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Health Psychology Open

Deborah Jonker, Elmari Deacon, Esme van Rensburg, David Segal
In this study, to explore the illness perceptions of adolescents with well-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus in South Africa, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine, purposively selected adolescents (mean = 13.9 years; median = 12). Themes that emerged from the thematic analysis include the following: accepting diabetes and the diabetes care plan as part of their lives; viewing diabetes as manageable and as their responsibility; and the important role of gaining information on diabetes and diabetes management...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Zamira Hyseni Duraku, Linda Hoxha
The purpose of this article is to assess the association of test anxiety and academic performance with study skills, coping mechanism, self-concept, self-esteem, and psychological distress among university and high school students. A series of validated measures were administered to 284 Kosovar students, most of whom were in college (60.3%). Being in college and social support resulted as protective factors for test anxiety. Better study skills, self-concept, and psychological distress were indicative of higher test anxiety...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
K Alysse Bailey, Katie Lenz, David J Allison, David S Ditor
The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators of an anti-inflammatory diet in people with spinal cord injury. Six participants (age range of 23-68 years, three women and three men) who had previously completed an anti-inflammatory diet study were interviewed. Facilitators identified were family support, autonomy over meal choice, peer support, health benefits gained, and implementation of adherence strategies. The main barriers discussed were lack of motivation after study period ended, social events, diet expenses, and lack of knowledge about the diet...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Joseph D Matarazzo
Until now, I have not responded to the undocumented and untrue portrayal of me in the Hoffman report, or the newspaper and email accounts of my alleged role in "torture." I have waited several years because I believed that the American Psychological Association leadership would completely disavow the Hoffman report and find a way to restore my reputation as well as that of the other former American Psychological Association presidents and the small number of its senior staff who were also falsely accused...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Martin Seligman
I was asked by the Central Intelligence Agency in the spring of 2002 about how the research on learned helplessness could help captured Americans resist and evade torture and interrogation. There was no discussion of how learned helplessness could be used with detainees nor any mention of the interrogation of detainees. James Mitchell and Bruce Jessen later created a program of "enhanced interrogation" of detainees and it was incorrectly reported that they based it on the theory of learned helplessness...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
David F Marks
In two commissioned articles, Health Psychology Open clarifies once and for all the role of two prominent American psychologists in the Central Intelligence Agency program of enhanced interrogation post 9/11. The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Committee Study of the Central Intelligence Agency's Detention and Interrogation Program and the Hoffman Report produced more questions than answers. In these historically significant articles, Martin Seligman and Joseph Matarazzo assert the truth about their actions and the lessons learned...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Katherine White, Marianne Sm Issac, Claire Kamoun, Jessica Leygues, Simon Cohn
This article explores the ways in which people cope with social and clinical dimensions of their chronic conditions. Existing literature was reviewed to categorize factors identified as being key. They were sorted into six groupings which are reflected by the acronym THRIVE: therapeutic interventions, habit and routine, relational-social, individual differences, values and beliefs, and emotional factors. We found little evidence to suggest different conditions prompt unique coping responses; rather, a range of common factors were observed across diverse conditions...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
F Michler Bishop, Jose Luis Rodriquez Orjuela
Approximately 64,000,000 people in the United States report binge drinking at least once in the past month. Unlike overeating and oversleeping, "overdrinking"-defined as drinking more than a person intends to drink-does not exist in the literature. Terms such as binge and problem drinking do not consider the intent of the drinker. The results of this pilot study suggest that most people drink more than they intend to drink. Moreover, they also report often being surprised that they overdrank. Smartphones may help overdrinkers be less often surprised by overdrinking and may prevent drinkers from developing an alcohol use disorder...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Anna Krzeczkowska, Paul Flowers, Zoe Chouliara, Peter Hayes, Adele Dickson
The lived experience of both interferon-based and new interferon-free treatments in patients with hepatitis C virus remains understudied. To explore their journey through hepatitis C virus treatment, we interviewed seven post-transplant patients with recurrent hepatitis C virus. Three themes were identified using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants reported an ongoing sense of ontological uncertainty characterized by lack of control over their condition and treatment. Furthermore, an apposition of scepticism and hope accompanying each stage of hepatitis C virus treatment was described...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Mark Vink, Alexandra Vink-Niese
The FatiGo trial concluded that multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment is more effective for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in the long term than cognitive behaviour therapy and that multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment is more cost-effective for fatigue and cognitive behaviour therapy for quality of life. However, FatiGo suffered from a number of serious methodological flaws. Moreover, it ignored the results of the activity metre, its only objective outcome. This jeopardizes the validity of FatiGo...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Cecilia Ms Ma, Catie Cw Lai
