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Kidney Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594141/what-we-do-and-do-not-know-about-women-and-kidney-diseases-questions-unanswered-and-answers-unquestioned-reflection-on-world-kidney-day-and-international-women-s-day
#1
EDITORIAL
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin
Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 10$ of the world's adult population: it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically their kidney health, on the community and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594140/trem-1-contributes-to-inflammation-in-iga-nephropathy
#2
Yan-Feng Zhao, Li Zhu, Li-Jun Liu, Su-Fang Shi, Ji-Cheng Lv, Hong Zhang
Background: Circulating IgA1-containing immune complexes (cIgA1) were shown to play important roles in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). They could induce the release of multiple inflammatory factors, including MCP-1 and IL-6, and elevated urinary inflammatory factors were also reported in patients with IgAN, which suggested that inflammation is a major contributor to kidney injury in IgAN. After the previous identification of the upregulated release of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) by mesangial cells under cIgA1 challenge using cytokine array, in the present study, we further explored the role of TREM-1, an amplifier of inflammation, in cIgA1-induced kidney injury...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594139/the-relationship-of-residual-renal-function-with-cardiovascular-morbidity-in-hemodialysis-patients-and-the-potential-role-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1
#3
Vaia D Raikou, Vasilios Kardalinos, Despina Kyriaki
Background: Residual renal function (RRF) provides several benefits to patients on dialysis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays an important role in atherosclerotic lesions. We considered the relationship between RRF and cardiovascular morbidity and the significant role of MCP-1 serum concentrations in hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients. Methods: We enrolled 76 patients on on-line HDF. RRF was defined by interdialytic urine output, and we studied the patients in two groups according to the preservation or not of urine output...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594138/changes-in-the-spectrum-of-kidney-diseases-an-analysis-of-40-759-biopsy-proven-cases-from-2003-to-2014-in-china
#4
Jin-Hua Hou, Hui-Xian Zhu, Min-Lin Zhou, Wei-Bo Le, Cai-Hong Zeng, Shao-Shan Liang, Feng Xu, Dan-Dan Liang, Si-Jia Shao, Ye Liu, Zhi-Hong Liu
Objectives: To evaluate the changing spectrum of kidney diseases over time in China using renal biopsy-proven cases. Methods: All patients over the age of 14 years who were diagnosed with a kidney disease by renal biopsy in the Renal Biopsy Registry of the National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases in Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, from 2003 to 2014 were included. Results: In total, 40,759 cases of renal biopsy were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 36...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594137/artificial-intelligence-for-the-artificial-kidney-pointers-to-the-future-of-a-personalized-hemodialysis-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Miguel Hueso, Alfredo Vellido, Nuria Montero, Carlo Barbieri, Rosa Ramos, Manuel Angoso, Josep Maria Cruzado, Anders Jonsson
Background: Current dialysis devices are not able to react when unexpected changes occur during dialysis treatment or to learn about experience for therapy personalization. Furthermore, great efforts are dedicated to develop miniaturized artificial kidneys to achieve a continuous and personalized dialysis therapy, in order to improve the patient's quality of life. These innovative dialysis devices will require a real-time monitoring of equipment alarms, dialysis parameters, and patient-related data to ensure patient safety and to allow instantaneous changes of the dialysis prescription for the assessment of their adequacy...
