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Kidney Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998124/canonical-wnt-signaling-promotes-macrophage-proliferation-during-kidney-fibrosis
#1
Ye Feng, Yan Liang, Jiafa Ren, Chunsun Dai
Background: Wnt/β-catenin, an evolutionary conserved signaling pathway, plays an essential role in modulating kidney injury and repair. Our previous studies demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling could stimulate macrophage M2 polarization and contribute to kidney fibrosis. However, whether canonical Wnt signaling activation leads to macrophage proliferation during kidney fibrosis remains to be determined. Methods: In this study, a mouse model with macrophage-specific β-catenin gene deletion was generated and a unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) model was created...
June 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998123/angiotensin-ii-stimulates-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-to-induce-podocyte-injury-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#2
Min Zhao, Mi Bai, Guixia Ding, Yue Zhang, Songming Huang, Zhanjun Jia, Aihua Zhang
Background: We previously reported that the NLRP3 inflammasome played an important role in mediating the podocyte injury induced by aldosterone. However, more studies on the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of podocytopathy are still required. The present study was undertaken to study the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced podocyte injury, as well as the potential mechanisms. Methods: In this study, we used an Ang II infusion model in NLRP3-/- mice...
June 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998122/an-overview-on-renoprotective-effects-of-thymoquinone
#3
REVIEW
Hanieh Shaterzadeh-Yazdi, Mohammad-Foad Noorbakhsh, Saeed Samarghandian, Tahereh Farkhondeh
Background: Kidneys as vital organs remove waste material from blood. Additionally, they may also have a role in the electrolyte balance, regulation of blood pressure, and red blood cell genesis. Kidney diseases may be caused by several factors such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes, and nephrotoxic agents. Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of kidney diseases. Traditionally, natural antioxidants are used for treatment of renal failure in various countries...
June 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998121/the-genetic-and-environmental-factors-of-primary-membranous-nephropathy-an-overview-from-china
#4
REVIEW
Xiao-Dan Zhang, Zhao Cui, Ming-Hui Zhao
Background: Primary membranous nephropathy (pMN) is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. The discovery of the 2 autoantigens, M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A), has defined pMN as an autoimmune disease. A remarkable increase in the frequency of pMN in primary glomerular disease was witnessed in China. The genetic and environmental contributors to disease susceptibility have been investigated in these patients...
June 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998120/iga-nephropathy-a-european-perspective-in-the-corticosteroid-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Rosanna Coppo
Background: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is detected in Europe in 22% of glomerular diseases diagnosed by biopsy. The frequency of IgAN as cause of ESRD in Europe has increased in the last decades, accounting for 35% of young and adult transplanted patients. These data justify the interest for risk factors and a possible therapeutic approach. Summary: Insight into a European perspective of IgAN was allowed by the multicenter study VALIGA, on 1,147 patients, almost all Caucasians, with follow-up of 4...
June 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998119/novel-insights-into-crystal-induced-kidney-injury
#6
REVIEW
Shrikant R Mulay, Chongxu Shi, Xiaoyuan Ma, Hans Joachim Anders
Background: The entity of crystal nephropathies encompasses a spectrum of different kidney injuries induced by crystal-formed intrinsic minerals, metabolites, and proteins or extrinsic dietary components and drug metabolites. Depending on the localization and dynamics of crystal deposition, the clinical presentation can be acute kidney injury, progressive chronic kidney disease, or renal colic. Summary: The molecular mechanisms involving crystal-induced injury are diverse and remain poorly understood...
