Read by QxMD icon Read

Cell Discovery

Chao Wei, Xiao Han, Danwei Weng, Qiru Feng, Xiangbing Qi, Jin Li, Minmin Luo
Heroin, nicotine, cocaine, and MDMA are abused by billions of people. They are believed to target midbrain dopamine neurons and/or serotonin neurons, but their effects on the dynamic neuronal activity remain unclear in behaving states. By combining cell-type-specific fiber photometry of Ca2+ signals and intravenous drug infusion, here we show that these four drugs of abuse profoundly modulate the activity of mouse midbrain dopamine neurons and serotonin neurons with distinct potency and kinetics. Heroin strongly activates dopamine neurons, and only excites serotonin neurons at higher doses...
2018: Cell Discovery
Mengmeng Jiang, Haide Chen, Shujing Lai, Renying Wang, Yunfei Qiu, Fang Ye, Lijiang Fei, Huiyu Sun, Yang Xu, Xinyi Jiang, Ziming Zhou, Tingyue Zhang, Yanwei Li, Jin Xie, Qun Fang, Robert Peter Gale, Xiaoping Han, He Huang, Guoji Guo
Identification of effective culture conditions to maintain and possibly expand human HSPCs in vitro is an important goal. Recent advances highlight the efficacy of chemicals in maintaining and converting cell fates. We screened 186 chemicals and found that a combination of CHIR-99021, Forskolin and OAC1 (CFO) maintained human CD34-positive cells in vitro. Efficiency of the culture system was characterized using flow cytometry for CD34-positive cells, a colony-forming assay and xeno-transplants. We found that human CD34-positive cells treated with this combination had enhanced expression of human HSPC markers and increased haematopoietic re-populating ability in immune-deficient mice...
2018: Cell Discovery
Jin Huang, Chenze Li, Ying Song, Xiaohan Fan, Ling You, Lun Tan, Lei Xiao, Qing Li, Guoran Ruan, Senlin Hu, Wei Cui, Zongzhe Li, Li Ni, Chen Chen, Anthony Yiu-Ho Woo, Rui-Ping Xiao, Dao Wen Wang
We sought to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the genes involved in βAR signaling with the response of patients to βAR blockers. A total of 2403 hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure (HF) were enrolled in a multicenter observational study as the first cohort and followed up for a mean period of 20 months. Genes for β1AR, β2AR, and the major cardiac G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) GRK2 and GRK5 were analyzed to identify SNPs, and patients were stratified according to genotypes...
2018: Cell Discovery
Dong-Lei Yang, Guiping Zhang, Lili Wang, Jingwen Li, Dachao Xu, Cuiru Di, Kai Tang, Lan Yang, Liang Zeng, Daisuke Miki, Cheng-Guo Duan, Huiming Zhang, Jian-Kang Zhu
DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark that is critical for many biological processes in plants and mammals. In Arabidopsis, the antagonistic activities of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and ROS1-dependent active DNA demethylation are key for the dynamic regulation of locus-specific DNA methylation. However, the molecular factors that coordinate RdDM and active demethylation are largely unknown. Here we report that CLSY4 and its three paralogous SWI2/SNF2-type chromatin-remodeling proteins function in both RdDM and DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis...
2018: Cell Discovery
Zhen Wang, Alix McCloskey, Sen Cheng, Mei Wu, Chenyu Xue, Zhengyou Yu, Jiaqi Fu, Yanhua Liu, Zhao-Qing Luo, Xiaoyun Liu
Posttranslational modification of key host proteins by virulence factors is an important theme in bacterial pathogenesis. A remarkable example is the reversible modifications of the small GTPase Rab1 by multiple effectors of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila . Previous studies have shown that the effector SetA, dependent on a functional glucosyltransferase domain, interferes with host secretory pathways. However, the enzymatic substrate(s) of SetA in host cells remains unknown. Here, by using cross-linking mass spectrometry we uncovered Rab1 as the target of SetA during L...
2018: Cell Discovery
Chunfang Liu, Zhen Cai, Guoxiang Jin, Danni Peng, Bo-Syong Pan, Xian Zhang, Fei Han, Xiaohong Xu, Hui-Kuan Lin
The century-old embryonal/gametogenesis hypothesis of tumors could link diverse tumors' malignant features together likely representing the real "stemness" of tumors. However, the genetic evidence to validate abnormal gametogenesis in tumors remains lacking. Here we show that p53 deficiency elicits abnormal gametogenesis from primordial germ cell-like stage to late oocyte-like stage and subsequent parthenogenetic activation. The similar upregulation of abnormal gametogenesis by p53 deficiency is observed both in p53-/- mouse model and cultured cancer cells...
