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Trends in Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860988/distant-relations-macrophage-functions-in-the-metastatic-niche
#1
REVIEW
Geneva R Doak, Kathryn L Schwertfeger, David K Wood
Tumor-associated macrophages are known contributors of tumor progression in the primary tumor via multiple mechanisms. However, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of macrophages to promote secondary tumor development by inhibiting tumoricidal immune response, initiating angiogenesis, remodeling the local matrix, and directly communicating with cancer cells. In this review, we discuss macrophage functions in establishing distant metastases including formation of the premetastatic niche, extravasation of circulating cancer cells, and colonization of secondary metastases...
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860987/genetic-modifiers-of-the-breast-tumor-microenvironment
#2
REVIEW
Michael J Flister, Carmen Bergom
Multiple nonmalignant cell types in the tumor microenvironment (TME) impact breast cancer risk, metastasis, and response to therapy, yet most heritable mechanisms that influence TME cell function and breast cancer outcomes are largely unknown. Breast cancer risk is ∼30% heritable and >170 genetic loci have been associated with breast cancer traits. However, the majority of candidate genes have poorly defined mechanistic roles in breast cancer biology. Research indicates that breast cancer risk modifiers directly impact cancer cells, yet it is equally plausible that some modifier alleles impact the nonmalignant TME...
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860986/immunotherapy-and-prevention-of-pancreatic-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Alexander H Morrison, Katelyn T Byrne, Robert H Vonderheide
Pancreatic cancer is the third-leading cause of cancer mortality in the USA, recently surpassing breast cancer. A key component of pancreatic cancer's lethality is its acquired immune privilege, which is driven by an immunosuppressive microenvironment, poor T cell infiltration, and a low mutational burden. Although immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade or engineered T cells have yet to demonstrate efficacy, a growing body of evidence suggests that orthogonal combinations of these and other strategies could unlock immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer...
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860985/epigenetic-priming-in-cancer-initiation
#4
REVIEW
Carolina Vicente-Dueñas, Julia Hauer, César Cobaleda, Arndt Borkhardt, Isidro Sánchez-García
Recent evidence from hematopoietic and epithelial tumors revealed that the contribution of oncogenes to cancer development is mediated mainly through epigenetic priming of cancer-initiating cells, suggesting that genetic lesions that initiate the cancer process might be dispensable for the posterior tumor progression and maintenance. Epigenetic priming may remain latent until it is later triggered by endogenous or environmental stimuli. This Opinion article addresses the impact of epigenetic priming in cancer development and in the design of new therapeutic approaches...
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860984/cancer-navigation-strategy-for-endocrine-therapy-resistant-breast-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Mitsuyoshi Nakao, Saori Fujiwara, Hirotaka Iwase
Estrogen receptor (ER) α-positive breast cancers frequently acquire resistance to endocrine therapy. However, recent studies found that a fraction of these tumors overexpress ER, and that estrogen treatment induces apoptosis. We propose a 'cancer navigation' strategy to systematically lead resistant cells to growth arrest and apoptosis.
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860983/b7-h3-in-cancer-beyond-immune-regulation
#6
Karine Flem-Karlsen, Øystein Fodstad, Ming Tan, Caroline E Nunes-Xavier
B7-H3, a member of the B7 family of immunoregulatory proteins, is overexpressed in cancer and promotes tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. We discuss here the involvement of B7-H3 in cancer that goes beyond its immune regulatory function, and discuss the potential of B7-H3 as a biomarker and therapeutic target.
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860982/mutant-kras-dosage-and-chromothripsis-the-right-ingredients-for-a-pancreatic-cancer-catastrophe
#7
Francisco X Real, Mónica P de Andrés
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a deadly disease requiring early identification but this is a challenging task in humans. Therefore, disease modeling in mice could provide important insights into early genetic events. In an article in Nature, Mueller et al. show that changes in mutant Kras allele dosage and chromothripsis are important events, both for tumor progression and to establish genetic contingencies that highlight how the tumor progresses and acquires major biological features.
