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Frontiers in Veterinary Science

Daniel A McCarthy, Darryl L Millis, David Levine, Joseph P Weigel
Objective: The purpose of the study reported here was to describe variables affecting thigh girth measurements preoperatively and 2 weeks after surgical stabilization of the stifle and to examine inter- and intra-observer reliability. Animals: Ten hound-type dogs with experimental, unilateral, cranial cruciate ligament transection, and surgical stabilization. Procedures: Dogs were placed in lateral recumbency for measurements of thigh circumference after the stifle was placed in flexed (F), estimated standing (S), and extended (E) positions...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jenifer Molina, Marta Hervera, Edgar Garcia Manzanilla, Carlos Torrente, Cecilia Villaverde
Hospitalized dogs are predisposed to undernutrition, which can potentially affect outcome. This study evaluated the prevalence of undernutrition in hospitalized dogs (measured as loss of body condition score, BCS and body weight, BW) and studied the risk factors that affect nutritional status, and outcome (discharge or death). Data was collected prospectively during 9 months from 500 hospitalized dogs with a hospitalization length longer than 24 h in a veterinary teaching hospital in Spain. The BCS and BW changes were modeled using multiple linear regression and outcome was modeled using logistic regression...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Brian M Zanghi, Patrick J Robbins, Meghan T Ramos, Cynthia M Otto
Exercise-related physiological changes were evaluated in hydrated, exercise-conditioned working dogs with free access to tap water (TW) with or without a nutrient-enriched water supplement (NW). Physiological samples and measures were collected before and after work-related field tasks in a warm and moderately humid ambient environment. In a cross-over design study, 12 dogs (age range 8-23 months) were evaluated on 3 separate occasions within each period with exercise bouts up to 30 min, on days -4, 3, and 11...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sarah Benhaiem, Lucile Marescot, Heribert Hofer, Marion L East, Jean-Dominique Lebreton, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt, Olivier Gimenez
Estimating eco-epidemiological parameters in free-ranging populations can be challenging. As known individuals may be undetected during a field session, or their health status uncertain, the collected data are typically "imperfect". Multi-event capture-mark-recapture (MECMR) models constitute a substantial methodological advance by accounting for such imperfect data. In these models, animals can be "undetected" or "detected" at each time step. Detected animals can be assigned an infection state, such as "susceptible" (S), "infected" (I), or "recovered" (R), or an "unknown" (U) state, when for instance no biological sample could be collected...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Michaela P Trudeau, Yuyin Zhou, Fernando L Leite, Andres Gomez, Pedro E Urriola, Gerald C Shurson, Chi Chen, Richard E Isaacson
The changes in the gut microbiome play an important role in the promoting effects of antibiotics, such as tylosin, to the health, and productivity of farm animals. Microbial metabolites are expected to be key mediators between antibiotics-induced microbiome changes and growth-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to extend the identification of tylosin-responsive microbes to the identification of tylosin-responsive metabolites in growing pigs. The feeding trial was conducted on a commercial farm using two pens of pigs fed diets with and without tylosin (40 mg/kg of diet)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Holly L Stewart, Christopher E Kawcak
Subchondral bone plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of osteochondral disease across veterinary species. The subchondral bone is highly adaptable, with the ability to model and remodel in response to loading stresses experienced by the joint. Repetitive stress injuries within the joint can result in primary or secondary pathologic lesions within the subchondral bone, which have been recognized to contribute to the development and progression of osteoarthritis. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging, particularly volumetric imaging modalities have facilitated earlier identification of subchondral bone disease...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Lisa J Wallis, Dóra Szabó, Boglárka Erdélyi-Belle, Enikö Kubinyi
Although dogs' life expectancies are six to twelve times shorter than that of humans, the demographics (e. g., living conditions) of dogs can still change considerably with aging, similarly to humans. Despite the fact that the dog is a particularly good model for human healthspan, and the number of aged dogs in the population is growing in parallel with aged humans, there has been few previous attempts to describe demographic changes statistically. We utilized an on-line questionnaire to examine the link between the age and health of the dog, and owner and dog demographics in a cross-sectional Hungarian sample...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Barbara Riccio, Claudia Fraschetto, Justine Villanueva, Federica Cantatore, Andrea Bertuglia
Despite back-pain being a common cause of poor performance in sport horses, a tailored diagnostic workflow and a consolidated therapeutic approach are currently lacking in equine medicine. The aim of the study was to assess the evolution in the veterinarian approach to diagnose and treat back-pain over a 10 years period. To investigate this topic, two surveys were addressed to equine veterinarians working in practice throughout Europe 10 years apart (2006 and 2016). The answers were organized in an Excel dataset and analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Juan D Latorre, Bishnu Adhikari, Si H Park, Kyle D Teague, Lucas E Graham, Brittany D Mahaffey, Mikayla F A Baxter, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Young M Kwon, Steven C Ricke, Lisa R Bielke, Billy M Hargis, Guillermo Tellez
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a recognized multifactorial disease that cost annually to the poultry industry around $2 billion. However, diverse aspects related to its presentation are not completely understood, requiring further studies using known induction experimental models. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure the changes occurring in performance, intestinal integrity and ileal microbiome using a previously established NE-challenge model. Chickens were assigned to a negative control group (NC) or a positive control group (PC)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Zachary R Stromberg, Angelica Van Goor, Graham A J Redweik, Melha Mellata
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes extraintestinal infections in poultry. Vaccines targeting APEC in chickens have been partially successful, but many lack heterologous protection. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains can induce broad immunity against Salmonella and be modified to deliver E. coli antigens. Along with vaccine characteristics, understanding the host response is crucial for developing improved vaccines. The objectives of this study were to evaluate host responses to vaccination with an RASV producing E...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Anaïs Léger, Katharina D C Stärk, Jonathan Rushton, Liza R Nielsen
