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Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)

Jia Jia, Hong Wang, Zhuole Lu, Paul G O'Brien, Mireille Ghoussoub, Paul Duchesne, Ziqi Zheng, Peicheng Li, Qiao Qiao, Lu Wang, Alan Gu, Abdinoor A Jelle, Yuchan Dong, Qiang Wang, Kulbir Kaur Ghuman, Thomas Wood, Chenxi Qian, Yue Shao, Chenyue Qiu, Miaomiao Ye, Yimei Zhu, Zheng-Hong Lu, Peng Zhang, Amr S Helmy, Chandra Veer Singh, Nazir P Kherani, Doug D Perovic, Geoffrey A Ozin
This study has designed and implemented a library of hetero-nanostructured catalysts, denoted as Pd@Nb2O5, comprised of size-controlled Pd nanocrystals interfaced with Nb2O5 nanorods. This study also demonstrates that the catalytic activity and selectivity of CO2 reduction to CO and CH4 products can be systematically tailored by varying the size of the Pd nanocrystals supported on the Nb2O5 nanorods. Using large Pd nanocrystals, this study achieves CO and CH4 production rates as high as 0.75 and 0.11 mol h(-1) gPd(-1), respectively...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Bu Yuan Guan, Le Yu, Xiong Wen David Lou
Design and construction of metal-organic framework (MOF) composite precursors have recently been considered as a promising strategy for the preparation of different structured metal/carbon-based functional materials. Here, an MOF composite-assisted strategy to synthesize single-holed cobalt/N-doped carbon hollow particles is reported. The yolk-shell polystyrene@zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (PS@ZIF-67) composite precursors are first synthesized, followed by a controlled pyrolysis to obtain cobalt/N-doped carbon hollow particles with a large single hole on each shell...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Su Mi Ahn, Jungdon Suk, Do Youb Kim, Yongku Kang, Hwan Kyu Kim, Dong Wook Kim
To fabricate a sustainable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery, it is crucial to identify an optimum electrolyte. Herein, it is found that tetramethylene sulfone (TMS) and lithium nitrate (LiNO3) form the optimum electrolyte, which greatly reduces the overpotential at charge, exhibits superior oxygen efficiency, and allows stable cycling for 100 cycles. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) analyses reveal that neat TMS is stable to oxidative decomposition and exhibit good compatibility with a lithium metal...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Huaping Zhao, Long Liu, Ranjith Vellacheri, Yong Lei
Owing to the outstanding advantages as electrical energy storage system, supercapacitors have attracted tremendous research interests over the past decade. Current research efforts are being devoted to improve the energy storage capabilities of supercapacitors through either discovering novel electroactive materials or nanostructuring existing electroactive materials. From the device point of view, the energy storage performance of supercapacitor not only depends on the electroactive materials themselves, but importantly, relies on the structure of electrode whether it allows the electroactive materials to reach their full potentials for energy storage...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Adilet Zhakeyev, Panfeng Wang, Li Zhang, Wenmiao Shu, Huizhi Wang, Jin Xuan
The global energy infrastructure is undergoing a drastic transformation towards renewable energy, posing huge challenges on the energy materials research, development and manufacturing. Additive manufacturing has shown its promise to change the way how future energy system can be designed and delivered. It offers capability in manufacturing complex 3D structures, with near-complete design freedom and high sustainability due to minimal use of materials and toxic chemicals. Recent literatures have reported that additive manufacturing could unlock the evolution of energy materials and chemistries with unprecedented performance in the way that could never be achieved by conventional manufacturing techniques...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Giovanni Landi, Heinz Christoph Neitzert, Carlo Barone, Costantino Mauro, Felix Lang, Steve Albrecht, Bernd Rech, Sergio Pagano
In the present study, random current fluctuations measured at different temperatures and for different illumination levels are used to understand the charge carrier kinetics in methylammonium lead iodide CH3NH3PbI3-based perovskite solar cells. A model, combining trapping/detrapping, recombination mechanisms, and electron-phonon scattering, is formulated evidencing how the presence of shallow and deeper band tail states influences the solar cell recombination losses. At low temperatures, the observed cascade capture process indicates that the trapping of the charge carriers by shallow defects is phonon assisted directly followed by their recombination...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Marta Haro, Vidyadhar Singh, Stephan Steinhauer, Evropi Toulkeridou, Panagiotis Grammatikopoulos, Mukhles Sowwan