To better understand factors that are associated with individuals' engagement in physical activity and other health-related behaviors, this study aimed to identify the psychological well-being profiles among Chinese university students, and explore whether engagement in physical activity and other health-related behaviors vary with different psychological well-being profiles. A battery of self-report questionnaires was completed by 2022 Chinese university students for assessing psychological well-being and health-related behaviors...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Kadie M Harry, Kymberley K Bennett, Jacob M Marszalek, Kalon R Eways, Jillian Mr Clark, Andrew J Smith, Marcia Waters, Dennis Bergland, Amanda Umhoefer, Elizabeth J Wilson
Patients with cardiovascular disease may attribute their cardiovascular disease to their behaviors (behavioral self-blame) or to their dispositions (characterological self-blame). However, findings are mixed on the effects of behavioral self-blame and characterological self-blame on health outcomes, possibly because there are no validated, multiple-item measures. This study developed and tested an 11-item Cardiac Self-Blame Attributions scale via questionnaire data from 121 patients with cardiovascular disease...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Clara Zwettler, Neele Reiss, Sonja Rohrmann, Irene Warnecke, Ursula Luka-Krausgrill, Rolf van Dick
Social identification has been shown to be a protective resource for mental health. In this study, the relationships between social identification and emotional, as well as cognitive symptoms of test anxiety are investigated. Participants were university students diagnosed with test anxiety ( N = 108). They completed questionnaires regarding a range of psychopathologic stress symptoms, and their social identification with fellow students and with their study program. Results reveal negative relations between social identification and almost all investigated emotional and cognitive symptoms of test anxiety...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Sophie Williams, David Sheffield, Rebecca C Knibb
Polycystic ovary syndrome is an endocrine disorder amongst women, which can negatively impact quality of life. Research proposes that a more sensitive PCOS quality of life measure is needed. This study aims to develop and initially validate a quality of life scale for women with the condition in the United Kingdom. Women with PCOS (n = 714) took part in the development and initial validation of the 35-item polycystic ovary syndrome quality of life scale (PCOSQOL)(α = .95). Subscales include Impact of PCOS (α = ...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Saeideh Botlani Esfahani, Sebely Pal
Obesity has profound medical, psychological, and emotional consequences and is associated with sexual difficulties. Little is known regarding the interrelationship between obesity and sexual functioning from a psychological perspective, and less is known regarding treatment options. This review examines these issues and considers various treatments. Literature searches were conducted to locate original research, reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses of obesity, overweight, sexual function, sexual dysfunction, psychological health, mental health, and weight loss...
July 2018: Health Psychology Open
Sean Glenton Dicks, Holly Northam, Frank Mp van Haren, Douglas P Boer
Following deceased organ donation and transplantation, the narratives of families of donors and organ recipients become connected. This is acknowledged when parties receive anonymous information from donation agencies and transplant centres, when they exchange correspondence or when they meet in person. This article reviews literature describing the experience from the points of view of donor families, recipients, and other stakeholders to explore the dynamic system that evolves around this relationship. Findings highlight a link between identity development and ongoing adjustment and will assist those supporting donor families and recipients to make decisions that fit meaningfully...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
Mohammad Ali Besharat, Somayeh Ramesh, Elham Moghimi
This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of spiritual health in the relationship between ego-strength and adjustment to heart disease. In total, 327 patients with coronary artery disease (138 women, 189 men) completed the Ego-Strength Scale, Adjustment to Illness Scale, and Spiritual Well-Being Scale. Results showed that both ego-strength and spiritual health had a significantly positive correlation with adjustment to heart disease. Results also revealed that spiritual health mediated the relationship between ego-strength and adjustment to heart disease...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
Ashraf Sadat Ahadzadeh, Shameem Rafik-Galea, Masoumeh Alavi, Mansour Amini
This study examined the correlation between body mass index as independent variable, and body image and fear of negative evaluation as dependent variables, as well as the moderating role of self-esteem in these correlations. A total of 318 Malaysian young adults were conveniently recruited to do the self-administered survey on the demographic characteristics body image, fear of negative evaluation, and self-esteem. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to test the research hypotheses. The results revealed that body mass index was negatively associated with body image, while no such correlation was found with fear of negative evaluation...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
Grenville Rose, Lorraine Smith
This article examines the relationships between goal setting and achievement, working alliance and recovery in an Australian mental health community-managed organisation. The study gathered data over a 14-month period after the introduction of routine outcome measures. Both goal achievement and the strength of the working alliance were shown to have a positive effect on the personal recovery of the clients in the study. Both working alliance and goal achievement are robustly supportive at whatever point a person is on in the recovery journey...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
Carolyn E Schwartz, Jie Zhang, Wesley Michael, David T Eton, Bruce D Rapkin
This study examines the importance of four psychosocial factors-personality, cognitive appraisal of quality of life, social support, and current reserve-building-in predicting treatment burden in chronically ill patients. Chronically ill patients ( n  = 446) completed web-based measures. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate psychosocial factors predicting treatment burden. Reserve-building activities indirectly reduced treatment burden by: (1) reducing health worries appraisals, (2) reducing financial difficulties, (3) increasing calm and peaceful appraisals, and (4) increasing perceived social support...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
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