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Trends in Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780936/nad-deficits-in-age-related-diseases-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Amanda Garrido, Nabil Djouder
The phenomenon of aging has gained widespread attention in recent times. Although significant advances have been made to better understand aging and its related pathologies including cancer, there is not yet a clear mechanism explaining why diseases and cancer are inherent parts of the aging process. Finding a unifying equation that could bridge aging and its related diseases would allow therapeutic development and solve an immense human health problem to live longer and better. In this review, we discuss NAD(+) reduction as the central mechanism that may connect aging to its related pathologies and cancer...
August 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780935/metabolic-regulation-of-tregs-in-cancer-opportunities-for-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Haiping Wang, Fabien Franco, Ping-Chih Ho
The promising outcomes observed in cancer immunotherapy are evidence that the immune system provides a powerful arsenal for the restriction of tumor outgrowth; however, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) is known to impair antitumor immunity and impede the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which prevent overt immune responses and autoimmunity, accumulate aberrantly in some types of tumor to suppress antitumor immunity and support the establishment of an immunosuppressive microenvironment...
August 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780934/sox4-joining-the-master-regulators-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#3
REVIEW
Ana Rita Lourenço, Paul J Coffer
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important developmental program exploited by cancer cells to gain mesenchymal features. Transcription factors globally regulating processes during EMT are often referred as 'master regulators' of EMT, and include members of the Snail and ZEB transcription factor families. The SRY-related HMG box (SOX) 4 transcription factor can promote tumorigenesis by endowing cells with migratory and invasive properties, stemness, and resistance to apoptosis, thereby regulating key aspects of the EMT program...
August 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780933/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-unexpected-regulators-of-cancer-development-and-progression
#4
REVIEW
Christopher Fleming, Samantha Morrissey, Yihua Cai, Jun Yan
Accumulating evidence suggests a role for gamma delta (γδ) T cells as unexpected drivers of tumor development and progression. These protumoral γδ T cells are abundant in the tumor microenvironment in both mouse and human. They promote tumor progression by: (i) inducing an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and angiogenesis via cytokine production; (ii) functioning as regulatory T (Treg)/T helper 2 (Th2)-like cells; (iii) interfering with dendritic cell (DC) effector function; and (iv) inhibiting antitumor adaptive T cell immunity via the programmed death-1 (PD-1)-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway...
August 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780932/cancer-nanomedicine-lessons-for-immuno-oncology
#5
REVIEW
Shiladitya Sengupta
Cancer nanotechnology and cancer immunotherapy are two parallel themes that have emerged over the last few decades in the search for a cure for cancer. Exciting applications can emerge at the intersection of these two fields. However, it is important to learn from the past successes and failures of cancer nanomedicines for its future applications in cancer immunotherapy. This review discusses the two key parameters that defined clinical success in the case of cancer nanomedicines: (i) physicochemical design principles, and (ii) clinical trial design, which are frequently overlooked in most analyses of the state of the field...
August 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780931/multiregional-tumor-trees-are-not-phylogenies
#6
João M Alves, Tamara Prieto, David Posada
Tumor samples most often comprise a mixture of different cell lineages. Multiregional trees built from bulk mutational profiles do not consider this heterogeneity and can potentially lead to erroneous evolutionary inferences, including biased timing of somatic mutations, spurious parallel mutation events, and/or incorrect chronological ordering of metastatic events.
August 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780930/repurposing-drugs-in-oncology-next-steps
#7
Ciska Verbaanderd, Lydie Meheus, Isabelle Huys, Pan Pantziarka
The repurposing of existing non-cancer drugs is a potential source of new treatment options for cancer patients with high unmet medical needs. While scientific research is progressing rapidly in the field of drug repurposing, the implementation of drug repurposing still faces important financial and regulatory hurdles that should be addressed to optimise clinical adoption.
