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Frontiers in Veterinary Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774217/effective-network-size-predicted-from-simulations-of-pathogen-outbreaks-through-social-networks-provides-a-novel-measure-of-structure-standardized-group-size
#1
Collin M McCabe, Charles L Nunn
The transmission of infectious disease through a population is often modeled assuming that interactions occur randomly in groups, with all individuals potentially interacting with all other individuals at an equal rate. However, it is well known that pairs of individuals vary in their degree of contact. Here, we propose a measure to account for such heterogeneity: effective network size (ENS), which refers to the size of a maximally complete network (i.e., unstructured, where all individuals interact with all others equally) that corresponds to the outbreak characteristics of a given heterogeneous, structured network...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770325/linking-supply-chain-governance-and-biosecurity-in-the-context-of-hpai-control-in-western-java-a-value-chain-perspective
#2
Dikky Indrawan, Karl M Rich, Peter van Horne, Arief Daryanto, Henk Hogeveen
Despite extensive efforts to control the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), it remains endemic in Western Java, Indonesia. To understand the limited effectiveness of HPAI control measures, it is important to map the complex structure of the poultry sector. The governance of the poultry value chain in particular, could play a pivotal role, yet there is limited information on the different chain governance structures and their impacts on HPAI control. This article uses value chain analysis (VCA), focusing on an in-depth assessment of governance structures as well as transaction cost economics and quantitative estimates of the market power of different chain actors, to establish a theoretical framework to examine biosecurity and HPAI control in the Western Java poultry chain...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770324/one-health-integration-a-proposed-framework-for-a-study-on-veterinarians-and-zoonotic-disease-management-in-ghana
#3
Sophie Françoise Valeix
In parallel with the recent world-wide promotion of One Health (OH) as a policy concept, a growing body of social science studies has raised questions about how successful OH policies and programs have been in managing some global health issues, such as zoonotic diseases. This paper briefly reviews this literature to clarify its critical perspective. Much of the literature on OH also is focused on health management at an international level and has paid less attention to implementation programs and policies for OH at the national and local levels, especially in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755989/assessing-biosecurity-risks-for-the-introduction-and-spread-of-diseases-among-commercial-sheep-properties-in-new-south-wales-australia-using-foot-and-mouth-disease-as-a-case-study
#4
Jake Fountain, Robert Woodgate, Luzia Rast, Marta Hernández-Jover
Sheep production systems are a major industry in Australia, with a gross value of roughly $4.66 billion; 87.3% of which is attributable to export markets. Exotic diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are a potential threat to the viability of Australia's export market. Previous outbreaks of FMD in developed countries, and challenges in the management of onshore biosecurity, signify the importance of on-farm biosecurity in controlling disease transmission. This study aims to investigate the risk of disease introduction and spread among New South Wales (NSW) sheep properties using FMD as a case study and draw recommendation for the industry...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755988/bite-forces-and-their-measurement-in-dogs-and-cats
#5
REVIEW
Se Eun Kim, Boaz Arzi, Tanya C Garcia, Frank J M Verstraete
Bite force is generated by the interaction of the masticatory muscles, the mandibles and maxillae, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs), and the teeth. Several methods to measure bite forces in dogs and cats have been described. Direct in vivo measurement of a bite in dogs has been done; however, bite forces were highly variable due to animal volition, situation, or specific measurement technique. Bite force has been measured in vivo from anesthetized dogs by electrical stimulation of jaw adductor muscles, but this may not be reflective of volitional bite force during natural activity...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755987/low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-exposure-risk-assessment-in-australian-commercial-chicken-farms
#6
Angela Bullanday Scott, Jenny-Ann Toribio, Mini Singh, Peter Groves, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Black, Marta Hernandez-Jover
This study investigated the pathways of exposure to low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus among Australian commercial chicken farms and estimated the likelihood of this exposure occurring using scenario trees and a stochastic modeling approach following the World Organization for Animal Health methodology for risk assessment. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature and an on-farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 among Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales and Queensland...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713639/from-feline-idiopathic-ulcerative-dermatitis-to-feline-behavioral-ulcerative-dermatitis-grooming-repetitive-behaviors-indicators-of-poor-welfare-in-cats
#7
Emmanuelle Titeux, Caroline Gilbert, Amaury Briand, Noëlle Cochet-Faivre