June 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594141/what-we-do-and-do-not-know-about-women-and-kidney-diseases-questions-unanswered-and-answers-unquestioned-reflection-on-world-kidney-day-and-international-women-s-day
#7
EDITORIAL
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin
Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 10$ of the world's adult population: it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically their kidney health, on the community and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594140/trem-1-contributes-to-inflammation-in-iga-nephropathy
#8
Yan-Feng Zhao, Li Zhu, Li-Jun Liu, Su-Fang Shi, Ji-Cheng Lv, Hong Zhang
Background: Circulating IgA1-containing immune complexes (cIgA1) were shown to play important roles in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). They could induce the release of multiple inflammatory factors, including MCP-1 and IL-6, and elevated urinary inflammatory factors were also reported in patients with IgAN, which suggested that inflammation is a major contributor to kidney injury in IgAN. After the previous identification of the upregulated release of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) by mesangial cells under cIgA1 challenge using cytokine array, in the present study, we further explored the role of TREM-1, an amplifier of inflammation, in cIgA1-induced kidney injury...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594139/the-relationship-of-residual-renal-function-with-cardiovascular-morbidity-in-hemodialysis-patients-and-the-potential-role-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1
#9
Vaia D Raikou, Vasilios Kardalinos, Despina Kyriaki
Background: Residual renal function (RRF) provides several benefits to patients on dialysis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays an important role in atherosclerotic lesions. We considered the relationship between RRF and cardiovascular morbidity and the significant role of MCP-1 serum concentrations in hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients. Methods: We enrolled 76 patients on on-line HDF. RRF was defined by interdialytic urine output, and we studied the patients in two groups according to the preservation or not of urine output...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594138/changes-in-the-spectrum-of-kidney-diseases-an-analysis-of-40-759-biopsy-proven-cases-from-2003-to-2014-in-china
#10
Jin-Hua Hou, Hui-Xian Zhu, Min-Lin Zhou, Wei-Bo Le, Cai-Hong Zeng, Shao-Shan Liang, Feng Xu, Dan-Dan Liang, Si-Jia Shao, Ye Liu, Zhi-Hong Liu
Objectives: To evaluate the changing spectrum of kidney diseases over time in China using renal biopsy-proven cases. Methods: All patients over the age of 14 years who were diagnosed with a kidney disease by renal biopsy in the Renal Biopsy Registry of the National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases in Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, from 2003 to 2014 were included. Results: In total, 40,759 cases of renal biopsy were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 36...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594137/artificial-intelligence-for-the-artificial-kidney-pointers-to-the-future-of-a-personalized-hemodialysis-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Miguel Hueso, Alfredo Vellido, Nuria Montero, Carlo Barbieri, Rosa Ramos, Manuel Angoso, Josep Maria Cruzado, Anders Jonsson
Background: Current dialysis devices are not able to react when unexpected changes occur during dialysis treatment or to learn about experience for therapy personalization. Furthermore, great efforts are dedicated to develop miniaturized artificial kidneys to achieve a continuous and personalized dialysis therapy, in order to improve the patient's quality of life. These innovative dialysis devices will require a real-time monitoring of equipment alarms, dialysis parameters, and patient-related data to ensure patient safety and to allow instantaneous changes of the dialysis prescription for the assessment of their adequacy...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344511/crosstalk-of-hyperglycemia-and-dyslipidemia-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Wen Su, Rong Cao, Yong Cheng He, You Fei Guan, Xiong Zhong Ruan
Background: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is defined by the functional, structural, and clinical abnormalities of the kidney that are caused by diabetes. Summary: One-third of both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients suffer from DKD, which is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, and is also associated with cardiovascular disease and high public health care costs. Serum glucose level and lipid level are key factors in the pathogenesis of DKD and are modifiable...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344510/ablation-of-fgfr2-in-fibroblasts-ameliorates-kidney-fibrosis-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#13
Zhuo Xu, Chunsun Dai
Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are heparin-binding proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. However, the role and mechanisms of FGF/FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis need further investigation. Methods: In this study, a mouse model with fibroblast-specific FGFR2 gene disruption was generated. The knockouts were born normal and no kidney dysfunction or histological abnormality was found within 2 months after birth...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344509/review-of-the-diagnostic-evaluation-of-normal-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis
#14
REVIEW
Kenrick Berend
