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Zoological Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904812/strongest-grip-on-the-rod-tarsal-morphology-and-attachment-of-japanese-pine-sawyer-beetles
#1
Dagmar Voigt, Takuma Takanashi, Kazuko Tsuchihara, Kenichi Yazaki, Katsushi Kuroda, Remi Tsubaki, Naoe Hosoda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879039/the-tymbal-muscle-of-cicada-has-flight-muscle-type-sarcomeric-architecture-and-protein-expression
#2
Hiroyuki Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: The structural and biochemical features of the tymbal (sound-producing) muscle of cicadas were studied by X-ray diffraction and immunochemistry, and compared with those of flight muscles from the same species. RESULTS: The X-ray diffraction pattern of the tymbal muscle was very similar to that of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscle: In both muscles, the 2,0 equatorial reflection is much more intense than the 1,1, indicating that both muscles have a flight muscle-type myofilament lattice...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861276/red-shift-of-spectral-sensitivity-due-to-screening-pigment-migration-in-the-eyes-of-a-moth-adoxophyes-orana
#3
Aya Satoh, Finlay J Stewart, Hisaharu Koshitaka, Hiroshi D Akashi, Primož Pirih, Yasushi Sato, Kentaro Arikawa
BACKGROUND: We have found that the spectral sensitivity of the compound eye in the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana) differs in laboratory strains originating from different regions of Japan. We have investigated the mechanisms underlying this anomalous spectral sensitivity. METHODS: We applied electrophysiology, light and electron microscopy, opsin gene cloning, mathematical modeling, and behavioral analysis. RESULTS: The ERG-determined spectral sensitivity of dark-adapted individuals of all strains peaks around 520 nm...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828177/novel-bacteriocyte-associated-pleomorphic-symbiont-of-the-grain-pest-beetle-rhyzopertha-dominica-coleoptera-bostrichidae
#4
Genta Okude, Ryuichi Koga, Toshinari Hayashi, Yudai Nishide, Xian-Ying Meng, Naruo Nikoh, Akihiro Miyanoshita, Takema Fukatsu
BACKGROUND: The lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) is a stored-product pest beetle. Early histological studies dating back to 1930s have reported that R. dominica and other bostrichid species possess a pair of oval symbiotic organs, called the bacteriomes, in which the cytoplasm is densely populated by pleomorphic symbiotic bacteria of peculiar rosette-like shape. However, the microbiological nature of the symbiont has remained elusive. RESULTS: Here we investigated the bacterial symbiont of R...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815055/green-lacewings-neuroptera-chrysopidae-are-commonly-associated-with-a-diversity-of-rickettsial-endosymbionts
#5
Michael Gerth, Ronny Wolf, Christoph Bleidorn, Julia Richter, Rebekka Sontowski, Jasmin Unrein, Martin Schlegel, Axel Gruppe
BACKGROUND: Bacterial symbionts transmitted from mothers to offspring are found in the majority of arthropods. Numerous studies have illustrated their wide impact on host biology, such as reproduction, behavior, and physiology One of the most common inherited symbionts is Rickettsia spp. (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales), which are found in about one-quarter of terrestrial arthropods, as well as in other invertebrates. In insect populations, Rickettsia spp. have been reported to cause reproductive modifications and fecundity-enhancing effects...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811909/a-fourth-subtype-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-related-orphan-receptors-is-activated-by-oxidized-all-trans-retinoic-acid-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#6
Kotowa Sakai, Haruka Fukushima, Yuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Ikeuchi
BACKGROUND: The three known subtypes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) have been implicated in the control of immunity, brain function, and circadian rhythm in mammals. Here, we demonstrate by phylogenetic analysis that there were originally four subtypes of RORs in vertebrates. One of the novel ror paralogs, rord1 (rorca in the Ensembl database), is conserved among teleosts, but absent in mammals. Using medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model teleost, we evaluated the expression pattern of this gene, its transactivational properties for endogenic chemicals, and its ability to activate the promoters of putative target genes...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690866/serotonergic-neurons-in-the-ventral-nerve-cord-of-chilopoda-a-mandibulate-pattern-of-individually-identifiable-neurons
#7
Andy Sombke, Torben Stemme
BACKGROUND: Given the numerous hypotheses concerning arthropod phylogeny, independent data are needed to supplement knowledge based on traditional external morphology and modern molecular sequence information. One promising approach involves comparisons of the structure and development of the nervous system. Along these lines, the morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord has been investigated in numerous tetraconate taxa (Crustacea and Hexapoda). It has been shown that these neurons can be identified individually due to their comparably low number, characteristic soma position, and neurite morphology, thus making it possible to establish homologies at the single cell level...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630745/correlation-between-hox-code-and-vertebral-morphology-in-the-mouse-towards-a-universal-model-for-synapsida
