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Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428957/coordinating-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-cardiovascular-disease-interactions-between-chromatin-modifiers-and-transcription-factors
#1
REVIEW
Ashley J Bauer, Kathleen A Martin
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death with increasing economic burden. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases is complex, but can arise from genetic and/or environmental risk factors. This can lead to dysregulated gene expression in numerous cell types including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and inflammatory cells. While initial studies addressed transcriptional control of gene expression, epigenetics has been increasingly appreciated to also play an important role in this process through alterations in chromatin structure and gene accessibility...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421185/changes-in-composition-of-the-gut-bacterial-microbiome-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-pediatric-heart-transplant-patient
#2
Kyle L Flannigan, Taylor Rajbar, Andrew Moffat, Leanna S McKenzie, Frank Dicke, Kevin Rioux, Matthew L Workentine, Thomas J Louie, Simon A Hirota, Steven C Greenway
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396861/non-invasive-investigations-for-the-diagnosis-of-fontan-associated-liver-disease-in-pediatric-and-adult-fontan-patients
#3
Amyna Fidai, Frederic Dallaire, Nanette Alvarez, Yvonne Balon, Robin Clegg, Michael Connelly, Frank Dicke, Deborah Fruitman, Joyce Harder, Kimberley Myers, David J Patton, Tim Prieur, Erika Vorhies, Robert P Myers, Steven R Martin, Steven C Greenway
Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) is a serious complication related to the chronically elevated venous pressure and low cardiac output of this abnormal circulation. However, diagnostic markers for this condition are limited. We hypothesized that specific tests for fibrosis developed for other chronic liver diseases would identify a higher prevalence of FALD than ultrasound and standard laboratory tests and that identified abnormalities would correlate with time post-Fontan. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed 19 children (average age 8...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396860/aortic-valve-replacement-for-moderate-aortic-stenosis-with-severe-calcification-and-left-ventricualr-dysfunction-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Nikhil Narang, Roberto M Lang, Vladimir M Liarski, Valluvan Jeevanandam, Marion A Hofmann Bowman
A 55-year-old man with a history of erosive, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and interstitial lung disease presented with shortness of breath. Echocardiography showed new-onset severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with an ejection fraction (EF) of 15% and moderately increased mean aortic valve gradient of 20 mmHg in a trileaflet aortic valve with severe sclero-calcific degeneration. Coronary angiography revealed no significant obstructive coronary disease. Invasive hemodynamic studies and dobutamine stress echocardiography were consistent with moderate aortic stenosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386544/use-of-nanoparticles-as-contrast-agents-for-the-functional-and-molecular-imaging-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#5
REVIEW
Theophilus I Emeto, Faith O Alele, Amy M Smith, Felicity M Smith, Tammy Dougan, Jonathan Golledge
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease of the aorta common in adults older than 65 years of age. AAA is usually imaged using ultrasound or computed tomography. Molecular imaging technologies employing nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed as novel ways to quantify pathological processes, such as inflammation, within AAAs as a means to identify the risk of rapid progression or rupture. This article reviews the current evidence supporting the role of NP-based imaging in the management of AAA...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361055/changes-in-circulating-monocyte-subsets-cd16-expression-and-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-observed-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#6
Kareem Gawdat, Stephanie Legere, Chloe Wong, Tanya Myers, Jean Sylvia Marshall, Ansar Hassan, Keith R Brunt, Petra C Kienesberger, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Jean-Francois Legare
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of circulating inflammatory cells (leukocytes) in patients undergoing heart surgery remains poorly understood. Recently, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and specific monocyte subsets (based on CD14/CD16 expression) have been suggested as markers of inflammation and predictors of outcomes. The present study aims to characterize the influence cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass has on specific circulating leukocytes. METHODS: All enrolled patients had blood samples taken pre- (0 days), early post- (5 days), and late post- (90 days) surgery...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361054/validation-and-utilization-of-a-clinical-next-generation-sequencing-panel-for-selected-cardiovascular-disorders
#7
Patrícia B S Celestino-Soper, Hongyu Gao, Ty C Lynnes, Hai Lin, Yunlong Liu, Katherine G Spoonamore, Peng-Sheng Chen, Matteo Vatta
