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Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)

Wai-Yu Sit, Flurin D Eisner, Yen-Hung Lin, Yuliar Firdaus, Akmaral Seitkhan, Ahmed H Balawi, Frédéric Laquai, Claire H Burgess, Martyn A McLachlan, George Volonakis, Feliciano Giustino, Thomas D Anthopoulos
Fullerenes and their derivatives are widely used as electron acceptors in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells as they combine high electron mobility with good solubility and miscibility with relevant semiconducting polymers. However, studies on the use of fullerenes as the sole photogeneration and charge-carrier material are scarce. Here, a new type of solution-processed small-molecule solar cell based on the two most commonly used methanofullerenes, namely [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60 BM) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70 BM), as the light absorbing materials, is reported...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Sungjun In, Namkyoo Park
The application of nanophotonic structures for organic solar cells (OSCs) is quite popular and successful, and has led to increased optical absorption, better spectral overlap with solar irradiances, and improved charge collection. Significant improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) have also been reported, exceeding 11%. Nonetheless, with the given material properties of OSCs with low optical absorption, narrow spectrum, short transport length of carriers, and nonuniform photocarrier generations resulting from the nanophotonic structure, the PCE of single-junction OSCs has been stagnant over the past few years, at a barrier of 12%...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Zuqing Yuan, Xinyu Du, Nianwu Li, Yingying Yin, Ran Cao, Xiuling Zhang, Shuyu Zhao, Huidan Niu, Tao Jiang, Weihua Xu, Zhong Lin Wang, Congju Li
Private and security information for personal identification requires an encrypted tool to extend communication channels between human and machine through a convenient and secure method. Here, a triboelectric-based transparent secret code (TSC) that enables self-powered sensing and information identification simultaneously in a rapid process method is reported. The transparent and hydrophobic TSC can be conformed to any cambered surface due to its high flexibility, which extends the application scenarios greatly...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Artur Glavic, Brock Summers, Ashutosh Dahal, Joseph Kline, Walter Van Herck, Alexander Sukhov, Arthur Ernst, Deepak K Singh
The nature of magnetic correlation at low temperature in two-dimensional artificial magnetic honeycomb lattice is a strongly debated issue. While theoretical researches suggest that the system will develop a novel zero entropy spin solid state as T → 0 K, a confirmation to this effect in artificial honeycomb lattice of connected elements is lacking. This study reports on the investigation of magnetic correlation in newly designed artificial permalloy honeycomb lattice of ultrasmall elements, with a typical length of ≈12 nm, using neutron scattering measurements and temperature-dependent micromagnetic simulations...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Xiao Yan, David Wei Zhang, Chunsen Liu, Wenzhong Bao, Shuiyuan Wang, Shijin Ding, Gengfeng Zheng, Peng Zhou
2D layered materials (2DLMs), together with their heterostructures, have been attracting tremendous research interest in recent years because of their unique physical and electrical properties. A variety of circuit elements have been made using mechanically exfoliated 2DLMs recently, including hard drives, detectors, sensors, and complementary metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors. However, 2DLM-based amplifier circuit elements are rarely studied. Here, the integration of 2DLMs with 3D bulk materials to fabricate vertical junction transistors with current amplification based on a MoS2 /GaTe heterostructure is reported...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Šarūnė Daškevičiū Tė, Nobuya Sakai, Marius Franckevičius, Marytė Daškevičienė, Artiom Magomedov, Vygintas Jankauskas, Henry J Snaith, Vytautas Getautis
Novel nonspiro, fluorene-based, small-molecule hole transporting materials (HTMs) V1050 and V1061 are designed and synthesized using a facile three-step synthetic route. The synthesized compounds exhibit amorphous nature with a high glass transition temperature, a good solubility, and decent thermal stability. The planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) employing V1050 generated an excellent power conversion efficiency of 18.3%, which is comparable to 18.9% obtained with the state-of-the-art Spiro-OMeTAD. Importantly, the devices based on V1050 and V1061 show better stability compared to devices based on Spiro-OMeTAD when aged without any encapsulation under uncontrolled humidity conditions (relative humidity around 60%) in the dark and under continuous full sun illumination...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Qianqian Lin, Zhiping Wang, Henry J Snaith, Michael B Johnston, Laura M Herz
