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Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)

Kirsten Severing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Hiromichi Ohta, Sung Wng Kim, Shota Kaneki, Atsushi Yamamoto, Tamotsu Hashizume
Thermoelectric conversion is an energy harvesting technology that directly converts waste heat from various sources into electricity by the Seebeck effect of thermoelectric materials with a large thermopower (S), high electrical conductivity (σ), and low thermal conductivity (κ). State-of-the-art nanostructuring techniques that significantly reduce κ have realized high-performance thermoelectric materials with a figure of merit (ZT = S2∙σ∙T∙κ-1) between 1.5 and 2. Although the power factor (PF = S2∙σ) must also be enhanced to further improve ZT, the maximum PF remains near 1...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Tuukka Verho, Pasi Karppinen, André H Gröschel, Olli Ikkala
Mollusk nacre is a prototypical biological inorganic-organic composite that combines high toughness, stiffness, and strength by its brick-and-mortar microstructure, which has inspired several synthetic mimics. Its remarkable fracture toughness relies on inelastic deformations at the process zone at the crack tip that dissolve stress concentrations and stop cracks. The micrometer-scale structure allows resolving the size and shape of the process zone to understand the fracture processes. However, for better scalability, nacre-mimetic nanocomposites with aligned inorganic or graphene nanosheets are extensively pursued, to avoid the packing problems of mesoscale sheets like in nacre or slow in situ biomineralization...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jin Soo Kang, Jin Kim, Myeong Jae Lee, Yoon Jun Son, Dong Young Chung, Subin Park, Juwon Jeong, Ji Mun Yoo, Heejong Shin, Heeman Choe, Hyun S Park, Yung-Eun Sung
Demands for sustainable production of hydrogen are rapidly increasing because of environmental considerations for fossil fuel consumption and development of fuel cell technologies. Thus, the development of high-performance and economical catalysts has been extensively investigated. In this study, a nanoporous Mo carbide electrode is prepared using a top-down electrochemical process and it is applied as an electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Anodic oxidation of Mo foil followed by heat treatment in a carbon monoxide (CO) atmosphere forms a nanostructured Mo carbide with excellent interconnections, and these structural characteristics lead to high activity and durability when applied to the HER...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jessica C Huss, Vanessa Schoeppler, David J Merritt, Christine Best, Eric Maire, Jérôme Adrien, Oliver Spaeker, Nils Janssen, Johannes Gladisch, Notburga Gierlinger, Ben P Miller, Peter Fratzl, Michaela Eder
Heat-triggered fruit opening and delayed release of mature seeds are widespread among plants in fire-prone ecosystems. Here, the material characteristics of the seed-containing follicles of Banksia attenuata (Proteaceae), which open in response to heat frequently caused by fire, are investigated. Material analysis reveals that long-term dimensional stability and opening temperatures of follicles collected across an environmental gradient increase as habitats become drier, hotter, and more fire prone. A gradual increase in the biaxial curvature of the hygroscopic valves provides the follicles in the driest region with the highest flexural rigidity...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Pengyao Xing, Huijun Phoebe Tham, Peizhou Li, Hongzhong Chen, Huijing Xiang, Yanli Zhao
Manipulating the property transfer in nanosystems is a challenging task since it requires switchable molecular packing such as separate aggregation (self-sorting) or synergistic aggregation (coassembly). Herein, a unique manipulation of self-sorting/coassembly aggregation and the observation of switchable stimulus-responsiveness transfer in a two component self-assembly system are reported. Two building blocks bearing the same cholesterol group give versatile topological structures in polar and nonpolar solvents...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Xia Zhang, Bei Ding, Ran Cheng, Sebastian C Dixon, Yao Lu
In recent years, state-of-the-art computational modeling of physical and chemical systems has shown itself to be an invaluable resource in the prediction of the properties and behavior of functional materials. However, construction of a useful computational model for novel systems in both academic and industrial contexts often requires a great depth of physicochemical theory and/or a wealth of empirical data, and a shortage in the availability of either frustrates the modeling process. In this work, computational intelligence is instead used, including artificial neural networks and evolutionary computation, to enhance our understanding of nature-inspired superhydrophobic behavior...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Dianyi Liu, Christopher J Traverse, Pei Chen, Mark Elinski, Chenchen Yang, Lili Wang, Margaret Young, Richard R Lunt
