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Horticulture Research

Zachary Stansell, Katie Hyma, Jonathan Fresnedo-Ramírez, Qi Sun, Sharon Mitchell, Thomas Björkman, Jian Hua
Brassica oleracea forms a diverse and economically significant crop group. Improvement efforts are often hindered by limited knowledge of diversity contained within available germplasm. Here, we employ genotyping-by-sequencing to investigate a diverse panel of 85 landrace and improved B. oleracea broccoli, cauliflower, and Chinese kale entries. Ultimately, 21,680 high-quality SNPs were used to reveal a complex and admixed population structure and clarify phylogenetic relationships among B. oleracea groups. Each broccoli landrace contained, on average, 8...
2018: Horticulture Research
Yuying Qi, Yanan Liu, Zixin Zhang, Jiaojiao Gao, Zhiyong Guan, Weimin Fang, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen, Jiafu Jiang
The enzyme RNAPII CTD phosphatase-like 1 is known as a transcriptional regulator of the plant response to various abiotic stresses. Here, the isolation of CmCPL1 , a chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum morifolium ) gene encoding this enzyme is described. Its predicted 955 residue gene product includes the FCPH catalytic domain, two double-stranded RNA binding motifs, and a nuclear localization signal. A sub-cellular localization assay confirmed that CmCPL1 was expressed in the nucleus. CmCPL1 transcription was shown to be significantly inducible by heat stress...
2018: Horticulture Research
Paula Elomaa, Yafei Zhao, Teng Zhang
Inflorescences in the Asteraceae plant family, flower heads, or capitula, mimic single flowers but are highly compressed structures composed of multiple flowers. This transference of a flower-like appearance into an inflorescence level is considered as the key innovation for the rapid tribal radiation of Asteraceae. Recent molecular data indicate that Asteraceae flower heads resemble single flowers not only morphologically but also at molecular level. We summarize this data giving examples of how rewiring of conserved floral regulators have led to evolution of morphological innovations in Asteraceae...
2018: Horticulture Research
André F Colaço, José P Molin, Joan R Rosell-Polo, Alexandre Escolà
Ultrasonic and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors have been some of the most deeply investigated sensing technologies within the scope of digital horticulture. They can accurately estimate geometrical and structural parameters of the tree canopies providing input information for high-throughput phenotyping and precision horticulture. A review was conducted in order to describe how these technologies evolved and identify the main investigated topics, applications, and key points for future investigations in horticulture science...
2018: Horticulture Research
Annarita Marrano, Diego Micheletti, Silvia Lorenzi, David Neale, M Stella Grando
The application of population genetic methods in combination with gene mapping strategies can help to identify genes and mutations selected during the evolution from wild plants to crops and to explore the considerable genetic variation still maintained in natural populations. We genotyped a grapevine germplasm collection of 44 wild ( Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris ) and 48 cultivated ( V. vinifera subsp. sativa ) accessions at 54 K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to perform a whole-genome comparison of the main population genetic statistics...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xiao Yang, Shiwei Wei, Bin Liu, Doudou Guo, Bangxiao Zheng, Lei Feng, Yumin Liu, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Lijun Luo, Danfeng Huang
Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable that represents a significant dietary source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. However, the levels of metabolites in different lettuce cultivars are poorly characterized. In this study, we used combined GC × GC-TOF/MS and UPLC-IMS-QTOF/MS to detect and relatively quantify metabolites in 30 lettuce cultivars representing large genetic diversity. Comparison with online databases, the published literature, standards as well using collision cross-section values enabled putative identification of 171 metabolites...
2018: Horticulture Research
Wei-Xing Li, Shun-Bo Yang, Zhaogeng Lu, Zhi-Chong He, Yun-Ling Ye, Bei-Bei Zhao, Li Wang, Biao Jin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41438-018-0015-4.].
2018: Horticulture Research
Xingwang Liu, Ting Wang, Ezra Bartholomew, Kezia Black, Mingming Dong, Yaqi Zhang, Sen Yang, Yanling Cai, Shudan Xue, Yiqun Weng, Huazhong Ren
The cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) is an important vegetable crop worldwide, and fruit trichomes or spines are an important trait for external fruit quality. The mechanisms underlying spine formation are not well understood, but the plant-specific NAC family of transcription factors may play important roles in fruit spine initiation and development. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey and identified 91 NAC gene homologs in the cucumber genome. Clustering analysis classified these genes into six subfamilies; each contained a varying number of NAC family members with a similar intron-exon structure and conserved motifs...