#8
Christine Böhmer
BACKGROUND: The importance of the cervical vertebrae as part of the skull-neck system in facilitating the success and diversity of tetrapods is clear. The reconstruction of its evolution, however, is problematic because of the variation in the number of vertebrae, making it difficult to identify homologous elements. Quantification of the morphological differentiation in the neck of diverse archosaurs established homologous units of vertebrae (i.e. modules) resulting from Hox gene expression patterns within the cervical vertebral column...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560049/measurement-of-refractive-indices-of-tunicates-tunics-light-reflection-of-the-transparent-integuments-in-an-ascidian-rhopalaea-sp-and-a-salp-thetys-vagina
#9
Hiroshi Kakiuchida, Daisuke Sakai, Jun Nishikawa, Euichi Hirose
BACKGROUND: Tunic is a cellulosic, integumentary matrix found in tunicates (Subphylum Tunicata or Urochordata). The tunics of some ascidian species and pelagic tunicates, such as salps, are nearly transparent, which is useful in predator avoidance. Transparent materials can be detected visually using light reflected from their surfaces, with the different refractive indices between two media, i.e., tunic and seawater, being the measure of reflectance. A larger difference in refractive indices thus provides a larger measure of reflectance...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560048/the-phylogenetic-position-of-dicyemid-mesozoans-offers-insights-into-spiralian-evolution
#10
Tsai-Ming Lu, Miyuki Kanda, Noriyuki Satoh, Hidetaka Furuya
BACKGROUND: Obtaining phylogenomic data for enigmatic taxa is essential to achieve a better understanding of animal evolution. Dicyemids have long fascinated biologists because of their highly simplified body organization, but their life-cycles remain poorly known. Based on the discovery of the dicyemid DoxC gene, which encodes a spiralian peptide, it has been proposed that dicyemids are members of the Spiralia. Other studies have suggested that dicyemids may have closer affinities to mollusks and annelids...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405468/cryptochrome-genes-form-an-oscillatory-loop-independent-of-the-per-tim-loop-in-the-circadian-clockwork-of-the-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#11
Atsushi Tokuoka, Taichi Q Itoh, Shinryo Hori, Outa Uryu, Yoshiki Danbara, Motoki Nose, Tetsuya Bando, Teiichi Tanimura, Kenji Tomioka
BACKGROUND: Animals exhibit circadian rhythms with a period of approximately 24 h in various physiological functions, including locomotor activity. This rhythm is controlled by an endogenous oscillatory mechanism, or circadian clock, which consists of cyclically expressed clock genes and their product proteins. cryptochrome (cry) genes are thought to be involved in the clock mechanism, and their functions have been examined extensively in holometabolous insects, but in hemimetabolous insects their role is less well understood...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344820/the-chordate-ancestor-possessed-a-single-copy-of-the-brachyury-gene-for-notochord-acquisition
#12
Jun Inoue, Yuuri Yasuoka, Hiroki Takahashi, Noriyuki Satoh
BACKGROUND: The T-box family transcription-factor gene, Brachyury, has two expression domains with discrete functions during animal embryogenesis. The primary domain, associated with the blastopore, is shared by most metazoans, while the secondary domain, involved in the notochord, is specific to chordates. In most animals, Brachyury is present in a single copy, but in cephalochordates, the most basal of the chordates, the gene is present in two copies, suggesting allotment of the two domains to each of the duplicates...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331632/group-housed-females-promote-production-of-asexual-ootheca-in-american-cockroaches
#13
Ko Katoh, Masazumi Iwasaki, Shouhei Hosono, Atsushi Yoritsune, Masanori Ochiai, Makoto Mizunami, Hiroshi Nishino
BACKGROUND: Facultative parthenogenesis, seen in many animal phyla, is a reproductive strategy in which females are able to generate offspring when mating partners are unavailable. In some subsocial and eusocial insects, parthenogenesis is often more prevalent than sexual reproduction. However, little is known about how social cooperation is linked to the promotion of parthenogenesis. The domiciliary cockroach Periplaneta americana is well-suited to addressing this issue as this species belongs to the superfamily Blattoidea, which diverged into eusocial termites and shows facultative parthenogenesis...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265462/fine-selection-of-up-regulated-genes-during-ovulation-by-in-vivo-induction-of-oocyte-maturation-and-ovulation-in-zebrafish
#14
Wanlada Klangnurak, Toshinobu Tokumoto
