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Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951369/ribavirin-in-acute-hepatitis-e-infection-in-patients-with-gynecological-cancer-a-case-series
#1
Dominik Bettinger, Stefan Schlabe, Sven Pischke, Michael R Mallmann, Mignon-Denise Keyver-Paik, Walther Kuhn, Christian P Strassburg, Robert Thimme, Ulrich Spengler
Hepatitis E virus infection is usually a self-limited disease. However, during the last years there has been growing evidence for prolonged and chronic infection occurring in patients with immunosuppression. Also patients with malignant and rheumatic diseases have been identified to be at risk for chronic hepatitis E. However, their course and prognosis are not well characterized and there have been no reports of hepatitis E virus infection in patients with gynecological cancer. Here, we report three Caucasian females with breast and ovarian cancers presenting with elevation of aminotransferase levels during anticancer treatment...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951368/ct-mri-li-rads-v2017-a-comprehensive-guide-for-beginners
#2
REVIEW
Francesca Patella, Filippo Pesapane, Enrico Maria Fumarola, Ilaria Emili, Riccardo Spairani, Salvatore Alessio Angileri, Silvia Tresoldi, Giuseppe Franceschelli, Gianpaolo Carrafiello
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deceases worldwide. Early diagnosis is essential for correct management and improvement of prognosis. Proposed for the first time in 2011 and updated for the last time in 2017, the Liver Imaging-Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) is a comprehensive system for standardized interpretation and reporting of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver examinations, endorsed by the American College of Radiology to achieve congruence with HCC diagnostic criteria in at-risk populations...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951367/noninvasive-quantitative-detection-methods-of-liver-fat-content-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Shujing Lv, Sushan Jiang, Shousheng Liu, Quanjiang Dong, Yongning Xin, Shiying Xuan
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis to NAFLD-related liver cirrhosis and is a main cause of chronic liver diseases. Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis are at a great risk of the progression to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which are tightly associated with liver-related mortality. Liver biopsy is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of NAFLD, but some defects, such as serious complications, sampling error and variability in histologic evaluation among pathologists, remain problematic...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951366/differentiating-cystic-liver-lesions-a-review-of-imaging-modalities-diagnosis-and-management
#4
REVIEW
Marianna G Mavilia, Tina Pakala, Marco Molina, George Y Wu
Hepatic cysts (HCs) are frequently discovered incidentally on abdominal imaging. The prevalence of HCs has been reported as high as 15-18% in the United States. Although most cysts are benign, some are malignant or premalignant. It is important to diagnose cystic lesions in order to properly manage them. Imaging with conventional ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be used to further characterize and diagnose HCs. Ultrasound is typically the first-line imaging modality, whereas more advanced imaging can help narrow down the specific lesion...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951365/non-invasive-in-vivo-imaging-grading-of-liver-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Hanyu Jiang, Tianying Zheng, Ting Duan, Jie Chen, Bin Song
Liver fibrosis (LF), a common consequence of chronic liver diseases with various etiologies, is characterized by excessive accumulation of macromolecules, including collagen, glycoproteins and proteoglycans, in the liver. LF can result in hepatic dysfunction, cirrhosis, portal hypertension and, in some cases, hepatocellular carcinoma. As the current gold standard for diagnosing LF, liver biopsy, however, is invasive and prone to sampling errors and procedure-related complications. Therefore, developing noninvasive, precise and reproducible imaging tests for diagnosing and staging LF is of great significance...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951364/post-locoregional-therapy-treatment-imaging-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-a-literature-based-review
#6
REVIEW
Shamar Young, Andrew J Taylor, Tina Sanghvi
Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as in determining treatment efficacy, or complications, following therapy. Unlike other cancers, HCC is most commonly treated by locoregional therapies (LRTs) such as thermal ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, and transarterial radioembolization. These treatments can lead to changes on imaging that make determination of residual/recurrent disease difficult. This literature-based review discusses the expected postimaging findings following LRT...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951363/hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis-treatment-algorithms-and-imaging-appearance-after-transarterial-chemoembolization
