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Cell Discovery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210805/hcv-associated-exosomes-promote-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-expansion-via-inhibiting-mir-124-to-regulate-t-follicular-cell-differentiation-and-function
#1
Lin Wang, Dechao Cao, Ling Wang, Juan Zhao, Lam Nhat Nguyen, Xindi Dang, Yingjie Ji, Xiao Y Wu, Zheng D Morrison, Qian Xie, Mohamed El Gazzar, Shunbin Ning, Jonathan P Moorman, Zhi Q Yao
Virus-infected cells can regulate non-permissive bystander cells, but the precise mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we report that this process can be mediated by transfer of viral RNA-loaded exosomes shed from infected cells to myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which in turn regulate the differentiation and function of T cells during viral infection. Specifically, we demonstrated that patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection exhibited significant increases in T follicular regulatory (TFR ) cells and decreases in T follicular helper (TFH ) cells...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181900/a-growth-factor-free-culture-system-underscores-the-coordination-between-wnt-and-bmp-signaling-in-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cell-maintenance
#2
Yehua Li, Yuan Liu, Bofeng Liu, Jilian Wang, Siting Wei, Zhen Qi, Shan Wang, Wei Fu, Ye-Guang Chen
Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) drive the fast renewal of intestinal epithelium. Several signaling pathways have been shown to regulate ISC fates. However, it is unclear what are the essential signals to sustain the ISC self-renewal. Here we show that coordination between Wnt and BMP signaling activity is necessary and sufficient to maintain Lgr5+ ISCs self-renewal. The key function of R-spondin1 is to achieve a high activity of Wnt signaling in the organoid culture. Using the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR-99021 and the BMP type I receptor inhibitor LDN-193189, we can maintain Lgr5+ ISCs without growth factors in vitro...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181899/postsynaptic-p47phox-regulates-long-term-depression-in-the-hippocampus
#3
Jee Hyun Yi, Dong Hyun Kim, Thomas M Piers, Seung Chan Kim, Daniel J Whitcomb, Philip Regan, Kwangwook Cho
It is well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) affects neurodegeneration in the brain. Several studies also implicate ROS in the regulation of synapse function and learning and memory processes, although the precise source of ROS generation within these contexts remains to be further explored. Here we show that postsynaptic superoxide generation through PKCζ-activated NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) is critical for long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission in the CA1-Shaffer collateral synapse of the rat hippocampus...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131868/rps3a-positively-regulates-the-mitochondrial-function-of-human-periaortic-adipose-tissue-and-is-associated-with-coronary-artery-diseases
#4
Yan Tang, Yi He, Chen Li, Wenjuan Mu, Ying Zou, Conghui Liu, Shuwen Qian, Fuchuang Zhang, Jiabao Pan, Yina Wang, Haiyan Huang, Dongning Pan, Pengyuan Yang, Ju Mei, Rong Zeng, Qi-Qun Tang
Pericardial adipose tissue, which comprises both epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT), has recently been recognized as a novel factor in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal of this study was to evaluate differences in the brown-like characteristic and proteome among human EAT, PAT, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to identify candidate molecules causing CAD. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) and other brown-related proteins were highly expressed in pericardial adipose tissue but was weakly expressed in SAT from the same non-CAD patient...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109122/supramolecular-assembly-of-kat2a-with-succinyl-coa-for-histone-succinylation
#5
Yugang Wang, Yusong R Guo, Dongming Xing, Yizhi Jane Tao, Zhimin Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109121/merge-and-separation-of-nua4-and-swr1-complexes-control-cell-fate-plasticity-in-candida-albicans
#6
Xiongjun Wang, Wencheng Zhu, Peng Chang, Hongyu Wu, Haoping Liu, Jiangye Chen
Phenotypic plasticity is common in development. Candida albicans , a polymorphic fungal pathogen of humans, possesses the unique ability to achieve rapid and reversible cell fate between unicellular form (yeast) and multicellular form (hypha) in response to environmental cues. The NuA4 histone acetyltransferase activity and Hda1 histone deacetylase activity have been reported to be required for hyphal initiation and maintenance. However, how Hda1 and NuA4 regulate hyphal elongation is not clear. NuA4 histone acetyltransferase and SWR1 chromatin remodeling complexes are conserved from yeast to human, which may have merged together to form a larger TIP60 complex since the origin of metazoan...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109120/dna-methylation-reprogramming-of-functional-elements-during-mammalian-embryonic-development
#7
Congru Li, Yong Fan, Guoqiang Li, Xiaocui Xu, Jialei Duan, Rong Li, Xiangjin Kang, Xin Ma, Xuepeng Chen, Yuwen Ke, Jie Yan, Ying Lian, Ping Liu, Yue Zhao, Hongcui Zhao, Yaoyong Chen, Yang Yu, Jiang Liu
