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Veterinary Record Open

Keena Ae Mullen, Erin Beasley, Julio Q Rizzo, Steven P Washburn, Ronald E Baynes, Sharon E Mason, Kevin L Anderson
Mastitis is a costly disease for dairy farmers. Some dairy farmers use herbal products, or phytoceuticals, to treat mastitis. Phytoceuticals have not been approved for this use by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and have not been tested to determine how they impact antibiotic residue detection testing. The current study tested the potential for phytoceuticals to cause positive results on two milk antibiotic residue screening tests, the Delvotest P and Charm SL Beta-lactam test, or to interfere with the detection of antibiotics by these tests...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
Emma K Grigg, Belle Marie Nibblett, James Q Robinson, Judit E Smits
Numerous studies conducted to assess welfare of domestic dogs housed in kennel facilities have reported that these dogs experience suboptimal living conditions. One important goal of improving welfare of kennelled dogs is to reduce their stress levels, and one recommended approach for improving welfare of kennelled dogs is group or social housing. The beneficial effects of management changes designed to achieve this goal should be measurable in individual animals. Stress is evident through behaviours exhibited, as well as via the concentration of cortisol, a key hormone reflecting stress...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
Alaina G C Macdonald, Stéphanie L Bourgon, Rupert Palme, Stephen P Miller, Yuri R Montanholi
Liver abscesses constitute a prominent concern regarding animal health and profitability of the beef industry. Our objective was to evaluate potential biliary and blood indicators of liver abscesses. Twenty-nine beef bulls (initially averaging 356±70.5 kg and 253±30 days of age) were fed a high-concentrate diet during a performance test of 112 days, during which blood was collected at nine time points spaced 0.5-13 days apart within 56 days before slaughter. At the abattoir, blood and bile were collected and livers were inspected for liver abscesses...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
Nancy De Briyne, Raquel Gopal, Gillian Diesel, Despoina Iatridou, Declan O'Rourke
A web-based survey was conducted by the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe with the support of the European Medicines Agency to gain a better insight into the adverse event reporting habits of veterinary practitioners and the level of information on reported adverse events that flows back to them. It was completed by 3545 veterinarians. The findings indicate marked under-reporting and that the system is poorly equipped to deal with lack of expected efficacy, with few cases reported and most found to be inconclusive...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
Ramon Armengol, Daniel Villalba, Ester Coma, Lourdes Porquet, Anna Jubert, Carmina Nogareda
Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cows or balanoposthitis in bulls. In this study, individual and bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 5 Catalan dairy farms with different control strategies against BoHV-1 were analysed during the course of a year for milk quality parameters and glycoprotein E (gE) antibodies. Detection of gE antibodies was carried out with ELISA techniques. Prevalence of BoHV-1 varied between farms, and was stable during the study in individual and BTM samples...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
Philippe Fravalo, Tamazight Cherifi, Kersti Dina Neira Feliciano, Ann Letellier, Julie-Hélène Fairbrother, Sadjia Bekal
The introduction of Listeria monocytogenes into the food production chain is a concern, with numerous grouped cases of listeriosis associated with milk-derived or pork-derived products have been documented. Management of this zoonotic pathogen considers all strains as an equal risk. Recently, a new perspective for characterisation of strain virulence was introduced with the discovery of the unaltered sequence of InlA as a determinant of strain virulence; this has also been reported as an infrequent finding among so-called environmental strains, that is, strains isolated from food or from surfaces in food industries...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
Elisabeth Mirle, Anna Wogatzki, Robert Kunzmann, Axel M Schoenfelder, Lutz F Litzke
The surgical evaluation of haemorrhagic infarcted intestine and the decision for or against bowel resection require a lot of experience and are subjective. The aim of this prospective, clinical study was to examine the correlation between oxygen saturation and small intestinal wall (IW) thickness, using two objective methods. In 22 colicky horses, the blood flow, oxygen saturation and relative amount of haemoglobin were measured intraoperatively via laser Doppler and white light spectroscopy (O2C, oxygen to see, LEA Medizintechnik) at six measuring points (MPs) in small and large intestines...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
George Manchi, Mathias M Brunnberg, Muhammad Shahid, Ahmad Al Aiyan, Eric Chow, Leo Brunnberg, Silke Stein
OBJECTIVE: Description of surgical technique, complications and outcome of radius/ulna fractures in toy and miniature breed dogs treated with the paraosseous clamp-cerclage stabilisation (PCCS) method. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Clinical records of small breed dogs with fractures of the radius and ulna were reviewed between January 2011 and January 2016. Inclusion criteria were bodyweight of ≤3.5 kg, fracture of the radius and ulna of one or two limbs without previous repair attempts, available follow-up information, and the use of PCCS for repair of the fracture as the sole method of fixation...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
Kamal Gabadage, Manuel Chirino-Trejo, John Campbell, Christopher Luby
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious mastitis pathogen of dairy cattle. Antimicrobial treatment of infected cattle results in variable cure rates. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in the modulation of host innate immune responses and the regulation of mammary epithelial regeneration, indicating that EGF may be useful as a treatment for mastitis. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant bovine EGF (rbEGF) for the treatment of S aureus intramammary infection (IMI) using an ovine model...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
S S Maidana, F Delgado, L Vagnoni, A Mauroy, E Thiry, S Romera
