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BJPsych Open

Jolien K E Veraart, Sanne Y Smith-Apeldoorn, Hayley Trueman, Marrit K de Boer, Robert A Schoevers, Rupert McShane
Background: Off-label ketamine treatment has shown acute antidepressant effects that offer hope for patients with therapy-resistant depression. However, its potential for integration into treatment algorithms is controversial, not least because the evidence base for maintenance treatment with repeated ketamine administration is currently weak. Ketamine is also a drug of misuse, which has raised concerns regarding the target population. Little is known about which patients would seek ketamine treatment if it were more widely available...
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Deborah Wearne, Guy Curtis, Winston Choy, Richard Magtengaard, Mathew Samuel, Peter Melvill-Smith
Background: Research has supported a model of dissociation mediating the experience of hearing voices in traumatised individuals. Aims: To further understand this model by examining subtypes of the dissociative experience involved in trauma-intrusive hallucinations. Method: The study involved four hospitals, 11 psychiatrists and 69 participants assessed using the Psychotic Symptoms Rating scale, the PTSD Symptoms Scale Interview and the Dissociative Subtype of PTSD Score...
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Mekdes Demissie, Charlotte Hanlon, Rahel Birhane, Lauren Ng, Girmay Medhin, Abebaw Fekadu
Background: Adjunctive psychological interventions for bipolar disorder have demonstrated better efficacy in preventing or delaying relapse and improving outcomes compared with pharmacotherapy alone. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of psychological interventions for bipolar disorder in low- and middle-income countries. Method: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane database for systematic review, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Latin America and Caribbean Center on Health Science Literature and African Journals Online databases with no restriction of language or year of publication...
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Stephen Puntis, Jason Oke, Belinda Lennox
Background: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) services are the dominant service model in the treatment of first-episode psychosis. They are a time-limited intervention and little is known about discharge destinations and outcomes once EIP treatment has concluded. Aims: To understand discharge pathways and predictors of relapse in an EIP service. Method: We collected data on all patients with an electronic health record treated by EIP services in Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust in the UK between 12 January 2006 and 7 March 2017 ( n  = 701)...
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Anna B Janssen, Katrina A Savory, Samantha M Garay, Lorna Sumption, William Watkins, Isabel Garcia-Martin, Nicola A Savory, Anouk Ridgway, Anthony R Isles, Richard Penketh, Ian R Jones, Rosalind M John
Background: In the UK, 11.8% of expectant mothers undergo an elective caesarean section (ELCS) representing 92 000 births per annum. It is not known to what extent this procedure has an impact on mental well-being in the longer term. Aims: To determine the prevalence and postpartum progression of anxiety and depression symptoms in women undergoing ELCS in Wales. Method: Prevalence of depression and anxiety were determined in women at University Hospital Wales (2015-16; n = 308) through completion of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; ≥13) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; ≥40) questionnaires 1 day prior to ELCS, and three postpartum time points for 1 year...
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Katrina A S Davis, Jonathan R I Coleman, Mark Adams, Naomi Allen, Gerome Breen, Breda Cullen, Chris Dickens, Elaine Fox, Nick Graham, Jo Holliday, Louise M Howard, Ann John, William Lee, Rose McCabe, Andrew McIntosh, Robert Pearsall, Daniel J Smith, Cathie Sudlow, Joey Ward, Stan Zammit, Matthew Hotopf
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1192/bjo.2018.12.].
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Md Shafiqur Rahman, Björg Helgadóttir, Mats Hallgren, Yvonne Forsell, Brendon Stubbs, Davy Vancampfort, Örjan Ekblom
Background: Exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and reduces depressive symptoms in people with depression. It is unclear if changes in CRF are a predictor of the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with depression. Aims: To investigate whether an increase in CRF is a predictor of depression severity reduction after 12 weeks of exercise (trial registration: DRKS study ID, DRKS00008745). Method: The present study includes participants who took part in vigorous ( n = 33), moderate ( n = 38) and light ( n = 39) intensity exercise and had CRF information (as predicted maximal oxygen uptake, V̇ O2max ) collected before and after the intervention...