2018: Horticulture Research
Fang Ding, Victoria Allen, Weiqi Luo, Shouan Zhang, Yongping Duan
Huanglongbing (HLB), a destructive plant bacterial disease, severely impedes worldwide citrus production. In our previous reports, we revealed the molecular mechanisms of host plant responses that underlie thermotherapy against HLB. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying heat or tetracycline treatments on the HLB bacterium, ' Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) by focusing on Las prophage/phage conversion under stress conditions. By comparing the prophage FP1 and FP2 copy number to the copy number of 16S rDNA in HLB-affected plants, we found that the relative copy number of both FP1 and FP2 increased significantly, ranging from 3...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xianbao Deng, Li Zhao, Ting Fang, Yaqian Xiong, Collins Ogutu, Dong Yang, Sornkanok Vimolmangkang, Yanling Liu, Yuepeng Han
Lotus predominantly accumulates benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), but their biosynthesis and regulation remain unclear. Here, we investigated structural and regulatory genes involved in BIA accumulation in lotus. Two clustered CYP80 genes were identified to be responsible for the biosynthesis of bis-BIAs and aporphine-type BIAs, respectively, and their tissue-specific expression causes divergence in alkaloid component between leaf and embryo. In contrast with the common ( S )-reticuline precursor for most BIAs, aporphine alkaloids in lotus leaf may result from the ( S )- N -methylcoclaurine precursor...
2018: Horticulture Research
Srivignesh Sundaresan, Sonia Philosoph-Hadas, Chao Ma, Cai-Zhong Jiang, Joseph Riov, Raja Mugasimangalam, Betina Kochanek, Shoshana Salim, Michael S Reid, Shimon Meir
The Tomato Hybrid Proline-rich Protein ( THyPRP ) gene was specifically expressed in the tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) flower abscission zone (FAZ), and its stable antisense silencing under the control of an abscission zone (AZ)-specific promoter, Tomato Abscission Polygalacturonase4 , significantly inhibited tomato pedicel abscission following flower removal. For understanding the THyPRP role in regulating pedicel abscission, a transcriptomic analysis of the FAZ of THyPRP -silenced plants was performed, using a newly developed AZ-specific tomato microarray chip...
2018: Horticulture Research
Yongfeng Gao, Jikai Liu, Yongfu Chen, Hai Tang, Yang Wang, Yongmei He, Yongbin Ou, Xiaochun Sun, Songhu Wang, Yinan Yao
The flavonoid compounds are important secondary metabolites with versatile human nutritive benefits and fulfill a multitude of functions during plant growth and development. The abundance of different flavonoid compounds are finely tuned with species-specific pattern by a ternary MBW complex, which consists of a MYB, a bHLH, and a WD40 protein, but the essential role of SlAN11, which is a WD40 protein, is not fully understood in tomato until now. In this study, a tomato WD40 protein named as SlAN11 was characterized as an effective transcription regulator to promote plant anthocyanin and seed proanthocyanidin (PA) contents, with late flavonoid biosynthetic genes activated in 35S::SlAN11 transgenic lines, while the dihydroflavonol flow to the accumulation of flavonols or their glycosylated derivatives was reduced by repressing the expression of SlFLS in this SlAN11 -overexpressed lines...
2018: Horticulture Research
Courtney A Hollender, Jessica M Waite, Amy Tabb, Doug Raines, Srinivasan Chinnithambi, Chris Dardick
Prunus persica (peach) trees carrying the "Pillar" or "Broomy" trait ( br ) have vertically oriented branches caused by loss-of-function mutations in a gene called TILLER ANGLE CONTROL 1 ( TAC1 ). TAC1 encodes a protein in the IGT gene family that includes LAZY1 and DEEPER ROOTING 1 ( DRO1 ), which regulate lateral branch and root orientations, respectively. Here we found that some of the native TAC1 alleles in the hexaploid plum species Prunus domestica , which has a naturally more upright stature, contained a variable length trinucleotide repeat within the same exon 3 region previously found to be disrupted in pillar peach trees...