A new approach on the synthesis of Si anodes for Li-ion batteries is reported, combining advantages of both nanoparticulated and continuous Si films. A multilayered configuration prototype is proposed, comprising amorphous Si arranged in nanostructured, mechanically heterogeneous films, interspersed with Ta nanoparticle scaffolds. Particular structural features such as increased surface roughness, nanogranularity, and porosity are dictated by the nanoparticle scaffolds, boosting the lithiation process due to fast Li diffusion and low electrode polarization...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Shigeto Hirai, Shunsuke Yagi, Wei-Tin Chen, Fang-Cheng Chou, Noriyasu Okazaki, Tomoya Ohno, Hisao Suzuki, Takeshi Matsuda
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a key role in emerging energy conversion technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, and direct solar water splitting. Herein, a remarkably low overpotential of ≈150 mV at 10 mA cm(-2)disk in alkaline solutions using one of the non-Fermi liquids, Hg2Ru2O7, is reported. Hg2Ru2O7 displays a rapid increase in current density and excellent durability as an OER catalyst. This outstanding catalytic performance is realized through the coexistence of localized d-bands with the metallic state that is unique to non-Fermi liquids...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Lei Wang, David S Dandy
The ability to study individual bacteria or subcellular organelles using inertial microfluidics is still nascent. This is due, in no small part, to the significant challenges associated with concentrating and separating specific sizes of micrometer and sub-micrometer bioparticles in a microfluidic format. In this study, using a rigid polymeric microfluidic network with optimized microchannel geometry dimensions, it is demonstrated that 2 µm, and even sub-micrometer, particles can be continuously and accurately focused to stable equilibrium positions...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jiantie Xu, Yuhai Dou, Zengxi Wei, Jianmin Ma, Yonghong Deng, Yutao Li, Huakun Liu, Shixue Dou
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with higher energy density are very necessary to meet the increasing demand for devices with better performance. With the commercial success of lithiated graphite, other graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) have also been intensively reported, not only for LIBs, but also for other metal (Na, K, Al) ion batteries. In this Progress Report, we briefly review the application of GICs as anodes and cathodes in metal (Li, Na, K, Al) ion batteries. After a brief introduction on the development history of GICs, the electrochemistry of cationic GICs and anionic GICs is summarized...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Yu Xiong, Bo Wu, Xiaoyan Zheng, Zheng Zhao, Ping Deng, Ming Lin, Benzhong Tang, Beng S Ong
A novel, star-shaped electron acceptor, DMTPA-PDI3, derived from a planar dimethylmethylene-bridged triphenylamine core with three acetylene-linked perylene diimide (PDI) units is developed as a nonfullerene acceptor for organic solar cells (OSCs). DMTPA-PDI3 manifests significantly reduced intramolecular twisting, enabling sufficient system-wide π-electron delocalization leading to broadened spectral absorption and raised lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level. As a result, higher and more balanced hole and electron transport properties are observed...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jing Liu, Linlin Wang, Yuguo Du, Sijin Liu
Insufficient endogenous neurotrophin supply contributes to neurodegeneration. Meanwhile, neuronal injuries are also attributed to oxidative stress upon toxin exposure. Thus, reconstruction neurite extension and antioxidative stress are the potential strategies for ameliorating neuronal injuries. However, there is no well-defined therapeutic developed in this regard. In search of such therapeutics, Petrosiol E is identified here as a potent inducer to guide the differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells. Petrosiol E also considerably promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural ectoderm features...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Assaf Gal, Sanja Sviben, Richard Wirth, Anja Schreiber, Benedikt Lassalle-Kaiser, Damien Faivre, André Scheffel
Many organisms form minerals from precursor phases that crystallize under strict biological control. The dynamic intracellular processes of formation, transport, and deposition of these precursor phases are challenging to identify. An unusual situation is recently revealed for the calcifying alga Emiliania huxleyi, as the cells contain a compartment filled with a concentrated Ca and P phase but the final calcite crystals, which are nucleated in a different compartment, are P-free. Thus, the connection of the Ca-P-rich pool to the mineralization process remains unclear...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Liang Guo, Guangle Niu, Xiuli Zheng, Jiechao Ge, Weimin Liu, Qingyan Jia, Panpan Zhang, Hongyan Zhang, Pengfei Wang
