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Horticulture Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904803/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-during-early-fruit-development-between-three-seedy-citrus-genotypes-and-their-seedless-mutants
#1
Shujian Zhang, Qingchun Shi, Ute Albrecht, Robert G Shatters, Ric Stange, Greg McCollum, Shuo Zhang, Chengming Fan, Ed Stover
Identification of genes with differential transcript abundance (GDTA) in seedless mutants may enhance understanding of seedless citrus development. Transcriptome analysis was conducted at three time points during early fruit development (Phase 1) of three seedy citrus genotypes: Fallglo (Bower citrus hybrid (Citrus reticulata×C. reticulata×C. paradisi)×Temple (C. reticulata×C. sinensis)), grapefruit (C. paradisi), Pineapple sweet orange (C. sinensis), and their seedless mutants. Seed abortion in seedless mutants was observed at 26 days post anthesis (Time point 2)...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791127/patterns-of-genomic-and-phenomic-diversity-in-wine-and-table-grapes
#2
Zoë Migicovsky, Jason Sawler, Kyle M Gardner, Mallikarjuna K Aradhya, Bernard H Prins, Heidi R Schwaninger, Carlos D Bustamante, Edward S Buckler, Gan-Yuan Zhong, Patrick J Brown, Sean Myles
Grapes are one of the most economically and culturally important crops worldwide, and they have been bred for both winemaking and fresh consumption. Here we evaluate patterns of diversity across 33 phenotypes collected over a 17-year period from 580 table and wine grape accessions that belong to one of the world's largest grape gene banks, the grape germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture. We find that phenological events throughout the growing season are correlated, and quantify the marked difference in size between table and wine grapes...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785415/the-wrky-transcription-factor-hpwrky44-regulates-cytp450-like1-expression-in-red-pitaya-fruit-hylocereus-polyrhizus
#3
Mei-Nv Cheng, Zi-Juan Huang, Qing-Zhu Hua, Wei Shan, Jian-Fei Kuang, Wang-Jin Lu, Yong-Hua Qin, Jian-Ye Chen
Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) fruit is a high-value, functional food, containing a high level of betalains. Several genes potentially related to betalain biosynthesis, such as cytochrome P450-like (CytP450-like), have been identified in pitaya fruit, while their transcriptional regulation remains unclear. In this work, the potential involvement of a WRKY transcription factor, HpWRKY44, in regulating CytP450-like1 expression in pitaya fruit was examined. HpWRKY44, a member of the Group 1 WRKY family, contains two conserved WRKY motifs and is localized in the nucleus...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785414/pathogen-development-and-host-responses-to-plasmopara-viticola-in-resistant-and-susceptible-grapevines-an-ultrastructural-study
#4
Xiao Yin, Rui-Qi Liu, Hang Su, Li Su, Yu-Rui Guo, Zi-Jia Wang, Wei Du, Mei-Jie Li, Xi Zhang, Yue-Jin Wang, Guo-Tian Liu, Yan Xu
The downy mildew disease in grapevines is caused by Plasmopara viticola. This disease poses a serious threat wherever viticulture is practiced. Wild Vitis species showing resistance to P. viticola offer a promising pathway to develop new grapevine cultivars resistant to P. viticola which will allow reduced use of environmentally unfriendly fungicides. Here, transmission and scanning microscopy was used to compare the resistance responses to downy mildew of three resistant genotypes of V. davidii var. cyanocarpa, V...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758015/applying-generalized-additive-models-to-unravel-dynamic-changes-in-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-methyl-jasmonate-elicited-grapevine-vitis-vinifera-cv-gamay-cell-cultures
#5
Nay Min Min Thaw Saw, Claudio Moser, Stefan Martens, Pietro Franceschi
Plant cell cultures represent important model systems to understand metabolism and its modulation by regulatory factors. Even in controlled conditions, cell metabolism is highly dynamic and can be fully characterized only by time course experiments. Here, we show that statistical analysis of this type of data gains power if it moves to approaches able to compare the 'trends' of the different metabolites. In particular, we show how generalized additive models can be used to model the time-dependent profile of anthocyanin synthesis in grapevine cell suspension cultures (Vitis vinifera cv...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713572/a-transcriptome-analysis-of-two-grapevine-populations-segregating-for-tendril-phyllotaxy
#6
Jie Arro, Jose Cuenca, Yingzhen Yang, Zhenchang Liang, Peter Cousins, Gan-Yuan Zhong
The shoot structure of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera L. typically exhibits a three-node modular repetitive pattern, two sequential leaf-opposed tendrils followed by a tendril-free node. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of this pattern by characterizing differentially expressed genes in 10 bulk samples of young tendril tissue from two grapevine populations showing segregation of mutant or wild-type shoot/tendril phyllotaxy. One population was the selfed progeny and the other one, an outcrossed progeny of a Vitis hybrid, 'Roger's Red'...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698797/new-technologies-accelerate-the-exploration-of-non-coding-rnas-in-horticultural-plants
#7
REVIEW
Degao Liu, Ritesh Mewalal, Rongbin Hu, Gerald A Tuskan, Xiaohan Yang
