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Horticulture Research

Tian Wang, Zhiqi Deng, Xi Zhang, Hongzheng Wang, Yu Wang, Xiuying Liu, Songyu Liu, Feng Xu, Tao Li, Daqi Fu, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Hongliang Zhu
The tomato encode four functional DCL families, of which DCL2 is poorly studied. Here, we generated loss-of-function mutants for a tomato DCL2 gene, dcl2b , and we identified its major role in defending against tomato mosaic virus in relation to both natural and manual infections. Genome-wide small RNA expression profiling revealed that DCL2b was required for the processing 22-nt small RNAs, including a few species of miRNAs. Interestingly, these DCL2b -dependent 22-nt miRNAs functioned similarly to the DCL1 -produced 22-nt miRNAs in Arabidopsis and could serve as triggers to generate a class of secondary siRNAs...
2018: Horticulture Research
Mingxing Tu, Xianhang Wang, Yanxun Zhu, Dejun Wang, Xuechuan Zhang, Ye Cui, Yajuan Li, Min Gao, Zhi Li, Yuejin Wang, Xiping Wang
Drought stress limits the growth and development of grapevines, thereby reducing productivity, but the mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we characterized a group A bZIP gene from "Kyoho" grapevine, VlbZIP30 , which was shown to be induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and dehydration stress. Overexpression of VlbZIP30 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced dehydration tolerance. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a major proportion of ABA-responsive and/or drought-responsive genes are transcriptionally regulated by VlbZIP30 during ABA or mannitol treatment at the cotyledon greening stage...
2018: Horticulture Research
Shihao Su, Xiaoyu Shao, Changfa Zhu, Jiayin Xu, Yuhuan Tang, Da Luo, Xia Huang
Cymbidium has been artificially domesticated for centuries in Asia, which produced numerous cultivated varieties. Flowers with stamenoid tepals or those with multiple tepals have been found in different species of Cymbidium ; however, the molecular basis controlling the formation of these phenotypes is still largely unknown. Previous work demonstrated that AGAMOUS/AG lineage MADS genes function in floral meristem determinacy as well as in reproductive organs development in both dicots and monocots, indicating a possible relationship with the origin of two flower varieties in Cymbidium ...
2018: Horticulture Research
Matthew Alan Jones
The plasticity of plant morphology has evolved to maximize reproductive fitness in response to prevailing environmental conditions. Leaf architecture elaborates to maximize light harvesting, while the transition to flowering can either be accelerated or delayed to improve an individual's fitness. One of the most important environmental signals is light, with plants using light for both photosynthesis and as an environmental signal. Plants perceive different wavelengths of light using distinct photoreceptors...
2018: Horticulture Research
Jingyu Kou, Yingying Wei, Xingxing He, Jiayu Xu, Feng Xu, Xingfeng Shao
To study the changes in sugar metabolism caused by fungal infection in post-harvest peaches, fruit from two cultivars ('Baifeng' and 'Yulu') was inoculated with Monilinia fructicola and stored at 10 °C. During disease development, soluble sugar content was monitored, as well as the activities and expression of selected enzymes. Disease progression was accompanied by a decrease in sucrose content and increases in reducing sugars and soluble solids, consistent with higher enzyme activities for acid invertase, neutral invertase and sucrose synthase-cleavage, and lower activities for sucrose synthase-synthesis and sucrose phosphate synthase...
2018: Horticulture Research
Carmen Santos, Nuno Felipe Almeida, Mara Lisa Alves, Ralf Horres, Nicolas Krezdorn, Susana Trindade Leitão, Thaïs Aznar-Fernández, Björn Rotter, Peter Winter, Diego Rubiales, Maria Carlota Vaz Patto
The Lathyrus cicera transcriptome was analysed in response to rust ( Uromyces pisi ) infection to develop novel molecular breeding tools with potential for genetic mapping of resistance in this robust orphan legume species. One RNA-seq library each was generated from control and rust-inoculated leaves from two L. cicera genotypes with contrasting quantitative resistance, de novo assembled into contigs and sequence polymorphisms were identified. In toto , 19,224 SNPs differentiate the susceptible from the partially resistant genotype's transcriptome...