#7
REVIEW
Patrick Vande Lune, Ahmed K Abdel Aal, Sergio Klimkowski, Jessica G Zarzour, Andrew J Gunn
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cause of cancer-related death, with incidence increasing worldwide. Unfortunately, the overall prognosis for patients with HCC is poor and many patients present with advanced stages of disease that preclude curative therapies. Diagnostic and interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of patients with HCC. Diagnostic radiologists can use contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound to diagnose and stage HCC, without the need for pathologic confirmation, by following established criteria...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951362/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-review-of-anti-diabetic-pharmacologic-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Heather S Snyder, Sami A Sakaan, Katherine L March, Osama Siddique, Rosann Cholankeril, Carolyn D Cummings, Chiran Gadiparthi, Sanjaya K Satapathy, Aijaz Ahmed, George Cholankeril
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common cause of liver disease, affects approximately 75 to 100 million Americans. Patients with concurrent NAFLD and type 2 diabetes mellitus have a higher risk of progressing to advanced fibrosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis compared to non-diabetics. Lifestyle modifications, including weight loss, remain the mainstay of treatment for NAFLD, as there are no medications currently indicated for this disease state. Anti-diabetic pharmacologic therapies aimed at improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing insulin production have been studied to determine their potential role in slowing the progression of NAFLD...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951361/cardiovascular-involvement-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infections-insight-from-novel-antiviral-therapies
#9
REVIEW
Wolfgang Poller, Arash Haghikia, Mario Kasner, Ziya Kaya, Udo Bavendiek, Heiner Wedemeier, Hans-Jörg Epple, Carsten Skurk, Ulf Landmesser
Whereas statistical association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with cardiomyopathy is long known, establishment of a causal relationship has not been achieved so far. Patients with advanced heart failure (HF) are mostly unable to tolerate interferon (IFN)-based treatment, resulting in limited experience regarding the possible pathogenic role of HCV in this patient group. HCV infection often triggers disease in a broad spectrum of extrahepatic organs, with innate immune and autoimmune pathogenic processes involved...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951360/occult-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Alyssa Austria, George Y Wu
Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OCI), first described in 2004, is defined as the presence of HCV RNA in hepatocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells without detectable HCV RNA in the serum. Here, we aimed to review the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, clinical implications and potential management recommendations currently described in the literature, as well as the future directions for investigation of this entity. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched with combination of the following keywords: "occult", "hepatitis C virus", and "occult HCV infection"...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951359/hcv-therapy-follow-up-fractionation-ctf2-by-intra-pbmc-nested-rna-pcr-recognizes-early-virologic-response-and-relapse
#11
Mohamed Darwish Ahmed Abd Alla, Saleh Ahmed Elibiary, Ramy Hassan Elshaboury, George Y Wu, Reham M Dawood, Mostafa Kamel El Awady
Background and Aims: Sustained virologic response is evaluated by single-step reverse transcription (SRT) PCR assay, which assesses hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance from plasma but not from tissues such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Persistence of HCV RNA in PBMCs beyond end of treatment (EOT) is associated with nonresponse. Our goal was to measure intra-PBMC HCV RNA levels during oral antiviral therapy according to the HCV therapy follow-up fractionation (CTF2) protocol. Methods: Compensated chronic HCV patients ( n = 2 78 SRT-PCR positive) were scheduled to receive oral antiviral therapy...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951358/effect-of-genistein-in-comparison-with-trichostatin-a-on-reactivation-of-dnmts-genes-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Masumeh Sanaei, Fraidoon Kavoosi, Abazar Roustazadeh, Fatemeh Golestan