August 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718406/targeting-hypoxia-inducible-factors-for-antiangiogenic-cancer-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Sergio Rey, Luana Schito, Bradly G Wouters, Scott Eliasof, Robert S Kerbel
Hypoxia (low O2) is a pathobiological hallmark of solid cancers, resulting from the imbalance between cellular O2 consumption and availability. Hypoxic cancer cells (CCs) stimulate blood vessel sprouting (angiogenesis), aimed at restoring O2 delivery to the expanding tumor masses through the activation of a transcriptional program mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Here, we review recent data suggesting that the efficacy of antiangiogenic (AA) therapies is limited in some circumstances by HIF-dependent compensatory responses to increased intratumoral hypoxia...
July 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718405/rna-binding-proteins-in-cancer-old-players-and-new-actors
#9
REVIEW
Bruno Pereira, Marc Billaud, Raquel Almeida
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key players in post-transcriptional events. The combination of versatility of their RNA-binding domains with structural flexibility enables RBPs to control the metabolism of a large array of transcripts. Perturbations in RBP-RNA networks activity have been causally associated with cancer development, but the rational framework describing these contributions remains fragmented. We review here the evidence that RBPs modulate multiple cancer traits, emphasize their functional diversity, and assess future trends in the study of RBPs in cancer...
July 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718404/emerging-role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-tumor-immunosurveillance
#10
REVIEW
Hélène Vanacker, Jessica Vetters, Lyvia Moudombi, Christophe Caux, Sophie Janssens, Marie-Cécile Michallet
Disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis results in ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). This response alleviates cell stress, and is activated in both tumor cells and tumor infiltrating immune cells. The UPR plays a dual function in cancer biology, acting as a barrier to tumorigenesis at the premalignant stage, while fostering cancer maintenance in established tumors. In infiltrating immune cells, the UPR has been involved in both immunosurveillance and immunosuppressive functions...
July 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718403/adam-metalloprotease-released-cancer-biomarkers
#11
REVIEW
Peter Herrlich, Andreas Herrlich
Identification of early cancer, detection of progression, and monitoring of therapeutic success remain urgent issues in clinical medicine, particularly given the increasing cancer incidence in our aging populations. New methodologies have provided enormous progress over the past decades by defining the genetic and proteomic composition of cancers, yielding putative cancer biomarkers detectable in blood or other body fluids less invasively and more cheaply than using currently available screening techniques that often involve biopsies or surgery...
July 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718402/metabolism-during-ecm-detachment-achilles-heel-of-cancer-cells
#12
REVIEW
Joshua A Mason, Kimberly R Hagel, Mark A Hawk, Zachary T Schafer
Integrin-mediated attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is required to combat the induction of programmed cell death in a variety of distinct cell types. If cells fail to maintain proper ECM attachment, they become subject to elimination via an apoptotic cell death program known as anoikis. However, anoikis inhibition is not sufficient to promote the long-term survival of ECM-detached cells. Several recent studies have unveiled the profound (anoikis-independent) impact of cell metabolism on the viability of ECM-detached cells...
July 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718401/targeting-atf5-in-cancer
#13
James M Angelastro
The expression of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) correlates negatively with patient survival in different types of cancer. ATF5 is important for the survival and proliferation of cancer cells, and can be targeted to selectively trigger cancer cell apoptosis while sparing normal cells. Cell-penetrating peptides combined with a dominant negative ATF5 cargo have recently shown efficacy against brain, breast, melanoma, and prostate cancers.
July 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718419/targeting-pi3k-signaling-in-combination-cancer-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Elvire Pons-Tostivint, Benoît Thibault, Julie Guillermet-Guibert
Targeting upstream phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway appears to be a promising therapy in solid cancers; however, first early clinical trials with PI3K inhibitors in monotherapy have been disappointing. A massive array of preclinical and clinical trials are currently evaluating combinations of PI3K inhibitors in targeted therapies. These combinations include co-treatments with drugs directed against other intra-/extracellular signaling molecules, nuclear hormone receptors, DNA damage repair enzymes, and immune modulators...
