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Eye and Vision (London, England)

Liang Wang, Ohemaa Kwakyi, James Nguyen, Esther Ogbuokiri, Olwen Murphy, Natalia Gonzalez Caldito, Laura Balcer, Elliot Frohman, Teresa Frohman, Peter A Calabresi, Shiv Saidha
Background: The retinal microcirculation has been studied in various diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, inter-eye correlations and potential differences of the retinal blood flow velocity (BFV) remain largely unstudied but may be important in guiding eye selection as well as the design and interpretation of studies assessing or utilizing retinal BFV. The primary aim of this study was to determine inter-eye correlations in BFVs in healthy controls (HCs). Since prior studies raise the possibility of reduced BFV in MS eyes, a secondary aim was to compare retinal BFVs between MS eyes, grouped based on optic neuritis (ON) history and HC eyes...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Jorge L Alió Del Barrio, Jorge L Alió
Cellular therapy of the corneal stroma, with either ocular or extraocular stem cells, has been gaining a lot of interest over the last decade. Multiple publications from different research groups are showing its potential benefits in relation to its capacity to improve or alleviate corneal scars, improve corneal transparency in metabolic diseases by enhancing the catabolism of the accumulated molecules, generate new organized collagen within the host stroma, and its immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
António Campos, Elisa J Campos, Anália do Carmo, Francisco Caramelo, João Martins, João P Sousa, António Francisco Ambrósio, Rufino Silva
Objective: To evaluate short-term markers of outcome in diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: Prospective interventional case series included 122 eyes of 122 patients with recently diagnosed DME. Eyes were treated with a 3-monthly loading dose of ranibizumab or aflibercept and pro re nata thereafter. Serial enhanced deep imaging SD-OCT high resolution scans were used to measure subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and central retinal thickness (CRT). Anatomic (10% CRT decrease) and functional responses (best corrected visual acuity, BCVA gain ≥5 letters) were assessed at 3 months and 6 months using univariate and multivariate analyses...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Rénuka S Birbal, Korine van Dijk, Jack S Parker, Henny Otten, Maha Belmoukadim, Lisanne Ham, Lamis Baydoun, Isabel Dapena, Gerrit R J Melles
Background: To evaluate the efficacy of manual mid-stromal dissection in stabilizing progressive keratoconus. Methods: Surgeries were performed in 16 eyes of 14 patients with progressive keratoconus. All eyes were examined before and at 1 day, 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery, and every 6 months thereafter. Pentacam (simK, Kmax and pachymetry), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and subjective refraction were recorded up to the latest follow-up visit (mean follow-up time 6...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Dongyi Qu, Ying Lin, Hong Jiang, Yi Shao, Yingying Shi, Shriya Airen, Giovanni Gregori, Jianhua Wang
Background: The aim was to determine retinal nerve fiber layer function and its relations to retinal microvasculature and microcirculation in patients with myopia. Method: Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was used to measure phase retardation per unit depth (PR/UD, proportional to the birefringence) of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was used to measure macular vessel density analyzed using fractal analysis...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Diana C Dragnea, Rénuka S Birbal, Lisanne Ham, Isabel Dapena, Silke Oellerich, Korine van Dijk, Gerrit R J Melles
Several treatment options corresponding to the grade of keratoconus have been established. These are ultra-violet corneal crosslinking and intracorneal ring segments for mild to moderate keratoconus, and penetrating keratoplasty or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for the more advanced cases of keratoconus. Bowman layer transplantation was developed as a procedure for patients with advanced, progressive keratoconus. The technique consists of transplanting an isolated donor Bowman layer into a mid-stromal pocket of a keratoconic cornea resulting in corneal flattening and stabilization against further ectasia...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Malvika Arya, Almyr S Sabrosa, Jay S Duker, Nadia K Waheed
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of central vision loss worldwide. The progression of dry AMD from early to intermediate stages is primarily characterized by increasing drusen formation and adverse impact on outer retinal cells. Late stage AMD consists of either geographic atrophy (GA), the non-exudative (dry) AMD subtype, or choroidal neovascularization, the exudative (wet) AMD subtype. GA is characterized by outer retinal and choroidal atrophy, specifically the photoreceptor layer, RPE, and choriocapillaris...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Patrick B Rapuano, Priya M Mathews, George J Florakis, Stephen L Trokel, Leejee H Suh
Background: Corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a widely used treatment for halting the progression of keratoconus. Although initial studies of CXL were performed with a riboflavin solution containing dextran, recent protocols for CXL have indicated the use of a riboflavin solution containing isotonic hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). This study was performed to investigate differences in visual outcomes and Scheimpflug (Pentacam) analysis in patients who have undergone epithelium-off CXL with riboflavin solution containing either 20% dextran versus 1...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Giovana Rosa Gameiro, Hong Jiang, Yi Liu, Yuqing Deng, Xiaoyan Sun, Bernardo Nascentes, Bernard Baumel, Tatjana Rundek, Jianhua Wang
Background: It remains unknow whether retinal tissue perfusion occurs in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The goal was to determine retinal tissue perfusion in patients with clinical Alzheimer's disease (CAD). Methods: Twenty-four CAD patients and 19 cognitively normal (CN) age-matched controls were recruited. A retinal function imager (RFI, Optical Imaging Ltd., Rehovot, Israel) was used to measure the retinal blood flow supplying the macular area of a diameter of 2...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Daniel Su, Sunir Garg
Background: The Retinal Function Imager (RFI) provides in vivo and noninvasive imaging of both the retinal structure and function. Review: The RFI can create capillary perfusion maps, measure blood flow velocity, and determine metabolic function including blood oximetry. It can aid clinical diagnosis as well as assess treatment response in several retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Blood flow velocity abnormalities have also been implicated in disease such as age-related macular degeneration and require further investigation...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Fupeng Wang, Qinqin Zhang, Anthony J Deegan, Jun Chang, Ruikang K Wang
