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Frontiers in Veterinary Science

Zhi-Guo Liu, Li-Jun Wang, Dong-Ri Piao, Miao Wang, Ri-Hong Liu, Hong-Yan Zhao, Bu-Yun Cui, Hai Jiang
Brucellosis is an endemic disease in China affecting both humans and livestock. The aim of the present study was to analyze two Brucella strains isolated from sheep spleens from Ulanqab in Inner Mongolia, China using classical and molecular typing techniques. The two strains were identified as Brucella suis biovar 3 and were closely related to isolates previously obtained from two different hosts (human and swine) in Guangxi Province. Our results suggest that B. suis can be directly or indirectly transferred from swine to sheep, which act as reservoirs for B...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Elva Borja, Leo F Borja, Ronil Prasad, Tomasi Tunabuna, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is globally significant due to its impacts on cattle production. A Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication and Control (BTEC) program commenced in Fiji during the 1980's and has since been sustained by government funding and industry cooperation. A retrospective study of bTB data obtained during the Fiji BTEC program from 1999 to 2014 was undertaken at the University of Sydney with support from the Government of Fiji. It confirmed that bTB is well-established in dairy cattle farms in Naitasiri and Tailevu provinces of Central Division on the main island of Viti Levu, and suggested that the disease is present among cattle on farms in all or most provinces across three (Central, Northern, Western) of the four divisions in the country...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Bryce M Buddle, Hans Martin Vordermeier, Mark A Chambers, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) continues to be an intractable problem in many countries, particularly where "test and slaughter" policies cannot be implemented or where wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis infection serve as a recurrent source of infection for domestic livestock. Alternative control measures are urgently required and vaccination is a promising option. Although the M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been used in humans for nearly a century, its use in animals has been limited, principally as protection against TB has been incomplete and vaccination may result in animals reacting in the tuberculin skin test...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Vanesa Ruiz, Natalia Gabriela Porta, Marina Lomónaco, Karina Trono, Irene Alvarez
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). Although efficient eradication programs have been successfully implemented in most European countries and Oceania, BLV infection rates are still high worldwide. BLV naturally infects cattle, inducing a persistent infection with diverse clinical outcomes. The virus infects lymphocytes and integrates a DNA intermediate as a provirus into the genome of the cells. Therefore, exposure to biological fluids contaminated with infected lymphocytes potentially spreads the virus...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Hyun-Tae Kim, John P Loftus, Sabine Mann, Joseph J Wakshlag
Objectives: To examine the relative levels of heavy metals and arsenic content in commercial dog foods (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury) of 51 over-the-counter maintenance or all-life-stage dry dog foods. All products were chosen and segregated based on meat sources (fish, poultry, red-meat-17 products from each category) as animal protein sources being the primary contaminated ingredient due to bioaccumulation. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed on products that were classified as fish, red meat (beef, pork, venison, bison) or poultry (chicken, turkey, duck) based...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Swanand R Sathe
Laparoscopic artificial insemination (LAI) is an intrauterine method of insemination, especially utilized in the small ruminant species to bypass their unique anatomically tortuous cervix. There are several advantages of LAI that include efficient use of processed semen leading to higher pregnancy rates. Success of LAI programs depends on proper implementation of estrus synchronization programs, patient selection and thorough knowledge of the reproductive physiology. In addition, proper equipment and surgical expertise help in reducing patient morbidity and mortality rates...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Héléna Ladreyt, Mathilde Saccareau, Aurélie Courcoul, Benoit Durand
Whole depopulation of cattle herds (WHD) confirmed infected by bovine tuberculosis (bTB) has led since the 1950s to a drop of herd incidence in France below 0.1% in 2000, justifying the current officially bTB free (OTF) status of the country. However, this protocol is expensive, ethically questionable, and difficult for breeders to accept because the number of confirmed animals in an infected herd is often very low. A test-and-cull protocol combining at least three screening sessions of the entire herd followed by the slaughter of all the non-negative animals has been used for some years...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jamie A Tratalos, Damien J Barrett, Tracy A Clegg, Ronan G O'Neill, Guy McGrath, Elizabeth A Lane, Simon J More
In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the value of multiple data sources available to fulfill surveillance objectives, and the use of these has been applied to address many questions relating to animal health surveillance. In Ireland, we face a slightly different problem, namely, best use of an existing surveillance resource (serological samples collected over many years from cull cows at slaughter), which has been used to substantiate freedom from Brucella abortus following its successful eradication in 2009...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Adriano Wang-Leandro, Matthias Dennler, Katrin M Beckmann
Corpus callosum abnormalities (CCA) rarely occur in dogs and are related to hypo/adypsic hypernatremia and seizures. Hypoplasia and dysplasia of the corpus callosum (CC) with concomitant lobar holoprosencephaly is the most common variant. It is currently uncertain using conventional MRI if canine CCA reflects the failure of commissural fibers to develop or the failure of the commissural fibers to cross hemispheres. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in a 4-year-old Staffordshire mix breed dog with CCA and an age-matched healthy Beagle...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jennifer L McDonald, Mark J Farnworth, Jane Clements
Cat management is often discussed in terms of population reduction, with trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaigns commonly organized to manage unowned urban cat populations. However, long-term effectiveness is only possible if positive neutering practices are continued by local residents. Here we discuss how implementing TNR within a wider framework of social engagement has the potential to tackle cat overpopulation and instill long-term positive behavior change toward them. We demonstrate how community engagement pre-TNR can help establish a baseline of the attitudes, knowledge and behavior concerning cats...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Yue Shang, Sanjay Kumar, Brian Oakley, Woo Kyun Kim
