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Horticulture Research

Claudius Marondedze, Xinyun Liu, Shihui Huang, Cynthia Wong, Xuan Zhou, Xutong Pan, Huiting An, Nuo Xu, Xuechen Tian, Aloysius Wong
As indoor horticulture gathers momentum, electric (also termed artificial) lighting systems with the ability to generate specific and tunable wavelengths have been developed and applied. While the effects of light quality on plant growth and development have been studied, authoritative and reliable sets of light formulae tailored for the cultivation of economically important plants and plant traits are lacking as light qualities employed across laboratories are inconsistent. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of molecular data for plants examined under electric lights in indoor environments...
2018: Horticulture Research
Rachel M McCoy, Sagar M Utturkar, Joseph W Crook, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Joshua R Widhalm
Several members of the Juglandaceae family produce juglone, a specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) natural product that is responsible for the notorious allelopathic effects of black walnut ( Juglans nigra ). Despite its documented ecological roles and potential for being developed as a novel natural product-based herbicide, none of the genes involved in synthesizing juglone have been identified. Based on classical labeling studies, we hypothesized that biosynthesis of juglone's naphthalenoid moiety is shared with biochemical steps of the phylloquinone pathway...
2018: Horticulture Research
Li-Wen Yang, Xiao-Hui Wen, Jian-Xin Fu, Si-Lan Dai
Plants sense photoperiod signals to confirm the optimal flowering time. Previous studies have shown that Cryptochrome2 ( CRY2 ) functions to promote floral transition in the long-day plant (LDP) Arabidopsis ; however, the function and molecular mechanism by which CRY2 regulates floral transition in short-day plants (SDPs) is still unclear. In this study, we identified a CRY2 homologous gene, ClCRY2 , from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium , a typical SDP. The morphological changes in the C. lavandulifolium shoot apex and ClFTs expression analysis under SD conditions showed that adult C...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xun Sun, Liuqing Huo, Xin Jia, Runmin Che, Xiaoqing Gong, Ping Wang, Fengwang Ma
Marssonina apple blotch, caused by Diplocarpon mali , is one of the most serious diseases of apple. Autophagy plays a key role in pathogen resistance. We previously showed that MdATG18a has a positive influence on drought tolerance. Herein, we describe how overexpression (OE) of MdATG18a enhances resistance to D. mali infection, probably because less H2 O2 but more salicylic acid (SA) is accumulated in the leaves of OE apple plants. Expression of chitinase , β-1,3-glucanase , and SA-related marker genes was induced more strongly by D...
2018: Horticulture Research
Irene Donati, Antonio Cellini, Giampaolo Buriani, Sofia Mauri, Callum Kay, Gianni Tacconi, Francesco Spinelli
Flowers can provide a protected and nutrient-rich environment to the epiphytic microflora, thus representing a sensible entry point for pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa). This bacterium can colonize both male and female Actinidia flowers, causing flower browning and fall, and systemic invasion of the host plant, eventually leading to its death. However, the process of flower colonization and penetration into the host tissues has not yet been fully elucidated. In addition, the presence of Psa in the pollen from infected flowers, and the role of pollination in the spread of Psa requires confirmation...
2018: Horticulture Research
Nan Wang, Shenghui Jiang, Zongying Zhang, Hongcheng Fang, Haifeng Xu, Yicheng Wang, Xuesen Chen
Flavonoids play essential roles in human health. Apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.), one of the most widely produced and economically important fruit crops in temperate regions, is a significant source of flavonoids in the human diet and is among the top nutritionally rated and most widely consumed fruits worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of apples, which are rich in a variety of free and easily absorbable flavonoids, is associated with a decreased risk of various diseases. However, apple production is challenged by serious inbreeding problems...
2018: Horticulture Research
Hui Li, Zhi-Wei Liu, Zhi-Jun Wu, Yong-Xin Wang, Rui-Min Teng, Jing Zhuang
Tea is an important non-alcoholic beverage worldwide. Tea quality is determined by numerous secondary metabolites in harvested tea leaves, including tea polyphenols, theanine, caffeine, and ascorbic acid (AsA). AsA metabolism in harvested tea leaves is affected by storage and transportation temperature. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism in harvested tea leaves exposed to different storage and transportation temperature conditions remain unclear. Here we performed RP-HPLC to detect dynamic changes in AsA content in tea leaves subjected to high- (38 °C), low- (4 °C), or room-temperature (25 °C) treatments...