In the present work, controlled experimental infection and transmission studies in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were carried out to study the in vivo behaviour of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1). Two bovine and two buffalo calves were infected with BuHV1 (20287N isolate) by intranasal aerosolisation. Two sentinel cattle did not receive the virus challenge, but were housed with infected buffaloes to evaluate horizontal transmission. All experimentally inoculated animals showed viral infection and respiratory clinical signs...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
T T Apaa, J M Daly, R E Tarlinton
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a highly contagious viral disease with three variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c) currently circulating in dogs worldwide. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalent CPV-2 variant in faecal samples from 53 dogs presenting with acute gastroenteritis suspected to be and consistent with CPV-2 to Nigerian Veterinary Clinics in 2013-2014. Seventy-five per cent of these dogs tested positive for CPV-2 in a commercial antigen test and/or by PCR. Partial sequencing of the VP2 gene of six of these demonstrated them to be CPV-2a...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
C Factor, E Yus, C Eiras, M L Sanjuan, M Cerviño, I Arnaiz, F J Diéguez
This study examined the frequency and diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDVs) infecting cattle in Galicia (northwestern Spain). A total of 86 BVDV strains were typed in samples of serum from 79 persistently infected animals and 3 viraemic animals and of abomasal fluid from 4 fetuses. Samples came from 73 farms participating in a voluntary BVDV control programme. Typing was based on a 288-bp sequence from the 5' untranslated region amplified using primers 324 and 326. Of the 86 strains, 85 (98.8 per cent) belonged to species BVDV-1 and 1 (1...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
C Azevedo, D Pacheco, L Soares, M Moitoso, J Maldonado, R Guix, J Simões
The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the influence of using mobile (n=47) or fixed (n=45) milking machines in Azorean herds on the apparent prevalence of several milk pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) and (2) to determine whether separated subclinical mastitic cows can serve, in real time, as predictors of milk pathogen prevalence for the remaining animals at the herd level. The use of a mobile or fixed milking machine influenced (P≤0.05) the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (72.3 per cent; n=34 v 51...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
S Tirosh-Levy, S E Blum, K F Steward, A S Waller, A Steinman
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the seroprevalence of Streptococcus equi in Israel, to monitor seropositive horses over time and to identify archived strains that were recovered from Israeli horses. A serological survey of 200 healthy horses on 20 farms throughout Israel was performed to detect recent exposure to S equi antigens A and C via indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence was 9.5 per cent (19/200) and positive horses were found in 30 per cent (6/20) of the farms. Sixteen horses that returned a positive serology result were retested three and six months later...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
Kaleigh E Morrison, Danielle Strahl-Heldreth, Stuart C Clark-Price
Anaesthetic chamber concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane that resulted in loss of righting reflex within 15 minutes in 50 per cent of toads (Rhinella marina) exposed (ED50-LRR<15MIN) were identified. The median and range ED50-LRR<15MIN was 1.4 (0.9-1.4) per cent for isoflurane, 1.75 (1.1-1.9) per cent for sevoflurane and 4.4 (4.3-5.5) per cent for desflurane. Subsequently, toads were exposed to 1.5 times the ED50-LRR<15MIN and times to loss and return of righting reflex were identified...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
S Murakami, M Otaki, Y Hayashi, K Higuchi, T Kobayashi, Y Torii, E Yokoyama, R Azuma
Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
Åsa Vilson, Åke Hedhammar, Arleigh Reynolds, Julie Spears, Ebenezer Satyaraj, Robyn Pelker, Cari Rottman, Bengt Björkstén, Helene Hansson-Hamlin
Some dog breeds, including the German shepherd dog (GSD), are predisposed to immune-related disorders. The authors prospectively described development of serum and faecal IgA and serum IgE in GSD from puppies until adulthood and the relationship between mothers and their offspring. Further, the authors tested whether dogs with lower serum IgA also have low faecal IgA and/or serum IgE. To reveal whether any of the parameters could be proven to influence the immune response, the authors also measured serum IgG against canine distemper virus (CDV)...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
Valentina Brioschi, Jodie Cook, Gareth I Arthurs
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a surgeon can drill accurately a specified angle and whether surgeon experience, task repetition, drill bit size and perceived difficulty influence drilling angle accuracy. METHODS: The sample population consisted of final-year students (n=25), non-specialist veterinarians (n=22) and board-certified orthopaedic surgeons (n=8). Each participant drilled a hole twice in a horizontal oak plank at 30°, 45°, 60°, 80°, 85° and 90° angles with either a 2...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
Luisa De Risio, Julia Freeman, Anita Shea
The carers of all UK Kennel Club registered Italian spinoni (IS) born between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011 were invited to participate in the study. The carers of 47 of 63 IS diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) returned the questionnaire, which included numerous questions on various aspects of IE including the effect of IE on the dog's carer's quality of life. Median epileptic seizure number in the three months before study end or death was five epileptic seizures, 72 per cent of dogs had cluster seizures, 94 per cent of dogs were administered one or more antiepileptic medications and 36 per cent of dogs were euthanased due to poorly controlled IE...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
Dong-Hun Lee, David E Swayne, Poonam Sharma, Shafqat Fatima Rehmani, Abdul Wajid, David L Suarez, Claudio Afonso
Significant economic losses from deaths and decreased egg production have resulted from H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infections in poultry across North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The H9N2 LPAIVs have been endemic in Pakistani poultry since 1996, but no new viruses have been reported since 2010. Because novel genotypes of Pakistani H9N2 contain mammalian host-specific markers, recent surveillance is essential to better understand any continuing public health risk. Here the authors report on four new H9N2 LPAIVs, three from 2015 and one from 2012...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
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