DNA methylation plays important roles during development. However, the DNA methylation reprogramming of functional elements has not been fully investigated during mammalian embryonic development. Herein, using our modified MethylC-Seq library generation method and published post-bisulphite adapter-tagging (PBAT) method, we generated genome-wide DNA methylomes of human gametes and early embryos at single-base resolution and compared them with mouse methylomes. We showed that the dynamics of DNA methylation in functional elements are conserved between humans and mice during early embryogenesis, except for satellite repeats...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083387/disruption-of-glial-cell-development-by-zika-virus-contributes-to-severe-microcephalic-newborn-mice
#8
Cui Li, Qin Wang, Yisheng Jiang, Qing Ye, Dan Xu, Fei Gao, Jesse W Xu, Ruoke Wang, Xingliang Zhu, Lei Shi, Lei Yu, Fuchun Zhang, Weixiang Guo, Linqi Zhang, Cheng-Feng Qin, Zhiheng Xu
The causal link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and microcephaly has raised alarm worldwide. Microglial hyperplasia, reactive gliosis, and myelination delay have been reported in ZIKV-infected microcephalic fetuses. However, whether and how ZIKV infection affects glial cell development remain unclear. Here we show that ZIKV infection of embryos at the later stage of development causes severe microcephaly after birth. ZIKV infects the glial progenitors during brain development. Specifically, ZIKV infection disturbs the proliferation and differentiation of the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and leads to the abolishment of oligodendrocyte development...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083386/structural-visualization-of-rna-polymerase-iii-transcription-machineries
#9
Yan Han, Chunli Yan, Susan Fishbain, Ivaylo Ivanov, Yuan He
RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription initiation requires the action of the transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB) and is highly regulated. Here, we determine the structures of Pol III pre-initiation complexes (PICs) using single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We observe stable Pol III-TFIIIB complexes using nucleic acid scaffolds mimicking various functional states, in which TFIIIB tightly encircles the upstream promoter DNA. There is an intricate interaction between TFIIIB and Pol III, which stabilizes the winged-helix domains of the C34 subunit of Pol III over the active site cleft...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062046/programmable-dna-repair-with-crispra-i-enhanced-homology-directed-repair-efficiency-with-a-single-cas9
#10
Lupeng Ye, Chengkun Wang, Lingjuan Hong, Ninghe Sun, Danyang Chen, Sidi Chen, Feng Han
CRISPR systems have been proven as versatile tools for site-specific genome engineering in mammalian species. During the gene editing processes, these RNA-guide nucleases introduce DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), in which non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) dominates the DNA repair pathway, limiting the efficiency of homology-directed repair (HDR), the alternative pathway essential for precise gene targeting. Multiple approaches have been developed to enhance HDR, including chemical compound or RNA interference-mediated inhibition of NHEJ factors, small molecule activation of HDR enzymes, or cell cycle timed delivery of CRISPR complex...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062045/ablim1-constructs-non-erythroid-cortical-actin-networks-to-prevent-mechanical-tension-induced-blebbing
#11
Guoqing Li, Shan Huang, Sen Yang, Jiabin Wang, Jingli Cao, Daniel M Czajkowsky, Zhifeng Shao, Xueliang Zhu
The cell cortex is a layer of cytoskeletal networks underneath the plasma membrane, formed by filamentous actin (F-actin) and cortex proteins including spectrin, adducin, and myosin. It provides cells with proper stiffness, elasticity, and surface tension to allow morphogenesis, division, and migration. Although its architecture and formation have been widely studied in red blood cells, they are poorly understood in non-erythrocytes due to structural complexity and versatile functions. In this study, we identify the actin-binding protein abLIM1 as a novel non-erythroid cell-specific cortex organizer...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038797/highly-efficient-and-precise-base-editing-by-engineered-dcas9-guide-trna-adenosine-deaminase-in-rats
#12
Yuanwu Ma, Lei Yu, Xu Zhang, Changpeng Xin, Shisheng Huang, Lin Bai, Wei Chen, Ran Gao, Jing Li, Shuo Pan, Xiaolong Qi, Xingxu Huang, Lianfeng Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038796/inward-facing-conformation-of-l-ascorbate-transporter-suggests-an-elevator-mechanism
#13
Ping Luo, Shuliu Dai, Jianwei Zeng, Jinsong Duan, Hui Shi, Jiawei Wang
Various bacteria can ferment vitamin C (l-ascorbate) under anaerobic conditions via the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTSasc system is composed of two soluble energy-coupling proteins (EI and HPr) and an enzyme II complex (EIIA, EIIB, and EIIC) for the anaerobic uptake of ascorbate and its phosphorylation to l-ascorbate 6-phosphate in vivo. Crystal structures of the ascorbate-bound EIIC component from Escherichia coli are available in outward-open and occluded conformations, suggesting a possible elevator mechanism of membrane transport...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002873/quantitative-integration-of-epigenomic-variation-and-transcription-factor-binding-using-mamotif-toolkit-identifies-an-important-role-of-irf2-as-transcription-activator-at-gene-promoters
