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Frontiers in Veterinary Science

Timothy J Goldsmith, Marie Rene Culhane, Fernando Sampedro, Carol J Cardona
Animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have the potential to severely impact food animal production systems. Paradoxically, the collateral damage associated with the outbreak response may create a larger threat to the food supply, social stability, and economic viability of rural communities than the disease itself. When FMD occurs in domestic animals, most developed countries will implement strict movement controls in the area surrounding the infected farm(s). Historically, stopping all animal movements has been considered one of the most effective ways to control FMD and stop disease spread...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Micaela Andrea Benavente, Carolina Paula Bianchi, Fernanda Imperiale, Marcelo Alfredo Aba
Neoplasms of the mammary gland represent the most frequent tumor type in the female dog, and according to the histologic criteria, approximately 50% of them are malignant. In the most aggressive cases of mammary cancer, surgery is not enough to warrant a favorable outcome, and adjuvant therapies are needed to improve the patient's overall survival. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of two peptides on proliferation of a canine mammary cancer cell line derived from a simple carcinoma. The cell line CMT-U27 was grown in 96-well plates, at two cell densities (4 × 10(3) and 8 × 10(3) cells/well)...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Naoko Koda, Shiho Kutsumi, Toshiya Hirose, Gen Watanabe
Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Petra Muellner, Ulrich Muellner, M Carolyn Gates, Trish Pearce, Christina Ahlstrom, Dan O'Neill, Dave Brodbelt, Nick John Cave
Veterinary practitioners have extensive knowledge of animal health from their day-to-day observations of clinical patients. There have been several recent initiatives to capture these data from electronic medical records for use in national surveillance systems and clinical research. In response, an approach to surveillance has been evolving that leverages existing computerized veterinary practice management systems to capture animal health data recorded by veterinarians. Work in the United Kingdom within the VetCompass program utilizes routinely recorded clinical data with the addition of further standardized fields...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Kaare Græsbøll, Carsten Kirkeby, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Tariq Halasa, Nils Toft, Lasse Engbo Christiansen
Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count for fitting to sparse data to parameterize herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Brian M Zanghi
Rectal body temperature (BT) has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye) and ear (BTear) temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT) were compared to rectal (BTrec) temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N = 16) and Beagles (N = 16) while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise)...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Janice Lloyd, Claire Budge, Steve La Grow, Kevin Stafford
Matching a person who is blind or visually impaired with a guide dog is a process of finding the most suitable guide dog available for that individual. Not all guide dog partnerships are successful, and the consequences of an unsuccessful partnership may result in reduced mobility and quality of life for the handler (owner), and are costly in time and resources for guide dog training establishments. This study examined 50 peoples' partnerships with one or more dogs (118 pairings) to ascertain the outcome of the relationship...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Eduardo Casas, Marcus E Kehrli
There are genetic conditions that influence production in dairy and beef cattle. The objective of this review was to describe relevant genetic conditions that have been associated with productivity and health in cattle. Genes or genomic regions that have been identified as a candidate for the condition will be included, and the genetic basis of the condition will be defined. Genes and genetic conditions included in this review are bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of the uridine monophosphate synthase, bovine chronic interstitial nephritis, horn development, myostatin, complex vertebral malformation, leptin, osteopetrosis, apoptosis peptide activating factor 1, chondrodysplastic dwarfism, caseins, calpastatin, umbilical hernia, lactoglobulin, citrullinemia, cholesterol deficiency, prions, thyroglobulin, diacylglycerol acyltransferase, syndactyly, maple syrup urine disease, slick hair, Factor XI deficiency, and μ-Calpain...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sherman O Canapp, Christopher S Leasure, Catherine Cox, Victor Ibrahim, Brittany J Carr
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes in 36 dogs with a partial cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) tear treated with autologous bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) or adipose-derived progenitor cells (ADPC) with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of client-owned dogs diagnosed with an early partial (≤50%) tear of the craniomedial band of the CCL that was treated with BMAC-PRP or ADPC-PRP were reviewed from 2010 to 2015. Signalment, medical history, physical and orthopedic examination, objective temporospatial gait analyses, radiographs, day 0 and day 90 diagnostic arthroscopy findings, treatment, and outcome were among the data collected...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Irene Vuu, Lisa D Coles, Patricia Maglalang, Ilo E Leppik, Greg Worrell, Daniel Crepeau, Usha Mishra, James C Cloyd, Edward E Patterson
RATIONALE: Barriers to developing treatments for human status epilepticus include the inadequacy of experimental animal models. In contrast, naturally occurring canine epilepsy is similar to the human condition and can serve as a platform to translate research from rodents to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of an intravenous (IV) dose of topiramate (TPM) in dogs with epilepsy and evaluate its effect on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) features...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Martin Lange, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt, Hans-Hermann Thulke