We applied the evaluation framework developed by the EU COST Action "Network of Evaluation of One Health" (NEOH) to assess the operations, supporting infrastructures and outcomes of a research consortium "University of Copenhagen Research Centre for Control of Antibiotic Resistance" (UC-CARE). This 4-year research project was a One Health (OH) initiative with participants from 14 departments over four faculties as well as stakeholders from industry and health authorities aiming to produce new knowledge to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Caroline Lee, Ian G Colditz, Dana L M Campbell
To be ethically acceptable, new husbandry technologies and livestock management systems must maintain or improve animal welfare. To achieve this goal, the design and implementation of new technologies need to harness and complement the learning abilities of animals. Here, from literature on the cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS), we develop a framework to assess welfare outcomes in terms of the animal's affective state and its learned ability to predict and control engagement with the environment, including, for example, new technologies...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jenna N Winer, Frank J M Verstraete, Derek D Cissell, Catherine Le, Natalia Vapniarsky, Kathryn L Good, Claudio J Gutierrez, Boaz Arzi
The objective of this study is to describe the clinical features and computed tomography (CT) findings of dogs with retrobulbar disease. There are two facets to this study: a retrospective case series in which findings of dogs with primary vs. secondary retrobulbar disease are described, and a retrospective cross-sectional study in which computed tomography findings of dogs with retrobulbar neoplasia vs. infection/inflammation are described and compared. The medical records of 66 client-owned dogs diagnosed with retrobulbar disease between 2006 and 2016 were reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Laura Bona, Nienke van Staaveren, Bishwo Bandhu Pokharel, Marinus van Krimpen, Alexandra Harlander-Matauschek
Consumption of low protein energy-rich (LPER) diets increases susceptibility to metabolic disease in mammals, such as hepatic damage, and can have an adverse effect on cognition. However, the effects of these diets on both physical and mental welfare have not been investigated in domestic meat chickens. Female chicks received a low protein energy-rich or a standard control diet from 21 to 51 days of age. The effects of these dietary manipulations on plasma hepatic markers for liver damage, liver necropsy, and learning a visual discrimination reversal task were assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Emily V Bushby, Mary Friel, Conor Goold, Helen Gray, Lauren Smith, Lisa M Collins
For farmed species, good health and welfare is a win-win situation: both the animals and producers can benefit. In recent years, animal welfare scientists have embraced cognitive sciences to rise to the challenge of determining an animal's internal state in order to better understand its welfare needs and by extension, the needs of larger groups of animals. A wide range of cognitive tests have been developed that can be applied in farmed species to assess a range of cognitive traits. However, this has also presented challenges...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Megan Cross, Alex Heeren, Louis J Cornicelli, David C Fulton
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an infectious, zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis that can spread between domestic and wild animals, as well as to humans. The disease is characterized by the progressive development of lesions that compromise the victim's lungs and lymph system. The disease was first identified in northwest Minnesota in both cattle and white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) in 2005. Due to its risks to human and animal health, bTB has numerous implications related to population management, policy outcomes, stakeholder relations, and economic impacts...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Gustaf Rydevik, Giles T Innocent, Iain J McKendrick
Active surveillance of rare infectious diseases requires diagnostic tests to have high specificity, otherwise the false positive results can outnumber the true cases detected, leading to low positive predictive values. Where a positive result can have economic consequences, such as the cull of a bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) positive herd, establishing a high specificity becomes particularly important. When evaluating new diagnostic tests against a "gold standard" reference test with assumed perfect sensitivity and specificity, calculation of sample sizes are commonly done using a normal approximation to the binomial distribution, although this approach can be misleading...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Andrew C Micciche, Steven L Foley, Hilary O Pavlidis, Donald R McIntyre, Steven C Ricke
Prebiotics are typically fermentable feed additives that can directly or indirectly support a healthy intestinal microbiota. Prebiotics have gained increasing attention in the poultry industry as wariness toward antibiotic use has grown in the face of foodborne pathogen drug resistance. Their potential as feed additives to improve growth, promote beneficial gastrointestinal microbiota, and reduce human-associated pathogens, has been well documented. However, their mechanisms remain relatively unknown. Prebiotics increasing short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the cecum have long since been considered a potential source for pathogen reduction...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Paola A Prada, Kenneth G Furton
While canines are generally considered the gold standard for olfactory detection in many situations other animals provide alternatives and offer a unique opportunity to compare biological detection capabilities. Critical components in successfully studying biological detectors is not only understanding their anatomical evidence for olfaction, but also, understanding the life history of the species to better direct the potential of an olfactory task. Here, a brief overview is provided presenting a comparative viewpoint on the use of odors by birds and canines over a range of unique detection scenarios...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Flor Y Ramírez-Castillo, Abraham Loera-Muro, Nicy D Vargas-Padilla, Adriana C Moreno-Flores, Francisco J Avelar-González, Josée Harel, Mario Jacques, Ricardo Oropeza, Carolina C Barajas-García, Alma L Guerrero-Barrera
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, represents one of the most important health problems in the swine industry worldwide and it is included in the porcine respiratory disease complex. One of the bacterial survival strategies is biofilm formation, which are bacterial communities embedded in an extracellular matrix that could be attached to a living or an inert surface. Until recently, A. pleuropneumoniae was considered to be an obligate pathogen. However, recent studies have shown that A...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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