Feline idiopathic head-and-neck dermatitis-also named feline idiopathic ulcerative dermatitis (IUD)-is considered as a rare skin disease of unknown origin. It is usually associated with a crusted, non-healing, self-induced ulcer occurring most commonly on the dorsal or lateral neck or between the scapula where self-grooming by scratching occurs. Usually, IUD is diagnosed after exclusion of other causes of pruritus. In feline medicine, self-induced alopecia is recognized as a behavioral disorder (abnormal repetitive behavior) due to excessive licking, which is an amplification of a normal maintenance behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713638/omeprazole-minimally-alters-the-fecal-microbial-community-in-six-cats-a-pilot-study
#8
Sarah M Schmid, Jan S Suchodolski, Josh M Price, M K Tolbert
Although they have historically been thought of as safe medications, proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole have been associated with an increased risk of enteric, particularly Clostridium difficile , infections in people. In cats, omeprazole is often the first choice acid suppressant prescribed for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration and bleeding. Despite this, no studies to date have explored the effect of omeprazole on the feline fecal microbiome and metabolome. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged omeprazole administration on the fecal microbiome and metabolome in healthy cats to identify targets for analysis in a larger subset of cats with GI disease...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713637/relevant-measures-to-prevent-the-spread-of-african-swine-fever-in-the-european-union-domestic-pig-sector
#9
REVIEW
Cristina Jurado, Marta Martínez-Avilés, Ana De La Torre, Marina Štukelj, Helena Cardoso de Carvalho Ferreira, Monica Cerioli, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Silvia Bellini
During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF) has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania). In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713636/the-pathobiology-of-the-meniscus-a-comparison-between-the-human-and-dog
#10
REVIEW
Olga Krupkova, Lucas Smolders, Karin Wuertz-Kozak, James Cook, Antonio Pozzi
Serious knee pain and related disability have an annual prevalence of approximately 25% on those over the age of 55 years. As curative treatments for the common knee problems are not available to date, knee pathologies typically progress and often lead to osteoarthritis (OA). While the roles that the meniscus plays in knee biomechanics are well characterized, biological mechanisms underlying meniscus pathophysiology and roles in knee pain and OA progression are not fully clear. Experimental treatments for knee disorders that are successful in animal models often produce unsatisfactory results in humans due to species differences or the inability to fully replicate disease progression in experimental animals...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713635/detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-lambs-undergoing-prophylactic-treatment-against-ticks-on-two-swedish-farms
#11
Giulio Grandi, Anna Aspán, Jenny Pihl, Katarina Gustafsson, Fredrik Engström, Tomas Jinnerot, Robert Söderlund, Jan Chirico
Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), especially Anaplasma phagocytophilum , cause disease in grazing livestock. Tick prophylaxis is, therefore, a routine practice in sheep flocks in Sweden, especially in central, southern, and coastal areas of the country where ixodid ticks ( Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata ) are present. In the present study, the status of infection by A. phagocytophilum and other TBPs in lambs treated with tick prophylaxis has been assessed serologically and with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713634/cell-based-therapies-for-joint-disease-in-veterinary-medicine-what-we-have-learned-and-what-we-need-to-know
#12
REVIEW
Sophie Helen Bogers
Biological cell-based therapies for the treatment of joint disease in veterinary patients include autologous-conditioned serum, platelet-rich plasma, and expanded or non-expanded mesenchymal stem cell products. This narrative review outlines the processing and known mechanism of action of these therapies and reviews current preclinical and clinical efficacy in joint disease in the context of the processing type and study design. The significance of variation for biological activity and consequently regulatory approval is also discussed...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707546/-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-a-typical-and-a-high-pathogenic-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-ii-strains
#13
Dario Amilcar Malacari, Andrea Pécora, Maria Sol Pérez Aguirreburualde, Nancy Patricia Cardoso, Anselmo Carlos Odeón, Alejandra Victoria Capozzo
Non-cytopathic (ncp) type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-2) is widely prevalent in Argentina causing high mortality rates in cattle herds. In this study, we characterized an Argentinean ncp BVDV-2 field isolate (98-124) compared to a high-virulence reference strain (NY-93), using in silico analysis, in vitro assays, and in vivo infections of colostrum-deprived calves (CDC) to compare pathogenic characters and virulence. In vitro infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with BVDV 98-124 induced necrosis shortly after infection while NY-93 strain increased the apoptotic rate in infected cells...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707545/a-review-of-bunyamwera-batai-and-ngari-viruses-understudied-orthobunyaviruses-with-potential-one-health-implications
#14
REVIEW
M Fausta Dutuze, Manassé Nzayirambaho, Christopher N Mores, Rebecca C Christofferson
