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Trends in Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064665/deregulation-of-retroelements-as-an-emerging-therapeutic-opportunity-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Charles A Ishak, Marie Classon, Daniel D De Carvalho
Nearly half of the human genome is comprised of repetitive elements that are tightly regulated to protect the host genome from deleterious consequences associated with their inappropriate activation. Cancer cells often misexpress these elements, in part, due to decreases in DNA methylation. Recent discoveries suggest that tumor suppressor proteins contribute to repression of repetitive elements, and their functional inactivation promotes repeat element misexpression during carcinogenesis. Recent findings also suggest that increased expression of repetitive elements beyond a threshold of tolerance can augment cancer therapy responses...
August 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064664/seeking-convergence-and-cure-with-new-myeloma-therapies
#2
REVIEW
Priya Choudhry, Derek Galligan, Arun P Wiita
For over a decade, the mainstay of multiple myeloma therapy has been small molecules that directly attack malignant plasma cell biology. However, potent immunotherapies have recently emerged, transforming the myeloma therapeutic landscape. Here we first review new promising strategies to target plasma cells through protein homeostasis and epigenetic modulators. We then discuss emerging immunotherapy strategies that are leading to dramatic results in patients. Finally, we focus on recent preclinical data suggesting that enforcing cell-surface antigen expression through small molecules may enhance immunotherapy efficacy and avoid resistance...
August 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064663/epigenetic-mechanisms-dictating-eradication-of-cancer-by-natural-killer-cells
#3
REVIEW
Suresh Bugide, Radoslav Janostiak, Narendra Wajapeyee
Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system are the first line of defense against infectious agents and cancer cells. However, only a few mechanisms that regulate eradication of tumors by NK cells have been identified. In this review, we present an account of epigenetic mechanisms that modulate the ability of NK cells to eradicate cancer cells. To date, several drugs that target epigenetic modifiers have shown clinical efficacy in cancer. Therefore, once a given epigenetic modifier is validated as a regulator of NK cell function, it can be targeted for NK cell-based cancer immunotherapies...
August 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064662/glycosylation-and-integrin-regulation-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Grazia Marsico, Laura Russo, Fabio Quondamatteo, Abhay Pandit
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that coordinate extracellular matrix (ECM)-cell and cell-cell interactions, signal transmission, gene expression, and cell function. The aberration of integrin function is one of the well-recognized mechanisms of cancer. The activity of integrins is strongly influenced by glycans through glycosylation events and the establishment of glycan-mediated interactions. Glycans represent a class of ubiquitous biomolecules that display an extraordinary complexity and diversity in both structure and function...
August 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064661/the-making-of-a-precancer-atlas-promises-challenges-and-opportunities
#5
REVIEW
Sudhir Srivastava, Sharmistha Ghosh, Jacob Kagan, Richard Mazurchuk
Many cancers evolve from benign precancerous lesions and have a natural history of progression that provides a window of opportunity for intervention. The biological mechanisms underlying this evolutionary trajectory can only be truly understood through an extensive characterization of the molecular, cellular, and non-cellular properties of premalignant and malignant tumors, and must also recognize how the microenvironment (stromal cells, immune cells, and other types of cells) contributes to this evolution...
August 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064660/exit-stage-left-a-tumor-cell-s-journey-from-lymph-node-to-beyond
#6
Marc G Achen, Steven A Stacker
Even though we have known for over 250 years that cancers spread to regional lymph nodes (LNs) and distant organs, the fundamental question of which anatomical routes are taken by tumor cells has remained a mystery. Two recently published papers in Science, by Pereira et al. and Brown et al., directly address this important issue in tumor biology by assessing the capacity of tumor cells in LNs to spread to distant sites.
August 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064659/the-tumor-microenvironment-takes-center-stage-in-ovarian-cancer-metastasis
#7
Marion Curtis, Abir Mukherjee, Ernst Lengyel
Historically, cancer has been studied at the genomic level with a focus on malignant cells. However, tumors are comprised of various host cells, which are co-opted by cancer cells to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Using multilevel analysis of human tumor biopsies, recent work identifies a reproducible 22-gene expression signature in the ovarian tumor microenvironment (TME) that correlates with disease progression and survival. These findings suggest that the TME is a promising therapeutic target that could be effective across a wide patient population, regardless of the genetic changes within their tumor cells...
August 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064658/cancer-moonshot-patents-for-patients
#8
Joseph E Kovarik
Every inventor in the cancer research field understands the importance of patent protection to advance their research objectives and to ultimately achieve the commercial availability of a new cancer treatment. Historically, the process of obtaining an issued patent has been long (well over 2 years) and expensive. Thankfully, the USPTO has a new pilot program: The Cancer Moonshot Initiative; this remarkably shortens the process so that obtaining an issued patent in less than 1year is possible, and there are no added fees to expedite the examination...
August 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064657/the-precancer-atlas-pca
#9
Sudhir Srivastava, Sharmistha Ghosh, Jacob Kagan, Richard Mazurchuk
Reproduced from https://visualsonline.cancer.gov/details.cfm?imageid=11474. Early detection offers a better chance of saving lives from cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports research to improve cancer detection in its early stages, when it may be most treatable, and to accurately assess how likely it is for a precancerous growth to progress to life-threatening disease. The PreCancer Atlas (PCA) of the NCI envisages a histological and multi-omic mapping strategy in time and space to provide detailed molecular, cellular, and structural characterization of premalignant lesions and how they evolve to invasive cancers...