Perovskite solar cells have shown a meteoric rise of power conversion efficiency and a steady pace of improvements in their stability of operation. Such rapid progress has triggered research into approaches that can boost efficiencies beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit stipulated for a single-junction cell under normal solar illumination conditions. The tandem solar cell architecture is one concept here that has recently been successfully implemented. However, the approach of solar concentration has not been sufficiently explored so far for perovskite photovoltaics, despite its frequent use in the area of inorganic semiconductor solar cells...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Junrong Jiao, Feilong Zhang, Tian Jiao, Zhen Gu, Shutao Wang
Velcro, the most typical hook-loop interlocker, often suffers from undesirable deformation, breaking, and noise because of the structure of the hook. Inspired by the arrester system of dragonfly, a new mechanical interlocker with a nylon pestle instead of the traditional hook is developed. The pestle-loop mechanical interlocker shows a tunable peeling force from 0.4 ± 0.14 to 6.5 ± 0.72 N and the shear adhesion force of pestle-loop mechanical interlocker is about twice as much as that of velcro. The pestle tape can be separated and fastened with the loop tape up to 30 000 cycles while keeping the original adhesive force and the pestle structure...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Donghui Wang, Naijian Ge, Tingting Yang, Feng Peng, Yuqin Qiao, Qianwen Li, Xuanyong Liu
Construction of localized drug-eluting systems with synergistic chemothermal tumor-killing abilities is promising for biomedical implants directly contacting with tumor tissues. In this study, an intelligent and biocompatible drug-loading platform, based on a gold nanorods-modified butyrate-inserted NiTi-layered double hydroxides film (Au@LDH/B), is prepared on the surface of nitinol alloy. The prepared films function as drug-loading "sponges," which pump butyrate out under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation and resorb drugs in water when the NIR laser is shut off...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jing Zhao, Xu Yang, Ye Yao, Yu Gao, Yongming Sui, Bo Zou, Helmut Ehrenberg, Gang Chen, Fei Du
Polyanionic Na3 V2 (PO4 )2 F3 with a NASICON-type structure is heralded as a promising cathode material for sodium-ion batteries due to its fast ionic conduction, high working voltage, and favorable structural stability. However, a number of challenging issues remain regarding its rate capability and cycle life, which must be addressed to enable greater application compatibility. Here, a facile and effective approach that can be used to overcome these disadvantages by introducing an aqueous carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder is reported...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Xuekun Fu, Yunyan Li, Tongling Huang, Zhiwu Yu, Kun Ma, Meng Yang, Qingli Liu, Haobo Pan, Huaiyu Wang, Junfeng Wang, Min Guan
Citrate is essential to biomineralization of the bone especially as an integral part of apatite nanocomposite. Citrate precipitate of apatite is hypothesized to be derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) upon differentiation into mature osteoblasts. Based on 13 C-labeled signals identified by solid-state multinuclear magnetic resonance analysis, boosted mitochondrial activity and carbon-source replenishment of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates coordinate to feed forward mitochondrial anabolism and deposition of citrate...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jianjun Li, Dongxiao Wang, Xiuling Li, Yu Zeng, Yi Zhang
As a promising candidate for low-cost and environmentally friendly thin-film photovoltaics, the emerging kesterite-based Cu2 ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells have experienced rapid advances over the past decade. However, the record efficiency of CZTSSe solar cells (12.6%) is still significantly lower than those of its predecessors Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cells. This record has remained for several years. The main obstacle for this stagnation is unanimously attributed to the large open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) deficit...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jordi Cools, Qianru Jin, Eugene Yoon, Diego Alba Burbano, Zhenxiang Luo, Dieter Cuypers, Geert Callewaert, Dries Braeken, David H Gracias
Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have proved to be useful tools for characterizing electrically active cells such as cardiomyocytes and neurons. While there exist a number of integrated electronic chips for recording from small populations or even single cells, they rely primarily on the interface between the cells and 2D flat electrodes. Here, an approach that utilizes residual stress-based self-folding to create individually addressable multielectrode interfaces that wrap around the cell in 3D and function as an electrical shell-like recording device is described...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Shutao Wang, Kostiantyn V Kravchyk, Alejandro N Filippin, Ulrich Müller, Ayodhya N Tiwari, Stephan Buecheler, Maryna I Bodnarchuk, Maksym V Kovalenko