February 2018: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344511/crosstalk-of-hyperglycemia-and-dyslipidemia-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Wen Su, Rong Cao, Yong Cheng He, You Fei Guan, Xiong Zhong Ruan
Background: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is defined by the functional, structural, and clinical abnormalities of the kidney that are caused by diabetes. Summary: One-third of both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients suffer from DKD, which is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, and is also associated with cardiovascular disease and high public health care costs. Serum glucose level and lipid level are key factors in the pathogenesis of DKD and are modifiable...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344510/ablation-of-fgfr2-in-fibroblasts-ameliorates-kidney-fibrosis-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#7
Zhuo Xu, Chunsun Dai
Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are heparin-binding proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. However, the role and mechanisms of FGF/FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis need further investigation. Methods: In this study, a mouse model with fibroblast-specific FGFR2 gene disruption was generated. The knockouts were born normal and no kidney dysfunction or histological abnormality was found within 2 months after birth...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344509/review-of-the-diagnostic-evaluation-of-normal-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis
#8
REVIEW
Kenrick Berend
Background: Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis is a common but often misdiagnosed clinical condition associated with diarrhea and renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Early identification of RTA remains challenging for inexperienced physicians, and diagnosis and treatment are often delayed. Summary: The presence of RTA should be considered in any patient with a high chloride level when the CL- /Na+ ratio is above 0.79, if the patient does not have diarrhea. In patients with significant hyperkalemia one should evaluate for RTA type 4, especially in diabetic patients, with a relatively conserved renal function...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344508/acid-base-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-patients-with-and-without-chronic-kidney-disease-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Tsering Dhondup, Qi Qian
Kidneys play a pivotal role in the maintenance and regulation of acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis, which is the prerequisite for numerous metabolic processes and organ functions in the human body. Chronic kidney diseases compromise the regulatory functions, resulting in alterations in electrolyte and acid-base balance that can be life-threatening. In this review, we discuss the renal regulations of electrolyte and acid-base balance and several common disorders including metabolic acidosis, alkalosis, dysnatremia, dyskalemia, and dysmagnesemia...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344507/definition-management-and-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-an-international-survey-of-nephrologists
#10
Umar Farooq, Aaron Tober, Vernon Chinchilli, W Brian Reeves, Nasrollah Ghahramani
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disease burdened by uncertainties of definition, management strategies, and prognosis. This study explores the relationship between demographic characteristics of nephrologists and their perceptions about the definition, management, and follow-up of AKI. Methods: We developed a Web-based survey, the International Survey on Acute Kidney Injury (ISAKI), consisting of 29 items in 4 categories: (1) demographic and practice characteristics, (2) definition of AKI, (3) management of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in AKI, and (4) sequelae of AKI...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344506/micrornas-in-renal-diseases-a-potential-novel-therapeutic-target
#11
Federica Petrillo, Anna Iervolino, Miriam Zacchia, Adelina Simeoni, Cristina Masella, Giovanna Capolongo, Alessandra Perna, Giovambattista Capasso, Francesco Trepiccione
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short noncoding RNAs that play important roles in posttranscriptional gene regulation. miRNAs inhibit target gene expression by blocking protein translation or by inducing mRNA degradation and therefore have the potential to modulate physiological and pathological processes. Summary: In the kidney, miRNAs play a role in the organogenesis and in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including renal carcinoma, diabetic nephropathy, cystogenesis, and glomerulopathies...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344505/genome-wide-analysis-studies-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Doloretta Piras, Magdalena Zoledziewska, Francesco Cucca, Antonello Pani
In recent years, the very high worldwide prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has led some authors to talk of an "epidemic." The progression of CKD varies considerably among individuals despite similar aetiologies, optimal blood pressure, and glycaemic control. Over the last decade, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), more than 50 genetic loci have been identified in association with CKD. Understanding the genetic basis of CKD could provide a better knowledge of the biology of the involved pathways, thus potentially leading to novel tools for the diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of CKD...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344504/new-findings-on-the-pathogenesis-of-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Trepiccione, Federica Prosperi, Luigi Regenburgh de la Motte, Christian A Hübner, Regine Chambrey, Dominique Eladari, Giovambattista Capasso
Background: Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is characterized by an impairment of the urinary acidification process in the distal nephron. Complete or incomplete metabolic acidosis coupled with inappropriately alkaline urine are the hallmarks of this condition. Genetic forms of dRTA are caused by loss of function mutations of either SLC4A1 , encoding the AE1 anion exchanger, or ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 , encoding for the B1 and a4 subunits of the vH+ ATPase, respectively. These genes are crucial for the function of A-type intercalated cells (A-IC) of the distal nephron...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344503/genetics-of-magnesium-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Heng Li, Shiren Sun, Jianghua Chen, Goushuang Xu, Hanmin Wang, Qi Qian
Background: Magnesium (Mg2+), the second most abundant cation in the cell, is woven into a multitude of cellular functions. Dysmagnesemia is associated with multiple diseases and, when severe, can be life-threatening. Summary: This review discusses Mg2+ homeostasis and function with specific focus on renal Mg2+ handling. Intrarenal channels and transporters related to Mg2+ absorption are discussed. Unraveling the rare genetic diseases with manifestations of dysmagnesemia has greatly increased our understanding of the complex and intricate regulatory network in the kidney, specifically, functions of tight junction proteins including claudin-14, -16, -19, and -10; apical ion channels including: TRPM6, Kv1...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868295/urinary-mitochondrial-dna-level-as-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury-severity
#15
Phoebe Wing-Lam Ho, Wing-Fai Pang, Cathy Choi-Wan Luk, Jack Kit-Chung Ng, Kai-Ming Chow, Bonnie Ching-Ha Kwan, Philip Kam-Tao Li, Cheuk-Chun Szeto
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). The urinary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) level was previously shown to predict renal function recovery in AKI following cardiac surgery. Herein, we determine whether urinary mtDNA is a marker of severity and predictor of recovery in AKI due to other etiologies. METHODS: We recruited 107 AKI patients. The urinary mtDNA level was measured, the severity of AKI was quantified, and patients were followed for 90 days...
