journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Trends in Cancer

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198442/biology-informs-treatment-choices-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#1
REVIEW
Matthew J Butler, Ricardo C T Aguiar
The effective deployment of rationally developed therapies for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) requires rapid assimilation of new biological data. Within this framework, here we address topical issues at the intersection of DLBCL biology and the clinic. We discuss targeting of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, with emphasis on identifying patients who may benefit from this maneuver and how to best achieve it. We address strategies to modulate the DLBCL microenvironment, including the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in selected DLBCL subsets, and the potential activity of alternative antiangiogenic therapies...
December 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198441/mitochondria-bioenergetics-and-apoptosis-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Peter J Burke
Until recently, the dual roles of mitochondria in ATP production (bioenergetics) and apoptosis (cell life/death decision) were thought to be separate. New evidence points to a more intimate link between these two functions, mediated by the remodeling of the mitochondrial ultrastructure during apoptosis. While most of the key molecular players that regulate this process have been identified (primarily membrane proteins), the exact mechanisms by which they function are not yet understood. Because resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer, and because ultimately all chemotherapies are believed to result directly or indirectly in induction of apoptosis, a better understanding of the biophysical processes involved may lead to new avenues for therapy...
December 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198440/fanconi-anemia-signaling-and-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Manoj Nepal, Raymond Che, Jun Zhang, Chi Ma, Peiwen Fei
The extremely high cancer incidence associated with patients suffering from a rare human genetic disease, Fanconi anemia (FA), demonstrates the importance of FA genes. Over the course of human tumor development, FA genes perform critical tumor-suppression roles. In doing so, FA provides researchers with a unique genetic model system to study cancer etiology. Here, we review how aberrant function of the 22 FA genes and their signaling network contributes to malignancy. From this perspective, we will also discuss how the knowledge discovered from FA research serves basic and translational cancer research...
December 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198439/mitochondrial-transfer-in-the-leukemia-microenvironment
#4
REVIEW
Emmanuel Griessinger, Ruxanda Moschoi, Giulia Biondani, Jean-Fran├žois Peyron
The bone marrow microenvironment (BMME) is a complex ecosystem that instructs and protects hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their malignant counterparts, the leukemia-initiating cells (LICs). Within the physical and functional crosstalk that takes place between HSCs, LICs, and the BMME, the transfer of organelles and of mitochondria in particular is an important new intercellular communication mode in addition to adhesion molecules, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), and the paracrine secretion of cytokines, (onco)metabolites, and extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
December 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198438/targeting-oncogenic-transcription-factors-therapeutic-implications-of-endogenous-stat-inhibitors
#5
REVIEW
Lisa N Heppler, David A Frank
Misregulation of transcription factors, including signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, leads to inappropriate gene expression patterns that can promote tumor initiation and progression. Under physiologic conditions, STAT signaling is stimulus dependent and tightly regulated by endogenous inhibitors, namely, suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, phosphatases, and protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins. However, in tumorigenesis, STAT proteins become constitutively active and promote the expression of progrowth and prosurvival genes...
December 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198437/spinal-cord-injuries-and-nerve-dependence-in-prostate-cancer
#6
Alison Rutledge, Phillip Jobling, Marjorie M Walker, Jim W Denham, Hubert Hondermarck
Nerves are emerging as drivers of tumorigenesis, as demonstrated in the mouse where denervation suppresses prostate cancer; however, clinical evidence is needed. Patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) resulting in functional denervation of the prostate have a lower incidence of prostate cancer. This may constitute a clinical evidence for nerve dependence in human prostate tumorigenesis.
December 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198436/reprogramming-tumor-blood-vessels-for-enhancing-immunotherapy
#7
Martina Schmittnaegel, Michele De Palma
Angiogenic blood vessels contribute to generating an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, in part by limiting the extravasation of T cells. Functional reprogramming of angiogenic blood vessels, for example through angiopoietin-2 blockade, may improve T cell trafficking in tumors and the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and other cancer immunotherapies.
