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Trends in Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656775/the-nci-physical-sciences-oncology-network
#1
Nastaran Zahir
Nastaran Zahir is Associate Director of the Physical Sciences - Oncology Network in the Division of Cancer Biology at the National Cancer Institute. Dr. Zahir coordinates cross-cutting efforts to integrate physical sciences perspectives with cancer research by fostering transdisciplinary research collaborations, supporting education and outreach programs, and promoting resources for data sharing and biospecimen standards.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606315/nuclear-mechanopathology-and-cancer-diagnosis
#2
REVIEW
Caroline Uhler, G V Shivashankar
Abnormalities in nuclear and chromatin organization are hallmarks of many diseases including cancer. In this review, we highlight our understanding of how the cellular microenvironment regulates nuclear morphology and, with it, the spatial organization of chromosomes and genes, resulting in cell type-specific genomic programs. We also discuss the molecular basis for maintaining nuclear and genomic integrity and how alterations in nuclear mechanotransduction pathways result in various diseases. Finally, we highlight the importance of digital pathology based on nuclear morphometric features combined with single-cell genomics for early cancer diagnostics...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606314/reengineering-the-physical-microenvironment-of-tumors-to-improve-drug-delivery-and-efficacy-from-mathematical-modeling-to-bench-to-bedside
#3
REVIEW
Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos, Lance L Munn, Rakesh K Jain
Physical forces have a crucial role in tumor progression and cancer treatment. The application of principles of engineering and physical sciences to oncology has provided powerful insights into the mechanisms by which these forces affect tumor progression and confer resistance to delivery and efficacy of molecular, nano-, cellular, and immuno-medicines. Here, we discuss the mechanics of the solid and fluid components of a tumor, with a focus on how they impede the transport of therapeutic agents and create an abnormal tumor microenvironment (TME) that fuels tumor progression and treatment resistance...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606313/beyond-tissue-stiffness-and-bioadhesivity-advanced-biomaterials-to-model-tumor-microenvironments-and-drug-resistance
#4
REVIEW
Ankur Singh, Ilana Brito, Jan Lammerding
Resistance to chemotherapy and pathway-targeted therapies poses a major problem in cancer research. While the fields of tumor biology and experimental therapeutics have already benefited from ex vivo preclinical tissue models, these models have yet to address the reasons for malignant transformations and the emergence of chemoresistance. With the increasing number of ex vivo models poised to incorporate physiological biophysical properties, along with the advent of genomic sequencing information, there are now unprecedented opportunities to better understand tumorigenesis and to design therapeutic approaches to overcome resistance...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606312/transport-barriers-and-oncophysics-in-cancer-treatment
#5
Sara Nizzero, Arturas Ziemys, Mauro Ferrari
Transport processes in cancer are the focus of transport oncophysics (TOP). In the TOP approach, the sequential negotiation of transport barriers is critical to both drug delivery and metastasis development. New and creative therapeutic opportunities are currently emerging, stimulated by the study of cancer hallmarks with the TOP approach.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606311/mesenchymal-cell-plasticity-and-perfidy-in-epithelial-malignancy
#6
Ellen Puré, Sunil R Hingorani
Stromal complicity in epithelial carcinogenesis contributes to immune suppression and treatment resistance, but not all cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are bad actors. Identifying and targeting protumorigenic CAFs while preserving their antitumorigenic counterparts is the challenge. The risk is the possibility of making things worse; the reward is the potential to transform the care of and prognosis for patients with solid tumors.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606310/biophysical-properties-of-extracellular-matrix-linking-obesity-and-cancer
#7
Joseph E Druso, Claudia Fischbach
Obesity has been associated with increased severity of diagnoses for several types of cancer, and recent evidence suggests that the mechanism by which obese tissues contribute to cancer progression involves the extracellular matrix (ECM). Understanding the physicochemical differences between lean and obese ECM, and how cancer cells respond to these differences, promises therapeutic insight.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606309/targeting-biophysical-cues-a-niche-approach-to-study-diagnose-and-treat-cancer
#8
Shirley X Zhang, Linan Liu, Weian Zhao
Probing the biophysical properties of the tumor niche offers a new perspective in cancer mechanobiology, and supports the development of next-generation diagnostics and therapeutics for cancer, in particular for metastasis.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606308/single-cell-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tumor-heterogeneity
#9
Hanna Mendes Levitin, Jinzhou Yuan, Peter A Sims
Intratumoral heterogeneity is among the greatest challenges in precision cancer therapy. However, developments in high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) may now provide the statistical power to dissect the diverse cellular populations of tumors. In the future these technologies might inform the selection of targeted combination therapies and enrollment criteria for clinical trials.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606307/new-horizons-in-advocacy-engaged-physical-sciences-and-oncology-research
#10
Susan Samson, Jason J Northey, Vicki Plaks, Carole Baas, Ivory Dean, Mark A LaBarge, Andrei Goga, Laura J Van't Veer, Valerie M Weaver
To address cancer as a multifaceted adaptive system, the increasing momentum for cross-disciplinary connectivity between cancer biologists, physical scientists, mathematicians, chemists, biomedical engineers, computer scientists, clinicians, and advocates is fueling the emergence of new scientific frontiers, principles, and opportunities within physical sciences and oncology. In parallel to highlighting the advances, challenges, and acceptance of advocates as credible contributors, we offer recommendations for addressing real world hurdles in advancing equitable partnerships among advocacy stakeholders...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606306/reengineering-the-tumor-vasculature-improving-drug-delivery-and-efficacy
#11
Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos, Lance L Munn, Rakesh K Jain
A solid tumor is like an aberrant organ - comprised of cancer cells and a variety of host cells embedded in an extracellular matrix - nourished by blood vessels and drained by lymphatic vessels. In its journey from the blood stream to cancer cells, a therapeutic agent must cross the vessel wall and the extracellular matrix that cancer cells are ensconced in. Growth of tumors in a confined space along with deposition of matrix components, including collagen (yellow) and hyaluronan (pink), increases 'solid stress', which compresses blood and lymphatic vessels and impairs their function...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606305/a-physical-view-of-cancer
#12
EDITORIAL
Rakesh K Jain, Ana Batista
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506673/desmoplastic-tumor-microenvironment-and-immunotherapy-in-cholangiocarcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Dan Høgdall, Monika Lewinska, Jesper B Andersen
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a dismal disease which often is diagnosed at a late stage where the tumor is locally advanced, metastatic, and, as a result, is associated with low resectability. The heterogeneity of this cancer type is a major reason why the majority of patients fail to respond to therapy, and surgery remains their only curative option. Among patients who undergo surgical intervention, such tumors typically recur in 50% of cases within 1year. Thus, CCA is among the most aggressive and chemoresistant malignancies...