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718418/novel-insights-into-membrane-targeting-of-b-cell-lymphoma
#15
REVIEW
Charlotte M de Winde, Suraya Elfrink, Annemiek B van Spriel
Standard therapy of patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) predominantly consists of chemotherapy combined with anti-CD20 (e.g., rituximab) immunotherapy. However, relapse of aggressive B-NHL occurs frequently, and this may coincide with therapy resistance. This demonstrates the urgent need for exploring new lymphoma-targeted therapies. We review here recent insights in the pathophysiology of B-NHL and discuss CD20 and three alternative membrane targets (B cell receptor, immune checkpoints PD-1/PD-L1, tetraspanin CD37) that are currently in the spotlight for B-NHL treatment...
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718417/exercise-and-the-hallmarks-of-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Ana Ruiz-Casado, Asunción Martín-Ruiz, Laura M Pérez, Mariano Provencio, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Alejandro Lucia
A wealth of evidence supports an association between regular physical activity (PA) and decreased risk for cancer and cancer mortality. This is clearly an important issue given the growing worldwide incidence of both cancer and physical inactivity. Of further importance is unraveling the biological mechanisms that explain the potential preventive effects of PA against the development of cancer, as this might improve our understanding of cancer biology and assist researchers exploring novel treatment strategies...
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718416/the-untold-story-of-granzymes-in-oncoimmunology-novel-opportunities-with-old-acquaintances
#17
REVIEW
Maykel Arias, Luis Martínez-Lostao, Llipsy Santiago, Angel Ferrandez, David J Granville, Julián Pardo
For more than 20 years perforin and granzymes (GZMs) have been recognized as key cell death executors of cytotoxic T (Tc) and natural killer (NK) cells during cancer immunosurveillance. In immune surveillance, perforin and GZMB, the most potent cytotoxic molecules, act mainly as antitumoral and anti-infectious factors. However, when expressed by immune regulatory cells they may contribute to immune evasion of specific cancer types. By contrast, the other major granzyme, GZMA, seems not to play a major role in Tc/NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, but acts as a proinflammatory cytokine that might contribute to cancer development...
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718415/aging-fewer-obstacles-to-dna-replication
#18
Andreas S Ivessa
Many cancers are initiated by loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) events that lead to the replacement of single, functional tumor suppressor genes by the mutant alleles. The underlying mechanisms, of why LOH rates increase with age, are not well understood. We discuss the possible involvement of difficult-to-replicate (fragile) chromosomal sites in this process.
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670628/migrastatics-anti-metastatic-and-anti-invasion-drugs-promises-and-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Aneta Gandalovičová, Daniel Rosel, Michael Fernandes, Pavel Veselý, Petr Heneberg, Vladimír Čermák, Luboš Petruželka, Sunil Kumar, Victoria Sanz-Moreno, Jan Brábek
In solid cancers, invasion and metastasis account for more than 90% of mortality. However, in the current armory of anticancer therapies, a specific category of anti-invasion and antimetastatic drugs is missing. Here, we coin the term 'migrastatics' for drugs interfering with all modes of cancer cell invasion and metastasis, to distinguish this class from conventional cytostatic drugs, which are mainly directed against cell proliferation. We define actin polymerization and contractility as target mechanisms for migrastatics, and review candidate migrastatic drugs...
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718414/epigenetics-and-cancer-stem-cells-unleashing-hijacking-and-restricting-cellular-plasticity
#20
REVIEW
Elanor N Wainwright, Paola Scaffidi
Epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as key players in cancer development which affect cellular states at multiple stages of the disease. During carcinogenesis, alterations in chromatin and DNA methylation resulting from genetic lesions unleash cellular plasticity and favor oncogenic cellular reprogramming. At later stages, during cancer growth and progression, additional epigenetic changes triggered by interaction with the microenvironment modulate cancer cell phenotypes and properties, and shape tumor architecture...
May 2017: Trends in Cancer
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