2018: Horticulture Research
Xin Wang, Kan Bao, Umesh K Reddy, Yang Bai, Sue A Hammar, Chen Jiao, Todd C Wehner, Axel O Ramírez-Madera, Yiqun Weng, Rebecca Grumet, Zhangjun Fei
Germplasm collections are a crucial resource to conserve natural genetic diversity and provide a source of novel traits essential for sustained crop improvement. Optimal collection, preservation and utilization of these materials depends upon knowledge of the genetic variation present within the collection. Here we use the high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology to characterize the United States National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.). The GBS data, derived from 1234 cucumber accessions, provided more than 23 K high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are well distributed at high density in the genome (~1 SNP/10...
2018: Horticulture Research
Petr Šmarda, Lucie Horová, Ondřej Knápek, Heidi Dieck, Martin Dieck, Katarína Ražná, Pavel Hrubík, Laszlo Orlóci, Laszlo Papp, Kristýna Veselá, Pavel Veselý, Petr Bureš
Ginkgo biloba , the last extant representative of a lineage of Mesozoic gymnosperms, is one of the few seed plants with an exceptionally long (~300 Myr) evolutionary history free of genome-wide duplications (polyploidy). Despite this genome conservatism, we have recently found a viable spontaneous tetraploid Ginkgo sapling during routine screening of several plants, demonstrating that natural polyploidy is possible in Ginkgo . Here we provide a much wider flow cytometry survey of ploidy in some European Ginkgo collections, and own seedlings (>2200 individuals and ~200 cultivars)...
2018: Horticulture Research
Qingping Ma, Huan Li, Zhongwei Zou, Emmanuel Arkorful, Qianru Lv, Qiongqiong Zhou, Xuan Chen, Kang Sun, Xinghui Li
Albinism in shoots of tea plants is a common phenotypic expression which gives the tea infusion a pleasant umami taste. A novel natural albino mutant tea germplasm containing high amino acids content was found and named as 'Huabai 1'. 'Huabai 1' has white jade tender shoots under low temperature and turns green with increased temperature. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of color change in leaf of 'Huabai 1', transcriptome analysis was performed to identify albino-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
2018: Horticulture Research
Ye Xu, Yinghui Yuan, Nanshan Du, Yu Wang, Sheng Shu, Jin Sun, Shirong Guo
Various biotic and abiotic stresses threaten the cultivation of future agricultural crops. Among these stresses, heat stress is a major abiotic stress that substantially reduces agricultural productivity. Many strategies to enhance heat stress tolerance of crops have been developed, among which is grafting. Here, we show that Momordica-grafted cucumber scions have intrinsically enhanced chlorophyll content, leaf area, and net photosynthetic rate under heat stress compared to plants grafted onto cucumber rootstock...
2018: Horticulture Research
Cui-Hui Sun, Jian-Qiang Yu, Xi Duan, Jia-Hui Wang, Quan-Yan Zhang, Kai-Di Gu, Da-Gang Hu, Cheng-Shu Zheng
Plant root systems are essential for many physiological processes, including water and nutrient absorption. MADS-box transcription factor (TF) genes have been characterized as the important regulators of root development in plants; however, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown, including chrysanthemum. Here, it was found that the overexpression of CmANR1 , a chrysanthemum MADS-box TF gene, promoted both adventitious root (AR) and lateral root (LR) development in chrysanthemum. Whole transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed a series of differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) in the roots of CmANR1- transgenic chrysanthemum plants compared to wild-type plants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Yang Xie, Liang Xu, Yan Wang, Lianxue Fan, Yinglong Chen, Mingjia Tang, Xiaobo Luo, Liwang Liu
The fleshy taproot of radish is an important storage organ determining its yield and quality. Taproot thickening is a complex developmental process in radish. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this process remain unclear at the proteome level. In this study, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed to analyze the proteome changes at three developmental stages of taproot thickening using iTRAQ approach. In total, 1862 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified from 6342 high-confidence proteins, among which 256 up-regulated proteins displayed overlapped accumulation in S1 (pre-cortex splitting stage) vs...