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), that is, RNAs not translated into proteins, are crucial regulators of a variety of biological processes in plants. While protein-encoding genes have been relatively well-annotated in sequenced genomes, accounting for a small portion of the genome space in plants, the universe of plant ncRNAs is rapidly expanding. Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have generated a great momentum for discovery and functional characterization of ncRNAs. Here we summarize the classification and known biological functions of plant ncRNAs, review the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and ribosome profiling technology to ncRNA discovery in horticultural plants and discuss the application of new technologies, especially the new genome-editing tool clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) systems, to functional characterization of plant ncRNAs...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674614/an-efp-browser-for-visualizing-strawberry-fruit-and-flower-transcriptomes
#8
Charles Hawkins, Julie Caruana, Jiaming Li, Chris Zawora, Omar Darwish, Jun Wu, Nadim Alkharouf, Zhongchi Liu
Wild strawberry Fragaria vesca is emerging as an important model system for the cultivated strawberry due to its diploid genome and availability of extensive transcriptome data and a range of molecular genetic tools. Being able to better utilize these tools, especially the transcriptome data, will greatly facilitate research progress in strawberry and other Rosaceae fruit crops. The electronic fluorescent pictograph (eFP) software is a useful and popular tool to display transcriptome data visually, and is widely used in other model organisms including Arabidopsis and mouse...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638623/the-genetic-architecture-of-growth-traits-in-salix-matsudana-under-salt-stress
#9
Jian Zhang, Huwei Yuan, Qingshan Yang, Min Li, Ying Wang, Yujuan Li, Xiangjian Ma, Feng Tan, Rongling Wu
Willow (Salix) is one of the most important ornamental tree species in landscape plants. One species, Salix matsudana, is widely used as a shade tree and border tree because of its soft branches and plump crown. Some varieties of S. matsudana were salt tolerant and could grow normally in coastal regions. However, the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance for S. matsudana have been less clear. Here, we addressed this issue by performing a mapping experiment containing 195 intraspecific F1 progeny of S. matsudana, derived from salt-sensitive 'yanjiang' and salt-tolerant '9901', grown by cuttings in a 100 mM NaCl solution...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611922/the-bzip-transcription-factor-mdhy5-regulates-anthocyanin-accumulation-and-nitrate-assimilation-in-apple
#10
Jian-Ping An, Feng-Jia Qu, Ji-Fang Yao, Xiao-Na Wang, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor HY5 plays a multifaceted role in plant growth and development. Here the apple MdHY5 gene was cloned based on its homology with Arabidopsis HY5. Expression analysis demonstrated that MdHY5 transcription was induced by light and abscisic acid treatments. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transient expression assays subsequently showed that MdHY5 positively regulated both its own transcription and that of MdMYB10 by binding to E-box and G-box motifs, respectively...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580151/transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-cucumber-fruit-peels-reveal-a-developmental-increase-in-terpenoid-glycosides-associated-with-age-related-resistance-to-phytophthora-capsici
#11
Ben N Mansfeld, Marivi Colle, Yunyan Kang, A Daniel Jones, Rebecca Grumet
The oomycete, Phytophthora capsici, infects cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit. An age-related resistance (ARR) to this pathogen was previously observed in fruit of cultivar 'Vlaspik' and shown to be associated with the peel. Young fruits are highly susceptible, but develop resistance at ~10-12 days post pollination (dpp). Peels from resistant (16 dpp) versus susceptible (8 dpp) age fruit are enriched with genes associated with defense, and methanolic extracts from resistant age peels inhibit pathogen growth...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580150/additive-qtls-on-three-chromosomes-control-flowering-time-in-woodland-strawberry-fragaria-vesca-l
#12
Samia Samad, Takeshi Kurokura, Elli Koskela, Tuomas Toivainen, Vipul Patel, Katriina Mouhu, Daniel James Sargent, Timo Hytönen
Flowering time is an important trait that affects survival, reproduction and yield in both wild and cultivated plants. Therefore, many studies have focused on the identification of flowering time quantitative trait locus (QTLs) in different crops, and molecular control of this trait has been extensively investigated in model species. Here we report the mapping of QTLs for flowering time and vegetative traits in a large woodland strawberry mapping population that was phenotyped both under field conditions and in a greenhouse after flower induction in the field...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529757/enzyme-activities-and-gene-expression-of-starch-metabolism-provide-insights-into-grape-berry-development
#13
Xudong Zhu, Chaobo Zhang, Weimin Wu, Xiaopeng Li, Chuan Zhang, Jinggui Fang
Grapes are categorized as a non-climacteric type of fruit which its ripening is not associated to important rises in respiration and ethylene synthesis. The starch metabolism shares a certain role in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways during grape berry development, and is regarded as an important transient pool in the pathway of sugar accumulation. However, the comprehensive role of starch and its contribution to the quality and flavor of grape berry have not been explored thoroughly. In this study, the expression levels of genes enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentrations related to starch metabolism, were analyzed to understand the molecular mechanism of starch accumulation during grape berry development...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503311/a-community-resource-for-exploring-and-utilizing-genetic-diversity-in-the-usda-pea-single-plant-plus-collection
#14
William L Holdsworth, Elodie Gazave, Peng Cheng, James R Myers, Michael A Gore, Clarice J Coyne, Rebecca J McGee, Michael Mazourek