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Robert Griffiths, Warren Mansell, Timothy A Carey, Dawn Edge, Richard Emsley, Sara J Tai
Background: Method of levels (MOL) is an innovative transdiagnostic cognitive therapy with potential advantages over existing psychological treatments for psychosis. Aims: The Next Level study is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) of MOL for people experiencing first-episode psychosis. It aims to determine the suitability of MOL for further testing in a definitive trial (trial registration ISRCTN13359355). Method: The study uses a parallel group non-masked feasibilityRCT design with two conditions: (a) treatment as usual (TAU) and (b) TAU plus MOL...
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Natasha Mitter, Afia Ali, Katrina Scior
Background: There is a lack of good-quality instruments measuring stigma experienced by family members of stigmatised people. Aims: To develop a self-report measure of stigma among families of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and examine associations between family stigma and other variables. Method: The new Family Stigma Instrument (FAMSI) was tested with 407 family carers, 53% of whose offspring had an autism spectrum disorder in addition to intellectual disability...
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Alexandre Rezende-Pinto, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Marcelo Ribeiro, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Homero Vallada
BACKGROUND: Although many studies suggest that religiosity is a protective factor against drug use, there is little information on its effect on drug consumption patterns of those who do use drugs.AimsWe aimed to examine if there is any relationship between religiosity during childhood and adolescence, and drug consumption in adult crack users. METHOD: We performed a cross-sectional study of adults addicted to crack cocaine. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for the association between religious history in the age groups 8-11, 12-14 and 15-17 years and outcome variables...
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Asako Mori, Yasumasa Okamoto, Go Okada, Koki Takagaki, Masahiro Takamura, Ran Jinnin, Naho Ichikawa, Takanao Yamamura, Satoshi Yokoyama, Syouichi Shiota, Atsuo Yoshino, Yoshie Miyake, Yuri Okamoto, Madoka Matsumoto, Kenji Matsumoto, Shigeto Yamawaki
BACKGROUND: Behavioural activation is an efficient treatment for depression and can improve intrinsic motivation. Previous studies have revealed that the frontostriatal circuit is involved in intrinsic motivation; however, there are no data on how behavioural activation affects the frontostriatal circuit.AimsWe aimed to investigate behavioural activation-related changes in the frontostriatal circuit. METHOD: Fifty-nine individuals with subthreshold depression were randomly assigned to either the intervention or non-intervention group...
September 2018: BJPsych Open
Daniëlle Emmerink, Sybiel Bakker, Thomas Van Bemmel, Eric O Noorthoorn, Paul Naarding
Background: People with severe mental illness (SMI) show significantly shorter life expectancy, mostly due to more prevalent cardiovascular disease. Although age is a prominent contributor to contemporary risk assessment and SMI usually affects younger people, these assessments still do not reveal the actual risk. By assessing advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cardiovascular risk can be assessed independent of age. Aims: To establish whether detection of AGEs with the AGE-reader will give a more accurate cardiovascular risk assessment in people with SMI...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Alexander Rozental, Louis Castonguay, Sona Dimidjian, Michael Lambert, Roz Shafran, Gerhard Andersson, Per Carlbring
Background: Psychotherapy can alleviate mental distress and improve quality of life, but little is known about its potential negative effects and how to determine their frequency. Aims: To present a commentary on the current understanding and future research directions of negative effects in psychotherapy. Method: An anonymous survey was distributed to a select group of researchers, using an analytical framework known as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Rebecca Grist, Bethany Cliffe, Megan Denne, Abigail Croker, Paul Stallard
