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Canine Genetics and Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891241/no-evidence-of-prenatal-diversifying-selection-at-locus-or-supertype-levels-in-the-dog-mhc-class-ii-loci
#1
Alina K Niskanen, Lorna J Kennedy, Hannes Lohi, Jouni Aspi, Tanja Pyhäjärvi
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of studying, the mechanisms maintaining high diversity in the genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are still puzzling scientists. In addition to pathogen recognition and other functions, MHC molecules may act prenatally in mate choice and in maternal-foetal interactions. These interactions are potential selective mechanisms that increase genetic diversity in the MHC. During pregnancy, immune response has a dual role: the foetus represents foreign tissue compared to mother, but histo-incompatibility is required for successful pregnancy...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826450/dachslife-2015-an-investigation-of-lifestyle-associations-with-the-risk-of-intervertebral-disc-disease-in-dachshunds
#2
R M A Packer, I J Seath, D G O'Neill, S De Decker, H A Volk
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) represents a major problem in the Dachshund, with at a relative risk of IVDD 10-12 times higher than other breeds, and an estimated 19-24 % of Dachshunds showing clinical signs related to IVDD during their lifetime. A variety of genetic, physical and lifestyle-related risk factors for IVDD have previously been identified, with some conflicting findings. As such, advising owners and breeders regarding best-practice for IVDD prevention is challenging at present...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478618/a-genetic-assessment-of-the-english-bulldog
#3
Niels C Pedersen, Ashley S Pooch, Hongwei Liu
BACKGROUND: This study examines genetic diversity among 102 registered English Bulldogs used for breeding based on maternal and paternal haplotypes, allele frequencies in 33 highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci on 25 chromosomes, STR-linked dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class I and II haplotypes, and the number and size of genome-wide runs of homozygosity (ROH) determined from high density SNP arrays. The objective was to assess whether the breed retains enough genetic diversity to correct the genotypic and phenotypic abnormalities associated with poor health, to allow for the elimination of deleterious recessive mutations, or to make further phenotypic changes in body structure or coat...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398221/a-large-deletion-in-rpgr-causes-xlpra-in-weimaraner-dogs
#4
Regina Kropatsch, Denis A Akkad, Matthias Frank, Carsten Rosenhagen, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Jörg T Epplen, Gabriele Dekomien
BACKGROUND: Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) belongs to a group of inherited retinal disorders associated with gradual vision impairment due to degeneration of retinal photoreceptors in various dog breeds. PRA is highly heterogeneous, with autosomal dominant, recessive or X-linked modes of inheritance. In this study we used exome sequencing to investigate the molecular genetic basis of a new type of PRA, which occurred spontaneously in a litter of German short-hair Weimaraner dogs. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing in two PRA-affected Weimaraner dogs identified a large deletion comprising the first four exons of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene known to be involved in human retinitis pigmentosa and canine PRA...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293771/demography-and-health-of-pugs-under-primary-veterinary-care-in-england
#5
Dan G O'Neill, Elisabeth C Darwent, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt
BACKGROUND: The Pug is an ancient dog breed and was the fifth most commonly registered UK pedigree breed in 2014. However, the breed has been reported to be predisposed to several disorders including ocular, respiratory and dermatological problems. The VetCompass Programme collates de-identified clinical data from primary-care veterinary practices in the UK for epidemiological research. Using VetCompass clinical data, this study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of the general population of Pugs under veterinary care in England...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280025/the-epidemiology-of-patellar-luxation-in-dogs-attending-primary-care-veterinary-practices-in-england
#6
Dan G O'Neill, Richard L Meeson, Adam Sheridan, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt
BACKGROUND: Canine patellar luxation is one of the most common orthopaedic disorders of dogs and is a potential welfare concern because it can lead to lameness, osteoarthritis and pain. However, there are limited epidemiological data on the disorder relating to the general population of dogs in England. This study aimed to investigate the VetCompass Programme database of dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England to report on the prevalence, risk factors and clinical management of diagnosed patellar luxation cases...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110374/protein-expression-and-genetic-variability-of-canine-can-f-1-in-golden-and-labrador-retriever-service-dogs
#7
Christina Breitenbuecher, Janelle M Belanger, Kerinne Levy, Paul Mundell, Valerie Fates, Liza Gershony, Thomas R Famula, Anita M Oberbauer
