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Horticulture Research

Courtney A Hollender, Jessica M Waite, Amy Tabb, Doug Raines, Srinivasan Chinnithambi, Chris Dardick
Prunus persica (peach) trees carrying the "Pillar" or "Broomy" trait ( br ) have vertically oriented branches caused by loss-of-function mutations in a gene called TILLER ANGLE CONTROL 1 ( TAC1 ). TAC1 encodes a protein in the IGT gene family that includes LAZY1 and DEEPER ROOTING 1 ( DRO1 ), which regulate lateral branch and root orientations, respectively. Here we found that some of the native TAC1 alleles in the hexaploid plum species Prunus domestica , which has a naturally more upright stature, contained a variable length trinucleotide repeat within the same exon 3 region previously found to be disrupted in pillar peach trees...
2018: Horticulture Research
Jinyi Liu, Xiaodong Fu, Yuwei Dong, Jun Lu, Min Ren, Ningning Zhou, Changquan Wang
MIKCC -type MADS-box (MIKCC ) genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in controlling floral organogenesis and flowering time in plants. Although this gene family has been well characterized in many plant species, its evolutionary and comprehensive functional analysis in rose is lacking. In this study, 58 non-redundant MIKCC uni-transcripts were extensively identified from rose transcriptomes. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes into 12 clades with their Arabidopsis and strawberry counterparts, and revealed that ABCDE model (including AP1/FUL, AP3/PI, AG, and SEP clades), and SOC1 and AGL6 clade genes have remarkably expanded in Rosa chinensis , whereas genes from the FLC and AGL17 clades were undetectable...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xiaowen He, Yanhong Huo, Xiuxia Liu, Qianqian Zhou, Shouqian Feng, Xiang Shen, Baohua Li, Shujing Wu, Xuesen Chen
In plants, the vesicle fusion process plays a vital role in pathogen defence. However, the importance of the vesicle fusion process in apple ring rot has not been studied. Here, we isolated and characterised the apple syntaxin gene MdSYP121 . Silencing the MdSYP121 gene in transgenic apple calli increased tolerance to Botryosphaeria dothidea infection; this increased tolerance was correlated with salicylic acid (SA) synthesis-related and signalling-related gene transcription. In contrast, overexpressing MdSYP121 in apple calli resulted in the opposite phenotypes...
2018: Horticulture Research
Haifang Yang, Hye-Ji Kim, Houbin Chen, Yong Lu, Xingyu Lu, Congcong Wang, Biyan Zhou
Litchi is one of the most important subtropical evergreen fruit trees in southern Asia. Previous studies indicated that high-temperature conditions encourage growth of rudimentary leaves in panicles and suppress flowering. We have demonstrated that methyl viologen dichloride hydrate (MV) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) promoted flowering in litchi partially by inhibiting the growth of rudimentary leaves via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, we examined the microstructure and ultrastructure, programmed cell death (PCD) ratio, nuclei morphology of the rudimentary leaves, and the expression of senescence-related genes after the treatment with ROS or NO...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xiao-Li Tan, Zhong-Qi Fan, Wei Shan, Xue-Ren Yin, Jian-Fei Kuang, Wang-Jin Lu, Jian-Ye Chen
The ethylene response factor (ERF) and phytohormone jasmonate (JA) are reported to function in leaf senescence. The involvement of ERF in JA-mediated leaf senescence, however, needs to be elucidated. In the present work, we demonstrate a Chinese flowering cabbage ERF transcription factor (TF), BrERF72, that is associated with JA-promoted leaf senescence. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-accelerated leaf senescence of Chinese flowering cabbage, evidenced by the data that MeJA treatment led to the stronger reduction in the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and total chlorophyll content, while significant induction in the expression of several senescence-associated genes ( SAGs ) including BrSAG12, BrSAG19 , and chlorophyll catabolic genes ( CCGs ) BrPAO1 , BrNYC1 , BrPPH1 , and BrSGR1 ...
2018: Horticulture Research
Ivan Simko, Ryan J Hayes, Maria-Jose Truco, Richard W Michelmore, Rudie Antonise, Mark Massoudi
Fresh-cut lettuce is popular, but highly perishable product. Genetic studies of two bi-parental populations derived from crossing parents with rapid and slow rates of deterioration showed that the deterioration rate is a heritable trait (broad spectrum heritability, H 2 of 0.56-0.87). The major genetic determinant of the deterioration rate in both populations was the quantitative trait locus (QTL), qSL4 , located on linkage group 4. This QTL explained 40-74% of the total phenotypic variation of the trait in the two populations...
