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Frontiers in Veterinary Science

Tiziana Liuti, Sionagh Smith, Padraic M Dixon
Background: Equine cheek teeth disorders, especially pulpar/apical infections, can have very serious consequences due to the frequent extension of infection to the supporting bones and/or adjacent paranasal sinuses. Limited studies have assessed the accuracy of computed tomographic (CT) imaging in the diagnosis of these disorders, and no study has directly compared imaging and pathological findings of the alveoli of diseased equine cheek teeth. Objective: To validate the accuracy of CT and radiographic imaging of cheek teeth disorders by comparing CT and radiographic imaging, gross and histological findings in abnormal cheek teeth and their alveoli extracted from equine cadaver heads...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Menachem Banai, Rita Itin, Svetlana Bardenstein
One health is an emerging conceptual approach geared to harmonize the activities of the public health, veterinary services, and extension services within a single operative structure. Brucellosis is an important zoonosis worldwide, mostly involving nomadic populations but may often affect transboundary animal management and exotic domesticated animal farming such as camels and buffalo. Here, we provide contemporary knowledge on the disease and its causative agent, a Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Kaushi S T Kanankege, Moh A Alkhamis, Nicholas B D Phelps, Andres M Perez
Zebra mussels (ZMs) (Dreissena polymorpha) and Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM) (Myriophyllum spicatum) are aggressive aquatic invasive species posing a conservation burden on Minnesota. Recognizing areas at high risk for invasion is a prerequisite for the implementation of risk-based prevention and mitigation management strategies. The early detection of invasion has been challenging, due in part to the imperfect observation process of invasions including the absence of a surveillance program, reliance on public reporting, and limited resource availability, which results in reporting bias...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Gareth Enticott, Andrew Mitchell, William Wint, Nigel Tait
Disease maps are important tools in the management of disease. By communicating risk, disease maps can help raise awareness of disease and encourage farmers and veterinarians to employ best practice to eliminate the spread of disease. However, despite the importance of disease maps in communicating risk and the existence of various online disease maps, there are few studies that explicitly examine their usability. Where disease maps are complicated to use, it seems that they are unlikely to be used effectively...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Damien Garrido, Nathalie K Chanteloup, Angélina Trotereau, Adrien Lion, Geoffrey Bailleul, Evelyne Esnault, Sascha Trapp, Pascale Quéré, Catherine Schouler, Rodrigo Guabiraba
Lipid mediators are known to play important roles in the onset and resolution phases of the inflammatory response in mammals. The phospholipid platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a pro-inflammatory lipid mediator which participates in vascular- and innate immunity-associated processes by increasing vascular permeability, by facilitating leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium, and by contributing to phagocyte activation. PAF exerts its function upon binding to its specific receptor, PAF receptor (PAFR), which is abundantly expressed in leukocytes and endothelial cells (ECs)...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Dongri Piao, Heng Wang, Dongdong Di, Guozhong Tian, Jiantong Luo, Wenjie Gao, Hongyan Zhao, Weimin Xu, Weixing Fan, Hai Jiang
Background: Brucella canis is a pathogenic bacterium that causes brucellosis in dogs, and its zoonotic potential has been increasing in recent years. B. canis is a rare source of human brucellosis in China, where Brucella melitensis has been the major pathogen associated with human brucellosis outbreaks. In late 2011, a case of a B. canis infection was detected in a human patient in Zhejiang Province, China. To compare the genotypes between strains of B. canis isolated from the patient and from dogs, a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA-16) was performed...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Anja B Riber, Lena K Hinrichsen
Beak trimming is used worldwide as a method of reducing the damage to feathers and skin caused by injurious pecking in laying hens. However, beak trimming also causes some welfare issues as trimming the beak results in pain and sensory loss. Due to this dilemma, there is an ongoing discussion in several European countries about whether to ban beak trimming. In this study, we investigated the welfare consequences of keeping layers with intact beaks and examined for links between injurious pecking damage and keel bone damage on an individual level...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Theophanes K Liatis, Antonios A Monastiridis, Panagiotis Birlis, Sophia Prousali, Anastasia Diakou
Wildlife parasitic diseases represent an important field of investigation as they may have a significant impact on wild animals' health and fitness, and may also have zoonotic implications. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites in wild mammals admitted to wildlife hospitals and rehabilitation centres in Greece. Sixty-five animals belonging to 17 species and originated from various areas of continental and insular Greece were included in the survey. The most numerous animal species examined were hedgehogs (n = 19), red foxes (n = 16), and European roe deer (n = 6)...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Melania Moioli, Olivier Levionnois, Veronika M Stein, Gertraud Schüpbach, Marta Schmidhalter, Daniela Schweizer-Gorgas
In veterinary medicine, patients undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under general anesthesia to enable acquisition of artifact-free images. The fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ranges between 30 and 95%. In humans, a high FiO2 is associated with incomplete signal suppression of peripheral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2w-FLAIR) sequences. The influence of FiO2 on T2w-FLAIR images remains unreported in small animals. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether a high FiO2 is associated with hyperintensity in peripheral CSF spaces on T2w-FLAIR images in dogs and cats...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Marion Bankstahl, Jens P Bankstahl
Non-invasive nuclear imaging by positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography has significantly contributed to epileptic focus localization in human neurology for several decades now. Offering functional insight into brain alterations, it is also of particular relevance for epilepsy research. Access to these techniques for veterinary medicine is becoming more and more relevant and has already resulted in first studies in canine patients. In view of the substantial proportion of drug-refractory epileptic dogs and cats, image-guided epileptic focus localization will be a prerequisite for selection of patients for surgical focus resection...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Mingpu Qi, Qiankun Wang, Shengtao Tong, Gang Zhao, Changmin Hu, Yingyu Chen, Xiang Li, Wanji Yang, Yuchen Zhao, Sara Platto, Robertson Ian Duncan, Jianguo Chen, Huanchun Chen, Aizhen Guo