Background: Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis is a common but often misdiagnosed clinical condition associated with diarrhea and renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Early identification of RTA remains challenging for inexperienced physicians, and diagnosis and treatment are often delayed. Summary: The presence of RTA should be considered in any patient with a high chloride level when the CL- /Na+ ratio is above 0.79, if the patient does not have diarrhea. In patients with significant hyperkalemia one should evaluate for RTA type 4, especially in diabetic patients, with a relatively conserved renal function...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344508/acid-base-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-patients-with-and-without-chronic-kidney-disease-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Tsering Dhondup, Qi Qian
Kidneys play a pivotal role in the maintenance and regulation of acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis, which is the prerequisite for numerous metabolic processes and organ functions in the human body. Chronic kidney diseases compromise the regulatory functions, resulting in alterations in electrolyte and acid-base balance that can be life-threatening. In this review, we discuss the renal regulations of electrolyte and acid-base balance and several common disorders including metabolic acidosis, alkalosis, dysnatremia, dyskalemia, and dysmagnesemia...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344507/definition-management-and-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-an-international-survey-of-nephrologists
#16
Umar Farooq, Aaron Tober, Vernon Chinchilli, W Brian Reeves, Nasrollah Ghahramani
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disease burdened by uncertainties of definition, management strategies, and prognosis. This study explores the relationship between demographic characteristics of nephrologists and their perceptions about the definition, management, and follow-up of AKI. Methods: We developed a Web-based survey, the International Survey on Acute Kidney Injury (ISAKI), consisting of 29 items in 4 categories: (1) demographic and practice characteristics, (2) definition of AKI, (3) management of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in AKI, and (4) sequelae of AKI...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344506/micrornas-in-renal-diseases-a-potential-novel-therapeutic-target
#17
Federica Petrillo, Anna Iervolino, Miriam Zacchia, Adelina Simeoni, Cristina Masella, Giovanna Capolongo, Alessandra Perna, Giovambattista Capasso, Francesco Trepiccione
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short noncoding RNAs that play important roles in posttranscriptional gene regulation. miRNAs inhibit target gene expression by blocking protein translation or by inducing mRNA degradation and therefore have the potential to modulate physiological and pathological processes. Summary: In the kidney, miRNAs play a role in the organogenesis and in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including renal carcinoma, diabetic nephropathy, cystogenesis, and glomerulopathies...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344505/genome-wide-analysis-studies-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Doloretta Piras, Magdalena Zoledziewska, Francesco Cucca, Antonello Pani
In recent years, the very high worldwide prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has led some authors to talk of an "epidemic." The progression of CKD varies considerably among individuals despite similar aetiologies, optimal blood pressure, and glycaemic control. Over the last decade, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), more than 50 genetic loci have been identified in association with CKD. Understanding the genetic basis of CKD could provide a better knowledge of the biology of the involved pathways, thus potentially leading to novel tools for the diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of CKD...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344504/new-findings-on-the-pathogenesis-of-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis
#19
REVIEW
Francesco Trepiccione, Federica Prosperi, Luigi Regenburgh de la Motte, Christian A Hübner, Regine Chambrey, Dominique Eladari, Giovambattista Capasso
Background: Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is characterized by an impairment of the urinary acidification process in the distal nephron. Complete or incomplete metabolic acidosis coupled with inappropriately alkaline urine are the hallmarks of this condition. Genetic forms of dRTA are caused by loss of function mutations of either SLC4A1 , encoding the AE1 anion exchanger, or ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 , encoding for the B1 and a4 subunits of the vH+ ATPase, respectively. These genes are crucial for the function of A-type intercalated cells (A-IC) of the distal nephron...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344503/genetics-of-magnesium-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Heng Li, Shiren Sun, Jianghua Chen, Goushuang Xu, Hanmin Wang, Qi Qian
Background: Magnesium (Mg2+ ), the second most abundant cation in the cell, is woven into a multitude of cellular functions. Dysmagnesemia is associated with multiple diseases and, when severe, can be life-threatening. Summary: This review discusses Mg2+ homeostasis and function with specific focus on renal Mg2+ handling. Intrarenal channels and transporters related to Mg2+ absorption are discussed. Unraveling the rare genetic diseases with manifestations of dysmagnesemia has greatly increased our understanding of the complex and intricate regulatory network in the kidney, specifically, functions of tight junction proteins including claudin-14, -16, -19, and -10; apical ion channels including: TRPM6, Kv 1...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
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