2018: Horticulture Research
Huimin Xu, Qingyi Yu, Yan Shi, Xiuting Hua, Haibao Tang, Long Yang, Ray Ming, Jisen Zhang
Pineapple occupies an important phylogenetic position as its reference genome is a model for studying the evolution the Bromeliaceae family and the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis. Here, we developed a pineapple genomics database (PGD, as a central online platform for storing and integrating genomic, transcriptomic, function annotation and genetic marker data for pineapple ( Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.). The PGD currently hosts significant search tools and available datasets for researchers to study comparative genomics, gene expression, gene co-expression molecular marker, and gene annotation of A...
2018: Horticulture Research
Chengjie Chen, Zaohai Zeng, Zongrang Liu, Rui Xia
Small RNAs (sRNAs) have been recently recognized as key genetic and epigenetic regulators in various organisms, ranging from the modification of DNA and histone methylations to the modulation of the abundance of coding or non-coding RNAs. In plants, major regulatory sRNAs are classified as respective microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) species, with the former primarily engaging in posttranscriptional regulation while the latter in transcriptional one. Many of these characterized sRNAs are involved in regulation of diverse biological programs, processes, and pathways in response to developmental cues, environmental signals/stresses, pathogen infection, and pest attacks...
2018: Horticulture Research
Tian Wang, Zhiqi Deng, Xi Zhang, Hongzheng Wang, Yu Wang, Xiuying Liu, Songyu Liu, Feng Xu, Tao Li, Daqi Fu, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Hongliang Zhu
The tomato encode four functional DCL families, of which DCL2 is poorly studied. Here, we generated loss-of-function mutants for a tomato DCL2 gene, dcl2b , and we identified its major role in defending against tomato mosaic virus in relation to both natural and manual infections. Genome-wide small RNA expression profiling revealed that DCL2b was required for the processing 22-nt small RNAs, including a few species of miRNAs. Interestingly, these DCL2b -dependent 22-nt miRNAs functioned similarly to the DCL1 -produced 22-nt miRNAs in Arabidopsis and could serve as triggers to generate a class of secondary siRNAs...
2018: Horticulture Research
Mingxing Tu, Xianhang Wang, Yanxun Zhu, Dejun Wang, Xuechuan Zhang, Ye Cui, Yajuan Li, Min Gao, Zhi Li, Yuejin Wang, Xiping Wang
Drought stress limits the growth and development of grapevines, thereby reducing productivity, but the mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we characterized a group A bZIP gene from "Kyoho" grapevine, VlbZIP30 , which was shown to be induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and dehydration stress. Overexpression of VlbZIP30 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced dehydration tolerance. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a major proportion of ABA-responsive and/or drought-responsive genes are transcriptionally regulated by VlbZIP30 during ABA or mannitol treatment at the cotyledon greening stage...
2018: Horticulture Research
Shihao Su, Xiaoyu Shao, Changfa Zhu, Jiayin Xu, Yuhuan Tang, Da Luo, Xia Huang
Cymbidium has been artificially domesticated for centuries in Asia, which produced numerous cultivated varieties. Flowers with stamenoid tepals or those with multiple tepals have been found in different species of Cymbidium ; however, the molecular basis controlling the formation of these phenotypes is still largely unknown. Previous work demonstrated that AGAMOUS/AG lineage MADS genes function in floral meristem determinacy as well as in reproductive organs development in both dicots and monocots, indicating a possible relationship with the origin of two flower varieties in Cymbidium ...
2018: Horticulture Research
Matthew Alan Jones
The plasticity of plant morphology has evolved to maximize reproductive fitness in response to prevailing environmental conditions. Leaf architecture elaborates to maximize light harvesting, while the transition to flowering can either be accelerated or delayed to improve an individual's fitness. One of the most important environmental signals is light, with plants using light for both photosynthesis and as an environmental signal. Plants perceive different wavelengths of light using distinct photoreceptors...
2018: Horticulture Research
Jingyu Kou, Yingying Wei, Xingxing He, Jiayu Xu, Feng Xu, Xingfeng Shao
To study the changes in sugar metabolism caused by fungal infection in post-harvest peaches, fruit from two cultivars ('Baifeng' and 'Yulu') was inoculated with Monilinia fructicola and stored at 10 °C. During disease development, soluble sugar content was monitored, as well as the activities and expression of selected enzymes. Disease progression was accompanied by a decrease in sucrose content and increases in reducing sugars and soluble solids, consistent with higher enzyme activities for acid invertase, neutral invertase and sucrose synthase-cleavage, and lower activities for sucrose synthase-synthesis and sucrose phosphate synthase...
2018: Horticulture Research
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