Perovskite semiconductors have emerged as competitive candidates for photovoltaic applications due to their exceptional optoelectronic properties. However, the impact of moisture instability on perovskite films is still a key challenge for perovskite devices. While substantial effort is focused on preventing moisture interaction during the fabrication process, it is demonstrated that low moisture sensitivity, enhanced crystallization, and high performance can actually be achieved by exposure to high water content (up to 25 vol%) during fabrication with an aqueous-containing perovskite precursor...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Yucheng Liu, Zhou Yang, Shengzhong Frank Liu
Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites are promising optoelectronic materials resulting from their significant light absorption properties and unique long carrier dynamics, such as a long carrier lifetime, carrier diffusion length, and high carrier mobility. These advantageous properties have allowed for the utilization of lead halide perovskite materials in solar cells, LEDs, photodetectors, lasers, etc. To further explore their potential, intrinsic properties should be thoroughly investigated. Single crystals with few defects are the best candidates to disclose a variety of interesting and important properties of these materials, ultimately, showing the increased importance of single-crystalline perovskite research...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Yu-Hua Weng, Xiao-Wei Ma, Jing Che, Chan Li, Juan Liu, Shi-Zhu Chen, Yu-Qin Wang, Ya-Ling Gan, Hao Chen, Zhong-Bo Hu, Kai-Hui Nan, Xing-Jie Liang
Ocular inflammations are common diseases that may lead to serious vision-threatening obstacles. Eye drops for antiinflammation therapy need to be administered multiple times daily at a high dosage due to the rapid precorneal removal and low bioavailability of drugs. To overcome these problems, a cRGD-functionalized DSPE-PEG2000 nanomicelle (DSPE-PEG2000-cRGD) encapsulated with flurbiprofen is proposed. The tailored nanomicelles trigger specific binding to integrin receptors on the ocular surface, which leads to rapid and robust mucoadhesion, superior ocular surface retention, and transcorneal penetration behaviors of nanomicelles...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Ariane Peyret, Emmanuel Ibarboure, Jean-François Le Meins, Sebastien Lecommandoux
Lipid membrane asymmetry plays an important role in cell function and activity, being for instance a relevant signal of its integrity. The development of artificial asymmetric membranes thus represents a key challenge. In this context, an emulsion-centrifugation method is developed to prepare giant vesicles with an asymmetric membrane composed of an inner monolayer of poly(butadiene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PBut-b-PEO) and outer monolayer of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). The formation of a complete membrane asymmetry is demonstrated and its stability with time is followed by measuring lipid transverse diffusion...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Hao Jiang, Qin Wang, Lin Li, Qin Zeng, Hanmei Li, Tao Gong, Zhirong Zhang, Xun Sun
Due to its safety and efficacy, aluminum hydroxide is used as an immune adjuvant in human vaccines for over 80 years. Being a Th2 stimulator, the classical gel-like adjuvant, however, fails to generate CD8+ T cell responses, which are important for cancer vaccines. Here, aluminum hydroxide is turned from gel into nano-sized vaccine carriers AlO(OH)-polymer nanoparticles (APNs) to promote their lymphatic migration. After actively uptaken via scavenger receptor-A by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) resident in lymph nodes (LNs), APNs destabilize lysosomes resulting in efficient cytosolic delivery and cross-presentation of antigens...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Takeshi Sakamoto, Takafumi Ogawa, Hiroki Nada, Koji Nakatsuji, Masato Mitani, Bartolome Soberats, Ken Kawata, Masafumi Yoshio, Hiroki Tomioka, Takao Sasaki, Masahiro Kimura, Masahiro Henmi, Takashi Kato
Supply of safe fresh water is currently one of the most important global issues. Membranes technologies are essential to treat water efficiently with low costs and energy consumption. Here, the development of self-organized nanostructured water treatment membranes based on ionic liquid crystals composed of ammonium, imidazolium, and pyridinium moieties is reported. Membranes with preserved 1D or 3D self-organized sub-nanopores are obtained by photopolymerization of ionic columnar or bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jingwen Feng, Jia Liu, Xiaoyan Cheng, Jiajia Liu, Meng Xu, Jiatao Zhang