2018: Cell Discovery
Zongshi Lu, Xiao Wei, Fang Sun, Hexuan Zhang, Peng Gao, Yunfei Pu, Anlong Wang, Jing Chen, Weidong Tong, Qiang Li, Xunmei Zhou, Zhencheng Yan, Hongting Zheng, Gangyi Yang, Yu Huang, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
Insulin is critical for glucose homeostasis, and insulin deficiency or resistance leads to the development of diabetes. Recent evidence suggests that diabetes can be remitted independent of insulin. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely elusive. In this study, we utilized metabolic surgery as a tool to identify the non-insulin determinant mechanism. Here, we report that the most common metabolic surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), reduced insulin production but persistently maintained euglycemia in healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and C57 mice...
2018: Cell Discovery
Qi Hao, Boyue Zhang, Kangning Yuan, Hang Shi, Günter Blobel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cell Discovery
Yong Liu, Hai Wei Xu, Lei Wang, Shi Ying Li, Cong Jian Zhao, Jie Hao, Qi You Li, Tong Tao Zhao, Wei Wu, Yi Wang, Qi Zhou, Cheng Qian, Liu Wang, Zheng Qin Yin
Stem cell therapy may provide a safe and promising treatment for retinal diseases. Wet age-related macular degeneration (wet-AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in China. We developed a clinical-grade human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line, Q-CTS-hESC-2, under xeno-free conditions that differentiated into retinal pigment epithelial cells (Q-CTS-hESC-2-RPE). A clinical trial with three wet-AMD patients was initiated in order to study the safety and tolerance to Q-CTS-hESC-2-RPE cell transplants. The choroidal neovascularization membrane was removed and then a suspension of 1 × 106 Q-CTS-hESC-2-RPE cells were injected into a subfoveal pocket...
2018: Cell Discovery
Kaiyu Xu, Dong Chen, Zhengbo Wang, Jian Ma, Jian Zhou, Nanhui Chen, Longbao Lv, Yongtang Zheng, Xintian Hu, Yi Zhang, Jiali Li
The abundance and function of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in mammalian brain have been reported, but their alterations in the biology of brain aging remain elusive. Here, using deep RNA profiling with linear RNA digestion by RNase R we explored a comprehensive map of changes in circRNA expression in rhesus macaque ( macaca mulatta ) brain in two age groups from adult (10 y) to aged (20 y) periods. Total 17,050 well expressed, stable circRNAs were identified. Cluster analysis reveals that dynamic changes in circRNA expression show the spatial-, sex- and age-biased specificities...
2018: Cell Discovery
Lin Wang, Dechao Cao, Ling Wang, Juan Zhao, Lam Nhat Nguyen, Xindi Dang, Yingjie Ji, Xiao Y Wu, Zheng D Morrison, Qian Xie, Mohamed El Gazzar, Shunbin Ning, Jonathan P Moorman, Zhi Q Yao
Virus-infected cells can regulate non-permissive bystander cells, but the precise mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we report that this process can be mediated by transfer of viral RNA-loaded exosomes shed from infected cells to myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which in turn regulate the differentiation and function of T cells during viral infection. Specifically, we demonstrated that patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection exhibited significant increases in T follicular regulatory (TFR ) cells and decreases in T follicular helper (TFH ) cells...
2018: Cell Discovery
Yehua Li, Yuan Liu, Bofeng Liu, Jilian Wang, Siting Wei, Zhen Qi, Shan Wang, Wei Fu, Ye-Guang Chen
Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) drive the fast renewal of intestinal epithelium. Several signaling pathways have been shown to regulate ISC fates. However, it is unclear what are the essential signals to sustain the ISC self-renewal. Here we show that coordination between Wnt and BMP signaling activity is necessary and sufficient to maintain Lgr5+ ISCs self-renewal. The key function of R-spondin1 is to achieve a high activity of Wnt signaling in the organoid culture. Using the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR-99021 and the BMP type I receptor inhibitor LDN-193189, we can maintain Lgr5+ ISCs without growth factors in vitro...
2018: Cell Discovery
Jee Hyun Yi, Dong Hyun Kim, Thomas M Piers, Seung Chan Kim, Daniel J Whitcomb, Philip Regan, Kwangwook Cho
It is well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) affects neurodegeneration in the brain. Several studies also implicate ROS in the regulation of synapse function and learning and memory processes, although the precise source of ROS generation within these contexts remains to be further explored. Here we show that postsynaptic superoxide generation through PKCζ-activated NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) is critical for long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission in the CA1-Shaffer collateral synapse of the rat hippocampus...