The development of high-throughput technologies such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed for thousands of DNA loci to be interrogated simultaneously in a fast and economical method for the detection of clinically deleterious variants. Whenever a clinical diagnosis is known, a targeted NGS approach involving the use of disease-specific gene panels can be employed. This approach is often valuable as it allows for a more specific and clinically relevant interpretation of results. Here, we describe the customization, validation, and utilization of a commercially available targeted enrichment platform for the scalability of clinical diagnostic cardiovascular genetic tests, including the design of the gene panels, the technical parameters for the quality assurance and quality control, the customization of the bioinformatics pipeline, and the post-bioinformatics analysis procedures...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321399/renocardiovascular-biomarkers-from-the-perspective-of-managing-chronic-kidney-disease-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
REVIEW
Shinichiro Niizuma, Yoshitaka Iwanaga, Takaharu Yahata, Shunichi Miyazaki
Mortality among the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains high because of the very high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as coronary artery disease, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. Identifying CVD in patients with CKD/ESRD remains a significant hurdle and the early diagnosis and therapy for CVD is crucial in these patients. Therefore, it is necessary for the better management to identify and utilize cardiovascular (CV) biomarkers in profiling CVD risk and enabling stratification of early mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303243/high-density-lipoprotein-subfractions-and-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-are-not-affected-by-supervised-exercise-but-are-associated-with-baseline-interleukin-6-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#9
Mazen S Albaghdadi, Zheng Wang, Ying Gao, R Kannan Mutharasan, John Wilkins
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions, efflux capacity, and inflammatory markers at baseline and the effect of supervised exercise on these HDL parameters in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: The study to improve leg circulation (SILC) was a randomized trial of supervised treadmill exercise, leg resistance training, or control in individuals with PAD. In a post hoc cross-sectional analysis, we quantified the associations between baseline HDL subfraction concentrations (HDL2 and HDL3), HDL-C efflux capacity, and inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)]...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289683/multidimensional-integrative-genomics-approaches-to-dissecting-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Douglas Arneson, Le Shu, Brandon Tsai, Rio Barrere-Cain, Christine Sun, Xia Yang
Elucidating the mechanisms of complex diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a significant challenge due to multidimensional alterations at molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels. To better understand CVD and offer insights into the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies, data from multiple omics types (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, microbiomics) from both humans and model organisms have become available. However, individual omics data types capture only a fraction of the molecular mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286751/new-delivery-systems-of-stem-cells-for-vascular-regeneration-in-ischemia
#11
REVIEW
Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya
The finances of patients and countries are increasingly overwhelmed with the plague of cardiovascular diseases as a result of having to chronically manage the associated complications of ischemia such as heart failures, neurological deficits, chronic limb ulcers, gangrenes, and amputations. Hence, scientific research has sought for alternate therapies since pharmacological and surgical treatments have fallen below expectations in providing the desired quality of life. The advent of stem cells research has raised expectations with respect to vascular regeneration and tissue remodeling, hence assuring the patients of the possibility of an improved quality of life...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261583/fractionated-concurrent-exercise-throughout-the-day-does-not-promote-acute-blood-pressure-benefits-in-hypertensive-middle-aged-women
#12
Luan M Azevêdo, Alice C de Souza, Laiza Ellen S Santos, Rodrigo Miguel Dos Santos, Manuella O M de Fernandes, Jeeser A Almeida, Emerson Pardono
Hypertension is a chronic disease that affects about 30% of the world's population, and the physical exercise plays an important role on its non-pharmacological treatment. Anywise, the dose-response of physical exercise fractionation throughout the day demands more investigation, allowing new exercise prescription possibilities. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the acute blood pressure (BP) kinetics after 1 h of exercises and the BP reactivity after different concurrent exercise (CE) sessions and its fractioning of hypertensive middle-aged women...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261582/assessment-of-diastolic-function-in-congenital-heart-disease
#13
REVIEW
Dilveer Kaur Panesar, Michael Burch
Diastolic function is an important component of left ventricular (LV) function which is often overlooked. It can cause symptoms of heart failure in patients even in the presence of normal systolic function. The parameters used to assess diastolic function often measure flow and are affected by the loading conditions of the heart. The interpretation of diastolic function in the context of congenital heart disease requires some understanding of the effects of the lesions themselves on these parameters. Individual congenital lesions will be discussed in this paper...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243592/loop-recorder-detected-high-rate-of-atrial-fibrillation-recurrence-after-a-single-balloon-or-basket-based-ablation-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-results-of-the-macpaf-study
#14
Alexander Schirdewan, Juliane Herm, Mattias Roser, Ulf Landmesser, Matthias Endres, Lydia Koch, Karl Georg Haeusler
