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International Journal of Chronic Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29854721/cervical-cancer-awareness-among-women-in-tanzania-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-2011-12-tanzania-hiv-and-malaria-indicators-survey
#1
Fabiola V Moshi, Elisa B Vandervort, Stephen M Kibusi
Background: Awareness about cervical cancer is a first step in the process of screening and early treatment. The purpose of this study was to provide better understanding of basic knowledge about cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Tanzania. Method: Data were analyzed from the 2011-2012 Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicators Survey (THMIS) and a sample of 5542 sexually active women from 15 to 49 years of age were included in the analysis. Results: Overall knowledge about cervical cancer was high among interviewed women...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850480/tenofovir-based-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-is-associated-with-superior-cd4-t-cells-repopulation-compared-to-zidovudine-based-haart-in-hiv-1-infected-adults
#2
Vitus Sambo Badii, Kwame Ohene Buabeng, Thomas Agyarko Poku, Arnold Donkor Forkuo, Bright Boafo Boamah, Stephen Mensah Arhin, Daniel Edem Kpewou
Tenofovir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is one of the preferred first-line therapies in the management of HIV 1 infection. Ghana has since 2014 adopted this recommendation; however there is paucity of scientific data that reflects the safety and efficacy of the tenofovir-based therapy compared to zidovudine in the Ghanaian health system. This study sought to assess the comparative immune reconstitution potential between tenofovir and zidovudine-based HAART regimens, which includes lamivudine and efavirenz in combination therapy...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805971/reduction-of-liver-span-and-parameters-of-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-patients-treated-with-lycosome-formulation-of-phosphatidylcholine-a-preliminary-report
#3
Ivan M Petyaev, Pavel Y Dovgalevsky, Natalia E Chalyk, Victor A Klochkov, Nigel H Kyle, Yuriy K Bashmakov
Twenty-nine newly diagnosed individuals with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) remaining on habitual dietary regimen were supplemented with regular or lycosome formulations of phosphatidylcholine (PC) during a pilot, randomized, double-blinded clinical study. After two months of oral PC intake (450 mg daily) the liver size as well as serum levels of hepatic enzymes and markers of inflammation were evaluated by ultrasonography and biochemical analysis. It was shown that there was a statistically significant reduction of medians for the Mid-Clavicular liver size from 16...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744352/limitations-of-serum-ferritin-in-diagnosing-iron-deficiency-in-inflammatory-conditions
#4
REVIEW
Axel Dignass, Karima Farrag, Jürgen Stein
Patients with inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic heart failure (CHF), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high rates of iron deficiency with adverse clinical consequences. Under normal circumstances, serum ferritin levels are a sensitive marker for iron status but ferritin is an acute-phase reactant that becomes elevated in response to inflammation, complicating the diagnosis. Proinflammatory cytokines also trigger an increase in hepcidin, which restricts uptake of dietary iron and promotes sequestration of iron by ferritin within storage sites...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693001/efficacy-and-safety-of-daikenchuto-for-constipation-and-dose-dependent-differences-in-clinical-effects
#5
Tatsuya Hirose, Yasutaka Shinoda, Ayaka Kuroda, Aya Yoshida, Machiko Mitsuoka, Kouki Mori, Yuki Kawachi, Akihiro Moriya, Kouji Tanaka, Atsuko Takeda, Tomoaki Yoshimura, Tadashi Sugiyama
Background: Daikenchuto (DKT) is a Kampo medicine used for the treatment of constipation. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of DKT against constipation. Patients and Methods: Thirty-three patients administered DKT for constipation were selected and divided into low-dose (7.5 g DKT; n = 22) and high-dose (15 g DKT; n = 11) groups. We retrospectively evaluated weekly defaecation frequency, side effects, and clinical laboratory data. Results: Median defaecation frequencies after DKT administration (5, 5...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682516/antihypertensive-medications-and-change-in-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Marina Komaroff, Fasika Tedla, Elizabeth Helzner, Michael A Joseph
Objectives: The goal of this study is to estimate the change in the relationships between use of five classes of antihypertensive medications and stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in American adults treated for hypertension. Methods: The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data sets 1999-2012 were used with the final analytical sample of 3,045 participants. Population prevalence estimates were calculated using the NHANES survey design weights...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464189/achievements-of-diabetes-goals-and-their-determinants-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-attending-outpatient-diabetic-clinic-in-northern-ethiopia
#7
Ezra Belay, Abel Abera, Aman Mehari, Gidey Gebremeskel, Asrat Endrias, Kedir Endris
