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Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002327/tackling-the-consumption-of-high-sugar-products-among-children-and-adolescents-in-the-pacific-islands-implications-for-future-research
#1
REVIEW
Katharine Aldwell, Corinne Caillaud, Olivier Galy, Stéphane Frayon, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
The Pacific Islands are experiencing an obesity epidemic with a rate of overweight and obesity as high as 80% among adults in some Pacific Island nations. Children and adolescents in the region are also affected by overweight and obesity, which is alarming due to the increased likelihood of remaining overweight as an adult. Research supports an association between poor diet and an increased risk of obesity and development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Excess consumption of free sugars is associated with poorer overall diet quality and increased risk of weight gain, chronic inflammation and dental caries...
July 12, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002284/impact-of-veteran-status-and-timing-of-ptsd-diagnosis-on-criminal-justice-outcomes
#2
Brandt A Smith
Previous research has demonstrated that jurors show a bias towards treatment for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present research examines this bias when jurors are faced with cases of potential malingering, in which the defendant's claim of PTSD is a perceived attempt to escape legal punishments. Trial vignettes, in which veteran status and PTSD diagnosis timing were manipulated, were used to explore this phenomenon. It was found that veterans who received their diagnosis after being arrested were found guilty more often, and were diverted to treatment less often, than those who were diagnosed before an arrest...
July 12, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996547/the-oral-healthcare-system-in-japan
#3
REVIEW
Takashi Zaitsu, Tomoya Saito, Yoko Kawaguchi
This paper describes the present Japanese oral healthcare system and outlines the future challenges and perspectives for Japan. Japan has developed a system for providing high-quality and appropriate health care efficiently through a universal health insurance system which has been in operation since 1961. This health insurance covers most restorative, prosthetic and oral surgery treatment. Therefore, all people can receive dental treatment at a relatively low cost, with the same fees applying throughout the nation...
July 10, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996517/developing-a-case-based-blended-learning-ecosystem-to-optimize-precision-medicine-reducing-overdiagnosis-and-overtreatment
#4
Vivek Podder, Binod Dhakal, Gousia Ummae Salma Shaik, Kaushik Sundar, Madhava Sai Sivapuram, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Rakesh Biswas
INTRODUCTION: Precision medicine aims to focus on meeting patient requirements accurately, optimizing patient outcomes, and reducing under-/overdiagnosis and therapy. We aim to offer a fresh perspective on accuracy driven “age-old precision medicine” and illustrate how newer case-based blended learning ecosystems (CBBLE) can strengthen the bridge between age-old precision approaches with modern technology and omics-driven approaches. METHODOLOGY: We present a series of cases and examine the role of precision medicine within a “case-based blended learning ecosystem” (CBBLE) as a practicable tool to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment...
July 10, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987265/oral-health-in-pregnant-chinese-women-in-singapore-a-call-to-go-beyond-the-traditional-clinical-care
#5
Preethi Balan, Hong-Gu He, Fengchunzhi Cao, Mun Loke Wong, Yap Seng Chong, Violeta Lopez, Shu E Soh, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne
To examine the correlations among oral health knowledge, attitude, practices and oral disease among pregnant Chinese women in Singapore. Methods : A descriptive correlational study was conducted in pregnant Chinese women in Singapore. A questionnaire was used to collect data of oral health knowledge, attitude and practices. Plaque index scores were used to assess the oral health of subjects. Results : A total of 82 pregnant women participated in the study, out of whom 38% showed adequate oral health knowledge, nearly half of them achieved adequate and oral health attitude and practice scores while 34% had good Plaque index scores...
July 9, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986398/recruitment-strategies-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-fast-versus-slow-weight-loss-in-postmenopausal-women-with-obesity-the-tempo-diet-trial
#6
Michelle S H Hsu, Claudia Harper, Alice A Gibson, Arianne N Sweeting, John McBride, Tania P Markovic, Ian D Caterson, Nuala M Byrne, Amanda Sainsbury, Radhika V Seimon
Current research around effective recruitment strategies for clinical trials of dietary obesity treatments have largely focused on younger adults, and thus may not be applicable to older populations. The TEMPO Diet Trial ( T ype of E nergy M anipulation for P romoting optimal metabolic health and body composition in O besity) is a randomised controlled trial comparing the long-term effects of fast versus slow weight loss on body composition and cardio-metabolic health in postmenopausal women with obesity. This paper addresses the recruitment strategies used to enrol participants into this trial and evaluates their relative effectiveness...
