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Trends in Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470306/cancer-cachexia-more-than-skeletal-muscle-wasting
#1
REVIEW
Søren Fisker Schmidt, Maria Rohm, Stephan Herzig, Mauricio Berriel Diaz
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial condition characterized by body weight loss that negatively affects quality of life and survival of patients with cancer. Despite the clinical relevance, there is currently no defined standard of care to effectively counteract cancer-associated progressive tissue wasting. Skeletal muscle atrophy represents the main manifestation of cancer cachexia. However, cancer cachexia is increasingly seen as a systemic phenomenon affecting and/or influenced by various organs. Here, we describe recent developments elucidating the roles of different tissues as well as tissue crosstalk in this wasting syndrome, including potential links to other cancer-associated morbidities...
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470305/microvascular-mural-cells-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Arne Östman, Sara Corvigno
Microvascular mural cells (MMCs) are important regulators of tumor vessel properties, such as endothelial cell differentiation and vessel permeability, and are recognized as modulators of tumor angiogenesis and growth. Emerging experimental studies suggest impact of MMCs on additional aspects of tumor biology, exerted by functionally distinct subsets. These have been shown to control metastasis both in primary tumors and in the premetastatic niche. Other studies link marker-defined MMCs to tumor immune surveillance and drug sensitivity...
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470304/maximizing-the-utility-of-cancer-transcriptomic-data
#3
REVIEW
Yu Xiang, Youqiong Ye, Zhao Zhang, Leng Han
Transcriptomic profiling has been applied to large numbers of cancer samples, by large-scale consortia, including The Cancer Genome Atlas, International Cancer Genome Consortium, and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. Advances in mining cancer transcriptomic data enable us to understand the endless complexity of the cancer transcriptome and thereby to discover new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this paper, we review computational resources for deep mining of transcriptomic data to identify, quantify, and determine the functional effects and clinical utility of transcriptomic events, including noncoding RNAs, post-transcriptional regulation, exogenous RNAs, and transcribed genetic variants...
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470303/the-myc-enhancer-ome-long-range-transcriptional-regulation-of-myc-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Olga Lancho, Daniel Herranz
MYC is one of the most important oncogenes in cancer. Indeed, MYC is upregulated in 50-60% of all tumors. MYC overexpression can be achieved through a variety of mechanisms, including gene duplications, chromosomal translocations, or somatic mutations leading to increased MYC stability. However, recent studies have identified numerous tissue-specific noncoding enhancers of MYC that play major roles in cancer, highlighting long-range transcriptional regulation of MYC as a critical novel mechanism leading to MYC hyperactivation and as a potential target for new therapeutic strategies in the near future...
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470302/the-multiple-layers-of-the-tumor-environment
#5
REVIEW
Lucie Laplane, Dorothée Duluc, Nicolas Larmonier, Thomas Pradeu, Andreas Bikfalvi
The notion of tumor microenvironment (TME) has been brought to the forefront of recent scientific literature on cancer. However, there is no consensus on how to define and spatially delineate the TME. We propose that the time is ripe to go beyond an all-encompassing list of the components of the TME, and to construct a multilayered view of cancer. We distinguish six layers of environmental interactions with the tumor and show that they are associated with distinct mechanisms, and ultimately with distinct therapeutic approaches...
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470301/regulators-of-asymmetric-cell-division-in-breast-cancer
#6
Jiannis Ragoussis
The aggressive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) pathological group poses significant challenges for both diagnosis and treatment because high levels of cellular heterogeneity are one of its hallmarks. In a recent issue of Cell Reports, Granit et al. shed light into how regulation of asymmetric cell division contributes to heterogeneity in TNBC, and identify key control factors. With the help of technological advances, deeper understanding of these processes will lead to new cancer therapeutics.
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470300/exons-of-leukemia-suppressor-genes-creative-assembly-required
#7
Mukta Asnani, Andrei Thomas-Tikhonenko
Alternative splicing (AS) has many important roles in the pathogenesis of leukemia. Recent papers suggest that one of its key aspects is exclusion of 3'-terminal exons in favor of premature termination using intronic polyadenylation signals. This process generates leukemia suppressor isoforms with truncated C termini and acting in loss-of-function or dominant-negative manners.