2018: Horticulture Research
Britt Merlaen, Ellen De Keyser, Marie-Christine Van Labeke
The newly identified aquaporin coding sequences presented here pave the way for further insights into the plant-water relations in the commercial strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa ). Aquaporins are water channel proteins that allow water to cross (intra)cellular membranes. In Fragaria x ananassa , few of them have been identified hitherto, hampering the exploration of the water transport regulation at cellular level. Here, we present new aquaporin coding sequences belonging to different subclasses: plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subtype 1 and subtype 2 (PIP1 and PIP2) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP)...
2018: Horticulture Research
Kaikai Zhu, Xiaolong Wang, Jinyi Liu, Jun Tang, Qunkang Cheng, Jin-Gui Chen, Zong-Ming Max Cheng
Protein kinases (PKs) have evolved as the largest family of molecular switches that regulate protein activities associated with almost all essential cellular functions. Only a fraction of plant PKs, however, have been functionally characterized even in model plant species. In the present study, the entire grapevine kinome was identified and annotated using the most recent version of the grapevine genome. A total of 1168 PK-encoding genes were identified and classified into 20 groups and 121 families, with the RLK-Pelle group being the largest, with 872 members...
2018: Horticulture Research
Yuchun Wang, Xinyuan Hao, Qinhua Lu, Lu Wang, Wenjun Qian, Nana Li, Changqing Ding, Xinchao Wang, Yajun Yang
Anthracnose causes severe losses of tea production in China. Although genes and biological processes involved in anthracnose resistance have been reported in other plants, the molecular response to anthracnose in tea plant is unknown. We used the susceptible tea cultivar Longjing 43 and the resistant cultivar Zhongcha 108 as materials and compared transcriptome changes in the leaves of both cultivars following Colletotrichum fructicola inoculation. In all, 9015 and 8624 genes were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible cultivars and their controls (0 h), respectively...
2018: Horticulture Research
Muqing Yan, David H Byrne, Patricia E Klein, Jizhou Yang, Qianni Dong, Natalie Anderson
Roses, which have been cultivated for at least 5000 years, are one of the most important ornamental crops in the world. Because of the interspecific nature and high heterozygosity in commercial roses, the genetic resources available for rose are limited. To effectively identify markers associated with QTL controlling important traits, such as disease resistance, abundant markers along the genome and careful phenotyping are required. Utilizing genotyping by sequencing technology and the strawberry genome ( Fragaria vesca v2...
2018: Horticulture Research
Hong Wang, XiaoXiao Chang, Jing Lin, Youhong Chang, Jen-Chih Chen, Michael S Reid, Cai-Zhong Jiang
The genetic regulatory mechanisms that govern natural corolla senescence in petunia are not well understood. To identify key genes and pathways that regulate the process, we performed a transcriptome analysis in petunia corolla at four developmental stages, including corolla fully opening without anther dehiscence (D0), corolla expansion, 2 days after anthesis (D2), corolla with initial signs of senescence (D4), and wilting corolla (D7). We identified large numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), ranging from 4626 between the transition from D0 and D2, 1116 between D2 and D4, a transition to the onset of flower senescence, and 327 between D4 and D7, a developmental stage representing flower senescence...
2018: Horticulture Research
Katchen Julliany P Silva, Nasser Mahna, Zhonglin Mou, Kevin M Folta
The NPR1 ( NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED GENES1 ) gene has a central role in the long-lasting, broad-spectrum defense response known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). When overexpressed in a transgenic context in Arabidopsis thaliana , this gene enhances resistance to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses. Its position as a key regulator of defense across diverse plant species makes NPR1 a strong candidate gene for genetic engineering disease and stress tolerance into other crops. High-value horticultural crops face many new challenges from pests and pathogens, and their emergence exceeds the pace of traditional breeding, making the application of NPR1 -based strategies potentially useful in fruit and vegetable crops...
2018: Horticulture Research
Qiaoling Zhen, Ting Fang, Qian Peng, Liao Liao, Li Zhao, Albert Owiti, Yuepeng Han
Sugar content is an important component of fruit quality. Although sugar transporters are known to be crucial for sugar accumulation, the role of genes encoding SWEET sugar transporters in fruit sugar accumulation remains elusive. Here we report the effect of the SWEET genes on fruit sugar accumulation in apple. A total of 25 MdSWEET genes were identified in the apple genome, and 9 were highly expressed throughout fruit development. Molecular markers of these 9 MdSWEET genes were developed and used for genotyping of 188 apple cultivars...