December 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120755/migrating-into-the-tumor-a-roadmap-for-t-cells
#8
REVIEW
Lieke L van der Woude, Mark A J Gorris, Altuna Halilovic, Carl G Figdor, I Jolanda M de Vries
Tumors can be divided into 'hot' (T cell inflamed) or 'cold' (T cell noninflamed) according to the presence of immune cells. In this review, we discuss variables that influence T cell migration into the tumor microenvironment. Chemokines can attract T cells to the tumor site and tumor intrinsic pathways can influence the composition of local chemokines. Tumor-induced vasculature can hamper T cell migration. Other immune cells and tumor-derived molecules can block T cell proliferation and survival. It is important to better understand these mechanisms in order to target them therapeutically...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120754/new-opportunities-and-challenges-to-defeat-cancer-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Erika K Ramos, Andrew D Hoffmann, Stanton L Gerson, Huiping Liu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells that are capable of self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, plastic adaptation, and immune regulation, thereby mediating tumorigenesis, metastasis, and therapy resistance. CSCs are associated with cancer progression and clinical outcome in cancer patients. Successful targeting of CSCs will therefore be necessary to eradicate and cure cancer. Functional regulators of stem cell (stemness) signaling pathways in human cancers have brought new opportunities to target CSCs and reframe cancer-targeting strategies in clinical settings...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120753/mitochondrial-oxphos-induced-by-rb1-deficiency-in-breast-cancer-implications-for-anabolic-metabolism-stemness-and-metastasis
#10
REVIEW
Eldad Zacksenhaus, Mariusz Shrestha, Jeff C Liu, Ioulia Vorobieva, Philip E D Chung, YoungJun Ju, Uri Nir, Zhe Jiang
A switch from catabolic to anabolic metabolism, a major hallmark of cancer, enables rapid cell duplication, and is driven by multiple oncogenic alterations, including PIK3CA mutation, MYC amplification, and TP53 loss. However, tumor growth requires active mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Recently, loss of the retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor in breast cancer was shown to induce mitochondrial protein translation (MPT) and OXPHOS. Here, we discuss how increased OXPHOS can enhance anabolic metabolism and cell proliferation, as well as cancer stemness and metastasis...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120752/the-glycogen-shunt-maintains-glycolytic-homeostasis-and-the-warburg-effect-in-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Robert G Shulman, Douglas L Rothman
Despite many decades of study there is a lack of a quantitative explanation for the Warburg effect in cancer. We propose that the glycogen shunt, a pathway recently shown to be critical for cancer cell survival, may explain the excess lactate generation under aerobic conditions characteristic of the Warburg effect. The proposal is based on research on yeast and mammalian muscle and brain that demonstrates that the glycogen shunt functions to maintain homeostasis of glycolytic intermediates and ATP during large shifts in glucose supply or demand...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120751/breast-cancer-multiple-subtypes-within-a-tumor
#12
REVIEW
Syn Kok Yeo, Jun-Lin Guan
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and stratification of tumors is paramount to achieve better clinical outcomes. While it is common to stratify and treat breast tumors as a single entity, insights from studies on intratumoral heterogeneity and cancer stem cells raise the possibility that multiple breast cancer subtypes may coexist within a tumor. A role for plasticity in driving dynamic conversions between breast cancer subtypes is proposed, and the clinical implications include a need for combinatorial therapeutic strategies that account for the discrete disease entities and their plasticity...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120750/lysophosphatidate-signaling-the-tumor-microenvironment-s-new-nemesis
#13
Matthew G K Benesch, Zelei Yang, Xiaoyun Tang, Guanmin Meng, David N Brindley
Lysophosphatidate (LPA) is emerging as a potent mediator of cancer progression in the tumor microenvironment. Strategies for targeting LPA signaling have recently entered clinical trials for fibrosis. These therapies have potential to improve the efficacies of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy by attenuating chronic inflammation, irrespective of diverse mutations within cancer cells.
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120749/basal-s-nitrosylation-is-the-guardian-of-tissue-homeostasis
#14
Saori Furuta
Recent studies have uncovered that nitric oxide (NO) signaling is largely conducted by S-nitrosylation, involving >3000 proteins. The nitrosyl group could then travel further by transnitrosylation or be secreted, enabling regulation of the whole tissue. A subset of proteins are constitutively S-nitrosylated, playing roles in the regulation of tissue homeostasis.