BACKGROUND: Two essential processes, oocyte maturation and ovulation, are independently induced, but proceed cooperatively as the final step in oogenesis before oocytes become fertilizable. Although these two processes are induced by the same maturation-inducing steroid, 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17, 20β-DHP), in zebrafish, it has been suggested that the receptor, and thus the signal transduction pathway is different for each process. Although much progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of oocyte maturation, the mechanisms for inducing ovulation remain under investigation...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203388/on-the-development-of-the-chondrocranium-and-the-histological-anatomy-of-the-head-in-perinatal-stages-of-marsupial-mammals
#15
REVIEW
Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Analía M Forasiepi
An overview of the literature on the chondrocranium of marsupial mammals reveals a relative conservatism in shape and structures. We document the histological cranial anatomy of individuals representing Monodelphis domestica, Dromiciops gliroides, Perameles sp. and Macropus eugenii. The marsupial chondrocranium is generally characterized by the great breadth of the lamina basalis, absence of pila metoptica and large otic capsules. Its most anterior portion (cupula nasi anterior) is robust, and anterior to it there are well-developed tactile sensory structures, functionally important in the neonate...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980806/the-life-of-the-freshwater-bryozoan-stephanella-hina-bryozoa-phylactolaemata-a-crucial-key-to-elucidating-bryozoan-evolution
#16
Thomas Schwaha, Masato Hirose, Andreas Wanninger
BACKGROUND: Phylactolaemata is the earliest branch and the sister group to all extant bryozoans. It is considered a small relict group that, perhaps due to the invasion of freshwater, has retained ancestral features. Reconstruction of the ground pattern of Phylactolaemata is thus essential for reconstructing the ground pattern of all Bryozoa, and for inferring phylogenetic relationships to possible sister taxa. It is well known that Stephanella hina, the sole member of the family Stephanelllidae, is probably one of the earliest offshoots among the Phylactolaemata and shows some morphological peculiarities...
2016: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980805/recurrent-evolution-of-gut-symbiotic-bacteria-in-pentatomid-stinkbugs
#17
Takahiro Hosokawa, Yu Matsuura, Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Takema Fukatsu
BACKGROUND: Diverse animals are intimately associated with microbial symbionts. How such host-symbiont associations have evolved is a fundamental biological issue. Recent studies have revealed a variety of evolutionary relationships, such as obligatory, facultative, and free-living, of gut bacterial symbiosis within the stinkbug family Pentatomidae, although the whole evolutionary picture remains elusive. RESULTS: Here we investigated a comprehensive assembly of Japanese pentatomid stinkbugs representing 28 genera, 35 species, and 143 populations...
2016: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942390/whip-spiders-amblypygi-become-water-repellent-by-a-colloidal-secretion-that-self-assembles-into-hierarchical-microstructures
#18
Jonas O Wolff, Thomas Schwaha, Michael Seiter, Stanislav N Gorb
BACKGROUND: Among both plants and arthropods, super-hydrophobic surfaces have evolved that enable self-cleaning, locomotion on water surfaces, or plastron respiration. Super-hydrophobicity is achieved by a combination of non-polar substances and complex micro- and nano-structures, usually acquired by growing processes or the deposition of powder-like materials. RESULTS: Here we report on a multi-phasic secretion in whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), which externally forms durable, hierarchical microstructures on the basically smooth cuticle...
2016: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891246/two-headed-mutants-of-the-lamprey-a-basal-vertebrate
#19
Daichi G Suzuki
BACKGROUND: This is the first report of two-headed (bicephaly) lamprey twins. Although lampreys sit at a crucial phylogenetic position, there are only a few reports on their teratology and developmental abnormalities. RESULTS: Two-headed mutants were obtained by artificial fertilization in the laboratory as spontaneous occurrences. All mutants were derived from single fertilizations using single male and female gametes, suggestive of a genetic background. The anterio-posterior position of the axonal bifurcation and symmetricity varied in each mutant...
2016: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688902/neuromuscular-study-of-early-branching-diuronotus-aspetos-paucitubulatina-yields-insights-into-the-evolution-of-organs-systems-in-gastrotricha
#20
Nicolas Bekkouche, Katrine Worsaae
BACKGROUND: Diuronotus is one of the most recently described genera of Paucitubulatina, one of the three major clades in Gastrotricha. Its morphology suggests that Diuronotus is an early branch of Paucitubulatina, making it a key taxon for understanding the evolution of this morphologically understudied group. Here we test its phylogenetic position employing molecular data, and provide detailed descriptions of the muscular, nervous, and ciliary systems of Diuronotus aspetos, using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
2016: Zoological Letters
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