July 6, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986396/lost-in-translation-transforming-behaviour-change-techniques-into-engaging-digital-content-and-design-for-the-stopapp
#7
Emily Anne Fulton, Kayleigh L Kwah, Sue Wild, Katherine E Brown
Frameworks to support the application of behaviour change theory to the choice of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) in designing digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) are becoming well established, and have been employed by the authors in the development of StopApp. However, guidance on the next stage—effective operationalisation (translation) of these BCTs to a digital context, including the precise delivery and design of “behavioural intervention technology” (BIT) elements, is still in its infancy...
July 6, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973574/functionality-in-middle-aged-and-older-overweight-and-obese-individuals-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#8
Neda S Akhavan, Lauren Ormsbee, Sarah A Johnson, Kelli S George, Elizabeth M Foley, Marcus L Elam, Zahra Ezzat-Zadeh, Lynn B Panton, Bahram H Arjmandi
Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) suffer from immobility and pain. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between pain and functionality in middle-aged and older overweight and obese individuals with mild-to-moderate knee OA. Overall pattern, physical activity, and total energy expenditure (TEE) were assessed in 83 participants. The Western Ontario McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) was used to assess lower extremity pain and function. The six-minute walk test (6-MWT) and range of motion (ROM) were also assessed...
July 4, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958395/defining-the-optimal-dietary-approach-for-safe-effective-and-sustainable-weight-loss-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#9
REVIEW
Chrysi Koliaki, Theodoros Spinos, Μarianna Spinou, Μaria-Eugenia Brinia, Dimitra Mitsopoulou, Nicholas Katsilambros
Various dietary approaches with different caloric content and macronutrient composition have been recommended to treat obesity in adults. Although their safety and efficacy profile has been assessed in numerous randomized clinical trials, reviews and meta-analyses, the characteristics of the optimal dietary weight loss strategy remain controversial. This mini-review will provide general principles and practical recommendations for the dietary management of obesity and will further explore the components of the optimal dietary intervention...
June 28, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949913/effect-of-skeletal-muscle-and-fat-mass-on-muscle-strength-in-the-elderly
#10
Koji Nonaka, Shin Murata, Kayoko Shiraiwa, Teppei Abiko, Hideki Nakano, Hiroaki Iwase, Koichi Naito, Jun Horie
It is important for elderly people to maintain or improve muscle strength and for clinicians to know the factors that affect muscle strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of fat mass (FM) and skeletal muscle mass (SMM) on muscle strength. The participants included 192 community-dwelling elderly women. The SMM and FM, grip strength, and knee extension strength were measured. Data were evaluated using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, which was performed with grip or knee extension strength as a dependent variable and the SMM and FM of the upper and lower limbs as the independent variables...
June 26, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941776/improving-cardiovascular-disease-knowledge-among-rural-participants-the-results-of-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#11
Laurie S Abbott, Elizabeth H Slate
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death and disability, especially among people living in the rural, southern United States. Rural African Americans are often diagnosed with CVD earlier in life, and they bear a disproportionate burden of CVD risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Health equity among historically underserved, rural populations can potentially be attained through culturally relevant interventions that teach people skills to stay well and avoid CVD-related risk and diagnoses. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine the effect of an evidence-based intervention on cardiovascular health knowledge and the stages of change toward the action and maintenance phases...
June 25, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933550/strategies-to-engage-adolescents-in-digital-health-interventions-for-obesity-prevention-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Stephanie R Partridge, Julie Redfern
Obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing today’s adolescents. Dietary interventions are the foundation of obesity prevention and management. As adolescents are digital frontrunners and early adopters of technology, digital health interventions appear the most practical modality for dietary behavior change interventions. Despite the rapid growth in digital health interventions, effective engagement with adolescents remains a pertinent issue. Key strategies for effective engagement include co-designing interventions with adolescents, personalization of interventions, and just-in-time adaptation using data from wearable devices...
June 21, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921784/a-community-study-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-antibodies-among-individuals-with-prior-lyme-disease-in-endemic-areas
#13
Barbara Strobino, Katja Steinhagen, Wolfgang Meyer, Thomas Scheper, Sandra Saschenbrecker, Wolfgang Schlumberger, Winfried Stöcker, Andrea Gaito, Brian A Fallon
The objective was to examine the prevalence of Borrelia antibodies among symptomatic individuals with recent and past Lyme disease in endemic communities using standard assays and novel assays employing next-generation antigenic substrates. Single- and two-tiered algorithms included different anti- Borrelia ELISAs and immunoblots. Antibody prevalence was examined in sera from 32 individuals with recent erythema migrans (EM), 335 individuals with persistent symptoms following treatment for Lyme disease (PTLS), and 41 community controls without a history of Lyme disease...
