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Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911105/genetics-of-cardiovascular-disease-fishing-for-causality
#1
REVIEW
Christoph Paone, Federica Diofano, Deung-Dae Park, Wolfgang Rottbauer, Steffen Just
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death in all western world countries and genetic predisposition in combination with traditional risk factors frequently mediates their manifestation. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies revealed numerous potentially disease modifying genetic loci often including several SNPs and associated genes. However, pure genetic association does not prove direct or indirect relevance of the modifier region on pathogenesis, nor does it define within the associated region the exact genetic driver of the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900175/translating-gwas-findings-to-novel-therapeutic-targets-for-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Le Shu, Montgomery Blencowe, Xia Yang
The success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has significantly advanced our understanding of the etiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) and opens new opportunities to reinvigorate the stalling CAD drug development. However, there exists remarkable disconnection between the CAD GWAS findings and commercialized drugs. While this could implicate major untapped translational and therapeutic potentials in CAD GWAS, it also brings forward extensive technical challenges. In this review we summarize the motivation to leverage GWAS for drug discovery, outline the critical bottlenecks in the field, and highlight several promising strategies such as functional genomics and network-based approaches to enhance the translational value of CAD GWAS findings in driving novel therapeutics...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896481/can-we-grow-valves-inside-the-heart-perspective-on-material-based-in-situ-heart-valve-tissue-engineering
#3
Carlijn V C Bouten, Anthal I P M Smits, Frank P T Baaijens
In situ heart valve tissue engineering using cell-free synthetic, biodegradable scaffolds is under development as a clinically attractive approach to create living valves right inside the heart of a patient. In this approach, a valve-shaped porous scaffold "implant" is rapidly populated by endogenous cells that initiate neo-tissue formation in pace with scaffold degradation. While this may constitute a cost-effective procedure, compatible with regulatory and clinical standards worldwide, the new technology heavily relies on the development of advanced biomaterials, the processing thereof into (minimally invasive deliverable) scaffolds, and the interaction of such materials with endogenous cells and neo-tissue under hemodynamic conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896480/use-of-antihypertensive-drugs-during-preeclampsia
#4
Obinnaya Odigboegwu, Lu J Pan, Piyali Chatterjee
Treatment of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, such as preeclampsia (PE), remain a challenging problem in obstetrics. Typically, aggressive antihypertensive drug treatment options are avoided to prevent pharmacological-induced hypotension. Another major concern of administering antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy is possible adverse fetal outcome. In addition, management of hypertension during pregnancy in chronic hypertensive patients or in patients with prior kidney problems are carefully considered...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892602/common-methods-for-performing-mendelian-randomization
#5
Alexander Teumer
Mendelian randomization (MR) is a framework for assessing causal inference using cross-sectional data in combination with genetic information. This paper summarizes statistical methods commonly applied and strait forward to use for conducting MR analyses including those taking advantage of the rich dataset of SNP-trait associations that were revealed in the last decade through large-scale genome-wide association studies. Using these data, powerful MR studies are possible. However, the causal estimate may be biased in case the assumptions of MR are violated...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892601/tricuspid-regurgitation-medical-management-and-evolving-interventional-concepts
#6
Frederik Beckhoff, Brunilda Alushi, Christian Jung, Eliano Navarese, Marcus Franz, Daniel Kretzschmar, Bernhard Wernly, Michael Lichtenauer, Alexander Lauten
Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a complex condition of the right ventricle (RV) and tricuspid valve apparatus and is frequently associated with symptomatic heart failure and a significant morbidity and mortality. In these patients, left heart pathologies lead to chronic pressure overload of the RV, eventually causing progressive RV dilatation and functional TR. Therefore, TR cannot be considered as isolated heart valve disease pathology but has to be understood and treated as one component of a complex structural RV pathology and is frequently also a marker of an advanced stage of cardiac disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876358/blood-pressure-and-renal-responses-to-orthostatic-stress-before-and-after-radiofrequency-renal-denervation-in-patients-with-resistant-hypertension
#7
Yann Vuignier, Eric Grouzmann, Olivier Muller, Nima Vakilzadeh, Mohamed Faouzi, Marc P Maillard, Salah D Qanadli, Michel Burnier, Grégoire Wuerzner
