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Horticulture Research

Joshua R Widhalm, David Rhodes
The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant-plant (allelopathy), plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs...
2016: Horticulture Research
Lindsay E Wyatt, Susan R Strickler, Lukas A Mueller, Michael Mazourek
Both the fruit mesocarp and the seeds of winter squash can be used for consumption, although the focus of breeding efforts varies by cultivar. Cultivars bred for fruit consumption are selected for fruit mesocarp quality traits such as carotenoid content, percent dry matter, and percent soluble solids, while these traits are essentially ignored in oilseed pumpkins. To compare fruit development in these two types of squash, we sequenced the fruit transcriptome of two cultivars bred for different purposes: an acorn squash, 'Sweet REBA', and an oilseed pumpkin, 'Lady Godiva'...
2016: Horticulture Research
Kendra A McClure, Kyle M Gardner, Peter Ma Toivonen, Cheryl R Hampson, Jun Song, Charles F Forney, John DeLong, Istvan Rajcan, Sean Myles
The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world's most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders...
2016: Horticulture Research
Danielle Costenaro da Silva, Vítor da Silveira Falavigna, Marianna Fasoli, Vanessa Buffon, Diogo Denardi Porto, Georgios Joannis Pappas, Mario Pezzotti, Giancarlo Pasquali, Luís Fernando Revers
The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses...
2016: Horticulture Research
Amanda M Hulse-Kemp, Hamid Ashrafi, Joerg Plieske, Jana Lemm, Kevin Stoffel, Theresa Hill, Hartmut Luerssen, Charit L Pethiyagoda, Cindy T Lawley, Martin W Ganal, Allen Van Deynze
The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)...
2016: Horticulture Research
Dong Xiao, Shi-Tuo Liu, Yan-Ping Wei, Dao-Yun Zhou, Xi-Lin Hou, Ying Li, Chun-Mei Hu
Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is one of the main green leafy vegetables in the world, especially in China, with significant economic value. Hyaloperonospora parasitica is a fungal pathogen responsible for causing downy mildew disease in Chinese cabbage, which greatly affects its production. The objective of this study was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during incompatible interactions between non-heading Chinese cabbage and H. parasitica using complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP)...
2016: Horticulture Research
Kevin M Folta, Harry J Klee
Plant breeders have been extremely successful at driving genetic improvements in crops. However, 'improvements' are truly a question of perspective. Over the last one-hundred years most plant genetic innovations have been driven by industry demand. Larger fruits, heavier yields, uniformity, increased resistance to disease and better shipping quality are just a few of the traits that have ensured profits on the farm and affordable food for consumers. However, these milestones have come at the expense of sensory qualities, which have been sacrificed in exchange for practical production objectives...
2016: Horticulture Research
Lei Zhang, Yan-Shuai Xu, Yue Jia, Ji-Yuan Wang, Yue Yuan, Yang Yu, Jian-Min Tao
Lateral floral clusters were removed from the main axis of the floral clusters of 'Houman' grape plants, leaving only 3-5-cm-long region of flowers at the end of the central axis. The floral clusters were pruned at 7 days prior to flowering. The effect of the pruning on fruit quality was assessed by determining the composition and levels of anthocyanins in the fruit and anthocyanin-related gene expression. Results indicated that floral cluster pruning significantly improved the quality of the fruit by increasing berry size, fruit weight and the total content of soluble solids...
2016: Horticulture Research
Krishna Bhattarai, Frank J Louws, John D Williamson, Dilip R Panthee
Plants depend on innate immune responses to retard the initial spread of pathogens entering through stomata, hydathodes or injuries. These responses are triggered by conserved patterns in pathogen-encoded molecules known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the first responses, and the resulting 'oxidative burst' is considered to be a first line of defense. In this study, we conducted association analyses between ROS production and bacterial spot (BS; Xanthomonas spp...
2016: Horticulture Research
Stefano Pessina, Luisa Lenzi, Michele Perazzolli, Manuela Campa, Lorenza Dalla Costa, Simona Urso, Giampiero Valè, Francesco Salamini, Riccardo Velasco, Mickael Malnoy
Erysiphe necator is the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM), one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine. PM is controlled by sulfur-based and synthetic fungicides, which every year are dispersed into the environment. This is why PM-resistant varieties should become a priority for sustainable grapevine and wine production. PM resistance can be achieved in other crops by knocking out susceptibility S-genes, such as those residing at genetic loci known as MLO (Mildew Locus O). All MLO S-genes of dicots belong to the phylogenetic clade V, including grapevine genes VvMLO7, 11 and 13, which are upregulated during PM infection, and VvMLO6, which is not upregulated...
2016: Horticulture Research
Supakan Rattanakan, Iniga George, Paul A Haynes, Grant R Cramer
In a previous transcriptomic analysis, abscisic acid (ABA) was found to affect the abundance of a number of transcripts in leaves of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines with roots that had been exposed to 10 μm ABA for 2 h. Other work has indicated that ABA affects protein abundance and protein phosphorylation as well. In this study we investigated changes in protein abundance and phosphorylation of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine leaves. Protein abundance was assessed by both label-free and isobaric-label quantitive proteomic methods...
2016: Horticulture Research
L Brzozowski, B M Leckie, J Gardner, M P Hoffmann, M Mazourek
The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C...