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470299/improving-oncology-clinical-trial-participation-and-experience
#8
Beth Zaharoff, Simona Cipra
Cancer patients are underrepresented in clinical trial populations because of protocol-, physician-, and patient-related barriers. We engaged focus groups of patients who had participated in breast and ovarian cancer trials to identify concerns regarding their experiences. The lessons learnt are applicable to improving patient experience during future trials.
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352680/the-role-of-type-1-conventional-dendritic-cells-in-cancer-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Jan P Böttcher, Caetano Reis E Sousa
Dendritic cells (DCs) are key orchestrators of immune responses. A specific DC subset, conventional type 1 DCs (cDC1s), has been recently associated with human cancer patient survival and, in preclinical models, is critical for the spontaneous rejection of immunogenic cancers and for the success of T cell-based immunotherapies. The unique role of cDC1 reflects the ability to initiate de novo T cell responses after migrating to tumor-draining lymph nodes, as well as to attract T cells, secrete cytokines, and present tumor antigens within the tumor microenvironment, enhancing local cytotoxic T cell function...
November 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352679/prostate-luminal-progenitor-cells-in-development-and-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Dingxiao Zhang, Shuhong Zhao, Xinyun Li, Jason S Kirk, Dean G Tang
Prostate cancer (PCa) has a predominantly luminal phenotype. Basal cells were previously identified as a cell of origin for PCa, but increasing evidence implicates luminal cells as a preferred cell of origin for PCa, as well as key drivers of tumor development and progression. Prostate luminal cells are understudied compared with basal cells. In this review, we describe the contribution of prostate luminal progenitor (LP) cells to luminal cell development and their role in prostate development, androgen-mediated regeneration of castrated prostate, and tumorigenesis...
November 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352678/synthetically-lethal-interactions-of-atm-atr-and-dna-pkcs
#11
REVIEW
Omar L Kantidze, Artem K Velichko, Artem V Luzhin, Nadezhda V Petrova, Sergey V Razin
Synthetic lethality occurs when simultaneous perturbations of two genes or molecular processes result in a loss of cell viability. The number of known synthetically lethal interactions is growing steadily. We review here synthetically lethal interactions of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). These kinases are appropriate for synthetic lethal therapies because their genes are frequently mutated in cancer, and specific inhibitors are currently in clinical trials...
November 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352677/glypicans-as-cancer-therapeutic-targets
#12
REVIEW
Nan Li, Wei Gao, Yi-Fan Zhang, Mitchell Ho
Glypicans are a group of cell-surface glycoproteins in which heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently linked to a protein core. The glypican gene family is broadly conserved across animal species and plays important roles in biological processes. Glypicans can function as coreceptors for multiple signaling molecules known for regulating cell growth, motility, and differentiation. Some members of the glypican family, including glypican 2 (GPC2) and glypican 3 (GPC3), are expressed in childhood cancers and liver cancers, respectively...
November 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352676/connivance-complicity-or-collusion-the-role-of-noncoding-rnas-in-promoting-gammaherpesvirus-tumorigenesis
#13
REVIEW
Whitney L Bullard, Erik K Flemington, Rolf Renne, Scott A Tibbetts
EBV and KSHV are etiologic agents of multiple types of lymphomas and carcinomas. The frequency of EBV+ or KSHV+ malignancies arising in immunocompromised individuals reflects the intricate evolutionary balance established between these viruses and their immunocompetent hosts. However, the specific mechanisms by which these pathogens drive tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. In recent years an enormous array of cellular and viral noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been discovered, and host ncRNAs have been revealed as contributory factors to every single cancer hallmark cellular process...
