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Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682509/initiation-and-propagation-of-vascular-calcification-is-regulated-by-a-concert-of-platelet-and-smooth-muscle-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#1
Leon J Schurgers, Asim C Akbulut, Dawid M Kaczor, Maurice Halder, Rory R Koenen, Rafael Kramann
The ageing population continues to suffer from its primary killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite recent advances in interventional medicinal and surgical therapies towards the end of the 20th century, the epidemic of cardiovascular disease has not been halted. Yet, rather than receding globally, the burden of CVD has risen to become a top cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CVD arises from thrombotic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the pathologic thickening of coronary and carotid artery segments and subsequent distal ischemia in heart or brain...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675417/developing-a-reliable-mouse-model-for-cancer-therapy-induced-cardiovascular-toxicity-in-cancer-patients-and-survivors
#2
Kyung Ae Ko, Yin Wang, Sivareddy Kotla, Yuka Fujii, Hang Thi Vu, Bhanu P Venkatesulu, Tamlyn N Thomas, Jan L Medina, Young Jin Gi, Megumi Hada, Jane Grande-Allen, Zarana S Patel, Sarah A Milgrom, Sunil Krishnan, Keigi Fujiwara, Jun-Ichi Abe
Background: The high incidence of cardiovascular events in cancer survivors has long been noted, but the mechanistic insights of cardiovascular toxicity of cancer treatments, especially for vessel diseases, remain unclear. It is well known that atherosclerotic plaque formation begins in the area exposed to disturbed blood flow, but the relationship between cancer therapy and disturbed flow in regulating plaque formation has not been well studied. Therefore, we had two goals for this study; (1) Generate an affordable, reliable, and reproducible mouse model to recapitulate the cancer therapy-induced cardiovascular events in cancer survivors, and (2) Establish a mouse model to investigate the interplay between disturbed flow and various cancer therapies in the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670888/computational-fluid-dynamic-analysis-of-the-left-atrial-appendage-to-predict-thrombosis-risk
#3
Giorgia Maria Bosi, Andrew Cook, Rajan Rai, Leon J Menezes, Silvia Schievano, Ryo Torii, Gaetano Burriesci
During Atrial Fibrillation (AF) more than 90% of the left atrial thrombi responsible for thromboembolic events originate in the left atrial appendage (LAA), a complex small sac protruding from the left atrium (LA). Current available treatments to prevent thromboembolic events are oral anticoagulation, surgical LAA exclusion, or percutaneous LAA occlusion. However, the mechanism behind thrombus formation in the LAA is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to analyse the hemodynamic behaviour in four typical LAA morphologies - "Chicken wing", "Cactus", "Windsock" and "Cauliflower" - to identify potential relationships between the different shapes and the risk of thrombotic events...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670887/the-role-of-platelet-microparticle-associated-micrornas-in-cellular-crosstalk
#4
Luoxing Xia, Zhi Zeng, Wai Ho Tang
Platelet is an anucleate cell containing abundant messenger RNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs), and their functional roles in hemostasis and inflammation remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has suggested that platelets can actively transfer RNAs to hepatocytes, vascular cells, macrophages, and tumor cells. The incorporated mRNAs are translated into proteins, and miRNAs were found to regulate the gene expression, resulting in the functional change of the recipient cells. This novel intercellular communication opens up a new avenue for the pathophysiological role of platelet in platelet-associated vascular diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670886/lncrnas-proverbial-genomic-junk-or-key-epigenetic-regulators-during-cardiac-fibrosis-in-diabetes
#5
Saumik Biswas, Anu Alice Thomas, Subrata Chakrabarti
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical regulators in a multitude of biological processes. Recent evidences demonstrate potential pathogenetic implications of lncRNAs in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM); however, the majority of lncRNAs have not been comprehensively characterized. While the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of lncRNAs remain to be deciphered in DCM, emerging data in other pathophysiological conditions suggests that lncRNAs can have versatile features such as genomic imprinting, acting as guides for certain histone-modifying complexes, serving as scaffolds for specific molecules, or acting as molecular sponges...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670885/integrative-bioinformatics-approaches-for-identification-of-drug-targets-in-hypertension
#6
Daiane Hemerich, Jessica van Setten, Vinicius Tragante, Folkert W Asselbergs
High blood pressure or hypertension is an established risk factor for a myriad of cardiovascular diseases. Genome-wide association studies have successfully found over nine hundred loci that contribute to blood pressure. However, the mechanisms through which these loci contribute to disease are still relatively undetermined as less than 10% of hypertension-associated variants are located in coding regions. Phenotypic cell-type specificity analyses and expression quantitative trait loci show predominant vascular and cardiac tissue involvement for blood pressure-associated variants...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662883/long-non-coding-rnas-in-vascular-inflammation
#7
Stefan Haemmig, Viorel Simion, Mark W Feinberg
