations in the heart, in combination with a complex network of intercellular circuits of communication, is essential to maintain a healthy heart and its disruption gives rise to pathological conditions. Over the past few years, the development of new biological research tools has facilitated more accurate identification of the cardiac cell populations and their specific roles...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425992/prevalence-mortality-and-indicators-of-health-care-supply-association-analysis-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-germany
#20
Christina Dornquast, Stefan N Willich, Thomas Reinhold
Introduction: There are regional differences in the morbidity of major cardiovascular disease between the 16 federal states of Germany. An association between the morbidity and the health care supply has been described in international studies. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the relationship between the prevalence or mortality of major cardiovascular disease and several key indicators of health care supply in Germany. Methods: Life expectancy and the proportion of over 65-year old persons were included as characteristics to depict the general health...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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