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506672/microrna-based-drugs-for-brain-tumors
#14
REVIEW
Shubaash Anthiya, Audrey Griveau, Claire Loussouarn, Patrick Baril, Martin Garnett, Jean-Paul Issartel, Emmanuel Garcion
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulatory elements encoded by the genome. A single miRNA can downregulate the expression of multiple genes involved in diverse functions. Because cancer is a disease with multiple gene aberrations, developing novel approaches to identify and modulate miRNA pathways may result in a breakthrough for cancer treatment. With a special focus on glioblastoma (GBM), this review provides an up-to-date summary of miRNA biogenesis, the role of miRNA in cancer resistance, and essential tools for modulating miRNA expression, as well as of clinically promising RNAi delivery systems and how they can be adapted for therapy...
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506671/deciphering-the-epitranscriptome-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Hao Lian, Qin-Hua Wang, Chang-Bin Zhu, Jie Ma, Wei-Lin Jin
Technological and methodological advancements have recently revolutionized our understanding of widespread epitranscriptome including RNA modifications and editing. N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) represents the most prevalent internal modification in mammalian RNAs. Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an important mechanism underlying RNA generation and protein diversity through the post-transcriptional modification of single nucleotides in RNA sequences. In this review, we attempt to summarize its functional importance in various fundamental bioprocesses of m6 A and A-to-I editing...
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506670/resistance-to-ibrutinib-in-b-cell-malignancies-one-size-does-not-fit-all
#16
REVIEW
Bijal Shah, Xiaohong Zhao, Ariosto S Silva, Kenneth H Shain, Jianguo Tao
Ibrutinib resistance, as a result of coordinated rewiring of signaling networks and enforced tumor microenvironment (TME)-lymphoma interactions, drives unrestrained proliferation and disease progression. To combat resistance mechanisms, we must identify the compensatory resistance pathways and the central modulators of reprogramming events. Targeting the transcriptome and kinome reprogramming of lymphoma cells represents a rational approach to mitigate ibrutinib resistance in B cell malignancies. However, with the apparent heterogeneity and plasticity of tumors shown in therapy response, a one size fits all approach may be unattainable...
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506669/the-evolving-landscape-of-brain-metastasis
#17
REVIEW
Manuel Valiente, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Adrienne Boire, Priscilla K Brastianos, Sarah B Goldberg, Eudocia Q Lee, Emilie Le Rhun, Matthias Preusser, Frank Winkler, Riccardo Soffietti
Metastasis, involving the spread of systemic cancer to the brain, results in neurologic disability and death. Current treatments are largely palliative in nature; improved therapeutic approaches represent an unmet clinical need. However, recent experimental and clinical advances challenge the bleak long-term outcome of this disease. Encompassing key recent findings in epidemiology, genetics, microenvironment, leptomeningeal disease, neurocognition, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and prophylaxis, we review preclinical and clinical studies to provide a comprehensive picture of contemporary research and the management of secondary brain tumors...
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506668/csb-an-emerging-actionable-target-for-cancer-therapy
#18
Luca Proietti-De-Santis, Alessio Balzerano, Giorgio Prantera
The DNA repair protein Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) is frequently found overexpressed in cancer cells. High CSB levels favor tumor cell proliferation whilst inhibiting apoptosis. Conversely, the suppression of CSB has significant anticancer effects. In this manuscript we describe CSB downregulation as a potential new therapeutic approach in cancer.
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506667/cancer-is-not-only-a-senescence-problem
#19
Frédéric Thomas, Fabrice Vavre, Tazzio Tissot, Marion Vittecoq, Mathieu Giraudeau, Florence Bernex, Dorothée Misse, François Renaud, Nynke Raven, Christa Beckmann, Rodrigo Hamede, Peter A Biro, Beata Ujvari
Age is one of the strongest predictors of cancer and risk of death from cancer. Cancer is therefore generally viewed as a senescence-related malady. However, cancer also exists at subclinical levels in humans and other animals, but its earlier effects on the body are poorly known by comparison. We argue here that cancer is a significant but ignored burden on the body and is likely to be a strong selective force from early during the lifetime of an organism. It is time to adopt this novel view of malignant pathologies to improve our understanding of the ways in which oncogenic phenomena influence the ecology and evolution of animals long before their negative impacts become evident and fatal...
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506666/exploring-stem-cell-heterogeneity-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#20
Chinmay Munje, Mhairi Copland
Until very recently, understanding the complexity of the stem cell (SC) compartment in both normal and leukemic hematopoiesis has been challenging due to the inability to separate and study normal and leukemic SCs at the single-cell level. Recent advances in cell-sorting techniques and single-cell technologies now make this possible, with the identification of a population of highly quiescent chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) SCs that is enriched following therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
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