Less than 2% of the genome encodes for proteins. Accumulating studies have revealed a diverse set of RNAs derived from the non-coding genome. Among them, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have garnered widespread attention over recent years as emerging regulators of diverse biological processes including in cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, our knowledge of their mechanisms by which they control CVD-related gene expression and cell signaling pathways is still limited. Furthermore, only a handful of lncRNAs has been functionally evaluated in the context of vascular inflammation, an important process that underlies both acute and chronic disease states...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662882/circulatory-arrest-brain-arrest-and-death-determination
#8
Sam David Shemie, Dale Gardiner
Technological advances, particularly in the capacity to support, replace or transplant failing organs, continue to challenge and refine our understanding of human death. Given the ability to reanimate organs before and after death, both inside and outside of the body, through reinstitution of oxygenated circulation, concepts related to death of organs (e.g. cardiac death) are no longer valid. This paper advances the rationale for a single conceptual determination of death related to permanent brain arrest, resulting from primary brain injury or secondary to circulatory arrest...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644220/can-blood-biomarkers-help-predicting-outcome-in-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#9
Cécile Oury, Alain Nchimi, Patrizio Lancellotti, Jutta Bergler-Klein
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become the method of choice for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, who are ineligible or at high risk for surgery. In this high risk patient population, early and late mortality and rehospitalization rates after TAVI are still relatively high. In spite of recent improvements in procedural TAVI, and establishment of risk models for poor outcome, determining individual risk remains challenging. In this context, current data from several small studies strongly suggest that blood biomarkers of myocardial injury, cardiac mechanical stretch, inflammation, and hemostasis imbalance might play an important role by providing informations on patient risk at baseline, and postprocedural progression of patient clinical conditions from days up to years post-TAVI...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644219/management-of-chemotherapy-induced-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-heart-failure-in-patients-with-cancer-while-undergoing-cancer-treatment-the-md-anderson-practice
#10
Anecita P Fadol
Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity resulting in heart failure (HF) is one of the most dreaded complications of cancer therapy that can significantly impact morbidity and mortality. With a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in cancer patients, the risk of developing HF is significantly increased. A new discipline of Onco-Cardiology has evolved to address the cardiovascular needs of patients with cancer, however, there is limited evidence-based data to guide clinical decision-making in the management of the cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632866/cell-phenotype-transitions-in-cardiovascular-calcification
#11
Luis Hortells, Swastika Sur, Cynthia St Hilaire
Cardiovascular calcification was originally considered a passive, degenerative process, however with the advance of cellular and molecular biology techniques it is now appreciated that ectopic calcification is an active biological process. Vascular calcification is the most common form of ectopic calcification, and aging as well as specific disease states such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and genetic mutations, exhibit this pathology. In the vessels and valves, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells contribute to the formation of extracellular calcified nodules...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632865/pregnancy-and-cardiomyopathy-after-anthracyclines-in-childhood
#12
Kara Annette Thompson
With advances in cancer therapy, there has been a remarkable increase in survival in children diagnosed with malignancies. Many of these children are treated with anthracyclines which are well known to cause cardiotoxicity. As more childhood cancer survivors reach childbearing age, many will choose to become pregnant. At this time, the factors associated with development of cardiomyopathy after anthracycline treatment are not clearly identified. It is possible that cardiac stress could predispose to cardiac deterioration in a patient with reduced functional reserve from prior anthracycline exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594152/ionizing-radiation-induces-endothelial-inflammation-and-apoptosis-via-p90rsk-mediated-erk5-s496-phosphorylation
#13
Hang Thi Vu, Sivareddy Kotla, Kyung Ae Ko, Yuka Fujii, Yunting Tao, Jan Medina, Tamlyn Thomas, Megumi Hada, Anil K Sood, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Sarah A Milgrom, Sunil Krishnan, Keigi Fujiwara, Nhat-Tu Le, Jun-Ichi Abe
Adverse cardiovascular events are a leading nonmalignant cause of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors who have been exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), but the exact mechanism of the cardiovascular complications induced by IR remains unclear. In this study we investigated the potential role of the p90RSK-ERK5 module in regulating IR-induced endothelial cell inflammation and apoptosis. Whole body radiation of mice with 2 Gy γ-ray significantly increased endothelial VCAM-1 expression; especially in the disturbed flow area in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594151/advances-in-pathophysiology-of-calcific-aortic-valve-disease-propose-novel-molecular-therapeutic-targets