2018: Horticulture Research
Longzheng Chen, Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Jing Ding, Xianbin Gu, Yanjun Li, Tingting Gu, Ren Wang, Xinchun Lin, Ziniu Deng, Richard J McAvoy, Frederick G Gmitter, Zhanao Deng, Yunde Zhao, Yi Li
Developing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutants in asexually propagated perennial crop plants is challenging but highly desirable. Here, we report a highly useful method using an Agrobacterium -mediated transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene expression system to create non-transgenic mutant plants without the need for sexual segregation. We have also developed a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput mutant screening protocol based on Illumina sequencing followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Using tetraploid tobacco as a model species and the phytoene desaturase ( PDS ) gene as a target, we successfully created and expediently identified mutant plants, which were verified as tetra-allelic mutants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Biao Jin
Ginkgo biloba is grown worldwide as an ornamental plant for its golden leaf color. However, the regulatory mechanism of leaf coloration in G. biloba remains unclear. Here, we compared G. biloba gold-colored mutant leaves and normal green leaves in cytological, physiological and transcriptomic terms. We found that chloroplasts of the mutant were fewer and smaller, and exhibited ruptured thylakoid membranes, indistinct stromal lamellae and irregularly arranged vesicles. Physiological experiments also showed that the mutant had a lower chlorophyll, lower flavonoid and higher carotenoid contents (especially lutein)...
2018: Horticulture Research
Francois Laurens, Maria José Aranzana, Pere Arus, Daniele Bassi, Marco Bink, Joan Bonany, Andrea Caprera, Luca Corelli-Grappadelli, Evelyne Costes, Charles-Eric Durel, Jehan-Baptiste Mauroux, Hélène Muranty, Nelson Nazzicari, Thierry Pascal, Andrea Patocchi, Andreas Peil, Bénédicte Quilot-Turion, Laura Rossini, Alessandra Stella, Michela Troggio, Riccardo Velasco, Eric van de Weg
Despite the availability of whole genome sequences of apple and peach, there has been a considerable gap between genomics and breeding. To bridge the gap, the European Union funded the FruitBreedomics project (March 2011 to August 2015) involving 28 research institutes and private companies. Three complementary approaches were pursued: (i) tool and software development, (ii) deciphering genetic control of main horticultural traits taking into account allelic diversity and (iii) developing plant materials, tools and methodologies for breeders...
2018: Horticulture Research
Jason P Londo, Alisson P Kovaleski, Jacquelyn A Lillis
Low-temperature stresses limit the sustainability and productivity of grapevines when early spring frosts damage young grapevine leaves. Spring conditions often expose grapevines to low, but not damaging, chilling temperatures and these temperatures have been shown to increase freeze resistance in other model systems. In this study, we examined whole-transcriptome gene expression patterns of young leaf tissue from cuttings of five different grapevine cultivars, exposed to chill and freeze shock, in order to understand the underlying transcriptional landscape associated with cold stress response...
2018: Horticulture Research
Ning Jiang, Jun Meng, Jun Cui, Guangxin Sun, Yushi Luan
Tomato is an important horticultural and economic crop cultivated worldwide. As Phytophthora infestans becomes a huge threat to tomato production, it is necessary to study the resistance mechanisms of tomato against P. infestans . Our previous research has found that miR482 might be involved in tomato- P . infestans interaction. In this study, miR482b precursor was cloned from Solanum pimpinellifolium "L3708" and miR482b was shown to decrease in abundance in tomato following P . infestans infection...
2018: Horticulture Research
Rubina Jibran, Helge Dzierzon, Nahla Bassil, Jill M Bushakra, Patrick P Edger, Shawn Sullivan, Chad E Finn, Michael Dossett, Kelly J Vining, Robert VanBuren, Todd C Mockler, Ivan Liachko, Kevin M Davies, Toshi M Foster, David Chagné
Black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) is a niche fruit crop valued for its flavor and potential health benefits. The improvement of fruit and cane characteristics via molecular breeding technologies has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. The recently released draft genome for black raspberry (ORUS 4115-3) lacks assembly of scaffolds to chromosome scale. We used high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) and Proximity-Guided Assembly (PGA) to cluster and order 9650 out of 11,936 contigs of this draft genome assembly into seven pseudo-chromosomes...
2018: Horticulture Research
Jiazhi Shen, Zhongwei Zou, Xuzhou Zhang, Lin Zhou, Yuhua Wang, Wanping Fang, Xujun Zhu
Purple-leaf tea plants, as anthocyanin-rich cultivars, are valuable materials for manufacturing teas with unique colors or flavors. In this study, a new purple-leaf cultivar "Zixin" ("ZX") was examined, and its biochemical variation and mechanism of leaf color change were elucidated. The metabolomes of leaves of "ZX" at completely purple, intermediately purple, and completely green stages were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS)...
2018: Horticulture Research
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