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Frontiers in Veterinary Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326309/space-allowance-of-the-littered-area-affects-lying-behavior-in-group-housed-horses
#1
Joan-Bryce Burla, Christina Rufener, Iris Bachmann, Lorenz Gygax, Antonia Patt, Edna Hillmann
Horses can sleep while standing; however, recumbency is required for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and therefore essential. Previous research indicated a minimal duration of recumbency of 30 min per 24 h to perform a minimal duration of REM sleep. For group-housed horses, suitable lying area represents a potentially limited resource. In Switzerland, minimal dimensions for the space allowance of the littered area are therefore legally required. To assess the effect of different space allowances of the littered area on lying behavior, 38 horses in 8 groups were exposed to 4 treatments for 11 days each; T0: no litter provided, T0...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321400/toward-elimination-of-dog-mediated-human-rabies-experiences-from-implementing-a-large-scale-demonstration-project-in-southern-tanzania
#2
Emmanuel Abraham Mpolya, Tiziana Lembo, Kennedy Lushasi, Rebecca Mancy, Eberhard M Mbunda, Selemani Makungu, Matthew Maziku, Lwitiko Sikana, Gurdeep Jaswant, Sunny Townsend, François-Xavier Meslin, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Chanasa Ngeleja, Joel Changalucha, Zacharia Mtema, Maganga Sambo, Geofrey Mchau, Kristyna Rysava, Alphoncina Nanai, Rudovick Kazwala, Sarah Cleaveland, Katie Hampson
A Rabies Elimination Demonstration Project was implemented in Tanzania from 2010 through to 2015, bringing together government ministries from the health and veterinary sectors, the World Health Organization, and national and international research institutions. Detailed data on mass dog vaccination campaigns, bite exposures, use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and human rabies deaths were collected throughout the project duration and project areas. Despite no previous experience in dog vaccination within the project areas, district veterinary officers were able to implement district-wide vaccination campaigns that, for most part, progressively increased the numbers of dogs vaccinated with each phase of the project...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316972/prediction-of-pig-trade-movements-in-different-european-production-systems-using-exponential-random-graph-models
#3
Anne Relun, Vladimir Grosbois, Tsviatko Alexandrov, Jose M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Agnes Waret-Szkuta, Sophie Molia, Eric Marcel Charles Etter, Beatriz Martínez-López
In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303244/comparison-of-antimicrobial-consumption-patterns-in-the-swiss-and-danish-cattle-and-swine-production-2007-2013
#4
Luís P Carmo, Liza R Nielsen, Lis Alban, Cedric R Müntener, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Ioannis Magouras
Veterinary antimicrobial consumption patterns vary considerably across Europe. These differences are not only limited to the total amount consumed but are also observed with regards to the relative proportion of the various antimicrobial classes used. Currently, most of the data on veterinary antimicrobials are reported at sales level without any information on the consumption by different animal species. This hinders a proper comparison of antimicrobial consumption at the species level between countries. However, it is imperative to improve our understanding on antimicrobial usage patterns at the species level, as well as on the drivers contributing to those differences...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293560/when-yawning-occurs-in-elephants
#5
Zoë T Rossman, Benjamin L Hart, Brian J Greco, Debbie Young, Clare Padfield, Lisa Weidner, Jennifer Gates, Lynette A Hart
Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June-September and in December...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293559/data-driven-risk-assessment-from-small-scale-epidemics-estimation-and-model-choice-for-spatio-temporal-data-with-application-to-a-classical-swine-fever-outbreak
#6
Kokouvi Gamado, Glenn Marion, Thibaud Porphyre
Livestock epidemics have the potential to give rise to significant economic, welfare, and social costs. Incursions of emerging and re-emerging pathogens may lead to small and repeated outbreaks. Analysis of the resulting data is statistically challenging but can inform disease preparedness reducing potential future losses. We present a framework for spatial risk assessment of disease incursions based on data from small localized historic outbreaks. We focus on between-farm spread of livestock pathogens and illustrate our methods by application to data on the small outbreak of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) that occurred in 2000 in East Anglia, UK...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289684/polyprenyl-immunostimulant-in-feline-rhinotracheitis-randomized-placebo-controlled-experimental-and-field-safety-studies
