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Horticulture Research

Longzheng Chen, Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Jing Ding, Xianbin Gu, Yanjun Li, Tingting Gu, Ren Wang, Xinchun Lin, Ziniu Deng, Richard J McAvoy, Frederick G Gmitter, Zhanao Deng, Yunde Zhao, Yi Li
Developing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutants in asexually propagated perennial crop plants is challenging but highly desirable. Here, we report a highly useful method using an Agrobacterium -mediated transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene expression system to create non-transgenic mutant plants without the need for sexual segregation. We have also developed a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput mutant screening protocol based on Illumina sequencing followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Using tetraploid tobacco as a model species and the phytoene desaturase ( PDS ) gene as a target, we successfully created and expediently identified mutant plants, which were verified as tetra-allelic mutants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Biao Jin
Ginkgo biloba is grown worldwide as an ornamental plant for its golden leaf color. However, the regulatory mechanism of leaf coloration in G. biloba remains unclear. Here, we compared G. biloba gold-colored mutant leaves and normal green leaves in cytological, physiological and transcriptomic terms. We found that chloroplasts of the mutant were fewer and smaller, and exhibited ruptured thylakoid membranes, indistinct stromal lamellae and irregularly arranged vesicles. Physiological experiments also showed that the mutant had a lower chlorophyll, lower flavonoid and higher carotenoid contents (especially lutein)...
2018: Horticulture Research
Francois Laurens, Maria José Aranzana, Pere Arus, Daniele Bassi, Marco Bink, Joan Bonany, Andrea Caprera, Luca Corelli-Grappadelli, Evelyne Costes, Charles-Eric Durel, Jehan-Baptiste Mauroux, Hélène Muranty, Nelson Nazzicari, Thierry Pascal, Andrea Patocchi, Andreas Peil, Bénédicte Quilot-Turion, Laura Rossini, Alessandra Stella, Michela Troggio, Riccardo Velasco, Eric van de Weg
Despite the availability of whole genome sequences of apple and peach, there has been a considerable gap between genomics and breeding. To bridge the gap, the European Union funded the FruitBreedomics project (March 2011 to August 2015) involving 28 research institutes and private companies. Three complementary approaches were pursued: (i) tool and software development, (ii) deciphering genetic control of main horticultural traits taking into account allelic diversity and (iii) developing plant materials, tools and methodologies for breeders...
2018: Horticulture Research
Jason P Londo, Alisson P Kovaleski, Jacquelyn A Lillis
Low-temperature stresses limit the sustainability and productivity of grapevines when early spring frosts damage young grapevine leaves. Spring conditions often expose grapevines to low, but not damaging, chilling temperatures and these temperatures have been shown to increase freeze resistance in other model systems. In this study, we examined whole-transcriptome gene expression patterns of young leaf tissue from cuttings of five different grapevine cultivars, exposed to chill and freeze shock, in order to understand the underlying transcriptional landscape associated with cold stress response...
2018: Horticulture Research
Ning Jiang, Jun Meng, Jun Cui, Guangxin Sun, Yushi Luan
Tomato is an important horticultural and economic crop cultivated worldwide. As Phytophthora infestans becomes a huge threat to tomato production, it is necessary to study the resistance mechanisms of tomato against P. infestans . Our previous research has found that miR482 might be involved in tomato- P . infestans interaction. In this study, miR482b precursor was cloned from Solanum pimpinellifolium "L3708" and miR482b was shown to decrease in abundance in tomato following P . infestans infection...
2018: Horticulture Research
Rubina Jibran, Helge Dzierzon, Nahla Bassil, Jill M Bushakra, Patrick P Edger, Shawn Sullivan, Chad E Finn, Michael Dossett, Kelly J Vining, Robert VanBuren, Todd C Mockler, Ivan Liachko, Kevin M Davies, Toshi M Foster, David Chagné
Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a niche fruit crop valued for its flavor and potential health benefits. The improvement of fruit and cane characteristics via molecular breeding technologies has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. The recently released draft genome for black raspberry (ORUS 4115-3) lacks assembly of scaffolds to chromosome scale. We used high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) and Proximity-Guided Assembly (PGA) to cluster and order 9650 out of 11,936 contigs of this draft genome assembly into seven pseudo-chromosomes...