August 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937048/applications-of-crispr-cas-enzymes-in-cancer-therapeutics-and-detection
#10
REVIEW
Chun-Hao Huang, Ko-Chuan Lee, Jennifer A Doudna
Cancer is a complex disease caused by combinations of cellular genetic alterations and heterogeneous microenvironments. The use of the robust and programmable CRISPR-Cas systems has greatly improved genome editing for precision cancer modeling and enabled multiplexed genetic manipulation for cancer treatment and mutation detection. In this review, we outline the current CRISPR-Cas toolkit, and discuss the promises and hurdles in translating this revolutionary technology into effective and safe clinical applications for cancer treatment and diagnosis...
July 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937047/cancer-progression-goes-viral-the-role-of-oncoviruses-in-aggressiveness-of-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
Barbara Grasiele Müller-Coan, Brunno Felipe Ramos Caetano, Joseph Stephen Pagano, Deilson Elgui de Oliveira
Cancer progression is the most relevant phase of carcinogenesis due to the development of malignant tumors in the host. Some viruses participate in malignant cell transformation, with recent compelling evidence suggesting that oncoviruses also have a role in cancer progression. The human hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, human papillomaviruses (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) are the most important human oncoviruses currently known. Here, we discuss how oncoviruses can modulate cancer progression, such as tumor growth, invasion, and cancer metastasis...
July 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937046/tracing-renal-cell-carcinomas-back-to-the-nephron
#12
REVIEW
David Lindgren, Jonas Sjölund, Håkan Axelson
Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors derived from the epithelial cells of the nephron. In recent years the genetic landscape of these tumors has been detailed, leading to progress in mouse modeling of the human disease. In parallel, substantial advancements have been made in describing the transcriptional programs of normal nephron cell types and how they respond to renal insults. Integrating these research fields may provide a deeper understanding of renal tumor initiation and progression, and provide leads that can be conveyed into mouse models that faithfully recapitulate the different RCC subtypes...
July 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937045/the-value-of-outbred-rodent-models-in-cancer-research
#13
Ioulia Chatzistamou, Elena Farmaki, Vimala Kaza, Hippokratis Kiaris
Mouse models of breast cancer are valuable research tools, but their usefulness is restricted by a series of features inherent to their physiology, such as low endogenous estrogens and genetics (inbred status). Depending on the specific questions asked, outbred rodents like Peromyscus may provide answers that laboratory mice cannot.
July 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937044/micrornas-regulating-micrornas-in-cancer
#14
Meredith Hill, Nham Tran
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are capable of self-regulation, termed miRNA to miRNA interaction. Very little is known about these interactions and their impact on the cellular milieu. We discuss known miRNA to miRNA interactions, potential mechanisms, and their role in cancer.
July 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937043/mining-public-databases-for-precision-oncology
#15
Jason Roszik, Vivek Subbiah
Millions of dollars have been spent on creating public databases. To date these data reside in isolated 'silos'. Real-world realization of precision oncology, the right drug for the right patient at the right time, may be possible only if the right data come to the right clinic at the right time.
July 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937042/making-mistakes-empowers-cancer-cells
#16
Nikolas G Balanis, Thomas G Graeber
Lethal cancers have genomes that can reflect a jigsaw puzzle put together in a hurricane. The missing, misjoined, and extra pieces contribute to the driving forces behind the cancer phenotypes. But is this the only reason genomic instability is so prevalent in aggressive cancers? New findings support that the hurricane winds themselves, not just their aftermath, contribute to the cancer phenotype of metastasis.
July 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860988/distant-relations-macrophage-functions-in-the-metastatic-niche
#17
REVIEW
Geneva R Doak, Kathryn L Schwertfeger, David K Wood
Tumor-associated macrophages are known contributors of tumor progression in the primary tumor via multiple mechanisms. However, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of macrophages to promote secondary tumor development by inhibiting tumoricidal immune response, initiating angiogenesis, remodeling the local matrix, and directly communicating with cancer cells. In this review, we discuss macrophage functions in establishing distant metastases including formation of the premetastatic niche, extravasation of circulating cancer cells, and colonization of secondary metastases...
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860987/genetic-modifiers-of-the-breast-tumor-microenvironment
#18
REVIEW
Michael J Flister, Carmen Bergom
Multiple nonmalignant cell types in the tumor microenvironment (TME) impact breast cancer risk, metastasis, and response to therapy, yet most heritable mechanisms that influence TME cell function and breast cancer outcomes are largely unknown. Breast cancer risk is ∼30% heritable and >170 genetic loci have been associated with breast cancer traits. However, the majority of candidate genes have poorly defined mechanistic roles in breast cancer biology. Research indicates that breast cancer risk modifiers directly impact cancer cells, yet it is equally plausible that some modifier alleles impact the nonmalignant TME...
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860986/immunotherapy-and-prevention-of-pancreatic-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Alexander H Morrison, Katelyn T Byrne, Robert H Vonderheide
Pancreatic cancer is the third-leading cause of cancer mortality in the USA, recently surpassing breast cancer. A key component of pancreatic cancer's lethality is its acquired immune privilege, which is driven by an immunosuppressive microenvironment, poor T cell infiltration, and a low mutational burden. Although immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade or engineered T cells have yet to demonstrate efficacy, a growing body of evidence suggests that orthogonal combinations of these and other strategies could unlock immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer...
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860985/epigenetic-priming-in-cancer-initiation
#20
REVIEW
Carolina Vicente-Dueñas, Julia Hauer, César Cobaleda, Arndt Borkhardt, Isidro Sánchez-García
Recent evidence from hematopoietic and epithelial tumors revealed that the contribution of oncogenes to cancer development is mediated mainly through epigenetic priming of cancer-initiating cells, suggesting that genetic lesions that initiate the cancer process might be dispensable for the posterior tumor progression and maintenance. Epigenetic priming may remain latent until it is later triggered by endogenous or environmental stimuli. This Opinion article addresses the impact of epigenetic priming in cancer development and in the design of new therapeutic approaches...
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
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