Attaining consistently high performance of diagnostic and therapeutic functions in one single nanoplatform is of great significance for nanomedicine. This study demonstrates the use of donor-acceptor (D-A) structured polymer (TBT) to develop a smart "all-five-in-one" theranostic that conveniently integrates fluorescence/photoacoustic/thermal imaging and photodynamic/photothermal therapy into single nanoparticle. The prepared nanoparticles (TBTPNPs) exhibit near-infrared emission, high water solubility, excellent light resistance, good pH stability, and negligible toxicity...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Dezhi Ni, Shuang Qing, Hui Ding, Hua Yue, Di Yu, Shuang Wang, Nana Luo, Zhiguo Su, Wei Wei, Guanghui Ma
Failure in enhancing antigen immunogenicity has limited the development of cancer vaccine. Inspired by effective immune responses toward microorganisms, demi-bacteria (DB) from Bacillus are engineered as carriers for cancer vaccines. The explored hydrothermal treatment enables the Bacillus to preserve optimal pathogen morphology with intrinsic mannose receptor agonist. Meanwhile, the treated Bacillus can be further endowed with ideal hollow/porous structure for efficient accommodation of antigen and adjuvant, such as CpG...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jong-Wan Kim, Chinmaya Mahapatra, Jin-Young Hong, Min Soo Kim, Kam W Leong, Hae-Won Kim, Jung Keun Hyun
Spinal cord injury (SCI) produces excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can exacerbate secondary injury and lead to permanent functional impairment. Hypothesizing that cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as an effective ROS scavenger may offset this damaging effect, it is first demonstrated in vitro that CONPs suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) generation and enhanced cell viability of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-insulted cortical neurons. Next, CONPs are administered at various does (50-4000 µg mL(-1)) to a contused spinal cord rat model and monitored the disease progression for up to eight weeks...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Peng Wang, Xue Jiang, Jun Hu, Jijun Zhao
Continuous miniaturization of magnetic units in spintronics devices inspires efforts to search for novel 2D magnetic materials with giant magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE). Through systematic first-principles calculations, large MAE of 24 meV in W or Re embedded 2D polyporphyrin frameworks is found. Interestingly, the MAE can be enhanced up to 60 meV, through replacing the hydrogen atoms on the edges of the Re based 2D polyporphyrin framework by hydroxyl and amino radicals. Analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the enhancement of MAE is mainly attributed to charge redistributions and energy shifts of Re 5d orbitals induced by the functional radicals...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Xin Yao, Junhui Liang, Yuelong Li, Jingshan Luo, Biao Shi, Changchun Wei, Dekun Zhang, Baozhang Li, Yi Ding, Ying Zhao, Xiaodan Zhang
Intensive studies on low-temperature deposited electron transport materials have been performed to improve the efficiency of n-i-p type planar perovskite solar cells to extend their application on plastic and multijunction device architectures. Here, a TiO2 film with enhanced conductivity and tailored band edge is prepared by magnetron sputtering at room temperature by hydrogen doping (HTO), which accelerates the electron extraction from perovskite photoabsorber and reduces charge transfer resistance, resulting in an improved short circuit current density and fill factor...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Wanpeng Liu, Zhitao Zhou, Shaoqing Zhang, Zhifeng Shi, Justin Tabarini, Woonsoo Lee, Yeshun Zhang, S N Gilbert Corder, Xinxin Li, Fei Dong, Liang Cheng, Mengkun Liu, David L Kaplan, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, Guozheng Zhang, Ying Mao, Tiger H Tao
Precise patterning of biomaterials has widespread applications, including drug release, degradable implants, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Patterning of protein-based microstructures using UV-photolithography has been demonstrated using protein as the resist material. The Achilles heel of existing protein-based biophotoresists is the inevitable wide molecular weight distribution during the protein extraction/regeneration process, hindering their practical uses in the semiconductor industry where reliability and repeatability are paramount...
September 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Adam A L Michalchuk, Ivan A Tumanov, Sumit Konar, Simon A J Kimber, Colin R Pulham, Elena V Boldyreva
Mechanochemical methods offer unprecedented academic and industrial opportunities for solvent-free synthesis of novel materials. The need to study mechanochemical mechanisms is growing, and has led to the development of real-time in situ X-ray powder diffraction techniques (RI-XRPD). However, despite the power of RI-XRPD methods, there remain immense challenges. In the present contribution, many of these challenges are highlighted, and their effect on the interpretation of RI-XRPD data considered. A novel data processing technique is introduced for RI-XRPD, through which the solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis of an organic salt is followed as a case study...
September 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
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