Epidemiological models of infectious diseases are essential tools in support of risk assessment, surveillance design, and contingency planning in public and animal health. Direct pathogen transmission from host to host is an essential process of each host-pathogen system and respective epidemiological modeling concepts. It is widely accepted that numerous diseases involve indirect transmission (IT) through pathogens shed by infectious hosts to their environment. However, epidemiological models largely do not represent pathogen persistence outside the host explicitly...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Michael G Garner, Iain J East, Mark A Stevenson, Robert L Sanson, Thomas G Rawdon, Richard A Bradhurst, Sharon E Roche, Pham Van Ha, Tom Kompas
Disease managers face many challenges when deciding on the most effective control strategy to manage an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Decisions have to be made under conditions of uncertainty and where the situation is continually evolving. In addition, resources for control are often limited. A modeling study was carried out to identify characteristics measurable during the early phase of a FMD outbreak that might be useful as predictors of the total number of infected places, outbreak duration, and the total area under control (AUC)...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sarah H Ison, R Eddie Clutton, Pierpaolo Di Giminiani, Kenneth M D Rutherford
There is a moral obligation to minimize pain in pigs used for human benefit. In livestock production, pigs experience pain caused by management procedures, e.g., castration and tail docking, injuries from fighting or poor housing conditions, "management diseases" like mastitis or streptococcal meningitis, and at parturition. Pigs used in biomedical research undergo procedures that are regarded as painful in humans, but do not receive similar levels of analgesia, and pet pigs also experience potentially painful conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Renate L Doerfler, Christina Lehermeier, Heike Kliem, Erich Möstl, Heinz Bernhardt
Autonomous mobile robot scrapers are increasingly used in order to clean the floors on dairy farms. Given the complexity of robot scraper operation, stress may occur in cows due to unpredictability of the situation. Experiencing stress can impair animal welfare and, in the long term, the health and milk production of the cows. Therefore, this study addressed potential stress responses of dairy cattle to the robot scraper after introducing the autonomous mobile machine. Thirty-six cows in total were studied on three different farms to explore possible modifications in cardiac function, behavior, and adrenocortical activity...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Nicholas A Lyons, Young S Lyoo, Donald P King, David J Paton
Vaccination can play a central role in the control of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) by reducing both the impact of clinical disease and the extent of virus transmission between susceptible animals. Recent incursions of exotic FMD virus lineages into several East Asian countries have highlighted the difficulties of generating and maintaining an adequate immune response in vaccinated pigs. Factors that impact vaccine performance include (i) the potency, antigenic payload, and formulation of a vaccine; (ii) the antigenic match between the vaccine and the heterologous circulating field strain; and (iii) the regime (timing, frequency, and herd-level coverage) used to administer the vaccine...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Timo Faltus, Walter Brehm
Cell-based therapies have been in use in veterinary medicine for years. However, the legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are not as well developed as the respective requirements of chemical pharmaceuticals. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are medicinal products in the sense of the pharmaceutical law of the European Union (EU). For that reason, such medicinal products principally require official approval for their manufacture and an official marketing authorization for their placement on the market before being used by the veterinarian...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Shinji Tamura, Yuya Nakamoto, Takashi Uemura, Yumiko Tamura
The nodulus and ventral uvula (NU) of the cerebellum play a major role in vestibular function in humans and experimental animals; however, there is almost no information about NU function in the veterinary clinical literature. In this report, we describe three canine cases diagnosed with presumptive NU hypoplasia. Of them, one adult dog presented with cervical intervertebral disk disease, and two juvenile dogs presented with signs of central vestibular disease. Interestingly, an unusual and possibly overlooked neurological sign that we called "positioning head tilt" was observed in these dogs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Carolina Stenfeldt, Juan M Pacheco, Barbara P Brito, Karla I Moreno-Torres, Matt A Branan, Amy H Delgado, Luis L Rodriguez, Jonathan Arzt
Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen's capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) during the incubation (preclinical) period of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Katsuji Uetake, Chu Han Yang, Aki Endo, Toshio Tanaka
In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess stress levels and demonstrate stress responses of elderly dogs just after admission to an animal shelter. As stress indicators, fecal corticosterone levels and changes in the ethogram of the dogs were investigated during the first week of admittance...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Tracy Stokol, Priscila B D Serpa, Muhammad N Zahid, Marjory B Brooks
Equid herpes virus type-1 (EHV-1) is a major pathogen of horses, causing abortion storms and outbreaks of herpes virus myeloencephalopathy. These clinical syndromes are partly attributed to ischemic injury from thrombosis in placental and spinal vessels. The mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. We have previously shown that EHV-1 activates platelets through virus-associated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation. Activated platelets participate in thrombus formation by providing a surface to localize coagulation factor complexes that amplify and propagate thrombin generation...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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