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Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)

Maria Del Mar De Miguel-Bonet, Sally Ahad, Volker Hartenstein
Neoblasts are motile pluripotent stem cells unique to the flatworm phyla Platyhelminthes and Acoela. The role of neoblasts in tissue regeneration has received much attention in recent studies. Here we review data pertinent to the structure and embryonic origin of these stem cells, and their participation in normal cell turnover. Next, we present data proving that neoblasts also account for the addition of cells during postembryonic growth. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse chase experiments demonstrate that the incorporation of neoblast-derived cells into the different tissues of the juvenile worm follows a stereotyped pattern, whereby cells within the parenchymal layer (muscle, gland) incorporate new cells most rapidly, followed by the epidermal domain surrounding the mouth, dorsal epidermis, and, lastly, the nervous system...
2018: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Oliver Wirths
Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, as well as a variety of other protein fragments, are derived from proteolytical cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and have been demonstrated to play a key role in the pathological changes underlying Alzheimer disease (AD). In AD mouse models, altered neurogenesis has been repeatedly reported to be associated with further AD-typical pathological hallmarks such as extracellular plaque deposition, behavioral deficits or neuroinflammation. While a toxic role of Aβ in neurodegeneration and impaired neuronal progenitor proliferation is likely and well-accepted, recent findings also suggest an important influence of APP-derived proteolitical fragments like the APP intracellular domain (AICD), as well as of APP itself...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Dylan R Farnsworth, Chris Q Doe
During development of the central nervous system, a small pool of stem cells and progenitors generate the vast neural diversity required for neural circuit formation and behavior. Neural stem and progenitor cells often generate different progeny in response to the same signaling cue (e.g. Notch or Hedgehog), including no response at all. How does stem cell competence to respond to signaling cues change over time? Recently, epigenetics particularly chromatin remodeling - has emerged as a powerful mechanism to control stem cell competence...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Prabesh Bhattarai, Alvin Kuriakose Thomas, Yixin Zhang, Caghan Kizil
Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and is associated with aggregation of Amyloid-β42 peptides. In mammals, Amyloid-β42 causes impaired neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and neurogenesis, which exacerbate with aging. The molecular programs necessary to enhance NSPC proliferation and neurogenesis in our brains to mount successful regeneration are largely unknown. Therefore, to identify the molecular basis of effective brain regeneration, we previously established an Amyloid-β42 model in adult zebrafish that displayed Alzheimer-like phenotypes reminiscent of humans...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Luis E B Bettio, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Anna R Patten, Natasha F O'Rourke, Ronan P Hanley, Karthik Gopalakrishnan, Jeremy E Wulff, Brian R Christie
The development of synthetic small molecules capable of promoting neuronal fate in stem cells is a promising strategy to prevent the decline of hippocampal function caused by several neurological disorders. Within this context, isoxazole 9 (Isx-9) has been shown to strongly induce cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), while also improving hippocampal function in healthy mice. We have recently demonstrated that Isx-9 is able to restore normal neurogenesis levels after procedural stress...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Steven J Deimling, Jonathan B Olsen, Vincent Tropepe
Epigenetic regulators play a crucial role in neurodevelopment. One such epigenetic complex, Ehmt1/2 (G9a/GLP), is essential for repressing gene transcription by methylating H3K9 in a highly tissue- and temporal-specific manner. Recently, data has emerged suggesting that this complex plays additional roles in regulating the activity of numerous other non-histone proteins. While much is known about the downstream effects of Ehmt1/2 function, evidence is only beginning to come to light suggesting the control of Ehmt1/2 function may be, at least in part, due to context-dependent binding partners...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Min Liu, Ping Xu, Timothy O'Brien, Sanbing Shen
Neurogenesis is essential for proper brain formation and function, and abnormal neural proliferation is an underlying neuropathology of many brain disorders. Recent advances on adult neurogenesis demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs) at the subventricular zone (SVZ) are largely derived during mid-embryonic neurogenesis from a subset of cells, which slow down in their pace of cell division,1 become quiescent cells and can be reactivated in need.2 The NSCs at birth constitute the stem cell pool for both postnatal oligodendrogenesis3 and adult neurogenesis...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Delphine Hardy, Armen Saghatelyan
The adult olfactory bulb (OB) continuously receives new interneurons that integrate into the functional neuronal network and that play an important role in odor information processing and olfactory behavior. Adult neuronal progenitors are derived from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) bordering the lateral ventricle. They migrate long distances along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) toward the OB where they differentiate into interneurons, mature, and establish synapses with tufted or mitral cells (MC), the principal neurons in the OB...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Kathryn S Jones, Bronwen Connor
Adult human neurogenesis has generated excitement over the last 2 decades with the idea that endogenous adult stem cells could act as a potential cell source for brain repair after injury. Indeed, many forms of experimentally induced brain injury including stroke and excitotoxic lesioning can promote proliferation from the subventricular zone and mobilise neuroblasts and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to migrate through brain parenchyma to damaged regions. However the failure of neuroblasts to mature into appropriate neuronal subtypes for cell replacement has been an issue...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Ivan Mestres, Ching-Hwa Sung
Accumulating findings have begun to unveil the important role of the endosomal machinery in the nervous system development. Endosomes have been linked to the differential segregation of cell fate determining molecules in asymmetrically dividing progenitors during neurogenesis. Additionally, the precise removal and reinsertion of membrane components through endocytic trafficking regulates the spatial and temporal distribution of signaling receptors and adhesion molecules, which determine the morphology and motility of migrating neurons...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Beate Roese-Koerner, Laura Stappert, Oliver Brüstle
