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BJPsych Open

Lauren Hirsch, Scott B Patten, Lauren Bresee, Nathalie Jette, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: Use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) has increased in recent years; however, their use and effect on metabolic outcomes has been poorly characterised in population-level studies.AimsThis study aimed to determine the associations between SGA use and metabolic indicators in a general population. METHOD: We used data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Canadian households. Participants were Canadians aged 3-79 years, living in one of the ten provinces...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Honor Hsin, John Torous
SummaryThe potential of digital health tools such as smartphones and sensors to increase access to and enhance delivery of healthcare is well known. However, a lack of regulation and delineation between those technologies seeking to offer direct clinical diagnostics and treatments and those involving clinical care enhancements or direct-to-consumer resources has led to patient and clinician confusion about the appropriate use and role of digital health. Here, we propose that creating boundaries and better defining the scope of digital health technology will advance the field through matching the right use cases with the right tools...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Fariba Aghajafari, Dimity Pond, Nigel Catzikiris, Ian Cameron
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence regarding the association of vitamin D with cognition performance and dementia.AimsWe aimed to summarise the evidence on the association of vitamin D with cognitive performance, dementia and Alzheimer disease through a qualitative assessment of available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. METHOD: We conducted an overview of the systematic reviews of all study types with or without meta-analyses on vitamin D and either Alzheimer disease, dementia or cognitive performance up to June 2017...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Julian Edbrooke-Childs, Miranda Wolpert, Victoria Zamperoni, Elisa Napoleone, Holly Bear
BACKGROUND: Literature has focused on effect sizes rather than individual-level improvement rates to determine how effectively services address burgeoning numbers of adolescents with anxiety and depression.AimsTo consider how many adolescents report reliable improvement in anxiety, depression and comorbid depression and anxiety by end of treatment. METHOD: The primary outcome was reliable improvement (i.e. change greater than likely the result of measurement error) in self-reported anxiety and depression for N = 4464 adolescents (mean age 14...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Berit M Gustafsson, Henrik Danielsson, Mats Granlund, Per A Gustafsson, Marie Proczkowska
Background: Externalising problems are among the most common symptoms of mental health problems in preschool children. Aims: To investigate the development of externalising problems in preschool children over time, and the way in which conduct problems are linked to hyperactivity problems. Method: In this longitudinal study, 195 preschool children were included. Latent growth modelling of conduct problems was carried out, with gender and hyperactivity at year 1 as time-invariant predictors...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Andrew Thompson, Catherine Winsper, Steven Marwaha, Jon Haynes, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez, Sarah Hetrick, Alba Realpe, Laura Vail, Sarah Dawson, Sarah A Sullivan
Background: Understanding the relative risks of maintenance treatment versus discontinuation of antipsychotics following remission in first episode psychosis (FEP) is an important area of practice. Method: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Prospective experimental studies including a parallel control group were identified to compare maintenance antipsychotic treatment with total discontinuation or medication discontinuation strategies following remission in FEP...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Yolanda B de Rijke, Mark van der Kroeg, Cornelis G Kooiman, Steven A Kushner
Background: The serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has previously been associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function. Moreover, it has been suggested that this association is moderated by an interaction with stressful life experiences. Aims: To investigate the moderation of cortisol response to psychosocial stress by 5-HTTLPR genotype, either directly or through an interaction with early life stress. Method: A total of 151 women, 85 of which had personality psychopathology, performed the Trier Social Stress Test while cortisol responsivity was assessed...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Naira Topooco, Matilda Berg, Sofie Johansson, Lina Liljethörn, Ella Radvogin, George Vlaescu, Lise Bergman Nordgren, Maria Zetterqvist, Gerhard Andersson
Background: Depression is a major contributor to the burden of disease in the adolescent population. Internet-based interventions can increase access to treatment. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (iCBT), including therapist chat communication, in treatment of adolescent depression. Method: Seventy adolescents, 15-19 years of age and presenting with depressive symptoms, were randomised to iCBT or attention control...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Verity Chester, Birgit Völlm, Samuel Tromans, Chaya Kapugama, Regi T Alexander
Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised that too many patients stay for too long in forensic psychiatric services and that this is a particular problem in those with an intellectual disability. Aims: To compare the characteristics, needs, and care pathways of long-stay patients with and without intellectual disability within forensic psychiatric hospital settings in England. Method: File reviews and questionnaires were completed for all long-stay patients in high secure and a representative sample of those in medium secure settings in England...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Sudha Kallakuri, Siddhardha Devarapalli, Anadya Prakash Tripathi, Anushka Patel, Pallab K Maulik
Background: About 10% Indians suffer from stress, depression or substance use disorders. Few receive care for these problems, especially in rural areas. Aims: As part of a broader initiative to deliver technology-enabled mental health services for rural communities (adults ≥18 years), information was collected about the prevalence of depression, anxiety and suicide risk. Method: The study was conducted in 12 villages in the West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Saba Hassan, Elisa Aguirre, Anna Betz, Sarah Robertson, Deepak Sankhla, Claudia Cooper
