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Microbial Genomics

Erin P Price, Linda T Viberg, Timothy J Kidd, Scott C Bell, Bart J Currie, Derek S Sarovich
The melioidosis bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly being recognised as a pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We have recently catalogued genome-wide variation of paired, isogenic B. pseudomallei isolates from seven Australasian CF cases, which were collected between 4 and 55 months apart. Here, we extend this investigation by documenting the transcriptomic changes in B. pseudomallei in five cases. Following growth in an artificial CF sputum medium, four of the five paired isolates exhibited significant differential gene expression (DE) that affected between 32 and 792 genes...
July 10, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Margaret M C Lam, Ryan R Wick, Kelly L Wyres, Claire L Gorrie, Louise M Judd, Adam W J Jenney, Sylvain Brisse, Kathryn E Holt
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that frequently transfer within and between bacterial species play a critical role in bacterial evolution, and often carry key accessory genes that associate with a bacteria's ability to cause disease. MGEs carrying antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and/or virulence determinants are common in the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae, which is a leading cause of highly drug-resistant infections in hospitals. Well-characterised virulence determinants in K. pneumoniae include the polyketide synthesis loci ybt and clb (also known as pks), encoding the iron-scavenging siderophore yersiniabactin and genotoxin colibactin, respectively...
July 9, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Wim L Cuypers, Jan Jacobs, Vanessa Wong, Elizabeth J Klemm, Stijn Deborggraeve, Sandra Van Puyvelde
Fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Salmonella spp. were listed by the WHO in 2017 as priority pathogens for which new antibiotics were urgently needed. The overall global burden of Salmonella infections is high, but differs per region. Whereas typhoid fever is most prevalent in South and South-East Asia, non-typhoidal salmonellosis is prevalent across the globe and associated with a mild gastroenteritis. By contrast, invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella cause bloodstream infections associated with high mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa...
July 5, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Katelyn Brandt, Rodolphe Barrangou
The genus Lactobacillus encompasses a diversity of species that occur widely in nature and encode a plethora of metabolic pathways reflecting their adaptation to various ecological niches, including humans, animals, plants and food products. Accordingly, their functional attributes have been exploited industrially and several strains are commonly formulated as probiotics or starter cultures in the food industry. Although divergent evolutionary processes have yielded the acquisition and evolution of specialized functionalities, all Lactobacillus species share a small set of core metabolic properties, including the glycolysis pathway...
June 22, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Cosmika Goswami, Stephen Fox, Matthew Holden, Martin Connor, Alistair Leanord, Thomas J Evans
Bacteraemia caused by Escherichia coli is a growing problem with a significant mortality. The factors that influence the acquisition and outcome of these infections are not clear. Here, we have linked detailed genetic data from the whole-genome sequencing of 162 bacteraemic isolates collected in Scotland, UK, in 2013-2015, with clinical data in order to delineate bacterial and host factors that influence the acquisition in hospital or the community, outcome and antibiotic resistance. We identified four major sequence types (STs) in these isolates: ST131, ST69, ST73 and ST95...
June 22, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Gwen Knight, Helen Lambert, Edward Feil, Mark Holmes, Jodi Lindsay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Alison C MacFadyen, Elizabeth A Fisher, Ben Costa, Cassie Cullen, Gavin K Paterson
Species of the genus Macrococcus are widespread commensals of animals but are becoming increasingly recognised as veterinary pathogens. They can encode methicillin resistance and are implicated in its spread to the closely-related, but more pathogenic, staphylococci. In this study we have identified 33 isolates of methicillin-resistant Macrococcus caseolyticus from bovine bulk tank milk from England and Wales. These isolates were characterised to provide insight into the molecular epidemiology of M. caseolyticus and to discern the genetic basis for their methicillin resistance...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Johann Beghain, Antoine Bridier-Nahmias, Hervé Le Nagard, Erick Denamur, Olivier Clermont
The genus Escherichia is composed of Escherichia albertii, E. fergusonii, five cryptic Escherichia clades and E. coli sensu stricto. Furthermore, the E. coli species can be divided into seven main phylogroups termed A, B1, B2, C, D, E and F. As specific lifestyles and/or hosts can be attributed to these species/phylogroups, their identification is meaningful for epidemiological studies. Classical phenotypic tests fail to identify non-sensu stricto E. coli as well as phylogroups. Clermont and colleagues have developed PCR assays that allow the identification of most of these species/phylogroups, the triplex/quadruplex PCR for E...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Arnold Bainomugisa, Tania Duarte, Evelyn Lavu, Sushil Pandey, Chris Coulter, Ben J Marais, Lachlan M Coin
A better understanding of the genomic changes that facilitate the emergence and spread of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is currently required. Here, we report the use of the MinION nanopore sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) to sequence and assemble an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolate, which is part of a modern Beijing sub-lineage strain, prevalent in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. Using 238-fold coverage obtained from a single flow-cell, de novo assembly of nanopore reads resulted into one contiguous assembly with 99...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A Sela
Bifidobacterium is a diverse genus of anaerobic, saccharolytic bacteria that colonize many animals, notably humans and other mammals. The presence of these bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract represents a potential coevolution between the gut microbiome and its mammalian host mediated by diet. To study the relationship between bifidobacterial gut symbionts and host nutrition, we analyzed the genome of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from the feces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a primate species studied for its ability to subsist on host-indigestible carbohydrates...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Ruth E Timme, Hugh Rand, Maria Sanchez Leon, Maria Hoffmann, Errol Strain, Marc Allard, Dwayne Roberson, Joseph D Baugher
Pathogen monitoring is becoming more precise as sequencing technologies become more affordable and accessible worldwide. This transition is especially apparent in the field of food safety, which has demonstrated how whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can be used on a global scale to protect public health. GenomeTrakr coordinates the WGS performed by public-health agencies and other partners by providing a public database with real-time cluster analysis for foodborne pathogen surveillance. Because WGS is being used to support enforcement decisions, it is essential to have confidence in the quality of the data being used and the downstream data analyses that guide these decisions...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Michael Gétaz, Marjon Krijger, Fabio Rezzonico, Theo H M Smits, Jan M van der Wolf, Joël F Pothier
Xanthomonas fragariae is a quarantine organism in Europe, causing angular leaf spots on strawberry plants. It is spreading worldwide in strawberry-producing regions due to import of plant material through trade and human activities. In order to resolve the population structure at the strain level, we have employed high-resolution molecular typing tools on a comprehensive strain collection representing global and temporal distribution of the pathogen. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat regions (CRISPRs) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) were identified within the reference genome of X...