July 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868294/integration-of-proteomics-and-metabolomics-in-exploring-genetic-and-rare-metabolic-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Michele Costanzo, Miriam Zacchia, Giuliana Bruno, Daniela Crisci, Marianna Caterino, Margherita Ruoppolo
BACKGROUND: Inherited metabolic disorders or inborn errors of metabolism are caused by deficiency of enzymatic activities in the catabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, or lipids. These disorders include aminoacidopathies, urea cycle defects, organic acidemias, defects of oxidation of fatty acids, and lysosomal storage diseases. Inborn errors of metabolism constitute a significant proportion of genetic diseases, particularly in children; however, they are individually rare. Clinical phenotypes are very variable, some of them remain asymptomatic, others manifest metabolic decompensation in neonatal age, and others encompass mental retardation at later age...
July 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868293/the-kidney-in-bardet-biedl-syndrome-possible-pathogenesis-of-urine-concentrating-defect
#17
REVIEW
Miriam Zacchia, Valentina Di Iorio, Francesco Trepiccione, Marianna Caterino, Giovambattista Capasso
BACKGROUND: The ciliopathies are a growing number of disorders caused by mutations in genes involved in the function of the primary cilium. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) belongs to this group of disorders. In this setting, kidney dysfunction is highly variable, and urine concentrating defect, a common feature of multiple ciliopathies, has been described as the most frequent defect. Here we review the mechanism of urine concentration and describe the possible mechanism underling this defect in ciliopathies and especially BBS, based on the current body of literature...
July 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868292/hereditary-podocytopathies-in-adults-the-next-generation
#18
REVIEW
Olivia Boyer, Guillaume Dorval, Aude Servais
Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome may have two underlying mechanisms: either (1) an alteration of the immune system resulting in the production of a putative circulating factor of glomerular permeability; or (2) mutations in the structural genes of the glomerular filtration barrier in which case patients are typically multidrug resistant and do not recur after transplantation. The latter forms have been recently recognized as "hereditary podocytopathies." In the past few years, positional cloning approaches that allow the identification of gene mutations underlying diseases whose pathophysiology is unknown and animal models have helped decipher the pathophysiological mechanisms of the glomerular filtration process...
July 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868291/rare-renal-diseases-can-be-used-as-tools-to-investigate-common-kidney-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Mariadelina Simeoni, Sara Damiano, Giovanna Capolongo, Francesco Trepiccione, Miriam Zacchia, Giorgio Fuiano, Giovambattista Capasso
BACKGROUND: The prevention and slowing of chronic kidney disease still represent major challenges in nephrology. To this end, a major contribution may come from the extensive knowledge on the molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of rare kidney diseases, since it is now possible to shed light on several aspects of these pathologies thanks to the introduction of new technologies, including next-generation sequencing. SUMMARY: In steroid-resistant nephrotic patients, a genetic background has been demonstrated in both children and adults; individualized mutations have been correlated with glomerular filtration barrier alterations...
July 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785562/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#20
EDITORIAL
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and also for chronic kidney disease. A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset chronic kidney disease. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the long-term...
July 2017: Kidney Diseases
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