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Canine Genetics and Epidemiology

Mark J Fealey, Joy Li, Rebel J E Todhunter, Ursula Krotscheck, Kei Hayashi, Marina J McConkey, Adam R Boyko, Jessica J Hayward, Rory J Todhunter
BACKGROUND: Concentrated breeding effort to produce various body structures and behaviors of dogs to suit human demand has inadvertently produced unwanted traits and diseases that accompany the morphological and behavioral phenotypes. We explored the relationship between pelvic conformation and canine hip dysplasia (HD) because purebred dogs which are predisposed, or not, to HD share common morphologic features, respectively. Thirteen unique bilateral anatomical features of the pelvis were measured on 392 dogs of 51 breeds and 95 mixed breed dogs...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
John E Dillberger, Sara Ann McAtee
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common neoplastic disease in Scottish Deerhounds. For Deerhounds, a 2007 population-based study concluded that a single dominant genetic factor largely governed disease risk. For Greyhounds, Rottweilers, and Irish Wolfhounds, a 2013 genome-wide association study found multiple genetic markers in each breed, with each marker only weakly associated with the disease. We obtained from two breeders the pedigrees, age (if alive) or age at death, and osteosarcoma status for two families of Scottish Deerhounds, designated Cohorts K and T...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Kari J Ekenstedt, Katie M Minor, Aaron K Rendahl, Michael G Conzemius
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced collapse (EIC) due to DNM1 mutation and rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament are both common syndromes in the Labrador retriever breed. A cohort of 313 Labradors was recruited based on their CCLR status and were subsequently genetically tested for EIC. Epidemiological aspects of the cohort were also described, including sex, sterilization status, and age at sterilization. RESULTS: No sex difference was observed in dogs susceptible to EIC (homozygous for the mutant genotype) compared to dogs not susceptible to EIC (heterozygotes and dogs homozygous for the normal genotype)...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
James Sacco, Andrew Ruplin, Paul Skonieczny, Michael Ohman
BACKGROUND: In humans, reduced activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) due to genetic polymorphisms within the MAOA gene leads to increased brain neurotransmitter levels associated with aggression. In order to study MAOA genetic diversity in dogs, we designed a preliminary study whose objectives were to identify novel alleles in functionally important regions of the canine MAOA gene, and to investigate whether the frequencies of these polymorphisms varied between five broad breed groups (ancient, herding, mastiff, modern European, and mountain)...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Alina K Niskanen, Lorna J Kennedy, Hannes Lohi, Jouni Aspi, Tanja Pyhäjärvi
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of studying, the mechanisms maintaining high diversity in the genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are still puzzling scientists. In addition to pathogen recognition and other functions, MHC molecules may act prenatally in mate choice and in maternal-foetal interactions. These interactions are potential selective mechanisms that increase genetic diversity in the MHC. During pregnancy, immune response has a dual role: the foetus represents foreign tissue compared to mother, but histo-incompatibility is required for successful pregnancy...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
R M A Packer, I J Seath, D G O'Neill, S De Decker, H A Volk
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) represents a major problem in the Dachshund, with at a relative risk of IVDD 10-12 times higher than other breeds, and an estimated 19-24 % of Dachshunds showing clinical signs related to IVDD during their lifetime. A variety of genetic, physical and lifestyle-related risk factors for IVDD have previously been identified, with some conflicting findings. As such, advising owners and breeders regarding best-practice for IVDD prevention is challenging at present...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Niels C Pedersen, Ashley S Pooch, Hongwei Liu
BACKGROUND: This study examines genetic diversity among 102 registered English Bulldogs used for breeding based on maternal and paternal haplotypes, allele frequencies in 33 highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci on 25 chromosomes, STR-linked dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class I and II haplotypes, and the number and size of genome-wide runs of homozygosity (ROH) determined from high density SNP arrays. The objective was to assess whether the breed retains enough genetic diversity to correct the genotypic and phenotypic abnormalities associated with poor health, to allow for the elimination of deleterious recessive mutations, or to make further phenotypic changes in body structure or coat...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Regina Kropatsch, Denis A Akkad, Matthias Frank, Carsten Rosenhagen, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Jörg T Epplen, Gabriele Dekomien
BACKGROUND: Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) belongs to a group of inherited retinal disorders associated with gradual vision impairment due to degeneration of retinal photoreceptors in various dog breeds. PRA is highly heterogeneous, with autosomal dominant, recessive or X-linked modes of inheritance. In this study we used exome sequencing to investigate the molecular genetic basis of a new type of PRA, which occurred spontaneously in a litter of German short-hair Weimaraner dogs. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing in two PRA-affected Weimaraner dogs identified a large deletion comprising the first four exons of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene known to be involved in human retinitis pigmentosa and canine PRA...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Dan G O'Neill, Elisabeth C Darwent, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt
BACKGROUND: The Pug is an ancient dog breed and was the fifth most commonly registered UK pedigree breed in 2014. However, the breed has been reported to be predisposed to several disorders including ocular, respiratory and dermatological problems. The VetCompass Programme collates de-identified clinical data from primary-care veterinary practices in the UK for epidemiological research. Using VetCompass clinical data, this study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of the general population of Pugs under veterinary care in England...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Dan G O'Neill, Richard L Meeson, Adam Sheridan, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt
BACKGROUND: Canine patellar luxation is one of the most common orthopaedic disorders of dogs and is a potential welfare concern because it can lead to lameness, osteoarthritis and pain. However, there are limited epidemiological data on the disorder relating to the general population of dogs in England. This study aimed to investigate the VetCompass Programme database of dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England to report on the prevalence, risk factors and clinical management of diagnosed patellar luxation cases...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Christina Breitenbuecher, Janelle M Belanger, Kerinne Levy, Paul Mundell, Valerie Fates, Liza Gershony, Thomas R Famula, Anita M Oberbauer