November 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352675/penetrance-and-expressivity-in-inherited-cancer-predisposing-syndromes
#14
REVIEW
Julia Taeubner, Dagmar Wieczorek, Layal Yasin, Triantafyllia Brozou, Arndt Borkhardt, Michaela Kuhlen
Inherited diseases are not always expressed in the same way in every individual that carries the same variant in a disease-causing gene. This phenomenon is known as reduced or incomplete penetrance. Variable and incomplete penetrance may explain why inherited diseases are occasionally transmitted through unaffected parents, but also why clinically healthy individuals can carry potentially pathogenic variants without expressing features of the disease. Here, we will provide an overview of factors that play a fundamental role in the concept of penetrance and expressivity of cancer predisposing genes in children with malignancies...
November 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352674/nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mhc-1-interplay-in-neuroblastoma-and-immunotherapy
#15
Lotte Spel, Ariën Schiepers, Marianne Boes
Pediatric neuroblastoma tumors are notorious nonimmunogenic cancers. In contrast to adult tumor types, neuroblastoma cells express low MHC-1, a derivative of its embryonic cell origin expressing little MHC-1. We here address the role of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway in controlling MHC-1 expression in embryonic neural crest cells, during differentiation of healthy cells, and in neuroblastoma tumors. Implications for immunotherapy are discussed.
November 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352673/supramolecular-assemblies-for-macrophage-activation-in-cancer-therapy
#16
Franklin Mejia, Tanyel Kiziltepe, Basar Bilgicer
Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a potential, possibly safer, alternative to more traditional chemotherapeutic treatments. Nevertheless, combating the tumor microenvironment (TME) and reactivating the immune system is not without complications. A recent report suggests a rationally designed supramolecular assembly to offer a solution to this problem.
November 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292353/emerging-contributions-of-cancer-testis-antigens-to-neoplastic-behaviors
#17
REVIEW
Zane A Gibbs, Angelique W Whitehurst
Tumors of nearly every origin activate the expression of genes normally restricted to gametogenic cells. These genes encode proteins termed cancer/testis (CT) antigens, since expression outside of their naturally immune-privileged site can evoke an immune response. Despite extensive efforts to exploit CT antigens as immunotherapeutic targets, investigation of whether these proteins participate in tumorigenic processes has lagged. Here, we discuss emerging evidence that demonstrates that CT antigens can confer a selective advantage to tumor cells by promoting oncogenic processes or permitting evasion of tumor-suppressive mechanisms...
October 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292352/trinucleotide-repeat-expansion-diseases-rnai-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Andrea E Murmann, Jindan Yu, Puneet Opal, Marcus E Peter
Many neurodegenerative diseases are caused by unstable trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansions located in disease-associated genes. siRNAs based on CAG repeat expansions effectively kill cancer cell lines in vitro through RNAi. They also cause significant reduction in tumor growth in a human ovarian cancer mouse model with no toxicity to the treated mice. This suggests that cancer cells are particularly sensitive to CAG TNR-derived siRNAs, and explains a reported inverse correlation between the length of CAG TNRs and reduced global cancer incidences in some CAG TNR diseases...
October 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292351/synthetic-lethality-and-cancer-penetrance-as-the-major-barrier
#19
REVIEW
Colm J Ryan, Ilirjana Bajrami, Christopher J Lord
Synthetic lethality has long been proposed as an approach for targeting genetic defects in tumours. Despite a decade of screening efforts, relatively few robust synthetic lethal targets have been identified. Improved genetic perturbation techniques, including CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, have resulted in renewed enthusiasm for searching for synthetic lethal effects in cancer. An implicit assumption behind this enthusiasm is that the lack of reproducibly identified targets can be attributed to limitations of RNAi technologies...
October 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292350/are-microbial-endophytes-the-actual-producers-of-bioactive-antitumor-agents
#20
REVIEW
David J Newman
For millenia, plants have been a major source of medications against human and animal diseases. In the case of anticancer agents, a significant number of current agents can trace their source back to nominally plant secondary metabolites, with examples being taxol, vinca alkaloids, camptothecin (CPT), and their modified derivatives. However, it is now becoming apparent that these and other plant-derived materials, plus similar agents from marine sources may well have a microbe in their background. In this short Opinion, evidence for such claims are presented for some of the agents currently in use or in preclinical and clinical trials against cancer...
October 2018: Trends in Cancer
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