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Trends in Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917404/the-emerging-role-of-cdk5-in-cancer
#1
Karine Pozo, James A Bibb
Cdk5 is an atypical cyclin-dependent kinase that is well characterized for its role in the central nervous system rather than in the cell cycle. However Cdk5 has been recently implicated in the development and progression of a variety of cancers including breast, lung, colon, pancreatic, melanoma, thyroid and brain tumors. This broad pro-tumorigenic role makes Cdk5 a promising drug target for the development of new cancer therapies. Here we review the contribution of Cdk5 to molecular mechanisms that confer upon tumors the ability to grow, proliferate and disseminate to secondary organs, as well as resistance to chemotherapies...
October 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904887/paul-workman-drugging-the-cancer-genome
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904886/mel-greaves-cancer-through-the-lens-of-evolution
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949745/ontogeny-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-its-implication-in-cancer-regulation
#4
Ruth A Franklin, Ming O Li
Macrophages are innate immune cells with evolutionarily conserved functions in tissue maintenance and host defense. As such, macrophages are among the first hematopoietic cells that seed developing tissues, and respond to inflammatory insults by in situ proliferation or de novo differentiation from monocytes. Recent studies have revealed that monocyte-derived tumor-induced macrophages represent a major tumor-associated macrophage population, which can further expand following their differentiation in tumors...
October 1, 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722205/modeling-cancer-with-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Julian Gingold, Ruoji Zhou, Ihor R Lemischka, Dung-Fang Lee
The elucidation of cancer pathogenesis has been hindered by limited access to patient samples, tumor heterogeneity and the lack of reliable model organisms. Characterized by their ability to self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into all cell lineages of an organism, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), provide a powerful and unlimited source to generate differentiated cells that can be used to study disease biology, facilitate drug discovery and development, and provide key insights for developing personalized therapies...
September 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891533/screening-for-cancer-in-persons-living-with-hiv-infection
#6
James J Goedert, H Dean Hosgood, Robert J Biggar, Howard D Strickler, Charles S Rabkin
Survival with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has greatly improved due to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). As infectious complications have declined, malignancy now accounts for over one-third of deaths among people living with HIV (PLWH). Based on practices in the general population, cancer screening of PLWH can decrease both morbidity and mortality. In this article, we review and consider directed approaches for colorectal, breast, cervical and lung cancer screening. Furthermore, routine physical examinations may detect lymphomas and skin, anal and oral cancers...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868104/adaptive-stress-responses-during-tumor-metastasis-and-dormancy
#7
Daniela Senft, Ze Ev A Ronai
To survive inhospitable environments, tumor cells are forced to remodel their signaling pathways by altering transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. This adaptation is regulated in a spatial and temporal manner and gives rise to individual tumor cells with distinct gene expression and metabolic signatures. Such phenotypic heterogeneity is the result of tumor cell plasticity, which-together with the genetic background of the tumor-determines whether cells resist environmental stress, enter dormancy, or metastasize...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822561/oncogene-directed-alterations-in-cancer-cell-metabolism
#8
Arvindhan Nagarajan, Parmanand Malvi, Narendra Wajapeyee
Oncogenes are key drivers of tumor growth. Although several cancer-driving mechanisms have been identified, the role of oncogenes in shaping metabolic patterns in cancer cells is only beginning to be appreciated. Recent studies show that oncogenes directly regulate critical metabolic enzymes and metabolic signaling pathways. Here, we present evidence for oncogene-directed cancer metabolic regulation and discuss the importance of identifying underlying mechanisms that can be targeted for developing precision cancer therapies...
July 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819060/the-hidden-conundrum-of-phosphoinositide-signaling-in-cancer
#9
Narendra Thapa, Xiaojun Tan, Suyong Choi, Paul F Lambert, Alan C Rapraeger, Richard A Anderson
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generation of PI(3,4,5)P3 from PI(4,5)P2 and the subsequent activation of Akt and its downstream signaling cascades (e.g. mTORC1) dominates the landscape of phosphoinositide signaling axis in cancer research. However, PI(4,5)P2 is breaking its boundary as merely a substrate for PI3K and phospholipase C (PLC), and is now an established lipid messenger pivotal for different cellular events in cancer. Here, we review the phosphoinositide signaling axis in cancer, giving due weight to PI(4,5)P2 and its generating enzymes, the phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) kinases (PIPKs)...
July 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819059/resisting-resistance-targeted-therapies-in-lung-cancer
#10
Jessica J Lin, Alice T Shaw
Drug resistance inevitably limits the efficacy of all targeted therapies including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Understanding the biological underpinnings of TKI resistance is key to the successful development of future therapeutic strategies. Traditionally, mechanisms of TKI resistance have been viewed under a dichotomous lens. Tumor cells are TKI-sensitive or TKI-refractory, exhibit intrinsic or acquired resistance, and accumulate alterations within or outside the target to promote their survival. Such classifications facilitate our comprehension of an otherwise complex biology, but are likely an oversimplification...
July 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774519/radiotherapy-changing-the-game-in-immunotherapy
#11
Sandra Demaria, C Norman Coleman, Silvia C Formenti
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective in cancer treatment. A pre-existing immune response demonstrated by significant pretreatment tumor lymphocytic infiltration is a pre-requisite for response. Within such infiltrated tumors, referred as "hot", immune checkpoint inhibitors rescue anti-tumor T cells activity. In contrast, "cold" tumors lack lymphocytic infiltration and are refractory to immunotherapy. Preclinical data show that radiotherapy sensitizes refractory tumors to immune checkpoint inhibitors by recruiting anti-tumor T cells...