2018: Horticulture Research
Lei Zhang, Xu Cai, Jian Wu, Min Liu, Stefan Grob, Feng Cheng, Jianli Liang, Chengcheng Cai, Zhiyuan Liu, Bo Liu, Fan Wang, Song Li, Fuyan Liu, Xuming Li, Lin Cheng, Wencai Yang, Mai-He Li, Ueli Grossniklaus, Hongkun Zheng, Xiaowu Wang
Brassica rapa comprises several important cultivated vegetables and oil crops. Current reference genome assemblies of Brassica rapa are quite fragmented and not highly contiguous, thereby limiting extensive genetic and genomic analyses. Here, we report an improved assembly of the B. rapa genome (v3.0) using single-molecule sequencing, optical mapping, and chromosome conformation capture technologies (Hi-C). Relative to the previous reference genomes, our assembly features a contig N50 size of 1.45 Mb, representing a ~30-fold improvement...
2018: Horticulture Research
Yizhong He, Jingwen Han, Runsheng Liu, Yuduan Ding, Jinqiu Wang, Li Sun, Xiaoming Yang, Yunliu Zeng, Weiwei Wen, Juan Xu, Hongming Zhang, Xiang Yan, Zhaoxing Chen, Zuliang Gu, Hong Chen, Huanqing Tang, Xiuxin Deng, Yunjiang Cheng
Naturally, resistant crop germplasms are important resources for managing the issues of agricultural product safety and environment deterioration. We found a spontaneous mutant of 'Newhall' navel orange ( Citrus sinensis Osbeck) (MT) with broad-spectrum protections against fungal pathogens in the orchard, postharvest-storage, and artificial inoculation conditions. To understand the defense mechanism of MT fruit, we constructed a genome-scale metabolic network that integrated metabolome and transcriptome datasets...
2018: Horticulture Research
Meizhi Xu, Fei Chen, Shilian Qi, Liangsheng Zhang, Shuang Wu
The stomatal complex is critical for gas and water exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Originating over 400 million years ago, the structure of the stomata has evolved to facilitate the adaptation of plants to various environments. Although the molecular mechanism of stomatal development in Arabidopsis has been widely studied, the evolution of stomatal structure and its molecular regulators in different species remains to be answered. In this study, we examined stomatal development and the orthologues of Arabidopsis stomatal genes in a basal angiosperm plant, Nymphaea colorata , and a member of the eudicot CAM family, Kalanchoe laxiflora , which represent the adaptation to aquatic and drought environments, respectively...
2018: Horticulture Research
Lili Xu, Qianyu Yue, Guangqing Xiang, Feng'e Bian, Yuxin Yao
The role of melatonin in the regulation of fruit ripening and the mechanism involved remain largely unknown. In "Moldova" grape berries, melatonin accumulated rapidly from onset of veraison, reached the maximum at 94 days after bloom (DAB) and then exhibited low levels at late stages of berry ripening. By contrast, abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) exhibited different accumulation patterns, and ethylene was primarily produced immediately before veraison. Further experiments demonstrated that 10 and particularly 100 µM melatonin treatments increased the levels of ABA, H2 O2 , and ethylene production and promoted berry ripening compared with the control treatment, whereas 0...
2018: Horticulture Research
Aimin Zhou, Enhui Liu, Jiao Liu, Shuang Feng, Shufang Gong, Jingang Wang
Cuticular wax formation on the surface of plant leaves is associated with drought-stress tolerance. The identification of wax biosynthesis-related genes will contribute to the genetic improvement of drought resistance in plants. In this study, we characterize a novel Dianthus spiculifolius mutant with increased cuticular wax. The mutant exhibited stronger drought resistance as indicated by less leaf wilting and death, higher leaf relative water content and water retention capacity, and slower water loss and chlorophyll extraction than did the wild type during drought treatment...
2018: Horticulture Research
Jieqiong Zhang, Zichen Wu, Fuchu Hu, Lian Liu, Xuming Huang, Jietang Zhao, Huicong Wang
Cell wall invertase (CWIN) are known to play important roles in seed development. However, most reports to date have focused on a single gene family member, and have mainly investigated CWIN functions during the filling stage of seed development. In this study, we found significant lower levels of CWIN protein and activity associated with seed abortion in the Litchi chinensis cultivar "Nuomici." We identified five litchi CWIN genes and observed that the expression of LcCWIN5 was limited to the flower tissues and decreased sharply with fruit development...
