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Zoological Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992043/sex-changing-patterns-of-akoya-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#1
Jeane Siswitasari Mulyana, Toshiharu Iwai, Masaharu Takahashi, Achmad Farajallah, Yusli Wardiatno, Chiemi Miura, Takeshi Miura
Background: Pearl production by transplantation in Akoya pearl oyster ( Pinctada fucata ) is a biotechnology developed in Japan that skillfully utilizes the pearl-forming ability of oysters. In this method, cultured pearls are formed from a pearl nucleus and a small piece of mantle transplanted into the gonads of recipient pearl oysters. In this study, we hypothesized that the sex of the recipient pearl oyster might affect the quality of pearl produced. While some previous studies have examined the sex of Akoya pearl oyster, detailed information is lacking...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946484/stepwise-participation-of-hgf-met-signaling-in-the-development-of-migratory-muscle-precursors-during-vertebrate-evolution
#2
Noritaka Adachi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Tamami Hirai, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Shunya Kuroda, Shigeru Kuratani
Background: The skeletal musculature of gnathostomes, which is derived from embryonic somites, consists of epaxial and hypaxial portions. Some hypaxial muscles, such as tongue and limb muscles, undergo de-epithelialization and migration during development. Delamination and migration of these myoblasts, or migratory muscle precursors (MMPs), is generally thought to be regulated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and receptor tyrosine kinase (MET) signaling. However, the prevalence of this mechanism and the expression patterns of the genes involved in MMP development across different vertebrate species remain elusive...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946483/multiple-massive-domestication-and-recent-amplification-of-kolobok-superfamily-transposons-in-the-clawed-frog-xenopus
#3
Akira Hikosaka, Seigo Konishi
Background: DNA transposons are generally destroyed by mutations and have short lifespans in hosts, as they are neutral or harmful to the host and therefore not conserved by natural selection. The clawed frog Xenopus harbors many DNA transposons and certain families, such as T2-MITE, have extremely long lives. These have ancient origins, but have shown recent transposition activity. In addition, certain transposase genes may have been "domesticated" by Xenopus and conserved over long time periods by natural selection...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942645/-bapx1-upregulation-is-associated-with-ectopic-mandibular-cartilage-development-in-amphibians
#4
Paul Lukas, Lennart Olsson
Background: The emergence of novel structures during evolution is crucial for creating variation among organisms, but the underlying processes which lead to the emergence of evolutionary novelties are poorly understood. The gnathostome jaw joint is such a novelty, and the incorporation of bapx1 expression into the intermediate first pharyngeal arch may have played a major role in the evolution of this joint. Knockdown experiments revealed that loss of bapx1 function leads to the loss of the jaw joint, because Meckel's cartilage and the palatoquadrate fuse during development...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942644/form-and-function-of-the-skin-glands-in-the-himalayan-newt-tylototriton-verrucosus
#5
Marion Wanninger, Thomas Schwaha, Egon Heiss
Background: Amphibians have evolved a remarkable diversity of defensive mechanisms against predators. One of the most conspicuous components in their defense is related to their ability to produce and store a high variety of bioactive (noxious to poisonous) substances in specialized skin glands. Previous studies have shown that T. verrucosus is poisonous with the potential to truly harm or even kill would-be predators by the effect of its toxic skin secretions. However, little is known on form and function of the skin glands responsible for production and release of these secretions...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942643/a-comprehensive-comparison-of-sex-inducing-activity-in-asexual-worms-of-the-planarian-dugesia-ryukyuensis-the-crucial-sex-inducing-substance-appears-to-be-present-in-yolk-glands-in-tricladida
#6
Haruka Nakagawa, Kiyono Sekii, Takanobu Maezawa, Makoto Kitamura, Soichiro Miyashita, Marina Abukawa, Midori Matsumoto, Kazuya Kobayashi
Background: Turbellarian species can post-embryonically produce germ line cells from pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts, which enables some of them to switch between an asexual and a sexual state in response to environmental changes. Certain low-molecular-weight compounds contained in sexually mature animals act as sex-inducing substances that trigger post-embryonic germ cell development in asexual worms of the freshwater planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis (Tricladida). These sex-inducing substances may provide clues to the molecular mechanism of this reproductive switch...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930867/aqueous-based-tissue-clearing-in-crustaceans
#7
Alu Konno, Shigetoshi Okazaki