2018: Horticulture Research
Jiazhi Shen, Zhongwei Zou, Xuzhou Zhang, Lin Zhou, Yuhua Wang, Wanping Fang, Xujun Zhu
Purple-leaf tea plants, as anthocyanin-rich cultivars, are valuable materials for manufacturing teas with unique colors or flavors. In this study, a new purple-leaf cultivar "Zixin" ("ZX") was examined, and its biochemical variation and mechanism of leaf color change were elucidated. The metabolomes of leaves of "ZX" at completely purple, intermediately purple, and completely green stages were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Metabolites in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway remained at high levels in purple leaves, whereas intermediates of porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and carotenoid biosynthesis exhibited high levels in green leaves...
2018: Horticulture Research
Man Zhu, Jiajia Lin, Junli Ye, Rui Wang, Chao Yang, Jinli Gong, Yun Liu, Chongling Deng, Ping Liu, Chuanwu Chen, Yunjiang Cheng, Xiuxin Deng, Yunliu Zeng
Elaioplasts of citrus peel are colorless plastids which accumulate significant amounts of terpenes. However, other functions of elaioplasts have not been fully characterized to date. Here, a LC-MS/MS shotgun technology was applied to identify the proteins from elaioplasts that were highly purified from young fruit peel of kumquat. A total of 655 putative plastid proteins were identified from elaioplasts according to sequence homology in silico and manual curation. Based on functional classification via Mapman, ~50% of the identified proteins fall into six categories, including protein metabolism, transport, and lipid metabolism...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xiangyu Qi, Haibin Wang, Aiping Song, Jiafu Jiang, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen
Allopolyploid formation involves two major events: interspecific hybridization and polyploidization. A number of species in the Asteraceae family are polyploids because of frequent hybridization. The effects of hybridization on genomics and transcriptomics in Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrids have been reported. In this study, we obtained allopolyploids by applying a colchicine treatment to a synthesized C. nankingense×T. vulgare hybrid. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP), and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies were used to investigate the genomic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic alterations in both the hybrid and allopolyploids...
2018: Horticulture Research
Amanda M Hulse-Kemp, Shamoni Maheshwari, Kevin Stoffel, Theresa A Hill, David Jaffe, Stephen R Williams, Neil Weisenfeld, Srividya Ramakrishnan, Vijay Kumar, Preyas Shah, Michael C Schatz, Deanna M Church, Allen Van Deynze
Linked-Read sequencing technology has recently been employed successfully for de novo assembly of human genomes, however, the utility of this technology for complex plant genomes is unproven. We evaluated the technology for this purpose by sequencing the 3.5-gigabase (Gb) diploid pepper (Capsicum annuum) genome with a single Linked-Read library. Plant genomes, including pepper, are characterized by long, highly similar repetitive sequences. Accordingly, significant effort is used to ensure that the sequenced plant is highly homozygous and the resulting assembly is a haploid consensus...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xuelin Wang, Feng Cheng, Dekai Rohlsen, Changwei Bi, Chunyan Wang, Yiqing Xu, Suyun Wei, Qiaolin Ye, Tongming Yin, Ning Ye
Although organellar genomes (including chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes) are smaller than nuclear genomes in size and gene number, organellar genomes are very important for the investigation of plant evolution and molecular ecology mechanisms. Few studies have focused on the organellar genomes of horticultural plants. Approximately 1193 chloroplast genomes and 199 mitochondrial genomes of land plants are available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), of which only 39 are from horticultural plants...
2018: Horticulture Research
E O Deedi Sogbohossou, Enoch G Achigan-Dako, Patrick Maundu, Svein Solberg, Edgar M S Deguenon, Rita H Mumm, Iago Hale, Allen Van Deynze, M Eric Schranz
Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of "orphan" or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of the current knowledge on leafy vegetables with a focus on Gynandropsis gynandra, a highly nutritious species used in Africa and Asia, and highlight general and species-specific guidelines for participatory, genomics-assisted breeding of orphan crops...