#7
Alfred M Legendre, Tanya Kuritz, Robert Eric Heidel, Vivian M Baylor
Feline rhinotracheitis is a ubiquitous disease caused by feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1). The disease is easily transmissible and common in multi-cat environments where even vaccinated cats can develop clinical signs of respiratory or ocular disease or both when exposed to the virus. Prior to the work reported here, there was no licensed treatment for the disease on the market. We hypothesized that polyprenyl immunostimulant (PI), an immunomodulatory veterinary biologic, would be useful in treating feline rhinotracheitis by reducing the severity of respiratory or/and ocular disease...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286752/utility-of-mri-for-characterizing-articular-cartilage-pathology-in-dogs-with-medial-coronoid-process-disease
#8
Samuel P Franklin, Emily E Burke, Shannon P Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether assessment of morphological MRI sequences or delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) would have strong correlations with arthroscopic assessment of cartilage pathology in dogs with naturally occurring medial compartment pathology of the elbow. METHODS: Dogs tentatively diagnosed with medial coronoid disease had evaluation of their affected elbows using radiography, morphological MRI sequences, and dGEMRIC MRI evaluation prior to arthroscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275611/qualitative-research-to-design-sustainable-community-based-surveillance-for-rabies-in-northern-australia-and-papua-new-guinea
#9
Victoria J Brookes, Emma Kennedy, Phillipa Dhagapan, Michael P Ward
Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265562/addressing-the-disconnect-between-the-estimated-reported-and-true-rabies-data-the-development-of-a-regional-african-rabies-bulletin
#10
Terence P Scott, Andre Coetzer, Anna S Fahrion, Louis H Nel
It is evident that rabies continues to be a neglected tropical disease; however, a recent global drive aims to eliminate canine-mediated human rabies by 2030. Global efforts have been vested into creating and developing resources for countries to take ownership of and overcome the challenges that rabies poses. The disconnect between the numbers of rabies cases reported and the numbers estimated by prediction models is clear: the key to understanding the epidemiology and true burden of rabies lies within accurate and timely data; poor and discrepant data undermine its true burden and negate the advocacy efforts needed to curb this lethal disease...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261588/comparison-of-visceral-fat-accumulation-and-metabolome-markers-among-cats-of-varying-bcs-and-novel-classification-of-feline-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Yuki Okada, Motoo Kobayashi, Masaki Sawamura, Toshiro Arai
As in humans, obesity and its associated diseases represent the most significant threat to the health of veterinary populations. Previous human studies have provided insights into the risk factors of obesity, complex pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases, and their life-threatening consequences. In humans, the "metabolic syndrome" represents a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and its complications increase health-care utilization and medical expenses...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261587/quantitative-tracking-of-salmonella-enteritidis-transmission-routes-using-barcode-tagged-isogenic-strains-in-chickens-proof-of-concept-study
#12
Yichao Yang, Steven C Ricke, Guillermo Tellez, Young Min Kwon
Salmonella is an important foodborne bacterial pathogen, however, a fundamental understanding on Salmonella transmission routes within a poultry flock remains unclear. In this study, a series of barcode-tagged strains were constructed by inserting six random nucleotides into a functionally neutral region on the chromosome of S. Enteritidis as a tool for quantitative tracking of Salmonella transmission in chickens. Six distinct barcode-tagged strains were used for infection or contamination at either low dose (10(3) CFUs; three strains) or high dose (10(5) CFUs; three strains) in three independent experiments (Experiment 1 oral gavage; Experiment 2 contaminated feed; Experiment 3 contaminated water)...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261586/aging-and-veterinary-care-of-cats-dogs-and-horses-through-the-records-of-three-university-veterinary-hospitals
#13
Bruno Cozzi, Cristina Ballarin, Roberto Mantovani, Ada Rota