June 19, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921751/thoracic-outlet-syndrome-biomechanical-and-exercise-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Nicholas A Levine, Brandon R Rigby
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) describes a group of disorders that are due to a dynamic compression of blood vessels or nerves, between the clavicle and first rib or cervical vertebral nerve roots. Individuals with TOS typically experience upper limb pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness that is exacerbated by shoulder or neck movement. The causes of TOS vary, and can include abrupt movements, hypertrophy of the neck musculature, and anatomical variations in which the brachial plexus roots pass through this musculature, edema, pregnancy, repeated overhead motions, the blockage of an artery or vein, or abnormal posture...
June 19, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914061/pain-and-pain-medication-among-older-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-comparison-with-the-general-population
#15
Anna Axmon, Gerd Ahlström, Hans Westergren
Little is known about pain and pain treatment among people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). We aimed to describe pain and pain medications among older people with ID compared to the general population. Data on diagnoses and prescriptions were collected from national registers for the period between 2006 and 2012 for 7936 people with an ID and a referent cohort from the general population. IDs were associated with a decreased risk of being diagnosed with headaches, musculoskeletal pain, and pain related to the circulatory and respiratory systems, but they were associated with increased risk of being diagnosed with pain related to the urinary system...
June 15, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914052/a-health-system-s-journey-toward-better-population-health-through-empanelment-and-panel-management
#16
Peter McGough, Van Chaudhari, Suzanne El-Attar, Pamela Yung
The USA is steadily moving towards a health system that emphasizes ‘wellness’ over ‘sickness’ care. An effective wellness program utilizes a ‘population health’ approach that ensures that all patients who seek care from a health system receive the services recommended by evidence and best practice. This means attending not just to patients who are seen for care, but also to patients who have not yet been seen. A key strategy for population health is empanelment and panel management for patients in primary care...
June 15, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914051/impact-of-nurse-practitioner-practice-regulations-on-rural-population-health-outcomes
#17
Judith Ortiz, Richard Hofler, Angeline Bushy, Yi-Ling Lin, Ahmad Khanijahani, Andrea Bitney
Background: For decades, U.S. rural areas have experienced shortages of primary care providers. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are helping to reduce that shortage. However, NP scope of practice regulations vary from state-to-state ranging from autonomous practice to direct physician oversight. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical outcomes of older rural adult patients vary by the level of practice autonomy that states grant to NPs. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a sample of Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) (n = 503) located in eight Southeastern states...
June 15, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904038/-that-guy-is-he-really-sick-at-all-an-analysis-of-how-veterans-with-ptsd-experience-nature-based-therapy
#18
Dorthe Varning Poulsen, Ulrika K Stigsdotter, Annette Sofie Davidsen
Serving in the military leads to mental diseases, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for a percentage of soldiers globally. The number of veterans with PTSD is increasing and, although medication and psychological treatments are offered, treatment results could be improved. Historically, different forms of nature-based therapy have been used for this target group. However, in spite of anecdotally good results, studies measuring the effect of this form of therapy are still lacking. The aim of this study is to explore how veterans with PTSD manage their everyday lives during and after a ten-week nature-based intervention in a therapy garden...
June 14, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899220/conversations-about-death-and-dying-with-older-people-an-ethnographic-study-in-nursing-homes
#19
Åsa Alftberg, Gerd Ahlström, Per Nilsen, Lina Behm, Anna Sandgren, Eva Benzein, Birgitta Wallerstedt, Birgit H Rasmussen
Nursing homes are often places where older persons “come to die.” Despite this, death and dying are seldom articulated or talked about. The aim of this study was to explore assistant nurses’ experiences of conversations about death and dying with nursing home residents. This study is part of an implementation project through a knowledge-based educational intervention based on palliative care principles. An ethnographic study design was applied in seven nursing homes, where eight assistant nurses were interviewed and followed in their daily assignments through participant observations...
June 14, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895767/poverty-status-and-childhood-asthma-in-white-and-black-families-national-survey-of-children-s-health
#20
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani
Background: Living above the poverty line reduces the risk of physical illnesses, including childhood asthma (CA). Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, however, suggests that the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health are weaker for racial minorities than White families. It is unknown whether the association between SES and CA differs for White and Black families. Aims: Using a national sample, the current study compared Black and White families for the association between living above the poverty line and CA...
June 12, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
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