2018: Horticulture Research
Lulu Liu, Zhigang Wang, Jianlong Liu, Fengxia Liu, Rui Zhai, Chunqin Zhu, Huibin Wang, Fengwang Ma, Lingfei Xu
Phytohormones play crucial roles in fruit set regulation and development. Here, gibberellins (GA4+7), but not GA3, induced pear parthenocarpy. To systematically investigate the changes upon GA4+7 induced pear parthenocarpy, dynamic changes in histology, hormone and transcript levels were observed and identified in unpollinated, pollinated and GA4+7-treated ovaries. Mesocarp cells continued developing in both GA4+7-treated and pollinated ovaries. In unpollinated ovaries, mesocarp cells stopped developing 14 days after anthesis...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xia Ye, Huiyu Wang, Peng Chen, Bing Fu, Mengyang Zhang, Jidong Li, Xianbo Zheng, Bin Tan, Jiancan Feng
Jujube witches' broom (JWB) is caused by infection with a phytoplasma. A multi-omics approach was taken during graft infection of jujube by JWB-infected scion through the analysis of the plant transcriptome, proteome and phytohormone levels. A high number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified 37 weeks after grafting (WAG), followed by observation of typical symptoms of JWB at 48 WAG. At 37 WAG, the majority of the upregulated DEGs and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were related to flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis...
2017: Horticulture Research
Peng Wu, Wenli Wang, Ying Li, Xilin Hou
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade signal transduction modules play crucial roles in regulating many biological processes in plants. These cascades are composed of three classes of hierarchically organized protein kinases, MAPKKKs, MAPKKs and MAPKs. Here, we analyzed gene retention, phylogenetic, evolution and expression patterns of MAPK cascade genes in Brassica rapa. We further found that the MAPK branches, classes III and IV, appeared after the split of bryophytes and green algae after analyzing the MAPK cascade genes in 8 species, and their rapid expansion led to the great size of the families of MAPKs...
2017: Horticulture Research
Wei Hu, Sabrina Fagundez, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Yanjun Li, Wei Li, Yingnan Chen, Xiaomin Wang, Ziniu Deng, Shenxi Xie, Richard J McAvoy, Yi Li
Endogenous auxin is an important regulator of in vivo organ development, but its role in in vitro organogenesis is unclear. It has been observed that the basal end of epicotyl cuttings of juvenile citrus seedlings produces fewer shoots than the apical end. Here, we report that elevated endogenous auxin levels in the basal end of citrus epicotyl cuttings are inhibitory for in vitro shoot organogenesis. Using transgenic citrus plants expressing an auxin-inducible GUS reporter gene, we have observed elevated levels of auxin at the basal end of stem cuttings that are mediated by polar auxin transport...
2017: Horticulture Research
Ji Tian, Meng-Chen Chen, Jie Zhang, Ke-Ting Li, Ting-Ting Song, Xi Zhang, Yun-Cong Yao
Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites in land plants that contribute to the colors of leaves and flowers, and are nutritionally valuable components of the human diet. The DFR gene plays an important role in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we investigated the regulation of DFR expression and in different Malus crabapple cultivars that show distinct patterns of leaf coloration, and how it influences leaf anthocyanin accumulation and coloration. Specifically, we studied the ever-red leaved cultivar 'Royalty', the ever-green leaved cultivar 'Flame' and the spring-red leaved cultivar 'Radiant'...
2017: Horticulture Research
Chika C Nwugo, Venkatesan G Sengoda, Li Tian, Hong Lin
Transcriptional analyses identified molecular mechanisms associated with the response of leaf and root potato tissues to 'Candidatus. Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) infection, presumptive causal agent of zebra chip disease (ZC). Putative Lso infection affected several host processes including defense response-, regulation-, starch metabolism- and energy production-related processes. Interestingly, while proteinase inhibitors were strongly upregulated in leaf tissues, a concomitant downregulation was observed in root tissues...
2017: Horticulture Research
Lorenza Dalla Costa, Mickael Malnoy, Ivana Gribaudo
The new plant breeding technologies (NPBTs) have recently emerged as powerful tools in the context of 'green' biotechnologies. They have wide potential compared to classical genetic engineering and they are attracting the interest of politicians, stakeholders and citizens due to the revolutionary impact they may have on agriculture. Cisgenesis and genome editing potentially allow to obtain pathogen-resistant plants or plants with enhanced qualitative traits by introducing or disrupting specific genes in shorter times compared to traditional breeding programs and by means of minimal modifications in the plant genome...
2017: Horticulture Research
Qibin Yu, Chunxian Chen, Dongliang Du, Ming Huang, Jiqiang Yao, Fahong Yu, Ronald H Brlansky, Frederick G Gmitter
Huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus infected by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus ( C Las) has caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry. No resistant genotypes have been identified in citrus species or close relatives. Among citrus varieties, rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri ) has been considered tolerant due to its ability to produce a healthy flush of new growth after infection. The difference between tolerance and susceptibility is often defined by the speed and intensity of a plant's response to a pathogen, especially early defense responses...
2017: Horticulture Research
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