Fecal samples (n = 76) were collected from 38 snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve (China) and examined for the presence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). The 56 samples originated from 30 free-ranging monkeys on the reserve and 20 samples from 8 captive monkeys that were previously rescued and kept at the research center. Eight diarrhea samples were collected from four of the eight captive monkeys (two samples from each monkey), and two EPEC strains (2...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Olivia Beerli, Diogo Guerra, Laima Baltrunaite, Peter Deplazes, Daniel Hegglin
A broad range of rodent species are described as potential intermediate hosts for Echinococcus multilocularis, a wide-spread zoonotic cestode causing alveolar echinococcosis. However, little is known about the relative contribution of these species for parasite reproduction and the maintenance of its life cycle. In a comparative study in a high endemic region in Zurich, Switzerland, we investigated prevalence rates and fertility of E. multilocularis in the most abundant vole species as well as the predation rate of foxes on these species...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
María I Craig, Maria F Rojas, Claudia A van der Ploeg, Valeria Olivera, Ariel E Vagnozzi, Andrés M Perez, Guido A König
Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a worldwide infectious disease that causes important economic losses in the poultry industry. Although it is known that ILT virus (ILTV) is present in Argentina, there is no information about the circulating strains. With the aim to characterize them, seven different genomic regions (thymidine kinase, glycoproteins D, G, B, C, and J, and infected cell polypeptide 4) were partially sequenced and compared between field samples. The gJ sequence resulted to be the most informative segment, it allowed the differentiation among field sample strains, and also, between wild and vaccine viruses...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jing Zhang, Yu Zhang, Zhiqiang Li, Jing Liu, Xuehua Shao, Changxin Wu, Yong Wang, Kaisheng Wang, Tiansen Li, Laizhen Liu, Chuangfu Chen, Hui Zhang
Outer membrane protein 25 (OMP25), a virulence factor from Brucella, plays an important role in maintaining the structural stability of Brucella. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway widely exists in eukaryotic cells. In this study, human trophoblast cell line HPT-8 and BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella abortus 2308 strain (S2308) and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant strain. The expression of cytokines and activation of MAPK signal pathway were detected. We found that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were increased in HPT-8 cells infected with S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Christina L Swaggerty, Michael H Kogut, Haiqi He, Kenneth J Genovese, Casey Johnson, Ryan J Arsenault
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause disease in numerous species. Salmonella-related infections originating from poultry and/or poultry products are a major cause of human foodborne illness with S. Enteritidis the leading cause worldwide. Despite the importance of Salmonella to human health and chickens being a reservoir, little is known of the response to infection within the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Using chicken-specific kinome immune peptide arrays we compared a detailed kinomic analysis of the chicken jejunal immune response in a single line of birds with high and low Salmonella loads...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Susan E Richmond, Francoise Wemelsfelder, Ina Beltran de Heredia, Roberto Ruiz, Elisabetta Canali, Cathy M Dwyer
Sheep are managed under a variety of different environments (continually outdoors, partially outdoors with seasonal or diurnal variation, continuously indoors) and for different purposes, which makes assessing welfare challenging. This diversity means that resource-based indicators are not particularly useful and, thus, a welfare assessment scheme for sheep, focusing on animal-based indicators, was developed. We focus specifically on ewes, as the most numerous group of sheep present on farm, although many of the indicators may also have relevance to adult male sheep...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Nicolas Antoine-Moussiaux, Marisa Peyre, Pascal Bonnet, Charles Bebay, Mohammed Bengoumi, Astrid Tripodi
The value chain (VC) is a major operational concept for socioeconomic analysis at meso level. Widely mobilized in development practice, it is still undergoing conceptual and practical refining, e.g., to take account of environmental and social sustainability. Briefly, VC refers to a system of value creation through the full set of actors, links, technical and commercial activities and flows involved in the provision of a good or service on a market. In the past decade, this concept has been promoted in the management of animal health...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Kamal R Acharya, Navneet K Dhand, Richard J Whittington, Karren M Plain
Johne's disease is a chronic debilitating enteropathy of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Current abattoir surveillance programs detect disease via examination of gross lesions and confirmation by histopathological and/or tissue culture, which is time-consuming and has relatively low sensitivity. This study aimed to investigate whether a high-throughput quantitative PCR (qPCR) test is a viable alternative for tissue testing. Intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were sourced from sheep experimentally infected with MAP and the DNA extracted using a protocol developed for tissues, comprised enzymatic digestion of the tissue homogenate, chemical and mechanical lysis, and magnetic bead-based DNA purification...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
İbrahim Aktas, Ender Yarsan
The pharmacokinetics of conventional and long-acting (LA) oxytetracycline (OTC), widely used broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs in veterinary medicine, were evaluated in Kilis goats at single dosage of 20 mg/kg body weight (bw). A total of 21 goats were divided into three groups: intravenous (Group I) and intramuscular (IM) (Group II) administration of the conventional formulation and IM administration of the LA formulation (Group III). Blood samples were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 96 h; and OTC analysis was performed by HPLC...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Johanna Daniela Bindke, Andrea Springer, Michael Böer, Christina Strube
Captive as well as free-ranging wolves, which are currently recolonizing Germany, may harbor a variety of gastrointestinal parasites. This study investigated endoparasites in captive European gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus) using coproscopical methods. Fecal samples were collected monthly between October 2012 and November 2013 from 18 wolf enclosures in 14 German zoological gardens, representing 72 individual wolves. In total, 1,041 fecal samples including 26 bulk samples were analyzed by the sedimentation and flotation method...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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