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Kidney Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921041/signaling-crosstalk-between-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-interstitial-fibroblasts-after-kidney-injury
#1
REVIEW
Roderick J Tan, Dong Zhou, Youhua Liu
BACKGROUND: A wide variety of kidney diseases ultimately lead to tubulointerstitial damage. The initial site of injury is usually the renal tubules, with activation of fibroblasts occurring later. Self-limited disease is characterized by transient cellular activation with timed deactivation and ultimately a return to normal functioning, whereas sustained responses characterize chronic disease and the development of irreversible fibrosis. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of this cascade of events remain an area of active research...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921040/new-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-targeting-tubular-channels-transporters-in-pkd-development
#2
REVIEW
Ming Wu, Shengqiang Yu
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) or autosomal recessive PKD is caused by a mutation in the PKD1, PKD2 or PKHD1 gene, which encodes polycystin-1, polycystin-2 or fibrocystin, respectively. Embryonic and postnatal mutation studies show that transport or channel function is dysregulated before the initiation of cystogenesis, suggesting that the abnormality of transport or channel function plays a critical role in the pathology of PKD. SUMMARY: Polycystin-2 by itself is a calcium-permeable cation channel, and its channel function can be regulated by polycystin-1 or fibrocystin...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921039/clinical-manifestation-and-management-of-adpkd-in-western-countries
#3
REVIEW
Claudia Sommerer, Martin Zeier
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease in Western countries. The prevalence is between 2.4/10,000 and 3.9/10,000. ADPKD represents a systemic disease resulting in deterioration in renal function. Until now, mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) have been identified. Recently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved the use of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency connected with ADPKD in adult patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 at initiation of treatment with evidence of rapidly progressing disease...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921038/the-clinical-manifestation-and-management-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-china
#4
REVIEW
Cheng Xue, Chen-Chen Zhou, Ming Wu, Chang-Lin Mei
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic hereditary kidney disease characterized by progressive enlargement of renal cysts. The incidence is 1-2‰ worldwide. Mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) cause ADPKD. Currently, there is no pharmaceutical treatment available for ADPKD patients in China. Summary: This review focused on advances in clinical manifestation, gene diagnosis, risk factors, and management of ADPKD in China. There is an age-dependent increase in total kidney volume (TKV) and decrease in renal function in Chinese ADPKD patients...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#5
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#6
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537489/erratum
#7
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1159/000443819.].
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536697/a-haemodialysis-journey-from-the-west-to-the-east
#8
Pearl Pai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536696/homocysteine-in-renal-injury
#9
REVIEW
Yanjun Long, Jing Nie
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine (Hcy) is an intermediate of methionine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) can result from a deficiency in the enzymes or vitamin cofactors required for Hcy metabolism. Patients with renal disease tend to be hyperhomocysteinemic, particularly as renal function declines, although the underlying cause of HHcy in renal disease is not entirely understood. SUMMARY: HHcy is considered a risk or pathogenic factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as the cardiovascular complications...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536695/potassium-from-physiology-to-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Miriam Zacchia, Maria Luisa Abategiovanni, Spiros Stratigis, Giovambattista Capasso
BACKGROUND: Potassium (K(+)) is the major intracellular cation, with 98% of the total pool being located in the cells at a concentration of 140-150 mmol/l, and only 2% in the extracellular fluid, where it ranges between 3.5 and 5 mmol/l. A fine regulation of the intracellular-extracellular gradient is crucial for life, as it is the main determinant of membrane voltage; in fact, acute changes of K(+) plasma levels may have fatal consequences. SUMMARY: An integrated system including an 'internal' and 'external' control prevents significant fluctuations of plasma levels in conditions of K(+) loading and depletion...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536694/fluid-management-for-critically-ill-patients-a-review-of-the-current-state-of-fluid-therapy-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#11
REVIEW
Erin Frazee, Kianoush Kashani
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluids (IVF) are frequently utilized to restore intravascular volume in patients with distributive and hypovolemic shock. Although the benefits of the appropriate use of fluids in intensive care units (ICUs) and hospitals are well described, there is growing knowledge regarding the potential risks of volume overload and its impact on organ failure and mortality. To avoid volume overload and its associated complications, strategies to identify fluid responsiveness are developed and utilized more often among ICU patients...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536693/current-challenges-in-the-evaluation-and-management-of-hyponatremia
#12
REVIEW
Kerri McGreal, Pooja Budhiraja, Nishank Jain, Alan S L Yu
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte imbalance that clinicians face on a regular basis. SUMMARY: This review aims to discuss four current challenges that can arise when diagnosing and treating hyponatremia: low solute intake, heart failure, exercise-associated hyponatremia, and mild chronic hyponatremia. Low solute intake in a person who already has a urinary concentrating defect will lead to increased retention of free water. The free water retention will cause or worsen hyponatremia that is already present...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536692/time-to-strengthen-our-knowledge-in-the-areas-of-acid-base-and-electrolytes
#13
Qi Qian, Zhi-Hong Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536691/averting-the-legacy-of-kidney-disease-focus-on-childhood
#14
Julie R Ingelfinger, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Franz Schaefer
World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life...