June 6, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Nadejda Lupolova, Tim J Dallman, Nicola J Holden, David L Gally
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Lennard Epping, Andries J van Tonder, Rebecca A Gladstone, The Global Pneumococcal Sequencing Consortium, Stephen D Bentley, Andrew J Page, Jacqueline A Keane
Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for 240 000-460 000 deaths in children under 5 years of age each year. Accurate identification of pneumococcal serotypes is important for tracking the distribution and evolution of serotypes following the introduction of effective vaccines. Recent efforts have been made to infer serotypes directly from genomic data but current software approaches are limited and do not scale well. Here, we introduce a novel method, SeroBA, which uses a k-mer approach. We compare SeroBA against real and simulated data and present results on the concordance and computational performance against a validation dataset, the robustness and scalability when analysing a large dataset, and the impact of varying the depth of coverage on sequence-based serotyping...
June 5, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Santeri Puranen, Maiju Pesonen, Johan Pensar, Ying Ying Xu, John A Lees, Stephen D Bentley, Nicholas J Croucher, Jukka Corander
The potential for genome-wide modelling of epistasis has recently surfaced given the possibility of sequencing densely sampled populations and the emerging families of statistical interaction models. Direct coupling analysis (DCA) has previously been shown to yield valuable predictions for single protein structures, and has recently been extended to genome-wide analysis of bacteria, identifying novel interactions in the co-evolution between resistance, virulence and core genome elements. However, earlier computational DCA methods have not been scalable to enable model fitting simultaneously to 104 -105 polymorphisms, representing the amount of core genomic variation observed in analyses of many bacterial species...
May 29, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Nicholas Petronella, Jennifer Ronholm
Most Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates found in marine environments are non-pathogenic; however, certain lineages have acquired genomic pathogenicity islands (PAIs) that enable these isolates to cause human illness. The V. parahaemolyticus PAI contains one or both of two toxins: thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH) or TDH-related haemolysin (TRH) and type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2). Recently, a few V. parahaemolyticus isolates that do not have this PAI were obtained from clinical samples, and there has been interest in determining whether these isolates possess novel virulence factors...
May 29, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Kate S Baker, Timothy J Dallman, Nicholas R Thomson, Claire Jenkins
Sexually transmissible enteric infections (STEIs) are commonly associated with transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). In the past decade, the UK has experienced multiple parallel STEI emergences in MSM caused by a range of bacterial species of the genus Shigella, and an outbreak of an uncommon serotype (O117 : H7) of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Here, we used microbial genomics on 6 outbreak and 30 sporadic STEC O117 : H7 isolates to explore the origins and pathogenic drivers of the STEC O117 : H7 emergence in MSM...
May 21, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Francisco Nascimento, Cláudia Vicente, Peter Cock, Maria Tavares, Márcio Rossi, Koichi Hasegawa, Manuel Mota
Serratia grimesii BXF1 is a bacterium with the ability to modulate the development of several eukaryotic hosts. Strain BXF1 was isolated from the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease affecting pine forests worldwide. This bacterium potentiates Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reproduction, acts as a beneficial pine endophyte, and possesses fungal and bacterial antagonistic activities, further indicating a complex role in a wide range of trophic relationships. In this work, we describe and analyse the genome sequence of strain BXF1, and discuss several important aspects of its ecological role...
May 21, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Aldert Zomer, Nao Otsuka, Yukihiro Hiramatsu, Kazunari Kamachi, Naoko Nishimura, Takao Ozaki, Jan Poolman, Jeroen Geurtsen
Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, has experienced a resurgence in the past 15 years, despite the existence of both whole-cell and acellular vaccines. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing analysis of 149 clinical strains, provided by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Japan, isolated in 1982-2014, after Japan became the first country to adopt acellular vaccines against B. pertussis. Additionally, we sequenced 39 strains provided by the Konan Kosei Hospital in Aichi prefecture, Japan, isolated in 2008-2013...
May 17, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Luisa Berná, Matias Rodriguez, María Laura Chiribao, Adriana Parodi-Talice, Sebastián Pita, Gastón Rijo, Fernando Alvarez-Valin, Carlos Robello
Although the genome of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, was first made available in 2005, with additional strains reported later, the intrinsic genome complexity of this parasite (the abundance of repetitive sequences and genes organized in tandem) has traditionally hindered high-quality genome assembly and annotation. This also limits diverse types of analyses that require high degrees of precision. Long reads generated by third-generation sequencing technologies are particularly suitable to address the challenges associated with T...
April 30, 2018: Microbial Genomics
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