BACKGROUND: Valued for trainability in diverse tasks, dogs are the primary service animal used to assist individuals with disabilities. Despite their utility, many people in need of service dogs are sensitive to the primary dog allergen, Can f 1, encoded by the Lipocalin 1 gene (LCN1). Several organizations specifically breed service dogs to meet special needs and would like to reduce allergenic potential if possible. In this study, we evaluated the expression of Can f 1 protein and the inherent variability of LCN1 in two breeds used extensively as service dogs...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Kendy T Teng, Paul D McGreevy, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Navneet K Dhand
BACKGROUND: The morphology of dogs can provide information about their predisposition to some disorders. For example, larger breeds are predisposed to hip dysplasia and many neoplastic diseases. Therefore, longitudinal trends in popularity of dog morphology can reveal potential disease pervasiveness in the future. There have been reports on the popularity of particular breeds and behavioural traits but trends in the morphological traits of preferred breeds have not been studied. METHODS: This study investigated trends in the height, dog size and head shape (cephalic index) of Australian purebred dogs...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
James A C Oliver, Abel Ekiri, Cathryn S Mellersh
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to: determine the prevalence of pectinate ligament dysplasia (PLD) in populations of Basset hounds (BH), Flatcoated retrievers (FCR) and Dandie Dinmont terriers (DDT) resident in the UK; investigate possible associations between the degree of PLD and age, sex and intraocular pressure (IOP) and; investigate possible associations between IOP and age and sex. Gonioscopy was performed in both eyes of 198 BH, 170 FCR and 95 DDT and the percentage of iridocorneal angle affected by PLD was estimated and classified as unaffected (0 %), mildly affected (<20 %), moderately affected (20-90 %) or severely affected (>90 %)...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Niels C Pedersen, Hongwei Liu, Angela Leonard, Layle Griffioen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies documented the problem of inbreeding among Italian Greyhounds (IG) from the USA and its possible role in a multiple autoimmune disease syndrome. The present study is an extension of these earlier experiments and had two objectives: 1) to identify pockets of additional genetic diversity that might still exist among IG from the USA and Continental Europe, and 2) to determine how loss of genetic diversity within the genome and in the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) complex relates to the problem of autoimmune disease in IG from the USA...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Agnese Viluma, Shumaila Sayyab, Sofia Mikko, Göran Andersson, Tomas F Bergström
BACKGROUND: Next generation sequencing (NGS) has traditionally been performed by large genome centers, but in recent years, the costs for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) have decreased substantially. With the introduction of smaller and less expensive "desktop" systems, NGS is now moving into the general laboratory. To evaluate the Ion Proton system for WGS we sequenced four Chinese Crested dogs and analyzed the data quality in terms of genome and exome coverage, the number of detected single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions and deletions (INDELs) and the genotype concordance with the Illumina HD canine SNP array...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
S G Shapiro, D W Knapp, Matthew Breen
BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma (UC), also known as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), of the bladder is the most common neoplasm affecting the canine urogenital system. To facilitate study of the disease in vitro, cell line models have been established from primary tumor biopsies. Their resemblance to the primary disease, however, has not been well defined. In the present study, we evaluated five canine UC cell lines via oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and gene expression analysis...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Niels C Pedersen, Lynn Brucker, Natalie Green Tessier, Hongwei Liu, Maria Cecilia T Penedo, Shayne Hughes, Anita Oberbauer, Ben Sacks
BACKGROUND: Sebaceous adenitis (SA) and Addison's disease (AD) increased rapidly in incidence among Standard Poodles after the mid-twentieth century. Previous attempts to identify specific genetic causes using genome wide association studies and interrogation of the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) region have been non-productive. However, such studies led us to hypothesize that positive selection for desired phenotypic traits that arose in the mid-twentieth century led to intense inbreeding and the inadvertent amplification of AD and SA associated traits...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
T W Lewis, B M Abhayaratne, S C Blott
BACKGROUND: Inbreeding is inevitable in closed populations with a finite number of ancestors and where there is selection. Therefore, management of the rate of inbreeding at sustainable levels is required to avoid the associated detrimental effects of inbreeding. Studies have shown some pedigree dog breeds to have high levels of inbreeding and a high burden of inherited disease unrelated to selection objectives, implying loss of genetic diversity may be a particular problem for pedigree dogs...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Martine Lund Ziener, Stina Dahlgren, Stein Istre Thoresen, Frode Lingaas
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders, whereas symmetrical onychomadesis is a rare claw disease in the general dog population. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of hypothyroidism and symmetrical onychomadesis in a birth cohort of 291 Gordon setters at eight years of age. Further, to describe the age at diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the 68 Gordon setters and 51 English setters included in the DLA study. Finally, to elucidate potential associations between dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II and hypothyroidism and/or symmetrical onychomadesis in the Gordon setter and the English setter...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Tanja Petersen, Helle Friis Proschowsky, Tommy Hardon, Søren Nyhuus Rasch, Merete Fredholm
BACKGROUND: Canine distichiasis is a well-known cause of ocular irritation and excessive lacrimation (secretion of tears) in the dog. The term distichiasis originates from the Greek words di and stichos meaning two and rows, respectively, and as the name implies, the condition is characterized by an additional row of cilia, which erupts on the eyelid margin. Many purebred dogs are known to be predisposed to the condition, with many affected individuals within the populations. Even though the problem is widespread, the exact mode of inheritance and the heredity has not been studied extensively...
2015: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
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