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Frontiers in Veterinary Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933300/head-tilting-elicited-by-head-turning-in-three-dogs-with-hypoplastic-cerebellar-nodulus-and-ventral-uvula
#1
Shinji Tamura, Yuya Nakamoto, Takashi Uemura, Yumiko Tamura
The nodulus and ventral uvula (NU) of the cerebellum play a major role in vestibular function in humans and experimental animals; however, there is almost no information about NU function in the veterinary clinical literature. In this report, we describe three canine cases diagnosed with presumptive NU hypoplasia. Of them, one adult dog presented with cervical intervertebral disk disease, and two juvenile dogs presented with signs of central vestibular disease. Interestingly, an unusual and possibly overlooked neurological sign that we called "positioning head tilt" was observed in these dogs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917386/transmission-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-during-the-incubation-period-in-pigs
#2
Carolina Stenfeldt, Juan M Pacheco, Barbara P Brito, Karla I Moreno-Torres, Matt A Branan, Amy H Delgado, Luis L Rodriguez, Jonathan Arzt
Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen's capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) during the incubation (preclinical) period of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917385/effects-of-sheltering-on-behavior-and-fecal-corticosterone-level-of-elderly-dogs
#3
Katsuji Uetake, Chu Han Yang, Aki Endo, Toshio Tanaka
In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess stress levels and demonstrate stress responses of elderly dogs just after admission to an animal shelter. As stress indicators, fecal corticosterone levels and changes in the ethogram of the dogs were investigated during the first week of admittance...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909693/unfractionated-and-low-molecular-weight-heparin-and-the-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors-ibmx-and-cilostazol-block-ex-vivo-equid-herpesvirus-type-1-induced-platelet-activation
#4
Tracy Stokol, Priscila B D Serpa, Muhammad N Zahid, Marjory B Brooks
Equid herpes virus type-1 (EHV-1) is a major pathogen of horses, causing abortion storms and outbreaks of herpes virus myeloencephalopathy. These clinical syndromes are partly attributed to ischemic injury from thrombosis in placental and spinal vessels. The mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. We have previously shown that EHV-1 activates platelets through virus-associated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation. Activated platelets participate in thrombus formation by providing a surface to localize coagulation factor complexes that amplify and propagate thrombin generation...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896270/the-assessment-of-facial-expressions-in-piglets-undergoing-tail-docking-and-castration-toward-the-development-of-the-piglet-grimace-scale
#5
Pierpaolo Di Giminiani, Victoria L M H Brierley, Annalisa Scollo, Flaviana Gottardo, Emma M Malcolm, Sandra A Edwards, Matthew C Leach
Many piglets are exposed to potentially painful husbandry procedures within the first week of life, including tail docking and castration, without the provision of either anesthesia or analgesia. The assessment methods used to evaluate pain experienced by piglets are often affected by low specificity and practical limitations, prompting the investigation of alternative methodologies. The assessment of changes in facial expression following a painful event has been successfully applied to several species. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of a Grimace Scale applied to neonatal pigs to evaluate pain evoked by tail docking and castration...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891506/synchronization-of-dairy-cows-does-not-limit-the-behavioral-response-to-treatment-in-mixed-treatment-experimental-designs
#6
Meagan T M King, Robin E Crossley, Trevor J DeVries
In many research studies, animals assigned to different treatments are housed adjacently or together in a group. One critique of these designs has been the potential role of behavioral facilitation and synchronization between animals on different treatments in mixed treatment groups (heterogeneous groups). To evaluate this, we compared the synchrony of feeding behavior between dairy cows housed in heterogeneous groups to cows exposed to the same treatment simultaneously (homogenous groups). Twenty-four cows were exposed to each of the two treatments over 21 days in a replicated cross-over design...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843934/prioritization-of-managed-pork-supply-movements-during-a-fmd-outbreak-in-the-us
#7
Gilbert R Patterson, Alicia H Mohr, Tim P Snider, Thomas A Lindsay, Peter R Davies, Tim J Goldsmith, Fernando Sampedro
In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States, local, state, and federal authorities will implement a foreign animal disease emergency response plan restricting the pork supply chain movements and likely disrupting the continuity of the swine industry business. To minimize disruptions of the food supply while providing an effective response in an outbreak, it is necessary to have proactive measures in place to ensure minimal disease spread and maximum continuation of business...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840815/using-scent-detection-dogs-in-conservation-settings-a-review-of-scientific-literature-regarding-their-selection
#8
REVIEW
Sarah C Beebe, Tiffani J Howell, Pauleen C Bennett
Dogs are widely used for scent detection work, assisting in searches for, among other things, missing persons, explosives, and even cancers. They are also increasingly used in conservation settings, being deployed for a range of diverse purposes. Although scent detecting dogs have been used in conservation roles for over 100 years, it is only recently that the scientific literature has begun to document their effectiveness and, importantly, how suitable dogs should initially be selected by organizations wanting to develop a detection program...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812526/evaluation-and-selection-of-bacillus-species-based-on-enzyme-production-antimicrobial-activity-and-biofilm-synthesis-as-direct-fed-microbial-candidates-for-poultry
#9
Juan D Latorre, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Ross E Wolfenden, Jose L Vicente, Amanda D Wolfenden, Anita Menconi, Lisa R Bielke, Billy M Hargis, Guillermo Tellez
Social concern about misuse of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) and generation of multidrug-resistant bacteria have restricted the dietary inclusion of antibiotics in livestock feed in several countries. Direct-fed microbials (DFM) are one of the multiple alternatives commonly evaluated as substitutes of AGP. Sporeformer bacteria from the genus Bacillus have been extensively investigated because of their extraordinary properties to form highly resistant endospores, produce antimicrobial compounds, and synthesize different exogenous enzymes...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812525/challenges-associated-with-informed-consent-in-low-and-low-middle-income-countries