2018: Cell Discovery
Yan Tang, Yi He, Chen Li, Wenjuan Mu, Ying Zou, Conghui Liu, Shuwen Qian, Fuchuang Zhang, Jiabao Pan, Yina Wang, Haiyan Huang, Dongning Pan, Pengyuan Yang, Ju Mei, Rong Zeng, Qi-Qun Tang
Pericardial adipose tissue, which comprises both epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT), has recently been recognized as a novel factor in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal of this study was to evaluate differences in the brown-like characteristic and proteome among human EAT, PAT, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to identify candidate molecules causing CAD. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) and other brown-related proteins were highly expressed in pericardial adipose tissue but was weakly expressed in SAT from the same non-CAD patient...
2018: Cell Discovery
Yugang Wang, Yusong R Guo, Dongming Xing, Yizhi Jane Tao, Zhimin Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cell Discovery
Xiongjun Wang, Wencheng Zhu, Peng Chang, Hongyu Wu, Haoping Liu, Jiangye Chen
Phenotypic plasticity is common in development. Candida albicans , a polymorphic fungal pathogen of humans, possesses the unique ability to achieve rapid and reversible cell fate between unicellular form (yeast) and multicellular form (hypha) in response to environmental cues. The NuA4 histone acetyltransferase activity and Hda1 histone deacetylase activity have been reported to be required for hyphal initiation and maintenance. However, how Hda1 and NuA4 regulate hyphal elongation is not clear. NuA4 histone acetyltransferase and SWR1 chromatin remodeling complexes are conserved from yeast to human, which may have merged together to form a larger TIP60 complex since the origin of metazoan...
2018: Cell Discovery
Congru Li, Yong Fan, Guoqiang Li, Xiaocui Xu, Jialei Duan, Rong Li, Xiangjin Kang, Xin Ma, Xuepeng Chen, Yuwen Ke, Jie Yan, Ying Lian, Ping Liu, Yue Zhao, Hongcui Zhao, Yaoyong Chen, Yang Yu, Jiang Liu
DNA methylation plays important roles during development. However, the DNA methylation reprogramming of functional elements has not been fully investigated during mammalian embryonic development. Herein, using our modified MethylC-Seq library generation method and published post-bisulphite adapter-tagging (PBAT) method, we generated genome-wide DNA methylomes of human gametes and early embryos at single-base resolution and compared them with mouse methylomes. We showed that the dynamics of DNA methylation in functional elements are conserved between humans and mice during early embryogenesis, except for satellite repeats...
2018: Cell Discovery
Cui Li, Qin Wang, Yisheng Jiang, Qing Ye, Dan Xu, Fei Gao, Jesse W Xu, Ruoke Wang, Xingliang Zhu, Lei Shi, Lei Yu, Fuchun Zhang, Weixiang Guo, Linqi Zhang, Cheng-Feng Qin, Zhiheng Xu
The causal link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and microcephaly has raised alarm worldwide. Microglial hyperplasia, reactive gliosis, and myelination delay have been reported in ZIKV-infected microcephalic fetuses. However, whether and how ZIKV infection affects glial cell development remain unclear. Here we show that ZIKV infection of embryos at the later stage of development causes severe microcephaly after birth. ZIKV infects the glial progenitors during brain development. Specifically, ZIKV infection disturbs the proliferation and differentiation of the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and leads to the abolishment of oligodendrocyte development...
2018: Cell Discovery
Yan Han, Chunli Yan, Susan Fishbain, Ivaylo Ivanov, Yuan He
RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription initiation requires the action of the transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB) and is highly regulated. Here, we determine the structures of Pol III pre-initiation complexes (PICs) using single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We observe stable Pol III-TFIIIB complexes using nucleic acid scaffolds mimicking various functional states, in which TFIIIB tightly encircles the upstream promoter DNA. There is an intricate interaction between TFIIIB and Pol III, which stabilizes the winged-helix domains of the C34 subunit of Pol III over the active site cleft...
2018: Cell Discovery
Lupeng Ye, Chengkun Wang, Lingjuan Hong, Ninghe Sun, Danyang Chen, Sidi Chen, Feng Han
CRISPR systems have been proven as versatile tools for site-specific genome engineering in mammalian species. During the gene editing processes, these RNA-guide nucleases introduce DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), in which non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) dominates the DNA repair pathway, limiting the efficiency of homology-directed repair (HDR), the alternative pathway essential for precise gene targeting. Multiple approaches have been developed to enhance HDR, including chemical compound or RNA interference-mediated inhibition of NHEJ factors, small molecule activation of HDR enzymes, or cell cycle timed delivery of CRISPR complex...
2018: Cell Discovery
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"