#14
Hongduo Sun, Jiawei Wang, Zhaohui Gong, Jiaying Yao, Yuangao Wang, Jian Xu, Guo-Cheng Yuan, Yijing Zhang, Zhen Shao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002872/genetic-editing-and-interrogation-with-cpf1-and-caged-truncated-pre-trna-like-crrna-in-mammalian-cells
#15
Xuhua Zhang, Linping Xu, Ruihua Fan, Quanli Gao, Yunfeng Song, Xiaodong Lyu, Jiangtao Ren, Yongping Song
Cpf1, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease that belongs to a new class II CRISPR system, has recently been harnessed for genome editing. Herein, we report an RNase-resistant caged truncated pre-tRNA-like crRNA (catRNA) that confers precise and efficient gene editing with the Lachnospiraceae bacterium Cpf1 (LbCpf1) and enables the reprogramming of catalytically dead LbCpf1 (dCpf1) lacking DNA endonuclease activity into a transcriptional modulator. Specific gene knock-outs and knock-ins were increased 3.2-fold and 4...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977599/cancer-cell-specific-inhibition-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-by-forced-intracellular-acidification
#16
Svitlana Melnik, Dmytro Dvornikov, Karin Müller-Decker, Sofia Depner, Peter Stannek, Michael Meister, Arne Warth, Michael Thomas, Tomas Muley, Angela Risch, Christoph Plass, Ursula Klingmüller, Christof Niehrs, Andrey Glinka
Use of the diabetes type II drug Metformin is associated with a moderately lowered risk of cancer incidence in numerous tumor entities. Studying the molecular changes associated with the tumor-suppressive action of Metformin we found that the oncogene SOX4 , which is upregulated in solid tumors and associated with poor prognosis, was induced by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and blocked by Metformin. Wnt signaling inhibition by Metformin was surprisingly specific for cancer cells. Unraveling the underlying specificity, we identified Metformin and other Mitochondrial Complex I (MCI) inhibitors as inducers of intracellular acidification in cancer cells...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977598/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-hematopoietic-system-between-human-and-mouse-by-microwell-seq
#17
Shujing Lai, Wentao Huang, Yang Xu, Mengmeng Jiang, Haide Chen, Chen Cheng, Yingru Lu, He Huang, Guoji Guo, Xiaoping Han
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951224/sea-cucumber-genome-provides-insights-into-saponin-biosynthesis-and-aestivation-regulation
#18
Yuli Li, Ruijia Wang, Xiaogang Xun, Jing Wang, Lisui Bao, Ramesha Thimmappa, Jun Ding, Jingwei Jiang, Liheng Zhang, Tianqi Li, Jia Lv, Chuang Mu, Xiaoli Hu, Lingling Zhang, Jing Liu, Yuqiang Li, Lijie Yao, Wenqian Jiao, Yangfan Wang, Shanshan Lian, Zelong Zhao, Yaoyao Zhan, Xiaoting Huang, Huan Liao, Jia Wang, Hongzhen Sun, Xue Mi, Yu Xia, Qiang Xing, Wei Lu, Anne Osbourn, Zunchun Zhou, Yaqing Chang, Zhenmin Bao, Shi Wang
Echinoderms exhibit several fascinating evolutionary innovations that are rarely seen in the animal kingdom, but how these animals attained such features is not well understood. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the genome and extensive transcriptomes of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus , a species from a special echinoderm group with extraordinary potential for saponin synthesis, aestivation and organ regeneration. The sea cucumber does not possess a reorganized Hox cluster as previously assumed for all echinoderms, and the spatial expression of Hox7 and Hox11/13b potentially guides the embryo-to-larva axial transformation...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928511/srsf3-maintains-transcriptome-integrity-in-oocytes-by-regulation-of-alternative-splicing-and-transposable-elements
#19
Dang Vinh Do, Bernhard Strauss, Engin Cukuroglu, Iain Macaulay, Keng Boon Wee, Tim Xiaoming Hu, Ruiz De Los Mozos Igor, Caroline Lee, Andrew Harrison, Richard Butler, Sabine Dietmann, Ule Jernej, John Marioni, Christopher W J Smith, Jonathan Göke, M Azim Surani
The RNA-binding protein SRSF3 (also known as SRp20) has critical roles in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. Zygotic knockout of Srsf3 results in embryo arrest at the blastocyst stage. However, SRSF3 is also present in oocytes, suggesting that it might be critical as a maternally inherited factor. Here we identify SRSF3 as an essential regulator of alternative splicing and of transposable elements to maintain transcriptome integrity in mouse oocyte. Using 3D time-lapse confocal live imaging, we show that conditional deletion of Srsf3 in fully grown germinal vesicle oocytes substantially compromises the capacity of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and consequently entry into meiosis...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928510/monolayer-culture-of-intestinal-epithelium-sustains-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cells
#20
Yuan Liu, Zhen Qi, Xintong Li, Yanan Du, Ye-Guang Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cell Discovery
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