2018: Horticulture Research
Jinyi Liu, Xiaodong Fu, Yuwei Dong, Jun Lu, Min Ren, Ningning Zhou, Changquan Wang
MIKCC -type MADS-box (MIKCC ) genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in controlling floral organogenesis and flowering time in plants. Although this gene family has been well characterized in many plant species, its evolutionary and comprehensive functional analysis in rose is lacking. In this study, 58 non-redundant MIKCC uni-transcripts were extensively identified from rose transcriptomes. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes into 12 clades with their Arabidopsis and strawberry counterparts, and revealed that ABCDE model (including AP1/FUL, AP3/PI, AG, and SEP clades), and SOC1 and AGL6 clade genes have remarkably expanded in Rosa chinensis , whereas genes from the FLC and AGL17 clades were undetectable...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xiaowen He, Yanhong Huo, Xiuxia Liu, Qianqian Zhou, Shouqian Feng, Xiang Shen, Baohua Li, Shujing Wu, Xuesen Chen
In plants, the vesicle fusion process plays a vital role in pathogen defence. However, the importance of the vesicle fusion process in apple ring rot has not been studied. Here, we isolated and characterised the apple syntaxin gene MdSYP121 . Silencing the MdSYP121 gene in transgenic apple calli increased tolerance to Botryosphaeria dothidea infection; this increased tolerance was correlated with salicylic acid (SA) synthesis-related and signalling-related gene transcription. In contrast, overexpressing MdSYP121 in apple calli resulted in the opposite phenotypes...
2018: Horticulture Research
Haifang Yang, Hye-Ji Kim, Houbin Chen, Yong Lu, Xingyu Lu, Congcong Wang, Biyan Zhou
Litchi is one of the most important subtropical evergreen fruit trees in southern Asia. Previous studies indicated that high-temperature conditions encourage growth of rudimentary leaves in panicles and suppress flowering. We have demonstrated that methyl viologen dichloride hydrate (MV) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) promoted flowering in litchi partially by inhibiting the growth of rudimentary leaves via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, we examined the microstructure and ultrastructure, programmed cell death (PCD) ratio, nuclei morphology of the rudimentary leaves, and the expression of senescence-related genes after the treatment with ROS or NO...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xiao-Li Tan, Zhong-Qi Fan, Wei Shan, Xue-Ren Yin, Jian-Fei Kuang, Wang-Jin Lu, Jian-Ye Chen
The ethylene response factor (ERF) and phytohormone jasmonate (JA) are reported to function in leaf senescence. The involvement of ERF in JA-mediated leaf senescence, however, needs to be elucidated. In the present work, we demonstrate a Chinese flowering cabbage ERF transcription factor (TF), BrERF72, that is associated with JA-promoted leaf senescence. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-accelerated leaf senescence of Chinese flowering cabbage, evidenced by the data that MeJA treatment led to the stronger reduction in the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and total chlorophyll content, while significant induction in the expression of several senescence-associated genes ( SAGs ) including BrSAG12, BrSAG19 , and chlorophyll catabolic genes ( CCGs ) BrPAO1 , BrNYC1 , BrPPH1 , and BrSGR1 ...
2018: Horticulture Research
Ivan Simko, Ryan J Hayes, Maria-Jose Truco, Richard W Michelmore, Rudie Antonise, Mark Massoudi
Fresh-cut lettuce is popular, but highly perishable product. Genetic studies of two bi-parental populations derived from crossing parents with rapid and slow rates of deterioration showed that the deterioration rate is a heritable trait (broad spectrum heritability, H 2 of 0.56-0.87). The major genetic determinant of the deterioration rate in both populations was the quantitative trait locus (QTL), qSL4 , located on linkage group 4. This QTL explained 40-74% of the total phenotypic variation of the trait in the two populations...
2018: Horticulture Research
Britt Merlaen, Ellen De Keyser, Marie-Christine Van Labeke
The newly identified aquaporin coding sequences presented here pave the way for further insights into the plant-water relations in the commercial strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa ). Aquaporins are water channel proteins that allow water to cross (intra)cellular membranes. In Fragaria x ananassa , few of them have been identified hitherto, hampering the exploration of the water transport regulation at cellular level. Here, we present new aquaporin coding sequences belonging to different subclasses: plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subtype 1 and subtype 2 (PIP1 and PIP2) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP)...
2018: Horticulture Research
Kaikai Zhu, Xiaolong Wang, Jinyi Liu, Jun Tang, Qunkang Cheng, Jin-Gui Chen, Zong-Ming Max Cheng
Protein kinases (PKs) have evolved as the largest family of molecular switches that regulate protein activities associated with almost all essential cellular functions. Only a fraction of plant PKs, however, have been functionally characterized even in model plant species. In the present study, the entire grapevine kinome was identified and annotated using the most recent version of the grapevine genome. A total of 1168 PK-encoding genes were identified and classified into 20 groups and 121 families, with the RLK-Pelle group being the largest, with 872 members...
2018: Horticulture Research
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