#10
Melissa Upjohn, Kimberly Wells
Obtaining informed consent from research participants is a generally recognized step of undertaking research. While the concept of informed consent is well understood in western research environments, it requires further consideration when reviewing studies involving humans and owned animals in low- and low-middle-income countries (LMICs), in order to take account of different social, educational, and research norms. Here, we identify some of the challenges that need to be considered, and how they might affect the process of obtaining informed consent...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803898/candidate-gene-expression-in-bos-indicus-ovarian-tissues-prepubertal-and-postpubertal-heifers-in-diestrus
#11
Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller, Marina Rufino S Fortes, Laercio R Porto-Neto, Matthew Kelly, Bronwyn Venus, Lisa Kidd, João Paulo Arcelino do Rego, Sophia Edwards, Gry B Boe-Hansen, Emily Piper, Sigrid A Lehnert, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães, Stephen Stewart Moore
Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase)...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800485/clinical-application-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography-of-the-rabbit-head-part-1-normal-dentition
#12
G G Riggs, Boaz Arzi, Derek D Cissell, David C Hatcher, Philip H Kass, Amy Zhen, Frank J M Verstraete
Domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are increasingly popular as household pets; therefore, veterinarians need to be familiar with the most common diseases afflicting rabbits including dental diseases. Diagnostic approaches for dental disease include gross oral examination, endoscopic oral examination, skull radiography, and computed tomography (CT). CT overcomes many limitations of standard radiography by permitting cross-sectional images of the rabbit head in multiple planes without superimposition of anatomic structures...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800484/micrornas-in-the-host-response-to-viral-infections-of-veterinary-importance
#13
REVIEW
Mohamed Samir, Lea A I Vaas, Frank Pessler
The discovery of small regulatory non-coding RNAs has been an exciting advance in the field of genomics. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous RNA molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length, that regulate gene expression, mostly at the posttranscriptional level. MiRNA profiling technologies have made it possible to identify and quantify novel miRNAs and to study their regulation and potential roles in disease pathogenesis. Although miRNAs have been extensively investigated in viral infections of humans, their implications in viral diseases affecting animals of veterinary importance are much less understood...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781208/detection-of-astrovirus-in-historical-cases-of-european-sporadic-bovine-encephalitis-switzerland-1958-1976
#14
Senija Selimovic-Hamza, Ilias G Bouzalas, Marc Vandevelde, Anna Oevermann, Torsten Seuberlich
European sporadic bovine encephalitis is a frequent diagnosis in neurologically diseased cattle, but its etiology remained unresolved. Using in situ hybridization, we have detected a recently discovered neurotropic bovine astrovirus in historical tissues in a high proportion of brain samples of affected cattle. Our results suggest that astroviruses were already involved in the pathogenesis of the disease several decades ago, but have gone undetected.
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777933/simulating-the-epidemiological-and-economic-impact-of-paratuberculosis-control-actions-in-dairy-cattle
#15
Carsten Kirkeby, Kaare Græsbøll, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Lasse E Christiansen, Nils Toft, Erik Rattenborg, Tariq Halasa
We describe a new mechanistic bioeconomic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build up in five separate areas of the farm; in utero infection; infection via colostrum and waste milk, and it allows for realistic culling (i.e., due to other diseases) by including a ranking system. We calibrated the model using a unique dataset from Denmark, including 102 random farms with no control actions against spread of MAP...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761437/mers-cov-at-the-animal-human-interface-inputs-on-exposure-pathways-from-an-expert-opinion-elicitation
#16
Anna L Funk, Flavie Luce Goutard, Eve Miguel, Mathieu Bourgarel, Veronique Chevalier, Bernard Faye, J S Malik Peiris, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Francois Louis Roger
Nearly 4 years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and more than risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747219/safety-evaluation-of-parastar-%C3%A2-plus-in-dogs-and-assessment-of-transferable-residue-of-fipronil-and-cyphenothrin-from-dogs-to-humans
#17
Katharine M Case, Natalia M Vega, Ramesh C Gupta, Michelle A Lasher, Terry D Canerdy
Dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. Therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. The present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of Parastar(®) Plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. Six healthy, adult dogs (medium length hair, weighing between 20...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747218/the-current-state-of-clinical-application-of-serum-biomarkers-for-canine-lymphoma
#18
Jeffrey N Bryan
Serum biomarkers of canine lymphoma activity for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy monitoring have been of clinical interest for more than a decade. Tumor products, biochemical enzymes, cytokines, metabolic profiling, leakage enzymes, as well as serum proteins have been studied as biomarkers for lymphoma. Multiple biomarkers combined have been shown to be most sensitive and specific. C-reactive protein, thymidine kinase 1, and haptoglobin have been most extensively studied and commercialized in diagnostic tests, the TK Canine Cancer Panel and the Canine Lymphoma Blood Test...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713881/a-comparative-assessment-of-the-risks-of-introduction-and-spread-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-among-different-pig-sectors-in-australia
#19
Marta Hernández-Jover, Nicole Schembri, Patricia K Holyoake, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Peter Anthony Julian Martin
Small-scale pig producers are believed to pose higher biosecurity risks for the introduction and spread of exotic diseases than commercial pig producers. However, the magnitude of these risks is poorly understood. This study is a comparative assessment of the risk of introduction and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) through different sectors of the pig industry: (1) large-scale pig producers; (2) small-scale producers (<100 sows) selling at saleyards and abattoirs; and (3) small-scale producers selling through informal means...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709115/in-search-of-the-urban-cowboy-the-need-to-incorporate-animal-husbandry-into-the-united-states-higher-education-curriculum-and-its-implications-for-production-animal-welfare
#20
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