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860981/nanoinformatics-revolutionizes-personalized-cancer-therapy
#8
Tamar Sadan, David P Cormode, Rachela Popovtzer
Designing personalized cancer nanomedicines is a challenging process. The emerging field of nanoinformatics can facilitate this process by enabling computational design of nanocarrier-encapsulated drugs. Recent data show that quantitative structure-nanoparticle assembly calculations predict particle formation and size, and can lead to safer and more effective personalized cancer therapeutics.
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709262/new-therapies-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Rodell T Santuray, Daniel E Johnson, Jennifer R Grandis
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common malignancy with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Beginning with cetuximab, investigators continue to optimize antibody technology to target cell-surface receptors that promote HNSCC growth. Small molecules and oligonucleotides have also emerged as therapeutic inhibitors of key receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Although many such therapies have been disappointing in clinical trials as single agents, they continue to be studied in combination with standard therapies...
May 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709261/cancer-as-a-matter-of-fat-the-crosstalk-between-adipose-tissue-and-tumors
#10
REVIEW
Ernst Lengyel, Liza Makowski, John DiGiovanni, Mikhail G Kolonin
Obesity has been linked to the increased risk and aggressiveness of many types of carcinoma. A state of chronic inflammation in adipose tissue (AT), resulting in genotoxic stress, may contribute to carcinogenesis and cancer initiation. Evidence that AT plays a role in cancer aggressiveness is solid and mounting. During cancer progression, tumor cells engage in a metabolic symbiosis with adjacent AT. Mature adipocytes provide adipokines and lipids to cancer cells, while stromal and immune cells from AT infiltrate carcinomas and locally secrete paracrine factors within the tumor microenvironment...
May 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709260/noninvasive-pet-imaging-of-t-cells
#11
REVIEW
Weijun Wei, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Quanyong Luo, Weibo Cai
The rapidly evolving field of cancer immunotherapy recently saw the approval of several new therapeutic antibodies. Several cell therapies, for example, chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cells (CAR-T), are currently in clinical trials for a variety of cancers and other diseases. However, approaches to monitor changes in the immune status of tumors or to predict therapeutic responses are limited. Monitoring lymphocytes from whole blood or biopsies does not provide dynamic and spatial information about T cells in heterogeneous tumors...
May 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709259/cancer-crispr-screens-in-vivo
#12
REVIEW
Ryan D Chow, Sidi Chen
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) screening is a powerful toolset for investigating diverse biological processes. Most CRISPR screens to date have been performed with in vitro cultures or cellular transplant models. To interrogate cancer in animal models that more closely recapitulate the human disease, autochthonous direct in vivo CRISPR screens have recently been developed that can identify causative drivers in the native tissue microenvironment. By empowering multiplexed mutagenesis in fully immunocompetent animals, direct in vivo CRISPR screens enable the rapid generation of patient-specific avatars that can guide precision medicine...
May 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709258/development-versus-evolution-in-cancer-biology
#13
REVIEW
Fabio Marongiu, Monica Serra, Ezio Laconi
The terms 'development' and 'evolution' are both used to describe the unfolding of the carcinogenic process. However, there is increasing awareness of an essential difference in the meanings of these two terms with reference to cancer. We discuss evidence suggesting that the concepts of development and evolution are both pertinent to the description of carcinogenesis; however, they appropriately apply to distinct phases of a multistep process. Such a distinction bears important implications for the study and management of cancer...
May 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709257/improved-pathological-examination-of-tumors-with-3d-light-sheet-microscopy
#14
Per Uhlén, Nobuyuki Tanaka
Light-sheet microscopy offers new possibilities to efficiently visualize large tissue samples in three dimensions. Volumetric 3D imaging can uncover detailed information about the inner landscape of tumors, which can improve cancer diagnosis and therapy. This Forum article highlights the advantages of using light-sheet microscopy for pathological examinations of intact tumor specimens.