Background: The aim of this study was to assess target diabetic goal achievements and to explore variables associated with them. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and April 2016 on 188 type 2 diabetic patients attending Ayder Referral Hospital's outpatient diabetic clinic. Glycemic control was assessed using fasting plasma glucose values and total cholesterol and triglyceride were used to evaluate lipid profiles. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to identify factors associated with poor glycemic control, hypertension, and dyslipidemia...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226217/lipid-profile-in-tuberculosis-patients-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#8
Gebremedhin Gebremicael, Yemane Amare, Feyissa Challa, Atsbeha Gebreegziabxier, Girmay Medhin, Mistire Wolde, Desta Kassa
Background: Understanding whether the preceding low lipid profile leads to active tuberculosis (TB) or active TB leads to low lipid profile is crucial. Methods: Lipid profile concentrations were determined from 159 study participants composed of 93 active TB patients [44 HIV coinfected (HIV+TB+) and 49 HIV negative (HIV-TB+)], 41 tuberculin skin test (TST) positive cases [17 HIV coinfected (HIV+TST+) and 24 HIV negative (HIV-TST+)], and 25 healthy controls (HIV-TST-)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142906/hierarchical-modeling-of-patient-and-physician-determinants-of-blood-pressure-outcomes-in-hypertensive-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-pooled-analysis-of-six-observational-valsartan-studies-with-15-282-evaluable-patients
#9
Noha Ashy, Thanh-Nga Nguyen, Kris Denhaerynck, Mahdi Gharaibeh, Abdulaziz Alhossan, Stefaan Vancayzeele, Heidi Brié, Ann Aerts, Karen MacDonald, Ivo Abraham
We pooled data from 6 valsartan-related studies including 3,658 diabetic and 11,624 nondiabetic patients to evaluate blood pressure (BP) outcomes after approximately 90 days of second- or later-line valsartan treatment. Hierarchical linear and logistic regressions were applied to identify determinants of BP outcomes. Similar reductions in BP values and similar BP control rates were achieved in both groups after approximately 90 days of therapy. The modeling analyses identified several common and different patient- and physician-related determinants of BP outcomes for both groups, many of which are modifiable or clinically manageable...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130065/metabolic-syndrome-in-apparently-healthy-ghanaian-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Richard Ofori-Asenso, Akosua Adom Agyeman, Amos Laar
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. We systematically reviewed the literature towards estimating the prevalence of MetS among apparently "healthy" Ghanaian adults. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Africa Journals Online, African Index Medicus, and Google scholar as well as the websites of the Ministry of Health and Ghana Health service through September 2016. Only studies conducted among apparently "healthy" (no established disease, e...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894787/prevalence-of-anemia-overweight-obesity-and-undiagnosed-hypertension-and-diabetes-among-residents-of-selected-communities-in-ghana
#11
Alex Kojo Anderson
The increasing numbers of lifestyle related chronic diseases in developing countries call for awareness, early detection, and effective management. The objective of this paper is to report the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and anemia among residents of selected communities in Ghana. The data comes from a community screening conducted in Ghana as part of the University of Georgia Summer Service Learning Program. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data while chi-square and independent t-test compared groups...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293668/the-prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-among-people-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-ho-municipality-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
James Osei-Yeboah, William K B A Owiredu, Gameli Kwame Norgbe, Sylvester Yao Lokpo, Jones Gyamfi, Emmanuel Alote Allotey, Romeo Asumbasiya Aduko, Mark Noagbe, Florence A Attah
The cooccurrence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome potentiates the cardiovascular risk associated with each of the conditions; therefore characterizing metabolic syndrome among people with type 2 diabetes is beneficial for the purpose of cardiovascular disease prevention. This study aims at evaluating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among 162 patients with type 2 diabetes attending the diabetic clinic of the Ho Municipal Hospital, Ghana. Data obtained included anthropometric indices, blood pressure, serum lipids, glucose, and sociodemographics and clinical information...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054032/copd-in-a-population-based-sample-of-never-smokers-interactions-among-sex-gender-and-race
#13
Esme Fuller-Thomson, Rachel S Chisholm, Sarah Brennenstuhl
This observational epidemiological study investigates sex/gender and racial differences in prevalence of COPD among never-smokers. Data were derived from the 2012 Center for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample consisted of 129,535 non-Hispanic whites and blacks 50 years of age and older who had never smoked. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were conducted, with the latter using a series of logistic regression models predicting COPD status by sex/gender and race, adjusting for age, height, socioeconomic position (SEP), number of household members, marital status, and health insurance coverage...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004036/the-microbial-hypothesis-contributions-of-adenovirus-infection-and-metabolic-endotoxaemia-to-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Amos Tambo, Mohsin H K Roshan, Nikolai P Pace
