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Canine Genetics and Epidemiology

Katrien Wijnrocx, Liesbeth François, Peter Goos, Nadine Buys, Steven Janssens
Background: The selection of a future breeding dog is a complicated task, in which disease characteristics and different traits have to be combined and weighed against one another. Truncation selection, that is the exclusion of affected animals, may be very inefficient when selecting on a large number of traits, and may result in a reduction of the genetic diversity in a population or breed. Selection could be facilitated by the use of a selection index that combines multiple traits or breeding values into one score...
2018: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Dan G O'Neill, Sylvia F A Keijser, Åke Hedhammar, Caroline Kisko, Gregoire Leroy, Aimée Llewellyn-Zaidi, Sofia Malm, Patricia N Olson, Rowena M A Packer, Jean Francois Rousselot, Ian J Seath, Jason W Stull, Brenda N Bonnett
Background: Breed-related health problems in dogs have received increased focus over the last decade. Responsibility for causing and/or solving these problems has been variously directed towards dog breeders and kennel clubs, the veterinary profession, welfare scientists, owners, regulators, insurance companies and the media. In reality, all these stakeholders are likely to share some responsibility and optimal progress on resolving these challenges requires all key stakeholders to work together...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Dan G O'Neill, Elisabeth C Darwent, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt
Background: The Border Terrier is a working terrier type that is generally considered to be a relatively healthy and hardy breed. This study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of Border Terriers receiving veterinary care in England using de-identified electronic patient record data within the VetCompass™ Programme. Results: Annual birth proportion for Border Terriers showed a decreasing trend from 1.46% in 2005 to 0.78% in 2014. The median adult bodyweight for males (10...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Dan G O'Neill, Wee Yin Seah, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt
Background: Rottweilers are reportedly predisposed to many disorders but accurate prevalence information relating to the general population are lacking. This study aimed to describe demography, mortality and commonly recorded diseases in Rottweilers under UK veterinary care. Clinical health records within the VetCompass Programme were explored for disorders recorded during 2013. Results: Rottweilers comprised 5321 (1.17%) of 455,557 dogs attending 304 clinics. Annual proportional birth rates dropped from 1...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Niels C Pedersen, Bonnie Shope, Hongwei Liu
Background: Pure breeding of dogs has led to over 700 heritable disorders, of which almost 300 are Mendelian in nature. Seventy percent of the characterized mutations have an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, indicative of positive selection during bouts of inbreeding primarily for new desired conformational traits. Samoyed suffer from several common complex genetic disorders, but up to this time only two X-linked and one autosomal dominant disorder have been identified. Previous studies based on pedigrees and SNP arrays have concluded that Samoyed breeders have done a good job in maintaining genetic diversity and avoiding excessive inbreeding...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Melissa Simpson, Erin Searfoss, Sharon Albright, Diane E Brown, Barbara Wolfe, Nancy K Clark, Susan E McCann, David Haworth, Mike Guy, Rod Page
Background: Studying cancer and other diseases poses a problem due to their protracted and multifactorial nature. Prospective studies are useful to investigate chronic disease processes since collection of lifestyle information, exposure data and co-incident health issues are collected before the condition manifests. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study is one of the first prospective studies following privately-owned dogs throughout life to investigate the incidence and risk factors for disease outcomes, especially cancer...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Meenakshi Mukherjee, Jeryl C Jones, Jianbo Yao
BACKGROUND: Canine lumbosacral stenosis is defined as narrowing of the caudal lumbar and/or sacral vertebral canal. A risk factor for neurologic problems in many large sized breeds, lumbosacral stenosis can also cause early retirement in Labrador retriever military working dogs. Though vital for conservative management of the condition, early detection is complicated by the ambiguous nature of clinical signs of lumbosacral stenosis in stoic and high-drive Labrador retriever military working dogs...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
James Sacco, Sarah Mann, Keller Toral
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms within the glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene affect the elimination of toxic xenobiotics by the GSTP1 enzyme. In dogs, exposure to environmental chemicals that may be GSTP1 substrates is associated with cancer. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic variability in the GSTP1 promoter in a diverse population of 278 purebred dogs, compare the incidence of any variants found between breeds, and predict their effects on gene expression...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
B M Wiles, A M Llewellyn-Zaidi, K M Evans, D G O'Neill, T W Lewis
BACKGROUND: Pedigree or purebred dogs are often stated to have high prevalence of disorders which are commonly assumed to be a consequence of inbreeding and selection for exaggerated features. However, few studies empirically report and rank the prevalence of disorders across breeds although such data are of critical importance in the prioritisation of multiple health concerns, and to provide a baseline against which to explore changes over time. This paper reports an owner survey that gathered disorder information on Kennel Club registered pedigree dogs, regardless of whether these disorders received veterinary care...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Dan G O'Neill, Noel R Coulson, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt
BACKGROUND: The German Shepherd Dog (GSD) has been widely used for a variety of working roles. However, concerns for the health and welfare of the GSD have been widely aired and there is evidence that breed numbers are now in decline in the UK. Accurate demographic and disorder data could assist with breeding and clinical prioritisation. The VetCompass(TM) Programme collects clinical data on dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK. This study included all VetCompass(TM) dogs under veterinary care during 2013...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Dan G O'Neill, Monica M Lee, Dave C Brodbelt, David B Church, Rick F Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Corneal ulcerative disease (CUD) has the potential to adversely affect animal welfare by interfering with vision and causing pain. The study aimed to investigate for the first time the prevalence, breed-based risk factors and clinical management of CUD in the general population of dogs under primary veterinary care in England. RESULTS: Of 104,233 dogs attending 110 clinics participating within the VetCompass Programme from January 1(st) to December 31(st) 2013, there were 834 confirmed CUD cases (prevalence: 0...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Janelle M Belanger, Thomas P Bellumori, Danika L Bannasch, Thomas R Famula, Anita M Oberbauer