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120748/doubling-down-on-brca-mutated-cancer
#15
Andrea E Wahner Hendrickson, Scott H Kaufmann, Elizabeth M Swisher
Immunotherapy is changing the landscape of cancer treatment. Nonetheless, not all malignancies respond, possibly due to low mutational load. Recent work in a TP53(-/-)BRCA1-mutant murine breast cancer model indicates that double blockade with two immune checkpoint inhibitors increases the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and overall survival after DNA damaging chemotherapy, whereas single blockade does not. These findings suggest an approach to enhance the impact of immune checkpoint blockade in BRCA-mutated tumors...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958390/learning-from-the-proteasome-how-to-fine-tune-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Nathalie Vigneron, Joanna Abi Habib, Benoit J Van den Eynde
Cancer immunotherapy has recently emerged as a forefront strategy to fight cancer. Key players in antitumor responses are CD8(+) cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that can detect tumor cells that carry antigens, in other words, small peptides bound to surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The success and safety of cancer immunotherapy strategies depends on the nature of the antigens recognized by the targeted T cells, their strict tumor specificity, and whether tumors and antigen-presenting cells can efficiently process the peptide...
October 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958389/jarid1-histone-demethylases-emerging-targets-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Kayla M Harmeyer, Nicole D Facompre, Meenhard Herlyn, Devraj Basu
JARID1 proteins are histone demethylases that both regulate normal cell fates during development and contribute to the epigenetic plasticity that underlies malignant transformation. This H3K4 demethylase family participates in multiple repressive transcriptional complexes at promoters and has broader regulatory effects on chromatin that remain ill-defined. There is growing understanding of the oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions of JARID1 proteins, which are contingent on cell context and the protein isoform...
October 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958388/aberrant-dna-methylation-in-colorectal-cancer-what-should-we-target
#18
REVIEW
Janson W T Tse, Laura J Jenkins, Fiona Chionh, John M Mariadason
Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are characterized by global hypomethylation and promoter-specific DNA methylation. A subset of CRCs with extensive and co-ordinate patterns of promoter methylation has also been identified, termed the CpG-island methylator phenotype. Some genes methylated in CRC are established tumor suppressors; however, for the majority, direct roles in disease initiation or progression have not been established. Herein, we examine functional evidence of specific methylated genes contributing to CRC pathogenesis, focusing on components of commonly deregulated signaling pathways...
October 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958387/kras-alleles-the-devil-is-in-the-detail
#19
REVIEW
Kevin M Haigis
KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in cancer and KRAS mutation is commonly associated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Since the KRAS oncoprotein is, as yet, not directly druggable, efforts to target KRAS mutant cancers focus on identifying vulnerabilities in downstream signaling pathways or in stress response pathways that are permissive for strong oncogenic signaling. One aspect of KRAS biology that is not well appreciated is the potential biological differences between the many distinct KRAS activating mutations...
October 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958386/imaging-tunneling-membrane-tubes-elucidates-cell-communication-in-tumors
#20
REVIEW
Emil Lou, Sepideh Gholami, Yevgeniy Romin, Venugopal Thayanithy, Sho Fujisawa, Snider Desir, Clifford J Steer, Subbaya Subramanian, Yuman Fong, Katia Manova-Todorova, Malcolm A S Moore
Intercellular communication is a vital yet underdeveloped aspect of cancer pathobiology. This Opinion article reviews the importance and challenges of microscopic imaging of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) in the complex tumor microenvironment. The use of advanced microscopy to characterize TNTs in vitro and ex vivo, and related extensions called tumor microtubes (TMs) reported in gliomas in vivo, has propelled this field forward. This topic is important because the identification of TNTs and TMs fills the gap in our knowledge of how cancer cells communicate at long range in vivo, inducing intratumor heterogeneity and resistance to treatment...
October 2017: Trends in Cancer
journal
journal
52376
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"