Yolk-shell hybrid nanoparticles with noble metal core and programmed semiconductor shell composition may exhibit synergistic effects and tunable catalytic properties. In this work, the hydrothermal cation exchange synthesis of Au@ZnS-AgAuS yolk-shell nanocrystals (Y-S NCs) with well-fabricated void size, grain-boundary-architectured ZnS-AgAuS shell and in situ generated Au cocatalyst are demonstrated. Starting from the novel cavity-free Au@AgAuS core-shell NCs, via aqueous cation exchange reaction with Zn2+, the gradual evolution with produced Au@ZnS-AgAuS Y-S NCs can be achieved successfully...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Donal P Finegan, Eric Darcy, Matthew Keyser, Bernhard Tjaden, Thomas M M Heenan, Rhodri Jervis, Josh J Bailey, Nghia T Vo, Oxana V Magdysyuk, Michael Drakopoulos, Marco Di Michiel, Alexander Rack, Gareth Hinds, Dan J L Brett, Paul R Shearing
As the energy density of lithium-ion cells and batteries increases, controlling the outcomes of thermal runaway becomes more challenging. If the high rate of gas generation during thermal runaway is not adequately vented, commercial cell designs can rupture and explode, presenting serious safety concerns. Here, ultra-high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging is used at >20 000 frames per second to characterize the venting processes of six different 18650 cell designs undergoing thermal runaway. For the first time, the mechanisms that lead to the most catastrophic type of cell failure, rupture, and explosion are identified and elucidated in detail...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Wei Cheng, Nirala Singh, Will Elliott, Joun Lee, Alan Rassoolkhani, Xuejun Jin, Eric W McFarland, Syed Mubeen
Tin-based chalcogenide semiconductors, though attractive materials for photovoltaics, have to date exhibited poor performance and stability for photoelectrochemical applications. Here, a novel strategy is reported to improve performance and stability of tin monosulfide (SnS) nanoplatelet thin films for H2 production in acidic media without any use of sacrificial reagent. P-type SnS nanoplatelet films are coated with the n-CdS buffer layer and the TiO2 passivation layer to form type II heterojunction photocathodes...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Ruidie Tang, Sancan Han, Feng Teng, Kai Hu, Zhiming Zhang, Mingxiang Hu, Xiaosheng Fang
Graphene nanodots (GNDs) are one of the most attractive graphene nanostructures due to their tunable optoelectronic properties. Fabricated by polystyrene-nanosphere lithography, uniformly sized graphene nanodots array (GNDA) is constructed as an ultraviolet photodetector (PD) with ZnO nanofilm spin coated on it. The size of GNDA can be well controlled from 45 to 20 nm varying the etching time. It is revealed in the study that the photoelectric properties of ZnO/GNDA PD are highly GNDA size-dependent. The highest responsivity (R) and external quantum efficiency of ZnO/GNDA (20 nm) PD are 22...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jilei Liu, Jin Wang, Chaohe Xu, Hao Jiang, Chunzhong Li, Lili Zhang, Jianyi Lin, Ze Xiang Shen
Tremendous efforts have been dedicated into the development of high-performance energy storage devices with nanoscale design and hybrid approaches. The boundary between the electrochemical capacitors and batteries becomes less distinctive. The same material may display capacitive or battery-like behavior depending on the electrode design and the charge storage guest ions. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms and the electrochemical processes occurring upon charge storage may be confusing for researchers who are new to the field as well as some of the chemists and material scientists already in the field...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Akito Yamamoto, Yoshinori Murata, Chikahiko Mitsui, Hiroyuki Ishii, Masakazu Yamagishi, Masafumi Yano, Hiroyasu Sato, Akihito Yamano, Jun Takeya, Toshihiro Okamoto
Printed and flexible electronics requires solution-processable organic semiconductors with a carrier mobility (μ) of ≈10 cm2 V-1 s-1 as well as high chemical and thermal durability. In this study, chryseno[2,1-b:8,7-b']dithiophene (ChDT) and its derivatives, which have a zigzag-elongated fused π-electronic core (π-core) and a peculiar highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) configuration, are reported as materials with conceptually new semiconducting π-cores. ChDT and its derivatives are prepared by a versatile synthetic procedure...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Julianna Panidi, Alexandra F Paterson, Dongyoon Khim, Zhuping Fei, Yang Han, Leonidas Tsetseris, George Vourlias, Panos A Patsalas, Martin Heeney, Thomas D Anthopoulos
Improving the charge carrier mobility of solution-processable organic semiconductors is critical for the development of advanced organic thin-film transistors and their application in the emerging sector of printed electronics. Here, a simple method is reported for enhancing the hole mobility in a wide range of organic semiconductors, including small-molecules, polymers, and small-molecule:polymer blends, with the latter systems exhibiting the highest mobility. The method is simple and relies on admixing of the molecular Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 in the semiconductor formulation prior to solution deposition...
January 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
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