PURPOSE: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an established approach to treat symptomatic non-permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Detecting AF recurrence after PVI is important, if discontinuation of oral anticoagulation after ablation is considered. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF were enrolled in the prospective randomized mesh ablator vs. cryoballoon pulmonary vein (PV) ablation of symptomatic paroxysmal AF study, comparing efficacy and safety of the HD Mesh Ablator(®) (C...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224128/upregulation-of-th-il-17-pathway-related-genes-in-human-coronary-endothelial-cells-stimulated-with-serum-of-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes
#15
Giovanni Cimmino, Loreta Pia Ciuffreda, Giovanni Ciccarelli, Paolo Calabrò, Fiorella Angelica Valeria Ferraiolo, Alessia Rivellino, Raffaele De Palma, Paolo Golino, Francesco Rossi, Plinio Cirillo, Liberato Berrino
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays an essential role in the development and complications of atherosclerosis plaques, including acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Indeed, previous reports have shown that within the coronary circulation of ACS patients, several soluble mediators are released. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that endothelial dysfunction might play an important role in atherosclerosis as well as ACS pathophysiology. However, the mechanisms by which these soluble mediators might affect endothelial functions are still largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210619/a-useful-tool-as-a-medical-checkup-in-a-general-population-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis
#16
Mika Enomoto, Hisashi Adachi, Ako Fukami, Eita Kumagai, Sachiko Nakamura, Yume Nohara, Shoko Kono, Erika Nakao, Nagisa Morikawa, Tomoko Tsuru, Akiko Sakaue, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
Accumulation of visceral fat leads to metabolic syndrome and increases risks of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, which should be recognized and improved at the early stage in general population. Accurate measurement of visceral fat area (VFA) is commonly performed by the abdominal cross-sectional image measured by computed tomography scan, which is, however, limited due to the radiation exposure. The bioelectrical impedance analysis (OMRON, HDS-2000 DUALSCAN(R)) has been recently developed to measure VFA, which is more easily accessible modality...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194400/eating-the-dead-to-keep-atherosclerosis-at-bay
#17
REVIEW
Megan L Brophy, Yunzhou Dong, Hao Wu, H N Ashiqur Rahman, Kai Song, Hong Chen
Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite effective lipid-lowering therapies and prevention programs, atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of CHD in developing countries worldwide is rapidly increasing at a rate expected to overtake those of cancer and diabetes. Prominent risk factors include the hardening of arteries and high levels of cholesterol, which lead to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361053/t1-mapping-for-myocardial-fibrosis-by-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-relaxometry-a-comprehensive-technical-review
#18
REVIEW
Christian R Hamilton-Craig, Mark W Strudwick, Graham J Galloway
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has been widely used to assess myocardial perfusion and scar and is the non-invasive gold standard for identification of focal myocardial fibrosis. However, the late gadolinium enhancement technique is limited in its accuracy for absolute quantification and assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis by technical and pathophysiological features. CMR relaxometry, incorporating T1 mapping, has emerged as an accurate, reproducible, highly sensitive, and quantitative technique for the assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in a number of disease states...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119918/cardiovascular-hypertensive-crisis-recent-evidence-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Christos Varounis, Vasiliki Katsi, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, John Lekakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Despite the high prevalence of hypertension (HTN), only a small proportion of the hypertensive patients will ultimately develop hypertensive crisis. In fact, some patients with hypertensive crisis do not report a history of HTN or previous use of antihypertensive medication. The majority of the patients with hypertensive crisis often report non-specific symptoms, whereas heart-related symptoms (dyspnea, chest pain, arrhythmias, and syncope) are less common. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergencies or hypertensive urgencies according to the presence or absence of acute target organ damage, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018907/the-use-of-the-ambulatory-arterial-stiffness-index-in-patients-suspected-of-secondary-hypertension
#20
Joshua R A Verbakel, Ahmet Adiyaman, Nicole Kraayvanger, Dirk G Dechering, Cornelis T Postma
The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is a marker of arterial stiffness and is derived from ambulatory 24-h blood pressure registration. We studied whether the AASI could be used as a predictive factor for the presence of renal artery stenosis (RAS) in patients with a suspicion of secondary hypertension and as such as a diagnostic tool for RAS. We included 169 patients with difficult-to-treat hypertension. They all underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring registration, imaging of the renal arteries, and cardiovascular risk measurement, including smoking, history, biometrics, blood pressure, renal function, lipids, and glucose metabolism...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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