BACKGROUND: Valued for trainability in diverse tasks, dogs are the primary service animal used to assist individuals with disabilities. Despite their utility, many people in need of service dogs are sensitive to the primary dog allergen, Can f 1, encoded by the Lipocalin 1 gene (LCN1). Several organizations specifically breed service dogs to meet special needs and would like to reduce allergenic potential if possible. In this study, we evaluated the expression of Can f 1 protein and the inherent variability of LCN1 in two breeds used extensively as service dogs...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051522/trends-in-popularity-of-some-morphological-traits-of-purebred-dogs-in-australia
#8
Kendy T Teng, Paul D McGreevy, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Navneet K Dhand
BACKGROUND: The morphology of dogs can provide information about their predisposition to some disorders. For example, larger breeds are predisposed to hip dysplasia and many neoplastic diseases. Therefore, longitudinal trends in popularity of dog morphology can reveal potential disease pervasiveness in the future. There have been reports on the popularity of particular breeds and behavioural traits but trends in the morphological traits of preferred breeds have not been studied. METHODS: This study investigated trends in the height, dog size and head shape (cephalic index) of Australian purebred dogs...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973793/prevalence-of-pectinate-ligament-dysplasia-and-associations-with-age-sex-and-intraocular-pressure-in-the-basset-hound-flatcoated-retriever-and-dandie-dinmont-terrier
#9
James A C Oliver, Abel Ekiri, Cathryn S Mellersh
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to: determine the prevalence of pectinate ligament dysplasia (PLD) in populations of Basset hounds (BH), Flatcoated retrievers (FCR) and Dandie Dinmont terriers (DDT) resident in the UK; investigate possible associations between the degree of PLD and age, sex and intraocular pressure (IOP) and; investigate possible associations between IOP and age and sex. Gonioscopy was performed in both eyes of 198 BH, 170 FCR and 95 DDT and the percentage of iridocorneal angle affected by PLD was estimated and classified as unaffected (0 %), mildly affected (<20 %), moderately affected (20-90 %) or severely affected (>90 %)...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26526059/a-search-for-genetic-diversity-among-italian-greyhounds-from-continental-europe-and-the-usa-and-the-effect-of-inbreeding-on-susceptibility-to-autoimmune-disease
#10
Niels C Pedersen, Hongwei Liu, Angela Leonard, Layle Griffioen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies documented the problem of inbreeding among Italian Greyhounds (IG) from the USA and its possible role in a multiple autoimmune disease syndrome. The present study is an extension of these earlier experiments and had two objectives: 1) to identify pockets of additional genetic diversity that might still exist among IG from the USA and Continental Europe, and 2) to determine how loss of genetic diversity within the genome and in the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) complex relates to the problem of autoimmune disease in IG from the USA...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457193/evaluation-of-whole-genome-sequencing-of-four-chinese-crested-dogs-for-variant-detection-using-the-ion-proton-system
#11
Agnese Viluma, Shumaila Sayyab, Sofia Mikko, Göran Andersson, Tomas F Bergström
BACKGROUND: Next generation sequencing (NGS) has traditionally been performed by large genome centers, but in recent years, the costs for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) have decreased substantially. With the introduction of smaller and less expensive "desktop" systems, NGS is now moving into the general laboratory. To evaluate the Ion Proton system for WGS we sequenced four Chinese Crested dogs and analyzed the data quality in terms of genome and exome coverage, the number of detected single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions and deletions (INDELs) and the genotype concordance with the Illumina HD canine SNP array...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401343/a-cultured-approach-to-canine-urothelial-carcinoma-molecular-characterization-of-five-cell-lines
#12
S G Shapiro, D W Knapp, Matthew Breen
BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma (UC), also known as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), of the bladder is the most common neoplasm affecting the canine urogenital system. To facilitate study of the disease in vitro, cell line models have been established from primary tumor biopsies. Their resemblance to the primary disease, however, has not been well defined. In the present study, we evaluated five canine UC cell lines via oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and gene expression analysis...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401342/the-effect-of-genetic-bottlenecks-and-inbreeding-on-the-incidence-of-two-major-autoimmune-diseases-in-standard-poodles-sebaceous-adenitis-and-addison-s-disease
#13
Niels C Pedersen, Lynn Brucker, Natalie Green Tessier, Hongwei Liu, Maria Cecilia T Penedo, Shayne Hughes, Anita Oberbauer, Ben Sacks
BACKGROUND: Sebaceous adenitis (SA) and Addison's disease (AD) increased rapidly in incidence among Standard Poodles after the mid-twentieth century. Previous attempts to identify specific genetic causes using genome wide association studies and interrogation of the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) region have been non-productive. However, such studies led us to hypothesize that positive selection for desired phenotypic traits that arose in the mid-twentieth century led to intense inbreeding and the inadvertent amplification of AD and SA associated traits...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401341/trends-in-genetic-diversity-for-all-kennel-club-registered-pedigree-dog-breeds