The global obesity epidemic, dubbed "globesity" by the World Health Organisation, is a pressing public health issue. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial incorporating both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, epidemiological studies have observed an association between microbes and obesity. Obesity-promoting microbiome and resultant gut barrier disintegration have been implicated as key factors facilitating metabolic endotoxaemia. This is an influx of bacterial endotoxins into the systemic circulation, believed to underpin obesity pathogenesis...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819024/diabetes-mellitus-as-hub-for-tuberculosis-infection-a-snapshot
#15
REVIEW
Rahul Pal, Moiz A Ansari, Saif Hameed, Zeeshan Fatima
Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the thorn in the flesh of efficient therapeutics affecting one-third of global population annually. There are several factors that enhance the susceptibility to TB infections including malnutrition, smoking, and immunocompromised conditions such as AIDS. In the recent years, growing body of evidence has gained considerable prominence which suggests that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is individual risk factor leading to complicated TB infections. In this article the authors have attempted to summarize the link of type 2 DM with TB, the mechanistic action of how DM sensitizes for developing the active TB infection from the latent infection, and problems faced during treatment followed by possible preventive measures...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774508/prevalence-of-osteoporosis-and-its-risk-factors-in-men-with-copd-in-qazvin
#16
Mahnaz Abbasi, Mohammadali Zohal, Banafsheh Atapour, Zohreh Yazdi
Introduction. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Proper diagnosis of osteoporosis as a systemic adverse effect of COPD is of significant importance. The present study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of osteoporosis and its risk factors in men suffering from COPD in Qazvin (2014). Methods. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 90 patients with COPD using random sampling. Anthropometric data and results from physical examination were collected...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656678/behavioral-problems-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-controlled-study-to-examine-the-risk-of-psychopathology-in-a-chronic-pediatric-disorder
#17
Amir Hossein Memari, Elham Chamanara, Vahid Ziaee, Ramin Kordi, Seyed-Reza Raeeskarami
Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are prone to the problems that can delay their psychosocial development; however, the existing literature has not reached a consensus on the psychological problems related to JIA. A total of 51 children and adolescents with JIA and 75 healthy controls aged 6 to 18 years were examined using the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Our results represented that 70 percent of JIA group reached "borderline clinical" range or "clinical" range in internalizing problems, while this percentage in the control group was 18 percent...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597987/revealing-maximal-diameter-of-upper-limb-superficial-vein-with-an-elevated-environmental-temperature
#18
Hira Irfan, Guo Shen Ooi, May M Kyin, Pei Ho
Ultrasonography is the primary tool for preoperative analysis of vein morphology for fistula creation in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study examines the effect of environmental temperature on the superficial vein size. Superficial veins of thirteen healthy volunteers were marked at three sites: cephalic vein in left lateral arm near cubital fossa, cephalic vein in left forearm at wrist, and basilic vein in left medial arm near cubital fossa. Mean diameters were recorded using ultrasound probe at 26°C and 43°C...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525302/effectiveness-of-a-pharmacist-led-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-clinic-in-rural-perry-county-alabama
#19
Pilar Z Murphy, Charles Sands, Frances Ford
Background. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC) in Perry County, Alabama, provides free pharmacist-led services. Clinic goals include improving health outcomes and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of the CRRC in rural Perry County, Alabama. The reduction of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, blood pressure and body mass index, was evaluated to measure a decrease from baseline to last clinic date. Methods. This retrospective chart review identified 130 patients with at least two blood pressure and BMI measurements from baseline to June 30, 2010...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493990/musculoskeletal-disorders-and-perceived-work-demands-among-female-nurses-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#20
Apexa S Raithatha, Daxa G Mishra
Introduction. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are common among nurses and can affect patient outcomes. There is a dearth of literature on MSD among Indian nurses. The study objective was to measure prevalence of MSD and their association with perceived work demands and sociodemographic variables among female nurses at a tertiary care hospital in rural India. Methods. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 2013 through interviewer administered questionnaires which comprised three parts: sociodemographic data, modified Nordic questionnaire, and perceived physical and psychological work demands...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
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