May 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709256/turning-cold-tumors-hot-by-blocking-tgf-%C3%AE
#15
Xavier Romero Ros, Louis Vermeulen
Novel immune therapeutic tools are rapidly expanding the anticancer arsenal. Despite this progress, patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) that spreads to vital parts of the body still have a dismal outcome. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a pivotal role in the development of CRC and metastasis. Important new work by Tauriello and colleagues has revealed that inhibition of TGF-β prevents tumor metastasis by enhancing a cytotoxic T cell response, suggesting that TGF-β inhibition is a promising pro-immunogenic therapy...
May 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709255/mapping-effector-phenotype-landscapes-in-kras-driven-cancers
#16
Peter S Winter, Kris C Wood
Oncogenic KRAS can activate numerous effector pathways to drive malignant progression. However, the relationships between specific effectors and oncogenic phenotypes, and the extent to which these relationships vary across heterogeneous tumors, are incompletely understood. Recently in Cell Reports, a team of scientists described an innovative, combinatorial siRNA-based approach to functionally link KRAS effectors and phenotypes in a large panel of cancer cell lines. Central to this work was the identification of two major subtypes of KRAS-mutant cancers with distinct effector landscapes and tractable therapeutic vulnerabilities...
May 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656775/the-nci-physical-sciences-oncology-network
#17
Nastaran Zahir
Nastaran Zahir is Associate Director of the Physical Sciences - Oncology Network in the Division of Cancer Biology at the National Cancer Institute. Dr. Zahir coordinates cross-cutting efforts to integrate physical sciences perspectives with cancer research by fostering transdisciplinary research collaborations, supporting education and outreach programs, and promoting resources for data sharing and biospecimen standards.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606315/nuclear-mechanopathology-and-cancer-diagnosis
#18
REVIEW
Caroline Uhler, G V Shivashankar
Abnormalities in nuclear and chromatin organization are hallmarks of many diseases including cancer. In this review, we highlight our understanding of how the cellular microenvironment regulates nuclear morphology and, with it, the spatial organization of chromosomes and genes, resulting in cell type-specific genomic programs. We also discuss the molecular basis for maintaining nuclear and genomic integrity and how alterations in nuclear mechanotransduction pathways result in various diseases. Finally, we highlight the importance of digital pathology based on nuclear morphometric features combined with single-cell genomics for early cancer diagnostics...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606314/reengineering-the-physical-microenvironment-of-tumors-to-improve-drug-delivery-and-efficacy-from-mathematical-modeling-to-bench-to-bedside
#19
REVIEW
Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos, Lance L Munn, Rakesh K Jain
Physical forces have a crucial role in tumor progression and cancer treatment. The application of principles of engineering and physical sciences to oncology has provided powerful insights into the mechanisms by which these forces affect tumor progression and confer resistance to delivery and efficacy of molecular, nano-, cellular, and immuno-medicines. Here, we discuss the mechanics of the solid and fluid components of a tumor, with a focus on how they impede the transport of therapeutic agents and create an abnormal tumor microenvironment (TME) that fuels tumor progression and treatment resistance...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606313/beyond-tissue-stiffness-and-bioadhesivity-advanced-biomaterials-to-model-tumor-microenvironments-and-drug-resistance
#20
REVIEW
Ankur Singh, Ilana Brito, Jan Lammerding
Resistance to chemotherapy and pathway-targeted therapies poses a major problem in cancer research. While the fields of tumor biology and experimental therapeutics have already benefited from ex vivo preclinical tissue models, these models have yet to address the reasons for malignant transformations and the emergence of chemoresistance. With the increasing number of ex vivo models poised to incorporate physiological biophysical properties, along with the advent of genomic sequencing information, there are now unprecedented opportunities to better understand tumorigenesis and to design therapeutic approaches to overcome resistance...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
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