BACKGROUND: Gonadectomy, or neutering, is a very common surgery for dogs having many positive effects on behavior, health, and longevity. There are also certain risks associated with neutering including the development of orthopedic conditions, cognitive decline, and a predisposition to some neoplasias. This study was designed specifically to identify if a correlation exists between neuter status and inherited conditions in a large aggregate cohort of dogs representing many different breeds...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Mark J Fealey, Joy Li, Rebel J E Todhunter, Ursula Krotscheck, Kei Hayashi, Marina J McConkey, Adam R Boyko, Jessica J Hayward, Rory J Todhunter
BACKGROUND: Concentrated breeding effort to produce various body structures and behaviors of dogs to suit human demand has inadvertently produced unwanted traits and diseases that accompany the morphological and behavioral phenotypes. We explored the relationship between pelvic conformation and canine hip dysplasia (HD) because purebred dogs which are predisposed, or not, to HD share common morphologic features, respectively. Thirteen unique bilateral anatomical features of the pelvis were measured on 392 dogs of 51 breeds and 95 mixed breed dogs...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
John E Dillberger, Sara Ann McAtee
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common neoplastic disease in Scottish Deerhounds. For Deerhounds, a 2007 population-based study concluded that a single dominant genetic factor largely governed disease risk. For Greyhounds, Rottweilers, and Irish Wolfhounds, a 2013 genome-wide association study found multiple genetic markers in each breed, with each marker only weakly associated with the disease. We obtained from two breeders the pedigrees, age (if alive) or age at death, and osteosarcoma status for two families of Scottish Deerhounds, designated Cohorts K and T...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Kari J Ekenstedt, Katie M Minor, Aaron K Rendahl, Michael G Conzemius
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced collapse (EIC) due to DNM1 mutation and rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament are both common syndromes in the Labrador retriever breed. A cohort of 313 Labradors was recruited based on their CCLR status and were subsequently genetically tested for EIC. Epidemiological aspects of the cohort were also described, including sex, sterilization status, and age at sterilization. RESULTS: No sex difference was observed in dogs susceptible to EIC (homozygous for the mutant genotype) compared to dogs not susceptible to EIC (heterozygotes and dogs homozygous for the normal genotype)...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
James Sacco, Andrew Ruplin, Paul Skonieczny, Michael Ohman
BACKGROUND: In humans, reduced activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) due to genetic polymorphisms within the MAOA gene leads to increased brain neurotransmitter levels associated with aggression. In order to study MAOA genetic diversity in dogs, we designed a preliminary study whose objectives were to identify novel alleles in functionally important regions of the canine MAOA gene, and to investigate whether the frequencies of these polymorphisms varied between five broad breed groups (ancient, herding, mastiff, modern European, and mountain)...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Alina K Niskanen, Lorna J Kennedy, Hannes Lohi, Jouni Aspi, Tanja Pyhäjärvi
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of studying, the mechanisms maintaining high diversity in the genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are still puzzling scientists. In addition to pathogen recognition and other functions, MHC molecules may act prenatally in mate choice and in maternal-foetal interactions. These interactions are potential selective mechanisms that increase genetic diversity in the MHC. During pregnancy, immune response has a dual role: the foetus represents foreign tissue compared to mother, but histo-incompatibility is required for successful pregnancy...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
R M A Packer, I J Seath, D G O'Neill, S De Decker, H A Volk
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) represents a major problem in the Dachshund, with at a relative risk of IVDD 10-12 times higher than other breeds, and an estimated 19-24 % of Dachshunds showing clinical signs related to IVDD during their lifetime. A variety of genetic, physical and lifestyle-related risk factors for IVDD have previously been identified, with some conflicting findings. As such, advising owners and breeders regarding best-practice for IVDD prevention is challenging at present...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Niels C Pedersen, Ashley S Pooch, Hongwei Liu
BACKGROUND: This study examines genetic diversity among 102 registered English Bulldogs used for breeding based on maternal and paternal haplotypes, allele frequencies in 33 highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci on 25 chromosomes, STR-linked dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class I and II haplotypes, and the number and size of genome-wide runs of homozygosity (ROH) determined from high density SNP arrays. The objective was to assess whether the breed retains enough genetic diversity to correct the genotypic and phenotypic abnormalities associated with poor health, to allow for the elimination of deleterious recessive mutations, or to make further phenotypic changes in body structure or coat...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Regina Kropatsch, Denis A Akkad, Matthias Frank, Carsten Rosenhagen, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Jörg T Epplen, Gabriele Dekomien
BACKGROUND: Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) belongs to a group of inherited retinal disorders associated with gradual vision impairment due to degeneration of retinal photoreceptors in various dog breeds. PRA is highly heterogeneous, with autosomal dominant, recessive or X-linked modes of inheritance. In this study we used exome sequencing to investigate the molecular genetic basis of a new type of PRA, which occurred spontaneously in a litter of German short-hair Weimaraner dogs. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing in two PRA-affected Weimaraner dogs identified a large deletion comprising the first four exons of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene known to be involved in human retinitis pigmentosa and canine PRA...
2016: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
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