Background: Brainfood is a 5-week group intervention for people with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia, promoting cognitive health through a Mediterranean-style diet, exercise, mindfulness and health self-management. Aims: To evaluate Brainfood acceptability and the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial; in a single group study in two National Health Service (NHS) memory services. Method: Participants self-completed quantitative and semi-structured questionnaires...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Danny Phelan, Patricio Molero, Miguel A Martínez-González, Marc Molendijk
BACKGROUND: Magnesium (Mg2+) has received considerable attention with regards to its potential role in the pathophysiology of the mood disorders, but the available evidence seems inconclusive.AimsTo review and quantitatively summarise the human literature on Mg2+ intake and Mg2+ blood levels in the mood disorders and the effects of Mg2+ supplements on mood. METHOD: Systematic review and meta-analyses. RESULTS: Adherence to a Mg2+-rich diet was negatively associated with depression in cross-sectional (odds ratio = 0...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Thor Gamst-Klaussen, Admassu N Lamu, Gang Chen, Jan Abel Olsen
BACKGROUND: Many clinical studies including mental health interventions do not use a health state utility instrument, which is essential for producing quality-adjusted life years. In the absence of such utility instrument, mapping algorithms can be applied to estimate utilities from a disease-specific instrument.AimsWe aim to develop mapping algorithms from two widely used depression scales; the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), onto the most widely used health state utility instrument, the EQ-5D-5L, using eight country-specific value sets...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Katrina A S Davis, Jonathan R I Coleman, Mark Adams, Naomi Allen, Gerome Breen, Breda Cullen, Chris Dickens, Elaine Fox, Nick Graham, Jo Holliday, Louise M Howard, Ann John, William Lee, Rose McCabe, Andrew McIntosh, Robert Pearsall, Cathie Sudlow, Joey Ward, Stan Zammit, Matthew Hotopf
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1192/bjo.2018.12.].
May 2018: BJPsych Open
Kenneth R Kaufman, Ronke Babalola, Miriam Campeas, Melissa Coluccio
Bipolar disorder with comorbid anxiety disorders frequently requires rational polypharmacy, including use of serotonergic psychotropics. These may result in adverse effects, influencing adherence, complicating treatment and confounding diagnoses. Serotonergic non-adherence is associated with discontinuation syndromes. In this complex case with an on/off/on/off design, both dose-dependent buspirone-induced gynecomastia and buspirone discontinuation syndrome with dental pain are reported. Clinicians and patients should consider these findings to maximise treatment adherence, minimise any unnecessary interventions and address unusual adverse effects...
May 2018: BJPsych Open
Apostolos Tsiachristas, Felicity Waite, Daniel Freeman, Ramon Luengo-Fernandez
Background: Sleep problems are pervasive in people with schizophrenia, but there are no clinical guidelines for their treatment. The Better Sleep Trial (BEST) concluded that suitably adapted cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is likely to be highly effective, although its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Aims: To assess the potential cost-effectiveness of CBT for sleep disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Method: An economic evaluation of the BEST study with a 6-month time horizon was used to establish the cost-effectiveness of CBT plus usual care in terms of costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained...
May 2018: BJPsych Open
Lucy A Stephenson, Alastair J D Macdonald, Gertrude Seneviratne, Freddie Waites, Susan Pawlby
Background: Mother and Baby Units (MBUs) are usually preferred by patients and clinicians. Current provision is limited, although expansion is in progress. To ensure successful investment in services, outcome measurement is vital. Aims: To describe maternal outcomes, mother-infant outcomes and their relationship in one MBU. Method: Paired maternal Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores, Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) scores and Crittenden CARE-Index (CCI) mother-infant interaction data were collected at admission and discharge...
May 2018: BJPsych Open
Domenico Giacco, Liza Mavromara, Jennifer Gamblen, Maev Conneely, Stefan Priebe
Background: Last year, there were more than 63 622 involuntary admissions to psychiatric hospitals in England. One of the core principles stipulated in the code of practice for care under the Mental Health Act is involving involuntary patients in care decisions. Aims: Identifying barriers and facilitators to shared decision-making with involuntary patients. Method: Focus groups and individual interviews with patients and clinicians who have experience with involuntary hospital treatment were carried out...
May 2018: BJPsych Open
Kristina Aspvall, Per Andrén, Fabian Lenhard, Erik Andersson, David Mataix-Cols, Eva Serlachius
Background: Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) is a promising approach for increasing access to evidence-based treatments. Aims: To develop and evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an ICBT programme for young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), named BIP OCD Junior. Method: Eleven children aged 7-11 years were enrolled in a 12-week open trial of parent- and therapist-guided ICBT for OCD. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS)...
May 2018: BJPsych Open
David Cawthorpe, Marc Kerba, Aru Narendran, Harleen Ghuttora, Gabrielle Chartier, Norman Sartorius
Background: Population-based examination of comorbidity is an emerging field of study. Aims: The purpose of the present population level study is to expand our understanding of how cancer and mental illness are temporally associated. Method: A sample of 83 648 056 physician billing records for 664 838 (56% female) unique individuals over the age of 18 was stratified on ages 19-49 years and 50+ years, with temporal order of mental disorder and cancer forming the basis of comparison...
May 2018: BJPsych Open
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