In the search for low-cost and large-scale stationary storage of electricity, nonaqueous aluminum chloride-graphite batteries (AlCl3 -GBs) have received much attention due to the high natural abundances of their primary constituents, facile manufacturing, and high energy densities. Much research has focused on the judicious selection of graphite cathode materials, leading to the most notable recent advances in the performance of AlCl3 -GBs. However, the major obstacle to commercializing this technology is the lack of oxidatively stable, inexpensive current collectors that can operate in chloroaluminate ionic liquids and are composed of earth-abundant elements...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jing Pan, Yang Yang Xu, Huan Yang, Zehua Dong, Hongfang Liu, Bao Yu Xia
Zn-air batteries are becoming the promising power sources for portable and wearable electronic devices and hybrid/electric vehicles because of their high specific energy density and the low cost for next-generation green and sustainable energy technologies. An air electrode integrated with an oxygen electrocatalyst is the most important component and inevitably determines the performance and cost of a Zn-air battery. This article presents exciting advances and challenges related to air electrodes and their relatives...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Hao-Lin Wu, Xu-Bing Li, Chen-Ho Tung, Li-Zhu Wu
The increasing demand for sustainable and environmentally benign energy has stimulated intense research to establish highly efficient photo-electrochemical (PEC) cells for direct solar-to-fuel conversion via water splitting. Light absorption, as the initial step of the catalytic process, is regarded as the foundation of establishing highly efficient PEC systems. To make full use of visible light, sensitization on photoelectrodes using either molecular dyes or semiconducting quantum dots provides a promising method...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Brian Nguyen, Percival J Graham, Chelsea M Rochman, David Sinton
A platform compatible with microtiter plates to parallelize environmental treatments to test the complex impacts of multiple stressors, including parameters relevant to climate change and point source pollutants is developed. This platform leverages (1) the high rate of purely diffusive gas transport in aerogels to produce well-defined centimeter-scale gas concentration gradients, (2) spatial light control, and (3) established automated liquid handling. The parallel gaseous, aqueous, and light control provided by the platform is compatible with multiparameter experiments across the life sciences...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Qiuyu Gong, Ruifen Zou, Jie Xing, Lingchao Xiang, Renshuai Zhang, Aiguo Wu
Previous study showed that pyroglutamate aminopeptidase 1 (PGP-1) has a relationship with the immune response in cells. However, whether PGP-1 is involved in inflammatory response in vivo and can serve as a new inflammatory cytokine are still unclear. To address these issues, a new near-infrared fluorescent probe, which exhibits high selectivity and super sensitivity, is developed. With this probe, the up-regulation of PGP-1 (evidenced by western blot) in BALB/c mice legs and livers under the stimulation of two main immunopotentiators is revealed for the first time...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Shuhua Yang, Yuanyue Liu, Yufeng Hao, Xiaopeng Yang, William A Goddard, Xiao Li Zhang, Bingqiang Cao
The metal oxides/graphene composites are one of the most promising supercapacitors (SCs) electrode materials. However, rational synthesis of such electrode materials with controllable conductivity and electrochemical activity is the topical challenge for high-performance SCs. Here, the Co3 O4 /graphene composite is taken as a typical example and develops a novel/universal one-step laser irradiation method that overcomes all these challenges and obtains the oxygen-vacancy abundant ultrafine Co3 O4 nanoparticles/graphene (UCNG) composites with high SCs performance...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Ruixin Xu, Kaili Zhang, Xiangyang Xu, Minghui He, Fachuang Lu, Bin Su
Underwater vibration detection is of great importance in personal safety, environmental protection, and military defense. Sealing layers are required in many underwater sensor architectures, leading to limited working-life and reduced sensitivity. Here, a flexible, superhydrophobic, and conductive tungsten disulfide (WS2 ) nanosheets-wrapped sponge (SCWS) is reported for the high-sensitivity detection of tiny vibration from the water surfaces and from the grounds. When the SCWS is immersed in water, a continuous layer of bubbles forms on its surfaces, providing the sensor with two special abilities...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
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