#14
T W Lewis, B M Abhayaratne, S C Blott
BACKGROUND: Inbreeding is inevitable in closed populations with a finite number of ancestors and where there is selection. Therefore, management of the rate of inbreeding at sustainable levels is required to avoid the associated detrimental effects of inbreeding. Studies have shown some pedigree dog breeds to have high levels of inbreeding and a high burden of inherited disease unrelated to selection objectives, implying loss of genetic diversity may be a particular problem for pedigree dogs...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401340/genetics-and-epidemiology-of-hypothyroidism-and-symmetrical-onychomadesis-in-the-gordon-setter-and-the-english-setter
#15
Martine Lund Ziener, Stina Dahlgren, Stein Istre Thoresen, Frode Lingaas
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders, whereas symmetrical onychomadesis is a rare claw disease in the general dog population. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of hypothyroidism and symmetrical onychomadesis in a birth cohort of 291 Gordon setters at eight years of age. Further, to describe the age at diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the 68 Gordon setters and 51 English setters included in the DLA study. Finally, to elucidate potential associations between dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II and hypothyroidism and/or symmetrical onychomadesis in the Gordon setter and the English setter...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401339/prevalence-and-heritability-of-distichiasis-in-the-english-cocker-spaniel
#16
Tanja Petersen, Helle Friis Proschowsky, Tommy Hardon, Søren Nyhuus Rasch, Merete Fredholm
BACKGROUND: Canine distichiasis is a well-known cause of ocular irritation and excessive lacrimation (secretion of tears) in the dog. The term distichiasis originates from the Greek words di and stichos meaning two and rows, respectively, and as the name implies, the condition is characterized by an additional row of cilia, which erupts on the eyelid margin. Many purebred dogs are known to be predisposed to the condition, with many affected individuals within the populations. Even though the problem is widespread, the exact mode of inheritance and the heredity has not been studied extensively...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401338/epidemiological-associations-between-brachycephaly-and-upper-respiratory-tract-disorders-in-dogs-attending-veterinary-practices-in-england
#17
Dan G O'Neill, Caitlin Jackson, Jonathan H Guy, David B Church, Paul D McGreevy, Peter C Thomson, Dave C Brodbelt
BACKGROUND: Brachycephalic dog breeds are increasingly common. Canine brachycephaly has been associated with upper respiratory tract (URT) disorders but reliable prevalence data remain lacking. Using primary-care veterinary clinical data, this study aimed to report the prevalence and breed-type risk factors for URT disorders in dogs. RESULTS: The sampling frame included 170,812 dogs attending 96 primary-care veterinary clinics participating within the VetCompass Programme...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401337/ten-inherited-disorders-in-purebred-dogs-by-functional-breed-groupings
#18
A M Oberbauer, J M Belanger, T Bellumori, D L Bannasch, T R Famula
BACKGROUND: Analysis of 88,635 dogs seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2010 identified ten inherited conditions having greater prevalence within the purebred dog population as compared to the mixed-breed dog population: aortic stenosis, atopy/allergic dermatitis, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), and hepatic portosystemic shunt...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401336/analysis-of-dla-dqb1-and-polymorphisms-in-ctla4-in-cocker-spaniels-affected-with-immune-mediated-haemolytic-anaemia
#19
Anna J Threlfall, Alisdair M Boag, Francesca Soutter, Barbara Glanemann, Harriet M Syme, Brian Catchpole
BACKGROUND: Cocker spaniels are predisposed to immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA), suggesting that genetic factors influence disease susceptibility. Dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II genes encode major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules that are involved in antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells. Several DLA haplotypes have been associated with autoimmune disease, including IMHA, in dogs, and breed specific differences have been identified. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) is a critical molecule involved in the regulation of T-cell responses...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401335/identification-of-a-novel-frameshift-mutation-in-the-dmd-gene-as-the-cause-of-muscular-dystrophy-in-a-norfolk-terrier-dog
#20
Christopher A Jenkins, Oliver P Forman
BACKGROUND: A Norfolk terrier was referred to the Animal Health Trust neurology department with suspected dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy (DD-MD), which was confirmed by clinical workup and immunohistochemistry. FINDINGS: Exon resequencing of the canine Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) gene was undertaken to screen for potential disease causing mutations. The sequence data generated from all coding DMD exons revealed a 1 bp deletion in exon 22, causing a frameshift and premature termination of the coding sequence...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
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