Globally, pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important temperate legume crop for food, feed and fodder, and many breeding programs develop cultivars adapted to these end-uses. In order to assist pea development efforts, we assembled the USDA Pea Single Plant Plus Collection (PSPPC), which contains 431 P. sativum accessions with morphological, geographic and taxonomic diversity. The collection was characterized genetically in order to maximize its value for trait mapping and genomics-assisted breeding. To that end, we used genotyping-by-sequencing-a cost-effective method for de novo single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker discovery-to generate 66 591 high-quality SNPs...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451438/genotyping-by-sequencing-of-pear-pyrus-spp-accessions-unravels-novel-patterns-of-genetic-diversity-and-selection-footprints
#15
Satish Kumar, Chris Kirk, Cecilia Deng, Claudia Wiedow, Mareike Knaebel, Lester Brewer
Understanding of genetic diversity and marker-trait relationships in pears (Pyrus spp.) forms an important part of gene conservation and cultivar breeding. Accessions of Asian and European pear species, and interspecific hybrids were planted in a common garden experiment. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used to genotype 214 accessions, which were also phenotyped for fruit quality traits. A combination of selection scans and association analyses were used to identify signatures of selection. Patterns of genetic diversity, population structure and introgression were also investigated...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446955/combination-of-cyclamen-persicum-mill-floral-gene-promoters-and-chimeric-repressors-for-the-modification-of-ornamental-traits-in-torenia-fournieri-lind
#16
Ichiro Kasajima, Norihiro Ohtsubo, Katsutomo Sasaki
Although chimeric repressors such as the Arabidopsis TCP3 repressor are known to have significant effects on flower morphology and color, their cellular-level effects on flower petals are not understood. The promoter sequences of the genes expressed in the flowers of cyclamen, a representative potted flower grown during the winter season, are also unknown. Here, we isolated eight promoters from cyclamen genes that are reportedly expressed in the petals. These promoters were then fused to four chimeric repressors and introduced into the model flower torenia to screen for effective combinations of promoters and repressors for flower breeding...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435686/apple-dwarfing-rootstocks-exhibit-an-imbalance-in-carbohydrate-allocation-and-reduced-cell-growth-and-metabolism
#17
Toshi M Foster, Peter A McAtee, Chethi N Waite, Helen L Boldingh, Tony K McGhie
Apple dwarfing rootstocks cause earlier shoot termination and reduced root and shoot mass. To identify physiological factors responsible for rootstock-induced growth restriction, we compared vascular-enriched gene expression between two dwarfing rootstocks ('M27' and 'M9') and the vigorous rootstock 'M793' using RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Differentially expressed genes common to both dwarfing rootstocks belonged to five main biological processes: (1) primary metabolism, (2) cell wall synthesis and modification, (3) secondary metabolism, (4) hormone signalling and response and (5) redox homeostasis...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326185/dna-informed-breeding-of-rosaceous-crops-promises-progress-and-prospects
#18
REVIEW
Cameron P Peace
Crops of the Rosaceae family provide valuable contributions to rural economies and human health and enjoyment. Sustained solutions to production challenges and market demands can be met with genetically improved new cultivars. Traditional rosaceous crop breeding is expensive and time-consuming and would benefit from improvements in efficiency and accuracy. Use of DNA information is becoming conventional in rosaceous crop breeding, contributing to many decisions and operations, but only after past decades of solved challenges and generation of sufficient resources...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280542/differential-gene-expression-analysis-of-chili-pyrus-bretschneideri-fruit-pericarp-with-two-types-of-bagging-treatments
#19
Yuling Wang, Xinfu Zhang, Ran Wang, Yingxin Bai, Chenglian Liu, Yongbing Yuan, Yingjie Yang, Shaolan Yang
Preharvest bagging is a simple, grower-friendly and safe physical protection technique commonly applied to many fruits, and the application of different fruit bags can have various effects. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the fruit quality effects of different bagging treatments, digital gene expression (DGE) profiling of bagged and unbagged 'Chili' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) pear pericarp during development was performed. Relative to unbagged fruit, a total of 3022 and 769 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the polyethylene (PE)-bagged and non-woven fabric-bagged fruit, respectively...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243453/selection-for-production-related-traits-in-pelargonium-zonale-improved-design-and-analysis-make-all-the-difference
#20
Heike Molenaar, Martin Glawe, Robert Boehm, Hans-Peter Piepho
Ornamental plant variety improvement is limited by current phenotyping approaches and neglected use of experimental designs. The present study was conducted to show the benefits of using an experimental design and corresponding analysis in ornamental breeding regarding simulated response to selection in Pelargonium zonale for production-related traits. This required establishment of phenotyping protocols for root formation and stem cutting counts, with which 974 genotypes were assessed in a two-phase experimental design...
2017: Horticulture Research
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