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Frontiers in Veterinary Science

Sandra C Buttigieg, Sara Savic, Daniel Cauchi, Elaine Lautier, Massimo Canali, Maurizio Aragrande
Brucellosis, also known as "undulant fever" or "Malta fever", is a zoonotic infection caused by microorganisms belonging to Brucella, a genus of gram-negative coccobacilli that behave as facultative intracellular pathogens of ruminants, swine and other animals. Brucellosis is a threat to public health, hence identifying the optimal way of preventing disease spread is important. Under certain circumstances, integrated, multidisciplinary "One Health" (OH) initiatives provide added value compared to unidisciplinary or conventional health initiatives...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
María F Cerioli, Melina V Moliva, Laura N Cariddi, Elina B Reinoso
Bovine mastitis causes large annual economic losses around the world. Different microorganisms are associated with the disease. The capacity of pathogens to adhere to bovine mammary epithelial cells is associated with biofilm production which leads to antibiotic resistance. Research is now leading to search alternative control methods and medicinal plants constitute a natural, safe, effective and inexpensive option. Minthostachys verticillata is an autochthonous medicinal plant of Argentina with multiple ethnobotanical properties...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Bhavitha Ramaihgari, Oleg M Pustovyy, Paul Waggoner, Ronald J Beyers, Chester Wildey, Edward Morrison, Nouha Salibi, Jeffrey S Katz, Thomas S Denney, Vitaly J Vodyanoy, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Prior functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies have indicated increased neural activation when zinc nanoparticles are added to odorants in canines. Here we demonstrate that zinc nanoparticles up-regulate directional brain connectivity in parts of the canine olfactory network. This provides an explanation for previously reported enhancement in the odor detection capability of the dogs in the presence of zinc nanoparticles. In this study, we obtained fMRI data from awake and unrestrained dogs while they were being exposed to odorants with and without zinc nanoparticles, zinc nanoparticles suspended in water vapor, as well as just water vapor alone...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Tetsushi Ono, Mitsuhiro Takagi, Chiho Kawashima, Missaka P B Wijayagunawardane, Peter L A M Vos, Masayasu Taniguchi, Fuminori Tanihara, Takeshige Otoi
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different intramuscular dosages of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on ovarian follicular development of dairy cows diagnosed with refractory cystic ovarian follicles (COFs). Cows diagnosed with COFs (≥25 mm in diameter) were allocated to four treatment groups: hCG-1 ( n = 3), a single dose of 4,500 IU on day 1; hCG-2 ( n = 3), 2,250 IU on days 1 and 3; hCG-3 ( n = 3), 1,500 IU on days 1, 3, and 5; and hCG-C ( n = 3) received saline on day 1. Blood sampling and ovarian ultrasonographic (US) examinations were performed on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Marie-Antonine Finkemeier, Jan Langbein, Birger Puppe
Measuring and understanding personality in animals is a rising scientific field. Much research has been conducted to assess distinctive individual differences in behavior in a large number of species in the past few decades, and increasing numbers of studies include farm animals. Nevertheless, the terminology and definitions used in this broad scientific field are often confusing because different concepts and methods are used to explain often synonymously applied terms, such as personality, temperament and coping style...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sanne Roelofs, Ilse van Bommel, Stephanie Melis, Franz J van der Staay, Rebecca E Nordquist
In commercial pig farming, an increasing number of low birth weight (LBW) piglets are born, due to selection for large litter sizes. While LBW piglets have a higher risk of pre-weaning mortality, a considerable number of these piglets survive to slaughter age. In humans, LBW is a risk factor for long-term cognitive impairments. In pigs, studies examining the post-weaning effects of LBW on cognition have reported contradictory results. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the effects of LBW on cognitive development in pigs using an improved study design, by (1) testing a larger sample size than previous studies, (2) assessing acute and chronic stress responses to account for a potential altered stress response in LBW pigs, and (3) testing both female and male pigs to account for potential confounding effects of sex...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Syeda A Hadi, Wade R Waters, Mitchell Palmer, Konstantin P Lyashchenko, Srinand Sreevatsan
Objective: To evaluate a high-resolution method to identify pathogen-specific biomarkers in serum of calves infected with Mycobacterium bovis . Methods: Serum samples from four calves infected with M. bovis were collected before and after infection at weeks 9, 14, 15, 31, and 36. Immune-complex-associated mycobacterial antigens in the serum were enriched using an immunochromatography method termed, dual path platform (DPP). All regions of antigen capture zones, that consisted of monospecific rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against M...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Lena-Mari Tamminen, Ulf Emanuelson, Isabel Blanco-Penedo
The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance is a growing global threat and has aroused a global interest in limiting antibiotic use in animal agriculture. As we are entering the post-antibiotic era, there is a growing need for identifying alternatives to antibiotics for prevention and treatment. Although phytotherapeutic remedies are available and are used in Europe, evidence of their efficacy is currently very limited but is nevertheless still necessary. A systematic review of phytotherapy used for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in farm animals has been conducted using the PICOS approach...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jamie Umber, Rebecca Johnson, Michelle Kromm, Eric Linskens, Marie R Culhane, Timothy Goldsmith, David Halvorson, Carol Cardona
Recent experiences with avian influenza outbreaks in poultry in the United States have tested biosecurity protocols and outbreak management strategies. During an outbreak, regulatory officials managing the emergency response need to make timely decisions in order to achieve disease control and eradication goals while simultaneously decreasing the unintended consequences of the response. To move susceptible animals or animal products out of a disease Control Area via a secure food supply continuity of business (COB) permit without the risk of expanding a disease outbreak, premises must be designated as Monitored Premises (MP) by regulatory officials...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Clara Conde Ruiz, Stéphane Junot