2018: Horticulture Research
Toshi M Foster, Maria José Aranzana
A bud sport is a lateral shoot, inflorescence or single flower/fruit with a visibly different phenotype from the rest of the plant. The new phenotype is often caused by a stable somatic mutation in a single cell that is passed on to its clonal descendants and eventually populates part or all of a meristem. In many cases, a bud sport can be vegetatively propagated, thereby preserving the novel phenotype without sexual reproduction. Bud sports provide new characteristics while retaining the desirable qualities of the parent plant, which is why many bud sports have been developed into popular cultivars...
2018: Horticulture Research
Zachary Stansell, Katie Hyma, Jonathan Fresnedo-Ramírez, Qi Sun, Sharon Mitchell, Thomas Björkman, Jian Hua
Brassica oleracea forms a diverse and economically significant crop group. Improvement efforts are often hindered by limited knowledge of diversity contained within available germplasm. Here, we employ genotyping-by-sequencing to investigate a diverse panel of 85 landrace and improved B. oleracea broccoli, cauliflower, and Chinese kale entries. Ultimately, 21,680 high-quality SNPs were used to reveal a complex and admixed population structure and clarify phylogenetic relationships among B. oleracea groups. Each broccoli landrace contained, on average, 8...
2018: Horticulture Research
Yuying Qi, Yanan Liu, Zixin Zhang, Jiaojiao Gao, Zhiyong Guan, Weimin Fang, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen, Jiafu Jiang
The enzyme RNAPII CTD phosphatase-like 1 is known as a transcriptional regulator of the plant response to various abiotic stresses. Here, the isolation of CmCPL1 , a chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum morifolium ) gene encoding this enzyme is described. Its predicted 955 residue gene product includes the FCPH catalytic domain, two double-stranded RNA binding motifs, and a nuclear localization signal. A sub-cellular localization assay confirmed that CmCPL1 was expressed in the nucleus. CmCPL1 transcription was shown to be significantly inducible by heat stress...
2018: Horticulture Research
Paula Elomaa, Yafei Zhao, Teng Zhang
Inflorescences in the Asteraceae plant family, flower heads, or capitula, mimic single flowers but are highly compressed structures composed of multiple flowers. This transference of a flower-like appearance into an inflorescence level is considered as the key innovation for the rapid tribal radiation of Asteraceae. Recent molecular data indicate that Asteraceae flower heads resemble single flowers not only morphologically but also at molecular level. We summarize this data giving examples of how rewiring of conserved floral regulators have led to evolution of morphological innovations in Asteraceae...
2018: Horticulture Research
André F Colaço, José P Molin, Joan R Rosell-Polo, Alexandre Escolà
Ultrasonic and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors have been some of the most deeply investigated sensing technologies within the scope of digital horticulture. They can accurately estimate geometrical and structural parameters of the tree canopies providing input information for high-throughput phenotyping and precision horticulture. A review was conducted in order to describe how these technologies evolved and identify the main investigated topics, applications, and key points for future investigations in horticulture science...
2018: Horticulture Research
Annarita Marrano, Diego Micheletti, Silvia Lorenzi, David Neale, M Stella Grando
The application of population genetic methods in combination with gene mapping strategies can help to identify genes and mutations selected during the evolution from wild plants to crops and to explore the considerable genetic variation still maintained in natural populations. We genotyped a grapevine germplasm collection of 44 wild ( Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris ) and 48 cultivated ( V. vinifera subsp. sativa ) accessions at 54 K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to perform a whole-genome comparison of the main population genetic statistics...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xiao Yang, Shiwei Wei, Bin Liu, Doudou Guo, Bangxiao Zheng, Lei Feng, Yumin Liu, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Lijun Luo, Danfeng Huang
Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable that represents a significant dietary source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. However, the levels of metabolites in different lettuce cultivars are poorly characterized. In this study, we used combined GC × GC-TOF/MS and UPLC-IMS-QTOF/MS to detect and relatively quantify metabolites in 30 lettuce cultivars representing large genetic diversity. Comparison with online databases, the published literature, standards as well using collision cross-section values enabled putative identification of 171 metabolites...
2018: Horticulture Research
Wei-Xing Li, Shun-Bo Yang, Zhaogeng Lu, Zhi-Chong He, Yun-Ling Ye, Bei-Bei Zhao, Li Wang, Biao Jin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41438-018-0015-4.].
2018: Horticulture Research
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