2016: Horticulture Research
Yingde Zhu, Hui Li, Sarabjit Bhatti, Suping Zhou, Yong Yang, Tara Fish, Theodore W Thannhauser
Single-cell-type proteomics provides the capability to revealing the genomic and proteomics information at cell-level resolution. However, the methodology for this type of research has not been well-developed. This paper reports developing a workflow of laser capture microdissection (LCM) followed by gel-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS)-based proteomics analysis for the identification of proteomes contained in individual cell layers of tomato roots. Thin-sections (~10-μm thick, 10 sections per root tip) were prepared for root tips of tomato germinating seedlings...
2016: Horticulture Research
Shanshan Yang, Jonathan Fresnedo-Ramírez, Minghui Wang, Linda Cote, Peter Schweitzer, Paola Barba, Elizabeth M Takacs, Matthew Clark, James Luby, David C Manns, Gavin Sacks, Anna Katharine Mansfield, Jason Londo, Anne Fennell, David Gadoury, Bruce Reisch, Lance Cadle-Davidson, Qi Sun
Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is often employed in crop breeding programs to accelerate and enhance cultivar development, via selection during the juvenile phase and parental selection prior to crossing. Next-generation sequencing and its derivative technologies have been used for genome-wide molecular marker discovery. To bridge the gap between marker development and MAS implementation, this study developed a novel practical strategy with a semi-automated pipeline that incorporates trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphism marker discovery, low-cost genotyping through amplicon sequencing (AmpSeq) and decision making...
2016: Horticulture Research
Laura Dougherty, Yuandi Zhu, Kenong Xu
Phytohormone ethylene largely determines apple fruit shelf life and storability. Previous studies demonstrated that MdACS1 and MdACS3a, which encode 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACS), are crucial in apple fruit ethylene production. MdACS1 is well-known to be intimately involved in the climacteric ethylene burst in fruit ripening, while MdACS3a has been regarded a main regulator for ethylene production transition from system 1 (during fruit development) to system 2 (during fruit ripening)...
2016: Horticulture Research
Qingchun Shi, Vicente J Febres, Jeffrey B Jones, Gloria A Moore
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-triggered immunity (PTI) is an important component of plant innate immunity. In a previous study, we showed that the PAMP flg22 from Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xflg22), the causal agent of citrus canker, induced PTI in citrus, which correlated with the observed levels of canker resistance. Here, we identified and sequenced two bacterial flagellin/flg22 receptors (FLS2-1 and FLS2-2) from 'Duncan' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi, CpFLS2-1 and CpFLS2-2) and 'Sun Chu Sha' mandarin (C...
2016: Horticulture Research
Xiaoli Wang, Xiaorong Hu, Huiqing Yan, Zhaocheng Ma, Xiuxin Deng
It has been observed that the consumption of litchi often causes symptoms characterized by itching or sore throat, gum swelling, oral cavity ulcers and even fever and inflammation, which significantly impair the quality of life of a large population. Using the RAW264.7 cell line, a step-by-step strategy was used to screen for the components in litchi fruits that elicited adverse reactions. The adverse reaction fractions were identified by mass spectrometry and analyzed using the SMART program, and a sequence alignment of the homologous proteins was performed...
2016: Horticulture Research
Hong Zhang, Huaisong Wang, Hongping Yi, Wenqiang Zhai, Guangzhi Wang, Qiushi Fu
Hami melon (Cucumis melo) is the most important melon crop grown in the north-western provinces of China. In order to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of developmental changes related to size, flesh, sugar and sour content, we performed a transcriptome profiling of its fruit development. Over 155 000 000 clean reads were mapped to MELONOMICS genome, yielding a total of 23 299 expressed genes. Of these, 554 genes were specifically expressed in flowers, and 3260 genes in fruit flesh tissues. The 7892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were related to fruit development and mediated diverse metabolic processes and pathways; 83 DEGs and 13 DEGs were possibly associated with sucrose and citric acid accumulation, respectively...
2016: Horticulture Research
Lina Du, Jun Song, Charles Forney, Leslie Campbell Palmer, Sherry Fillmore, ZhaoQi Zhang
Banana (Musa AAA group) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world due to its flavor and nutritional value. As a typical climacteric fruit, banana responds to ethylene treatment, which induces rapid changes of color, flavor (aroma and taste), sweetness and nutritional composition. It has also been reported that ripening bananas at temperatures above 24 °C inhibits chlorophyll breakdown and color formation but increases the rate of senescence. To gain fundamental knowledge about the effects of high temperature and ethylene on banana ripening, a quantitative proteomic study employing multiplex peptide stable isotope dimethyl labeling was conducted...
2016: Horticulture Research
Sushan Ru, Craig Hardner, Patrick A Carter, Kate Evans, Dorrie Main, Cameron Peace
Seedling selection identifies superior seedlings as candidate cultivars based on predicted genetic potential for traits of interest. Traditionally, genetic potential is determined by phenotypic evaluation. With the availability of DNA tests for some agronomically important traits, breeders have the opportunity to include DNA information in their seedling selection operations-known as marker-assisted seedling selection. A major challenge in deploying marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops is a lack of knowledge in genetic gain achievable from alternative strategies...
2016: Horticulture Research
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