Canonical Notch signaling has diverse functions during nervous system development and is critical for neural progenitor self-renewal, timing of differentiation and specification of various cell fates. A key feature of Notch-mediated self-renewal is its fluctuating activity within the neural progenitor cell population and the oscillatory expression pattern of the Notch effector Hes1 and its target genes. A negative feedback loop between Hes1 and neurogenic microRNA miR-9 was found to be part of this oscillatory clock...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Dinko Mitrečić, Ivan Alić, Dunja Gorup
A reliable method of cell tracing is essential in evaluating potential therapeutic procedures based on stem cell transplantation. Here we present data collected using neural stem cells isolated from a transgenic mouse line Thy1-YFP. When transplanted into a stroke affected brain these cells give rise to neurons that express a fluorescent signal which can be used for their detection and tracing. Observed processes were compared with those taking place during normal embryonic neurogenesis as well as during in vitro differentiation...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Sara Salinas, Felix Junyent, Nathalie Coré, Harold Cremer, Eric J Kremer
The molecular and cellular basis of adult neurogenesis has attracted considerable attention for fundamental and clinical applications because neural stem cells and newborn neurons may, one day, be harnessed to replace neurons and allow cognitive improvement in the diseased brain. In rodents, neural progenitors are located in the dentate gyrus and the sub/periventricular zone. In the dentate gyrus the generation of newborn neurons is associated with plasticity, including regulation of memory. The role of subventricular zone neural precursors that migrate to the olfactory bulb is less characterized...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Wenjun Xu, Nishanth Lakshman, Cindi M Morshead
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a multipotent, self-renewing source of undifferentiated cells in the periventricular region of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Since their original discovery 25 years ago, much has been learned about their development, persistence, localization, properties and potential. Herein we discuss the current state of knowledge pertaining to neural stem cells with a focus on the lineage relationship between two NSC populations along the neuraxis and their regionally distinct niches in the CNS...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Johanna E Farkas, James R Monaghan
Nerve dependence is a phenomenon observed across a stunning array of species and tissues. From zebrafish to fetal mice to humans, research across various animal models has shown that nerves are critical for the support of tissue repair and regeneration. Although the study of this phenomenon has persisted for centuries, largely through research conducted in salamanders, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of nerve dependence remain poorly-understood. Here we highlight the near-ubiquity and clinical relevance of vertebrate nerve dependence while providing a timeline of its study and an overview of recent advancements toward understanding the mechanisms behind this process...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Anne-Claire Dorsemans, David Couret, Anaïs Hoarau, Olivier Meilhac, Christian Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Nicolas Diotel
The prevalence of diabetes rapidly increased during the last decades in association with important changes in lifestyle. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are well-known for inducing deleterious effects on physiologic processes, increasing for instance cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, retinopathy and foot ulceration. Interestingly, diabetes also impairs brain morphology and functions such as (1) decreased neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation and cell survival), (2) decreased brain volumes, (3) increased blood-brain barrier leakage, (4) increased cognitive impairments, as well as (5) increased stroke incidence and worse neurologic outcomes following stroke...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Gustavo R Morel, Micaela López León, Maia Uriarte, Paula C Reggiani, Rodolfo G Goya
In rats, learning and memory performance decline during normal aging, which is paralleled by a severe reduction of the levels of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A promising therapeutic strategy to restore neurogenesis in the hippocampus of old rats and their spatial memory involves the use of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The peptide exerts pleiotropic effects in the brain, regulating multiple cellular processes. Thus, 4-week intracerebroventricular (ICV) perfusion of IGF-I significantly restored spatial memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in old male rats...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Baptiste Charrier, Nicolas Pilon
Most of gastrointestinal functions are controlled by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which contains a vast diversity of neurons and glial cells. In accordance with its key role, defective ENS formation is the cause of several diseases that affect quality of life and can even be life-threatening. Treatment of these diseases would greatly benefit from a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ENS formation. In this regard, although several important discoveries have been made over the years, how the full spectrum of enteric neuronal and glial cell subtypes is generated from neural crest cells during development still remains enigmatic...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Carolin Schille, Alexandra Schambony
The neural crest is a transient cell population that gives rise to various cell types of multiple tissues and organs in the vertebrate embryo. Neural crest cells arise from the neural plate border, a region localized at the lateral borders of the prospective neural plate. Temporally and spatially coordinated interaction with the adjacent tissues, the non-neural ectoderm, the neural plate and the prospective dorsolateral mesoderm, is required for neural plate border specification. Signaling molecules, namely BMP, Wnt and FGF ligands and corresponding antagonists are derived from these tissues and interact to induce the expression of neural plate border specific genes...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Andrew D Thompson, Chinfei Chen
Neural circuits in sensory pathways develop through a general strategy of overproduction of synapses followed by activity-driven pruning to fine-tune connectivity for optimal function. The early visual pathway, consisting of the retina → visual thalamus → primary visual cortex, has served for decades as a powerful model system for probing the mechanisms and logic of this process. In addition to these feedforward projections, the early visual pathway also includes a substantial feedback component in the form of corticothalamic projections from the deepest layer of primary visual cortex...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
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