#14
Alexia Hulin, Alexandre Hego, Patrizio Lancellotti, Cécile Oury
Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disease and its incidence is expected to rise with aging population. No medical treatment so far has shown slowing progression of CAVD progression. Surgery remains to this day the only way to treat it. Effective drug therapy can only be achieved through a better insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying CAVD. The cellular and molecular events leading to leaflets calcification are complex. Upon endothelium cell damage, oxidized LDLs trigger a proinflammatory response disrupting healthy cross-talk between valve endothelial and interstitial cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594150/mechanotransduction-in-coronary-vein-graft-disease
#15
Matthijs Steven Ruiter, Maurizio Pesce
Autologous saphenous veins are the most commonly used conduits in revascularization of the ischemic heart by coronary artery bypass graft surgery, but are subject to vein graft failure. The current mini review aims to provide an overview of the role of mechanotransduction signalling underlying vein graft failure to further our understanding of the disease progression and to improve future clinical treatment. Firstly, limitation of damage during vein harvest and engraftment can improve outcome. In addition, cell cycle inhibition, stimulation of Nur77 and external grafting could form interesting therapeutic options...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594149/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-during-endothelial-cell-differentiation-from-human-ips-cells-a-comparison-study-of-signalling-factors-and-small-molecules
#16
Heini Belt, Jonna K Koponen, Tuija Kekarainen, Katja A Puttonen, Petri I Mäkinen, Henri Niskanen, Joni Oja, Galina Wirth, Jari Koistinaho, Minna U Kaikkonen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Endothelial cell (EC) therapy may promote vascular growth or reendothelization in a variety of disease conditions. However, the production of a cell therapy preparation containing differentiated, dividing cells presenting typical EC phenotype, functional properties and chemokine profile is challenging. We focused on comparative analysis of seven small molecule-mediated differentiation protocols of ECs from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Differentiated cells showed a typical surface antigen pattern of ECs as characterized with flow cytometry analysis, functional properties, such as tube formation and ability to uptake acetylated LDL...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564336/platelet-microparticles-and-mirna-transfer-in-cancer-progression-many-targets-modes-of-action-and-effects-across-cancer-stages
#17
Sophia Lazar, Lawrence E Goldfinger
Platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) have long been known to increase in circulation in the presence of cancer, and have been considered to be cancer promoting by multiple mechanisms including shrouding of circulating tumor cells allowing immune evasion, inducing a procoagulant state associated with increased risk for venous thromboembolic events in cancer patients, and supporting metastatic dissemination by establishment of niches for anchorage of circulating tumor cells. These modes of PMP-enhanced progression of late stage cancer are generally based on the adhesive and procoagulant surfaces of PMPs...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564335/source-of-chronic-inflammation-in-aging
#18
Fumihiro Sanada, Yoshiaki Taniyama, Jun Muratsu, Rei Otsu, Hideo Shimizu, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita
Aging is a complex process that results from a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. A chronic pro-inflammatory status is a pervasive feature of aging. This chronic low-grade inflammation occurring in the absence of overt infection has been defined as "inflammaging" and represents a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The low-grade inflammation persists even after reversing pro-inflammatory stimuli such as LDL cholesterol and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564334/the-mingle-mangle-of-wnt-signaling-and-extracellular-vesicles-functional-implications-for-heart-research
#19
Julia Christina Gross, Laura Cecilia Zelarayán
Wnt signaling is an important pathway in health and disease and a key regulator of stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and proliferation. During heart development, Wnt signaling controls specification, proliferation and differentiation of cardiovascular cells. In this regard, the role of activated Wnt signaling in cardiogenesis is well defined. However, the knowledge about signaling transmission has been challenged. Recently, the packaging of hydrophobic Wnt proteins on extracellular vesicles (EVs) has emerged as a mechanism to facilitate their extracellular spreading and their functioning as morphogens...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560354/cardiac-specific-deletion-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-impairs-glucose-oxidation-rates-and-induces-diastolic-dysfunction
#20
Keshav Gopal, Malak Almutairi, Rami Al Batran, Farah Eaton, Manoj Gandhi, John Reyes Ussher
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase the risk for cardiomyopathy, which is the presence of ventricular dysfunction in the absence of underlying coronary artery disease and/or hypertension. As myocardial energy metabolism is altered during obesity/T2D (increased fatty acid oxidation and decreased glucose oxidation), we hypothesized that restricting myocardial glucose oxidation in lean mice devoid of the perturbed metabolic milieu observed in obesity/T2D would produce a cardiomyopathy phenotype, characterized via diastolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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