Background: Adolescents are digital natives, with the majority now owning their own smartphones and having internet access. Although the internet and smartphone applications (apps) can provide mental health support, little is known about how young adolescents use digital technology for mental health purposes. There are many digital health resources available for young people, but the assumption that they will be open to use them has been largely untested. Aims: We aimed to explore how adolescents with and without raised symptoms of anxiety, depression and problematic eating use the internet on smartphones/tablets and mental health apps...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Maxine Johnson, Matthew Day, Rajesh Moholkar, Paul Gilluley, Elizabeth Goyder
Background: The prevalence and incidence of obesity are high in people with severe mental illness (SMI). In England, around 6000 people with SMI access care from secure mental health units. There is currently no specific guidance on how to reduce the risk of obesity-related morbidity and mortality in this population. Aims: To identify international evidence that addresses the issue of obesity in mental health secure units. Method: A mixed method review of evidence (published 2000-2015) was carried out to assess obesity prevalence, intervention and policy change, as well as barriers to change...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Carol A Mathews, Robert Scott Mackin, Chia-Ying Chou, Soo Y Uhm, Larry David Bain, Sandra J Stark, Michael Gause, Ofilio R Vigil, John Franklin, Mark Salazar, Julian Plumadore, Lauren C Smith, Kiya Komaiko, Gillian Howell, Eduardo Vega, Joanne Chan, Monika B Eckfield, Janice Y Tsoh, Kevin Delucchi
Background: Treatment for hoarding disorder is typically performed by mental health professionals, potentially limiting access to care in underserved areas. Aims: We aimed to conduct a non-inferiority trial of group peer-facilitated therapy (G-PFT) and group psychologist-led cognitive-behavioural therapy (G-CBT). Method: We randomised 323 adults with hording disorder 15 weeks of G-PFT or 16 weeks of G-CBT and assessed at baseline, post-treatment and longitudinally (≥3 months post-treatment: mean 14...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Martin Kraepelien, Erik Forsell, Eyal Karin, Robert Johansson, Nils Lindefors, Viktor Kaldo
Disorder-specific internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (ICBT) is effective for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety. In this benchmarking study, a new, individually tailored, ICBT programme (TAIL) showed effects on depression ( n = 284, d = 1.33) that were non-inferior to disorder-specific ICBT for depression in routine care ( n = 2358, d = 1.35). However, the hypotheses that TAIL for individuals with social anxiety or panic disorder is inferior to disorder-specific ICBT could not be rejected (social anxiety: TAIL d = 0...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Gin S Malhi, Richard Porter, Lauren Irwin, Amber Hamilton, Grace Morris, Darryl Bassett, Bernhard T Baune, Philip Boyce, Malcolm J Hopwood, Roger Mulder, Gordon Parker, Zola Mannie, Tim Outhred, Pritha Das, Ajeet B Singh
The term 'mood stabiliser' is ill-defined and lacks clinical utility. We propose a framework to evaluate medications and effectively communicate their mood stabilising properties - their acute and prophylactic efficacy across the domains of mania and depression. The standardised framework provides a common definition to facilitate research and clinical practice. Declaration of interest: The Treatment Algorithm Group (TAG) was supported logistically by Servier who provided financial assistance with travel and accommodation for those TAG members travelling interstate or overseas to attend the meeting in Sydney (held on 18 November 2017)...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Kenneth R Kaufman, Melissa Coluccio, Michelle Linke, Elizabeth Noonan, Ronke Babalola, Rehan Aziz
Background: Sexual dysfunctions are associated with multiple medical and psychiatric disorders, as well as pharmacotherapies used to treat these disorders. Although sexual dysfunctions negatively affect both quality of life and treatment adherence, patients infrequently volunteer these symptoms and clinicians do not pose directed questions to determine their presence or severity. This issue is especially important in psychiatric patients, for whom most common psychotropics may cause sexual dysfunctions (antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics and mood-stabilising agents)...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Thomas A Pollak, Belinda R Lennox
It is time that all patients with acute-onset psychosis are screened for autoimmune encephalitis, that lumbar puncture becomes a routine psychiatric investigation and that immunotherapy is available in indicated cases. We call for a culture change in the management of psychosis by psychiatry. Declaration of interest: None.
July 2018: BJPsych Open
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