Background: There are two forms of system implementation of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in ophthalmic imaging, i.e., spectral domain (SD-) and swept source OCTA (SS-OCTA). The purpose of this paper is to compare the SD-OCTA and SS-OCTA for elucidating structural and vascular features associated with central serous retinopathy (CSR), and to evaluate the effects of CSR on SD- and SS-OCTA's imaging capabilities. Methods: Normal subjects and CSR patients were imaged by SD- and SS-OCTA using 3 × 3 mm and 6 × 6 mm scan patterns...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Giacomo Savini, Kenneth J Hoffer
Background: This review aims to explain the reasons why intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation is challenging in eyes with previous corneal refractive surgery and what solutions are currently available to obtain more accurate results. Review: After IOL implantation in eyes with previous LASIK, PRK or RK, a refractive surprise can occur because i) the altered ratio between the anterior and posterior corneal surface makes the keratometric index invalid; ii) the corneal curvature radius is measured out of the optical zone; and iii) the effective lens position is erroneously predicted if such a prediction is based on the post-refractive surgery corneal curvature...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Megh D Patel, Fareshta Khushzad, Heather E Moss
Background: Optic nerve head measurements extracted from optical coherence tomography (OCT) show promise for monitoring clinical conditions with elevated optic nerve heads. The aim of this study is to compare reliability within and between raters and between image acquisition devices of optic nerve measurements derived from OCT scans in eyes with varying degrees of optic nerve elevation. Methods: Wide angle line scans and narrow angle radial scans through optic nerve heads were obtained using three spectral domain(SD) OCT devices on 5 subjects (6 swollen optic nerves, 4 normal optic nerves)...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Yilei Shao, Aizhu Tao, Hong Jiang, Meixiao Shen, Dexi Zhu, Fan Lu, Carol L Karp, Yufeng Ye, Jianhua Wang
Background: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was a useful tool to study accommodation in human eye, but the maximum image depth is limited due to the decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this study, improving optical resolutions, speeds and the SNR were achieved by custom built SD-OCT, and the evaluation of the impact of the improvement during accommodation was investigated. Methods: Three systems with different spectrometer designs, including two Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and one Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor (CMOS) camera, were tested...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Marie-Bénédicte Rougier, Mélanie Le Goff, Jean-François Korobelnik
Background: The differential diagnosis of optic disc edema at the acute phase can be challenging. OCT angiography (OCTA) is a new technology allowing the visualization of the peripapillary vascular network and optic disc capillaries. The peripapillary network alterations of glaucoma and chronic non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) were reported. However, no OCTA studies on acute optic disc edema from various causes. The aim of this project was to use OCTA to demonstrate the vascular changes the optic nerve head of various types of optic disc edema at the acute phase...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Hong Jiang, Wan Chen, Silvia Delgado, Yi Liu, Ying Lin, Jianhua Wang
Background: The retina has been used to study the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thinning has been suggested as an ocular biomarker of neurodegeneration in MS. The goal of this project was to determine the birefringence of the pRNFL by measuring the fiber birefringence using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Methods: Sixty-six MS patients without history of optic neuritis (age: 39...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Nandini Venkateswaran, Anat Galor, Jianhua Wang, Carol L Karp
The advent of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has changed the way ophthalmologists image the ocular surface and anterior segment of the eye. Its ability to obtain dynamic, high and ultra-high resolution, cross-sectional images of the ocular surface and anterior segment in a noninvasive and rapid manner allows for ease of use. In this review, we focus on the use of anterior segment OCT, which provides an "optical biopsy" or in vivo imaging of various ocular surface and corneal pathologies, allowing the clinician to diagnose diseases otherwise not visualized by traditional methods...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
António Queirós, Ana Amorim-de-Sousa, Daniela Lopes-Ferreira, César Villa-Collar, Ángel Ramón Gutiérrez, José Manuel González-Méijome
Background: To characterize the axial and off-axis refraction across four meridians of the retina in myopic eyes before and after Orthokeratology (OK) and LASIK surgery. Methods: Sixty right eyes with a spherical equivalent (M) between - 0.75 to - 5.25 D (cylinder <- 1.00 D) underwent LASIK (n = 26) or OK (n = 34) to treat myopia. Axial and off-axis refraction were measured with an open-field autorefractometer before and after stabilized treatments. Off-axis measurements were obtained for the horizontal (35° nasal and temporal retina) and vertical (15° superior and inferior retina) meridians, and for two oblique directions (45-225° and 135-315°) up to 20° of eccentricity...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Liang Wang, Olwen Murphy, Natalia Gonzalez Caldito, Peter A Calabresi, Shiv Saidha
Purpose: To review the clinical and research value of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the field of neurology. Methods: Current literature involving OCTA were reviewed through PubMed using the search terms "optical coherence tomography angiography", with "multiple sclerosis", "Alzheimer's disease", "optic neuropathy", or other closely-related terms. Results: OCTA has been applied in research to advance our understanding of the pathobiology of neurological disorders...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Bahram Eshraghi, Hadi Ghadimi, Zohreh Nozarian
Background: Hemangiopericytoma and solitary fibrous tumor are considered related variants on the same spectrum and both may essentially be the same tumor. They are infrequently encountered in the orbital region while the zygomatic bone is an extremely rare location for these neoplasms to occur. Case presentation: A 14-year-old boy presented with complaint of deformity of left infraorbital area and a firm, regular mass in the region. Orbital CT scan revealed a well-defined round isodense intraosseous lesion in the lowermost portion of the lateral orbital wall (zygomatic bone), expanding the bone and protruding anteriorly and medially...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
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