Bunyamwera (BUNV), Batai (BATV), and Ngari (NRIV) are mosquito-borne viruses of the Bunyamwera serogroup in the Orthobunyavirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. These three viruses have been found to cause disease in both livestock animals, avian species, and humans. Thus, these viruses pose a potential threat to human public health, animal health, and food security. This is especially the case in the developing nations, where BUNV and NRIV are found, mainly in Africa. BUNV and BATV are fairly well characterized, while NRIV is not well characterized owing to only sporadic detection in human and animal populations in Africa...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696149/anti-inflammatory-benefits-of-antibiotics-tylvalosin-induces-apoptosis-of-porcine-neutrophils-and-macrophages-promotes-efferocytosis-and-inhibits-pro-inflammatory-cxcl-8-il1%C3%AE-and-ltb-4-production-while-inducing-the-release-of-pro-resolving-lipoxin-a-4-and-resolvin
#15
Ruth Moges, Dimitri Desmonts De Lamache, Saman Sajedy, Bernard S Renaux, Morley D Hollenberg, Gregory Muench, Elizabeth M Abbott, Andre G Buret
Excessive accumulation of neutrophils and their uncontrolled death by necrosis at the site of inflammation exacerbates inflammatory responses and leads to self-amplifying tissue injury and loss of organ function, as exemplified in a variety of respiratory diseases. In homeostasis, neutrophils are inactivated by apoptosis, and non phlogistically removed by neighboring macrophages in a process known as efferocytosis, which promotes the resolution of inflammation. The present study assessed the potential anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution benefits of tylvalosin, a recently developed broad-spectrum veterinary macrolide derived from tylosin...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692993/megavoltage-radiotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-degenerative-joint-disease-in-dogs-results-of-a-preliminary-experience-in-an-italian-radiotherapy-centre
#16
Federica Rossi, Simona Cancedda, Vito Ferdinando Leone, Carla Rohrer Bley, Paola Laganga
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a low-dose radiotherapy treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA). Inclusion criteria were dogs affected by OA of one or multiple joints, with lameness, previously treated with medical therapy and referred for radiotherapy because of chronic unresponsive pain. After suspension of medical therapy, dogs underwent external beam radiotherapy treatments delivered in three fractions of 2 Gy each. Four of these dogs had one (three dogs) to four (one dog) additional courses of radiation...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686994/cell-free-dna-high-mobility-group-box-1-and-procalcitonin-concentrations-in-dogs-with-gastric-dilatation-volvulus-syndrome
#17
Roberta Troia, Massimo Giunti, Stefano Calipa, Robert Goggs
Canine gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and procalcitonin (PCT) in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT were measured in citrated plasma samples collected from 29 dogs with GDV at hospital admission...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686993/low-and-high-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5-and-h7-spread-risk-assessment-within-and-between-australian-commercial-chicken-farms
#18
Angela Bullanday Scott, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Mini Singh, Peter Groves, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Black, Marta Hernandez-Jover
This study quantified and compared the probability of avian influenza (AI) spread within and between Australian commercial chicken farms via specified spread pathways using scenario tree mathematical modeling. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature, expert opinion, and a farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 on Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland. Outputs from the models indicate that the probability of no establishment of infection in a shed is the most likely end-point after exposure and infection of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in one chicken for all farm types (non-free range meat chicken, free range meat chicken, cage layer, barn layer, and free range layer farms)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686992/the-history-of-in-vivo-tuberculin-testing-in-bovines-tuberculosis-a-one-health-issue
#19
REVIEW
Margaret Good, Douwe Bakker, Anthony Duignan, Daniel M Collins
Tuberculosis (TB) is more than 3 million years old thriving in multiple species. Ancestral Mycobacterium tuberculosis gave rise to multiple strains including Mycobacterium bovis now distributed worldwide with zoonotic transmission happening in both directions between animals and humans. M. bovis in milk caused problems with a significant number of deaths in children under 5 years of age due largely to extrapulmonary TB. This risk was effectively mitigated with widespread milk pasteurization during the twentieth century, and fewer young children were lost to TB...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675419/a-cross-sectional-study-into-the-prevalence-of-dairy-cattle-lameness-and-associated-herd-level-risk-factors-in-england-and-wales
#20
Bethany E Griffiths, Dai Grove White, Georgios Oikonomou
Lameness is one of the most pressing issues within the dairy industry; it has severe economic implications while causing a serious impact on animal welfare. A study conducted approximately 10 years ago found the within farm lameness prevalence in the UK to be 36.8%. Our objective here is to provide an update on within farm lameness prevalence in the UK, and to provide further evidence on farm level risk factors. A convenience sample of 61 dairy farms were recruited across England and Wales from September 2015 to December 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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