April 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536690/autophagy-in-chronic-kidney-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Na Liu, Yingfeng Shi, Shougang Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is the degrading process of protein and organelles mediated by lysosomes. This process is involved in purging senescent organelles and subversive proteins while maintaining the stability of the intracellular environment. This phenomenon is highly conservative, existing in nearly every species, and is involved in cell growth, proliferation and tumorigenesis. SUMMARY: In recent decades, with the discovery of autophagy-related genes and proteins in conjunction with the improvement in detection methods, the study of autophagy is constantly achieving new breakthroughs...
April 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536689/the-nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-like-receptors-in-kidney-injury
#16
REVIEW
Xiaojie Wang, Fan Yi
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a hallmark of almost all forms of renal injury and the activation of the innate immune system is of importance in the development of many kidney diseases. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) act as sensors of the innate immune system to detect pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, which initiate immune responses to resolve infections and repair damaged tissues. Abnormalities in PRR activation will lead to excessive inflammation. SUMMARY: Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are recently identified intracellular PRRs that are essential to innate immune responses and tissue homeostasis...
April 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536688/recent-progress-in-stem-cell-therapy-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Sydney C W Tang
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) represents the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Current therapeutic strategies for DN are very limited, and none of them can stop end-stage renal disease progression. Stem cell-based therapy showed encouraging outcomes in kidney disease, including experimental DN. SUMMARY: Both podocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells play key roles in the pathogenesis of DN and, accordingly, could be regarded as treatment targets...
April 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536687/the-prevalence-and-management-of-systemic-amyloidosis-in-western-countries
#18
REVIEW
Hans L A Nienhuis, Johan Bijzet, Bouke P C Hazenberg
BACKGROUND: Amyloidosis has been a mystery for centuries, but research of the last decennia has clarified many of the secrets of this group of diseases. A protein-based classification of amyloidosis helps to understand problems that were part of the obsolete clinical classification in primary, secondary, and familial amyloidosis. All types of amyloid are secondary to some underlying precursor-producing process: each type is caused by a misfolded soluble precursor protein that becomes deposited as insoluble amyloid fibrils...
April 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536686/the-clinical-presentation-and-management-of-systemic-light-chain-amyloidosis-in-china
#19
REVIEW
Xiang-Hua Huang, Zhi-Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: Amyloidosis includes a group of diseases characterized by the extracellular deposition of various fibrillary proteins that can autoaggregate in a highly abnormal fibrillary conformation. The amyloid precursor protein of systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is comprised of monoclonal light chains that are due to plasma cell dyscrasia. The clinical presentation of patients with AL amyloidosis varies from patient to patient. Current treatment strategies target the clone in order to decrease the production of the pathologic light chains...
April 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536685/sirt1-and-kidney-function
#20
REVIEW
Yi Guan, Chuan-Ming Hao
BACKGROUND: SIRT1 is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase belonging to the class III histone deacetylases. Abundantly expressed in the kidney, especially in the renal medulla, SIRT1 is closely involved in renal physiology and pathology. SUMMARY: SIRT1 targets both histone and nonhistone proteins, participates in many important signaling pathways and mediates the regulation of longevity, metabolic homeostasis, acute stress response and DNA integrity...
March 2016: Kidney Diseases
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