Background/Aims: In patients with resistant hypertension, renal denervation (RDN) studies have mainly focused their outcomes on blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of RDN on neurohormonal profiles, renal hemodynamics and sodium excretion in a resting state and during stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Materials and methods: This was a single center prospective observational study. Norepinephrine, plasma renin activity (PRA), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF) and sodium excretion were measured in unstimulated conditions (rest) and after one hour of LBNP at three different time points: before (M0), one (M1) and twelve months (M12) after RDN...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876357/pulmonary-hypertension-in-aortic-and-mitral-valve-disease
#8
Micha T Maeder, Lukas Weber, Marc Buser, Marc Gerhard, Philipp K Haager, Francesco Maisano, Hans Rickli
In patients with aortic and/or mitral valve disease the presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) indicates a decompensated state of the disease with left ventricular and left atrial dysfunction and exhausted compensatory mechanism, i.e., a state of heart failure. Pulmonary hypertension in this context is the consequence of the backwards transmission of elevated left atrial pressure. In this form of PH, pulmonary vascular resistance is initially normal (isolated post-capillary PH). Depending on the extent and chronicity of left atrial pressure elevation additional pulmonary vascular remodeling may occur (combined pre- and post-capillary PH)...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868614/interventional-cardio-oncology-adding-a-new-dimension-to-the-cardio-oncology-field
#9
Victor Y Liu, Ali M Agha, Juan Lopez-Mattei, Nicolas Palaskas, Peter Kim, Kara Thompson, Elie Mouhayar, Konstantinos Marmagkiolis, Saamir A Hassan, Kaveh Karimzad, Cezar A Iliescu
The management of cardiovascular disease in patients with active cancer presents a unique challenge in interventional cardiology. Cancer patients often suffer from significant comorbidities such as thrombocytopenia and coagulopathic and/or hypercoagulable states, which complicates invasive evaluation and can specifically be associated with an increased risk for vascular access complications. Furthermore, anticancer therapies cause injury to the vascular endothelium as well as the myocardium. Meanwhile, improvements in diagnosis and treatment of various cancers have contributed to an increase in overall survival rates in cancer patients...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868613/roles-of-the-chr-9p21-3-anril-locus-in-regulating-inflammation-and-implications-for-anti-inflammatory-drug-target-identification
#10
Ghazal Aarabi, Tanja Zeller, Guido Heydecke, Matthias Munz, Arne Schäfer, Udo Seedorf
Periodontitis (PD) is a common gingival infectious disease caused by an over-aggressive inflammatory reaction to dysbiosis of the oral microbiome. The disease induces a profound systemic inflammatory host response, that triggers endothelial dysfunction and pro-thrombosis and thus may aggravate atherosclerotic vascular disease and its clinical complications. Recently, a risk haplotype at the ANRIL / CDKN2B-AS1 locus on chromosome 9p21.3, that is not only associated with coronary artery disease / myocardial infarction (CAD/MI) but also with PD, could be identified by genome-wide association studies...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868612/prosthetic-aortic-valves-challenges-and-solutions
#11
Lucia Musumeci, Nicolas Jacques, Alexandre Hego, Alain Nchimi, Patrizio Lancellotti, Cécile Oury
Aortic Valve Disease (AVD) is the most common Valvular Heart Disease (VHD), affecting millions of people worldwide. Severe AVD is treated in most cases with prosthetic aortic valve replacement, which involves the substitution of the native aortic valve with a prosthetic one. In this review we will discuss the different types of prosthetic aortic valves available for implantation and the challenges faced by patients, medical doctors, researchers and manufacturers, as well as the approaches that are taken to overcome them...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868611/challenges-when-expanding-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-to-younger-patients
#12
Ole De Backer, Lars Søndergaard
The rapid expansion of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been based upon robust clinical evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and large-scale international and national registries. Over the past decade, TAVI has evolved into a safe and effective procedure with predictable and reproducible outcomes. As a consequence, the TAVI technology is increasingly used to treat patients with a lower risk profile and the volume of TAVI now exceeds surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in some countries...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868610/insights-from-pre-clinical-and-clinical-studies-on-the-role-of-innate-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis-regression
#13
Karishma Rahman, Edward A Fisher
Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of coronary artery (CAD) and other cardiovascular diseases, is initiated by macrophage-mediated immune responses to lipoprotein and cholesterol accumulation in artery walls, which result in the formation of plaques. Unlike at other sites of inflammation, the immune response becomes maladaptive and inflammation fails to resolve. The most common treatment for reducing the risk from atherosclerosis is low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. Studies have shown, however, that while significant lowering of LDL-C reduces the risk of heart attacks to some degree, there is still residual risk for the majority of the population...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774216/autophagic-regulation-of-lipid-homeostasis-in-cardiometabolic-syndrome