Background: Investigation of the internal tissues and organs of a macroscopic organism usually requires destructive processes, such as dissection or sectioning. These processes are inevitably associated with the loss of some spatial information. Recently, aqueous-based tissue clearing techniques, which allow whole-organ or even whole-body clearing of small rodents, have been developed and opened a new method of three-dimensional histology. It is expected that these techniques will be useful tools in the field of zoology, in which organisms with highly diverse morphology are investigated and compared...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930866/a-new-cochliodont-anterior-tooth-plate-from-the-mississippian-of-alabama-usa-having-implications-for-the-origin-of-tooth-plates-from-tooth-files
#8
Wayne M Itano, Lance L Lambert
Background: Paleozoic holocephalian tooth plates are rarely found articulated in their original positions. When they are found isolated, it is difficult to associate the small, anterior tooth plates with the larger, more posterior ones. Tooth plates are presumed to have evolved from fusion of tooth files. However, there is little fossil evidence for this hypothesis. Results: We report a tooth plate having nearly perfect bilateral symmetry from the Mississippian (Chesterian Stage) Bangor Limestone of Franklin County, Alabama, USA...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785282/trabecular-architecture-in-the-sciuromorph-femoral-head-allometry-and-functional-adaptation
#9
Maja Mielke, Jan Wölfer, Patrick Arnold, Anneke H van Heteren, Eli Amson, John A Nyakatura
Background: Sciuromorpha (squirrels and close relatives) are diverse in terms of body size and locomotor behavior. Individual species are specialized to perform climbing, gliding or digging behavior, the latter being the result of multiple independent evolutionary acquisitions. Each lifestyle involves characteristic loading patterns acting on the bones of sciuromorphs. Trabecular bone, as part of the bone inner structure, adapts to such loading patterns. This network of thin bony struts is subject to bone modeling, and therefore reflects habitual loading throughout lifetime...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780614/pheromone-gland-development-and-monoterpenoid-synthesis-specific-to-oviparous-females-in-the-pea-aphid
#10
Koki Murano, Kota Ogawa, Tomonari Kaji, Toru Miura
Background: Aphids display "cyclic parthenogenesis," in which parthenogenetically and sexually reproducing morphs seasonally alternate in the aphid annual life cycles. There are various characteristics that differ between asexual viviparous and sexual oviparous females. In oviparous females, swollen cuticular structures (~ 10 μm in diameter), called "scent plaques," are scattered on the surface of hind tibias, and secrete monoterpenoid sex pheromones. However, the developmental processes of the pheromone glands and the biosynthetic pathways of monoterpenoid pheromones have yet to be elucidated...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721334/ectopic-fgf-signaling-induces-the-intercalary-response-in-developing-chicken-limb-buds
#11
Aki Makanae, Akira Satoh
Background: Intercalary pattern formation is an important regulatory step in amphibian limb regeneration. Amphibian limb regeneration is composed of multiple steps, including wounding, blastema formation, and intercalary pattern formation. Attempts have been made to transfer insights from regeneration-competent animals to regeneration-incompetent animalsat each step in the regeneration process. In the present study, we focused on the intercalary mechanism in chick limb buds. In amphibian limb regeneration, a proximodistal axis is organized as soon as a regenerating blastema is induced...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682316/physical-properties-of-the-tunic-in-the-pinkish-brown-salp-pegea-confoederata-tunicata-thaliacea
#12
Daisuke Sakai, Hiroshi Kakiuchida, Jun Nishikawa, Euichi Hirose
Background: Invisibility in the water column is a crucial strategy for gelatinous zooplanktons in avoiding detection by visual predators, especially for animals distributed in the euphotic zone during the daytime; i.e., surface dwellers that do not undergo diel vertical migration. Salps, a member of the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata), usually have a transparent body that is entirely covered with a cellulosic matrix, called the tunic. Some non-migrator species are known to exhibit a nano-scale nipple array on the tunic surface...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484202/fusion-of-piggybac-like-transposons-and-herpesviruses-occurs-frequently-in-teleosts
#13
Yusuke Inoue, Masahiko Kumagai, Xianbo Zhang, Tomonori Saga, Deshou Wang, Akihiko Koga, Hiroyuki Takeda
Background: Endogenous viral elements play important roles in eukaryotic evolution by giving rise to genetic novelties. Herpesviruses are a large family of DNA viruses, most of which do not have the ability to endogenize into host genomes. Recently, we identified a novel type of endogenous herpesvirus, which we named " Teratorn ", from the medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) genome, in which the herpesvirus is fused with a piggyBac -like DNA transposon, forming a novel mobile element...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468087/development-of-hypobranchial-muscles-with-special-reference-to-the-evolution-of-the-vertebrate-neck
#14
Noritaka Adachi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Tamami Hirai, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Shigeru Kuratani