Sustainable poultry meat and egg production is important to provide safe and quality protein sources in human nutrition worldwide. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens harbor a diverse and complex microbiota that plays a vital role in digestion and absorption of nutrients, immune system development and pathogen exclusion. However, the integrity, functionality, and health of the chicken gut depends on many factors including the environment, feed, and the GI microbiota. The symbiotic interactions between host and microbe is fundamental to poultry health and production...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Maria A Fahie, Jonathan C Cortez, Marc Ledesma, Yuhua Su
Objectives: To document temporospatial variables and gait symmetry measured by the GAITRite® system for normal, healthy dogs at the walk and trot with the leash side recorded. Study Design: Observational, prospective, cohort study. Sample Population: 66 healthy dogs of various common breeds with no evidence of lameness that were small (< 10 kg), medium (10- < 25 kg), large (25- < 40 kg), or giant (≥40 kg). Methods: Dogs walked and trotted at their preferred velocity on a pressure sensing walkway system...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Fiona Vande Velde, Johannes Charlier, Edwin Claerebout
Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections are a common constraint in pasture-based herds and cause a decrease in animal health, productivity and farm profitability. Current control practices to prevent production losses of GIN infections in livestock depend largely on the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, due to the continued use of these drugs over more than three decades, the industry is now increasingly confronted with nematode populations resistant to the available anthelmintics. This emerging anthelmintic resistance (AR) in cattle nematodes emphasizes the need for a change toward more sustainable control approaches that limit, prevent or reverse the development of AR...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Vanessa Elizabeth Cowan, Alex Neumann, John McKinnon, Barry Raymond Blakley, Taylor Jayne Grusie, Jaswant Singh
Ergot alkaloids are toxic secondary metabolites produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea that contaminate cereal grains. Current Canadian standards allow 2 to 3 parts per million of ergot alkaloids in animal feed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hemodynamic parameters were altered when beef cows were fed permissible levels of ergot alkaloids (i.e., <3 ppm) on a short-term basis. A dose-response relationship between ergot alkaloid concentration and hemodynamic changes in caudal (coccygeal), median sacral, and internal iliac arteries was hypothesized...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jon M Arnemo, Bjørnar Ytrehus, Knut Madslien, Jonas Malmsten, Sven Brunberg, Peter Segerström, Alina L Evans, Jon E Swenson
Intraperitoneal radio transmitters have been widely used in free-ranging wild mammals, but there are no long-term studies on their biocompatibility or technical stability within the abdominal cavity of animals. Possible negative health effects may bias results from ecological studies on instrumented animals and raise concerns over animal welfare issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term technical stability and pathological effects of Telonics intraperitoneal very high frequency (VHF) radio transmitters in brown bears ( Ursus arctos )...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sigal Gelkop, Ariel Sobarzo, Polina Brangel, Cécile Vincke, Ema Romão, Shlomit Fedida-Metula, Nick Strom, Irene Ataliba, Frank Norbet Mwiine, Sylvester Ochwo, Lauro Velazquez-Salinas, Rachel A McKendry, Serge Muyldermans, Julius Julian Lutwama, Elizabeth Rieder, Victoria Yavelsky, Leslie Lobel
Effective management of foot and mouth disease (FMD) requires diagnostic tests to distinguish between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). To address this need, several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) platforms have been developed, however, these tests vary in their sensitivity and specificity and are very expensive for developing countries. Camelid-derived single-domain antibodies fragments so-called Nanobodies, have demonstrated great efficacy for the development of serological diagnostics. This study describes the development of a novel Nanobody-based FMD 3ABC competitive ELISA, for the serological detection of antibodies against FMD Non-Structural Proteins (NSP) in Uganda cattle herds...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Mahamadou Seyni Yansambou, Alpha Amadou Diallo, Moumouni Idi, Haladou Gagara, Abdoul Malick Haido, Rianatou Bada Alambedji
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Biotype Small Colony (MmmSC). The disease currently occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and where it is endemic and a major constraint for improving pastoral productivity. Following the persistence of this scourge, and in order to control this disease, a serological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of CBPP in Niger. In fact, 1,590 sera were collected following a stratified sampling plan based on the risk factor of dissemination of CBPP...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Shuya Kasai, Junsei Mimura, Taku Ozaki, Ken Itoh
Iron has played an important role in energy production since the beginning of life, as iron-catalyzed redox reactions are required for energy production. Oxygen, a highly efficient electron acceptor with high reduction potential, facilitates highly efficient energy production in eukaryotic cells. However, the increasing atmospheric oxygen concentration produces new threats to the organism, as oxygen reacts with iron and produces reactive oxygen species unless its levels are strictly regulated. As the size of multicellular organisms increases, these organisms must transport oxygen to the peripheral tissues and begin to employ red blood cells containing hemoglobin...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Begum Yurdakok-Dikmen, Yagmur Turgut, Ayhan Filazi
Herbal bioenhancers are active phytomolecules that increase the bioavailability, bioefficacy and biological activity of various drugs when coadministered at low concentrations. These valuable compounds reduce the dose, increase the treatment rate, decrease the treatment duration, drug resistance or related adverse reactions which have economical implications in livestock and pet medicine. Eventhough the concept of herbal bioenhancers are known for years through Ayurvedic medicine, the underlying mechanisms remains unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Pascal Rainard, Gilles Foucras
The urge to reduce antimicrobials use in dairy farming has prompted a search for alternative solutions. As infections of the mammary gland is a major reason for antibiotic administration to dairy ruminants, mammary probiotics have recently been presented as a possible alternative for the treatment of mastitis. To assess the validity of this proposal, we performed a general appraisal of the knowledge related to probiotics for mammary health by examining their potential modes of action and assessing the compatibility of these mechanisms with the immunobiology of mammary gland infections...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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