June 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672680/a-molecular-take-on-malignant-rhabdoid-tumors
#12
COMMENT
Ming Tang, Roel Gw Verhaak
The molecular basis for the clinical heterogeneity observed in patients with malignant rhabdoid tumors is unknown. Recently, two reports revealed molecular inter-tumor heterogeneity in teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) and extra-cranial MRTs (ecMRTs) using genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling. Distinct molecular subgroups were identified and new therapeutic targets were revealed.
May 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668290/emerging-role-of-mtor-in-the-response-to-cancer-therapeutics
#13
Erika Ilagan, Brendan D Manning
The movement toward precision medicine with targeted therapeutics for cancer treatment has been hindered by both innate and acquired resistance. Understanding the molecular wiring and plasticity of oncogenic signaling networks is essential to the development of therapeutic strategies to avoid or overcome resistance. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) represents a highly integrated signaling node that is dysregulated in the majority of human cancers. Several studies have revealed that sustained mTORC1 inhibition is essential to avoid resistance to targeted therapeutics against the driving oncogenic pathway in a given cancer...
May 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617309/human-papillomaviruses-research-priorities-for-the-next-decade
#14
Erika Langsfeld, Laimonis A Laimins
Human papillomaviruses are the causative agents of cervical, anal as well as many oropharyngeal cancers. While prophylactic vaccines have been developed, uptake is low in the US and other Western countries, and access is limited in less developed countries. A number of areas are emerging as critical for future study. These include investigation of the mechanisms regulating infection and progression to cancer at both cervical and oropharyngeal sites as these appear to be distinct. HPV-induced cancers also may be susceptible to immune therapy, revealing opportunities for treating advanced cervical disease and reducing the morbidity of treatments for oropharyngeal cancers...
May 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27135056/modeling-pancreatic-cancer-with-organoids
#15
Lindsey A Baker, Hervé Tiriac, Hans Clevers, David A Tuveson
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a highly lethal malignancy for which new treatment and diagnostic approaches are urgently needed. In order for such breakthroughs to be discovered, researchers require systems that accurately model the development and biology of PDA. While cell lines, genetically engineered murine models, and xenografts have all led to valuable clinical insights, organotypic culture models have emerged as tractable systems to recapitulate the complex three-dimensional organization of PDA...
April 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213184/novel-mechanisms-of-regulation-of-mirnas-in-cll
#16
Veronica Balatti, Mario Acunzo, Yuri Pekarky, Carlo M Croce
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult human leukemia. Although, the molecular alterations leading to CLL onset and progression are still under investigation (specifically, the interplay and exact role of oncogenes and tumor suppressors in CLL pathogenesis). MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and are expressed in a tissue specific manner. Deregulation of microRNAs can alter expression levels of genes involved in the development and/or progression of tumors...
March 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042694/probing-the-fifty-shades-of-emt-in-metastasis
#17
Wenyang Li, Yibin Kang
The involvement of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in metastasis has long been under debate. Recent efforts to probe the occurrence and functional significance of EMT in clinical samples and animal models have produced exciting but sometimes conflicting findings. The diversity of EMT underlies the challenge in studying its role in metastasis.
February 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019871/the-impact-of-dna-methylation-in-hematopoietic-malignancies
#18
Maria Guillamot, Luisa Cimmino, Iannis Aifantis
Aberrant DNA methylation is a characteristic feature of cancer including blood malignancies. Mutations in the DNA methylation regulators DNMT3A, TET1/2 and IDH1/2 are recurrent in leukemia and lymphoma. Specific and distinct DNA methylation patterns characterize subtypes of AML and lymphoma. Regulatory regions such as promoter CpG islands, CpG shores and enhancers show changes in methylation during transformation. However, the reported poor correlation between changes in methylation and gene expression in many mouse models and human studies reflects the complexity in the precise molecular mechanism for why aberrant DNA methylation promotes malignancies...
February 1, 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014745/anti-cd73-in-cancer-immunotherapy-awakening-new-opportunities
#19
Luca Antonioli, Gennady G Yegutkin, Pál Pacher, Corrado Blandizzi, György Haskó
In recent years, cancer immunotherapy made significant advances due to a better understanding of the principles underlying tumor biology and immunology. In this context, CD73 is a key molecule, since via degradation of adenosine monophosphate into adenosine, endorses the generation of an immunosuppressed and pro-angiogenic niche within the tumor microenvironment that promotes the onset and progression of cancer. Targeting CD73 results in favorable antitumor effects in pre-clinical models and combined treatments of CD73 blockade with other immune-modulating agents (i...
February 1, 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004260/adding-sting-to-the-tale-of-oncolytic-virotherapy
#20
Steve H Thorne
The identification of STING as a key cytoplasmic innate recognition molecule for DNA viruses whose function is lost in a variety of cancers has coincided with the approval of IMLYGIC for metastatic melanoma. This represents the first replication competent viral therapy approved for the treatment of any cancer in the US. The role of STING pathway in the selectivity of HSV has been addressed for the first time in Xia et al (1).
February 1, 2016: Trends in Cancer
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