#14
Mingjie Yang, Yingmei Zhang, Jun Ren
As an important protein quality control process, autophagy is essential for the degradation and removal of long-lived or injured cellular components and organelles. Autophagy is known to participate in a number of pathophysiological processes including cardiometabolic syndrome. Recent findings have shown compelling evidence for the intricate interplay between autophagy and lipid metabolism. Autophagy serves as a major regulator of lipid homeostasis while lipid can also influence autophagosome formation and autophagic signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755986/implications-of-cellular-aging-in-cardiac-reprogramming
#15
Fabiana Passaro, Gianluca Testa
Aging is characterized by a chronic functional decline of organ systems which leads to tissue dysfunction over time, representing a risk factor for diseases development, including cardiovascular. The aging process occurring in the cardiovascular system involves heart and vessels at molecular and cellular level, with subsequent structural modifications and functional impairment. Several modifications involved in the aging process can be ascribed to cellular senescence, a biological response that limits the proliferation of damaged cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740591/postnatal-and-adult-aortic-heart-valves-have-distinctive-transcriptional-profiles-associated-with-valve-tissue-growth-and-maintenance-respectively
#16
Emily Nordquist, Stephanie LaHaye, Casey Nagel, Joy Lincoln
Heart valves are organized connective tissues of high mechanical demand. They open and close over 100,000 times a day to preserve unidirectional blood flow by maintaining structure-function relationships throughout life. In affected individuals, structural failure compromises function and often leads to regurgitant blood flow and progressive heart failure. This is most common in degenerative valve disease due to age-related wear and tear, or congenital malformations. At present, the only effective treatment of valve disease is surgical repair or replacement and this is often impermanent and requires anti-coagulation therapy throughout life...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740590/evaluation-of-71-coronary-artery-disease-risk-variants-in-a-multiethnic-cohort
#17
Wangjing Ke, Kristin A Rand, David V Conti, Veronica W Setiawan, Daniel O Stram, Lynne Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Themistocles L Assimes, Christopher A Haiman
Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Previous studies have identified numerous common CHD susceptibility loci, with the vast majority identified in populations of European ancestry. How well these findings transfer to other racial/ethnic populations remains unclear. Methods and Results: We examined the generalizability of the associations with 71 known CHD loci in African American, Latino and Japanese men and women in the Multiethnic Cohort (6,035 cases and 11,251 controls)...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732375/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b-and-its-signaling
#18
Nathaniel Lal, Karanjit Puri, Brian Rodrigues
In diabetes, compromised glucose utilization leads the heart to use FA almost exclusively for ATP generation. Chronically, this adaptation unfortunately leads to the conversion of FA to potentially toxic FA metabolites. Paired with increased formation of reactive oxygen species related to excessive mitochondrial oxidation of FA, can provoke cardiac cell death. To protect against this cell demise, intrinsic mechanisms must be available to the heart. Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB) may be one growth factor that plays an important role in protecting against heart failure...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732374/chinese-herbal-medicine-as-a-potential-treatment-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#19
Sai Wang Seto, Dennis Chang, Hosen Kiat, Ning Wang, Alan Bensoussan
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an irreversible condition where the abdominal aorta is dilated leading to potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the development and progression of AAA, including chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) apoptosis, immune cell infiltration and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Currently surgical therapies, including minimally invasive endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), are the only viable interventions for AAAs...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707544/-guidelines-recommendations-on-the-treatment-of-tricuspid-regurgitation-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go-with-transcatheter-valve-intervention
#20
Alec Vahanian, Eric Brochet, Jean-Michel Juliard
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is an important clinical problem because it is frequent and carries a poor prognosis when it is left uncorrected. However, there is still a lack of awareness of tricuspid disease in the medical community. The indications for evaluation and surgical interventions in patients with TR were recently updated in the ESC/EACTS guidelines. Transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI), almost exclusively valve repair, is at an early stage of development as only a few hundreds of patients have been treated...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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