Background: The extant vertebrates include cyclostomes (lamprey and hagfish) and crown gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), but there are various anatomical disparities between these two groups. Conspicuous in the gnathostomes is the neck, which occupies the interfacial domain between the head and trunk, including the occipital part of the cranium, the shoulder girdle, and the cucullaris and hypobranchial muscles (HBMs). Of these, HBMs originate from occipital somites to form the ventral pharyngeal and neck musculature in gnathostomes...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468086/dna-metabarcoding-of-spiders-insects-and-springtails-for-exploring-potential-linkage-between-above-and-below-ground-food-webs
#15
Hirokazu Toju, Yuki G Baba
Background: Understanding feedback between above- and below-ground processes of biological communities is a key to the effective management of natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, as above- and below-ground food webs are often studied separately, our knowledge of material flow and community dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems remains limited. Results: We developed a high-throughput sequencing method for examining how spiders link above- and below-ground food webs as generalist predators...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445519/highly-efficient-generation-of-knock-in-transgenic-medaka-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-engineering
#16
Ikuko Watakabe, Hisashi Hashimoto, Yukiko Kimura, Saori Yokoi, Kiyoshi Naruse, Shin-Ichi Higashijima
Background: Medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) is a popular animal model used in vertebrate genetic analysis. Recently, an efficient (~ 30%) knock-in system via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was established in zebrafish using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. If the same technique were applicable in medaka, it would greatly expand the usefulness of this model organism. The question of the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 in medaka, however, has yet to be addressed. Results: We report the highly efficient generation of knock-in transgenic medaka via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372073/flight-feather-development-its-early-specialization-during-embryogenesis
#17
Mao Kondo, Tomoe Sekine, Taku Miyakoshi, Keiichi Kitajima, Shiro Egawa, Ryohei Seki, Gembu Abe, Koji Tamura
Background: Flight feathers, a type of feather that is unique to extant/extinct birds and some non-avian dinosaurs, are the most evolutionally advanced type of feather. In general, feather types are formed in the second or later generation of feathers at the first and following molting, and the first molting begins at around two weeks post hatching in chicken. However, it has been stated in some previous reports that the first molting from the natal down feathers to the flight feathers is much earlier than that for other feather types, suggesting that flight feather formation starts as an embryonic event...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340168/evolution-of-the-vertebrate-neurocranium-problems-of-the-premandibular-domain-and-the-origin-of-the-trabecula
#18
REVIEW
Shigeru Kuratani, Per E Ahlberg
The subdivision of the gnathostome neurocranium into an anterior neural crest-derived moiety and a posterior mesodermal moiety has attracted the interest of researchers for nearly two centuries. We present a synthetic scenario for the evolution of this structure, uniting developmental data from living cyclostomes and gnathostomes with morphological data from fossil stem gnathostomes in a common phylogenetic framework. Ancestrally, vertebrates had an anteroposteriorly short forebrain, and the neurocranium was essentially mesodermal; skeletal structures derived from premandibular ectomesenchyme were mostly anterior to the brain and formed part of the visceral arch skeleton...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255617/a-sodium-binding-system-alleviates-acute-salt-stress-during-seawater-acclimation-in-eels
#19
Marty Kwok Shing Wong, Takehiro Tsukada, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Supriya Pipil, Haruka Ozaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Wataru Iwasaki, Yoshio Takei
Background: Teleosts transiting from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) environments face an immediate osmotic stress from ion influxes and water loss, but some euryhaline species such as eels can maintain a stable plasma osmolality during early SW exposure. The time course changes in the gene expression, protein abundance, and localization of key ion transporters suggested that the reversal of the ion transport systems was gradual, and we investigate how eels utilize a Na-binding strategy to slow down the ion invasion and complement the transporter-mediated osmoregulation...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214050/paternal-phylogeographic-structure-of-the-brown-bear-ursus-arctos-in-northeastern-asia-and-the-effect-of-male-mediated-gene-flow-to-insular-populations
#20
Daisuke Hirata, Tsutomu Mano, Alexei V Abramov, Gennady F Baryshnikov, Pavel A Kosintsev, Koichi Murata, Ryuichi Masuda
Background: Sex-biased dispersal is widespread among mammals, including the brown bear ( Ursus arctos ). Previous phylogeographic studies of the brown bear based on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA have shown intraspecific genetic structuring around the northern hemisphere. The brown bears on Hokkaido Island, northern Japan, comprise three distinct maternal lineages that presumably immigrated to the island from the continent in three different periods. Here, we investigate the paternal genetic structure across northeastern Asia and assess the connectivity among and within intraspecific populations in terms of male-mediated gene flow...
2017: Zoological Letters
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