A 17-year-old mare undergoing dental surgery suffered a cardiac arrest while being transferred from the surgical theatre to the recovery box. This complication was diagnosed early, thus allowing a prompt start to the cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers. External thoracic compressions, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and adrenaline administration were at the core of this successful resuscitation. Although it was not possible to confirm the cause of cardiac arrest in this horse, a Bezold-Jarisch reflex due to potential decrease on venous return because of postural change and drug interactions was hypothesized...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Arata Hidano, Gareth Enticott, Robert M Christley, M Carolyn Gates
Over the past several decades, infectious disease modeling has become an essential tool for creating counterfactual scenarios that allow the effectiveness of different disease control policies to be evaluated prior to implementation in the real world. For livestock diseases, these models have become increasingly sophisticated as researchers have gained access to rich national livestock traceability databases, which enables inclusion of explicit spatial and temporal patterns in animal movements through network-based approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sandra Genís, Ronaldo L A Cerri, Àlex Bach, Bruna F Silper, Matheus Baylão, José Denis-Robichaud, Anna Arís
Metritis affects up to 40% of dairy cows and it is usually treated with antibiotics. In spite of their advantages, there is an increased concern about antibiotic resistance leading to the research of alternative methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the prevalence of metritis and modulation of endometrial and neutrophil inflammatory markers in dairy cows. One hundred and thirty-five cows were enrolled 3 week before calving and randomly assigned to three treatments...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Francesca Marcato, Henry van den Brand, Bas Kemp, Kees van Reenen
Veal calves undergo many challenges in the early stages of their life. Such challenges, including mixing procedures and transportation of calves to the veal farm, may have a negative influence on growth rate, feed intake, metabolism, immunity and disease susceptibility of calves. As a consequence, many hematological, physiological, metabolic and immunological parameters of stressed calves might be altered on arrival at the veal farm. Some of these response variables might be useful as biomarkers of performance of calves at the veal farm as they might provide information about an ongoing disease process, or may predict future diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Christina L Swaggerty, Kenneth J Genovese, Haiqi He, James Allen Byrd Jr, Michael H Kogut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Xiao-Ting Xie, Rachel E Macdonald, Brian Tapscott, Eva Nagy, Patricia V Turner
Mink astrovirus (MiAstV) is known to play a major role in mink pre-weaning diarrhea, and rotavirus and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both considered potentially zoonotic agents. These viruses are not monitored in commercial mink, and the role of these viral infections in mink health is not well understood. This study assessed the prevalence of mink astrovirus, rotavirus C, mink HEV and swine HEV in 527 pooled healthy adult female mink and mink kit fecal samples from 50 Canadian mink farms in two seasons over 4 years...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Paolo E Crisi, Angela Di Cesare, Andrea Boari
Parasitic bronchopneumonia plays an important role in feline respiratory medicine, thus it is receiving growing attention by researchers and practitioners. In recent years, Troglostrongylus brevior , a lungworm usually infecting wild felids, has been recognized as an agent of the lower respiratory tract in domestic cats. In particular, as a likely consequence of a spill-over from wild reservoirs (e.g., the European wildcat), T. brevior infection is increasingly reported in cats from Mediterranean and Balkan countries...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Andrea Peralta, Carlos A Robles, Juan F Micheluod, Carlos E Rossanigo, Agustín Martinez, Agustín Carosio, Guido A König
Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of Contagious Ecthyma (CE) disease that mainly affects sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans with a worldwide distribution. To date, only two strains from Argentinian sheep have been characterized at the molecular level and there is little information on ORFV strains circulating in Argentina. Here we describe and analyze five outbreaks of CE in goats in three geographic regions of the country: Northwest, Center, and Southwest. The phylogenetic analysis based on four molecular markers of ORFV ( orf011 partial sequence and orf020, orf109 , and orf127 complete sequence genes) revealed that there are different strains circulating in Argentina and pointed out the importance of knowing the health status of animals traded between farms...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Dinuka N Warnakulasooriya, Christina D Marth, Jacqueline A McLeod, David W Hanlon, Natali Krekeler
Retained fetal membranes (RFM) is a common post-partum problem in mares for which the treatment is highly variable. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the different treatments used by equine practitioners for RFM and (ii) to determine if there is a difference between treatments used by reproductive specialists and general equine practitioners. Information regarding treatment of RFM was sought from veterinary practitioners via a survey and this was compared to recommendations in the current literature...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Emilio M Ungerfeld
Methane (CH4 ) formed in the rumen and released to the atmosphere constitutes an energy inefficiency to ruminant production. Redirecting energy in CH4 to fermentation products with a nutritional value to the host animal could increase ruminant productivity and stimulate the adoption of CH4 -suppressing strategies. The hypothesis of this research was that inhibiting CH4 formation in the rumen is associated with greater ruminant productivity. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate how inhibiting rumen methanogenesis relates with the efficiencies of milk production and growth and fattening...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sara Amirpour Haredasht, Gema Vidal, Anita Edmondson, Dale Moore, Noelia Silva-Del-Río, Beatriz Martínez-López
Based on the 2016 National Cattlemen's Beef Association statistics, the cattle inventory in the US reached 93.5 million head, from which 30.5 million were commercial slaughter in 2016. California ranked fourth among all the US states that raise cattle and calves, with 5.15 million head and approximately 1.18 million slaughtered animals per year. Approximately 0.5% of cattle carcasses in the US are condemned each year, which has an important economic impact on cattle producers.In this study, we first described and compared the temporal trends of cattle carcass condemnations in all the US states from Jan-2005 to Dec-2014...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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