The present article examines over 63,000 medical records belonging to the Veterinary Hospitals of the Universities of Bologna, Torino, and Padova, all in Northern Italy, and relative to dogs (approximately 50,000), cats (approximately 12,000), and companion horses (slightly less than 1,000). The animals of the three species were divided into age classes and categorized per sex into males, females, and neutered individuals. The mean age at visit and the effects of age classes and category (analyzed via ANOVA) are presented and discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261585/a-robust-statistical-model-to-predict-the-future-value-of-the-milk-production-of-dairy-cows-using-herd-recording-data
#14
Kaare Græsbøll, Carsten Kirkeby, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Tariq Halasa, Nils Toft, Lasse Engbo Christiansen
The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261584/polyprenyl-immunostimulant-treatment-of-cats-with-presumptive-non-effusive-feline-infectious-peritonitis-in-a-field-study
#15
Alfred M Legendre, Tanya Kuritz, Gina Galyon, Vivian M Baylor, Robert Eric Heidel
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease with no clinically effective treatment. This field study evaluated treatment with Polyprenyl Immunostimulant (PI) in cats with the non-effusive form of FIP. Because immune suppression is a major component in the pathology of FIP, we hypothesized that treatment with an immune system stimulant would increase survival times of cats with dry FIP. Sixty cats, diagnosed with dry FIP by primary care and specialist veterinarians and meeting the acceptance criteria, were treated with PI without intentional selection of less severe cases...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243593/low-impact-of-avian-pox-on-captive-bred-houbara-bustard-breeding-performance
#16
Guillaume Le Loc'h, Mam-Noury Amadou Souley, Stéphane Bertagnoli, Mathilde C Paul
Avian pox, a disease caused by avipoxviruses, is a major cause of decline of some endangered bird species. While its impact has been assessed in several species in the wild, effects of the disease in conservation breeding have never been studied. Houbara bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive bred for conservation purposes for more than 20 years. While mortality and morbidity induced by avipoxviruses can be controlled by appropriate management, the disease might still affect bird breeding performance and jeopardize the production objectives of conservation programs...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239608/elimination-of-dog-mediated-human-rabies-deaths-by-2030-needs-assessment-and-alternatives-for-progress-based-on-dog-vaccination
#17
Ryan M Wallace, Eduardo A Undurraga, Jesse D Blanton, Julie Cleaton, Richard Franka
BACKGROUND: Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis-in perpetuity-, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination of dog rabies virus by 2030...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232936/corrigendum-determinants-of-vaccination-coverage-and-consequences-for-rabies-control-in-bali-indonesia
#18
Riana A Arief, Katie Hampson, Andri Jatikusumah, Maria D W Widyastuti, Sunandar, Chaerul Basri, Anak A G Putra, Iwan Willyanto, Agnes T S Estoepangestie, I W Mardiana, I K G N Kesuma, I P Sumantra, Paul F Doherty, M D Salman, Jeff Gilbert, Fred Unger
[This corrects the article on p. 123 in vol. 3, PMID: 28119919.].
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229071/bilateral-vertebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-causing-cervical-spinal-cord-compression-in-a-dog
#19
Kathryn E Rhue, Amanda R Taylor, Robert C Cole, Randolph L Winter
A 10-year-old male neutered mixed breed dog was evaluated for cervical hyperesthesia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spinal cord identified an extradural compressive lesion over the body of C2 caused by marked dilation of the vertebral venous sinuses. Following intravenous contrast administration both vertebral sinuses had heterogeneous contrast enhancement consistent with incomplete thrombi formation. An abdominal ultrasound also showed a distal aortic thrombus. A definitive cause for the thrombi formation was not identified, but the patient had several predisposing factors which may have contributed...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220148/individual-signatures-define-canine-skin-microbiota-composition-and-variability
#20
Anna Cuscó, Armand Sánchez, Laura Altet, Lluís Ferrer, Olga Francino
Dogs present almost all their skin sites covered by hair, but canine skin disorders are more common in certain skin sites and breeds. The goal of our study is to characterize the composition and variability of the skin microbiota in healthy dogs and to evaluate the effect of the breed, the skin site, and the individual. We have analyzed eight skin sites of nine healthy dogs from three different breeds by massive sequencing of 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 hypervariable regions. The main phyla inhabiting the skin microbiota in healthy dogs are Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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