Background and Aims: DNA methylation and histone modification are epigenetic modifications essential for normal function of mammalian cells. The processes are mediated by biochemical interactions between DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases. Promoter hypermethylation and deacetylation of tumor suppressor genes play major roles in cancer induction, through transcriptional silencing of these genes. DNA hypermethylation is carried out by a family of DNMTs including DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b. In hepatocellular carcinoma, a significant positive correlation between over-expression of these genes and cancer induction has been reported...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951357/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-its-relationship-with-child-pugh-class-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease
#13
Zubia Jamil, Sharmin Arif, Anum Khan, Asghar Aurangzeb Durrani, Nayyar Yaqoob
Background and Aims: Skeletal manifestation in liver diseases represents the minimally scrutinized part of the disease spectrum. Vitamin D deficiency has a central role in developing hepatic osteodystrophy in patients with chronic liver disease. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D levels and their relationship with disease advancement in these patients. Methods: Vitamin D levels were checked in 125 chronic liver disease patients. The patients were classified in three stages according to Child-Pugh score: A, B and C...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951356/glycosphingolipids-prevent-apap-and-hmg-coa-reductase-inhibitors-mediated-liver-damage-a-novel-method-for-safer-drug-formulation-that-prevents-drug-induced-liver-injury
#14
Meir Mizrahi, Tomer Adar, Gadi Lalazar, Dean Nachman, Madi El Haj, Ami Ben Ya'acov, Yoav Lichtenstein, Yehudit Shabat, Dimitri Kanovich, Lida Zolotarov, Yaron Ilan
Background and Aims: Acetaminophen (APAP) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are common causes of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). This study aimed to determine the ability to reduce APAP- and statins-mediated liver injury by using formulations that combine glycosphingolipids and vitamin E. Methods: Mice were injected with APAP or with statins and treated before and after with β-glucosylceramide (GC), with or without vitamin E. Mice were followed for changes in liver enzymes, liver histology, hepatic expression of JNK, STAT3 and caspase 3, as well as intrahepatic natural killer T cells (NKT) and the serum cytokine levels by flow cytometry...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951355/risk-of-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-systematic-review
#15
Duminda Suraweera, Christina Fanous, Melissa Jimenez, Myron J Tong, Sammy Saab
Background and Aims: Hypercholesterolemia is a common finding in patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and is a well-defined risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies have been mixed on whether PBC patients do, in fact, have higher cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study is to review the current literature and provide an evidence-based assessment of cardiovascular risk in PBC patients. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search on PubMed regarding patients with PBC and cardiovascular events from the database inception to July 1, 2017...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607308/hepatitis-c-virus-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Page Axley, Zunirah Ahmed, Sujan Ravi, Ashwani K Singal
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related death worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with significantly increased risk for development of HCC. The morbidity and mortality of HCV-related HCC remains high, as rates of HCV cirrhosis continue to increase. The long-term goal of antiviral therapy for chronic HCV is to reduce complications from cirrhosis, including HCC. The advent of new direct-acting antivirals with high rates of virological clearance has revolutionized cure of HCV infection...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607307/current-and-future-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-updated-comprehensive-review
#17
REVIEW
Saleh Daher, Muhammad Massarwa, Ariel A Benson, Tawfik Khoury
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. The principal treatment is surgical resection or liver transplantation, depending on whether the patient is a suitable transplant candidate. However, in most patients with HCC the diagnosis is often late, thereby excluding the patients from definitive surgical resection. Medical treatment includes sorafenib, which is the most commonly used systemic therapy; although, it has been shown to only minimally impact patient survival by several months...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577038/searching-for-bacterial-biofilm-in-recurrent-cholangitis-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-case-presentation-and-introduction-of-an-unexplored-disease-mechanism
#18
Alyssa Y Choi, Florencia Jalikis, Maria Westerhoff, Sarag Boukhar, Elinor Pulcini, Chris Damman, Lei Yu
Inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts are the defining pathological characteristics of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). A previously unexplored mechanism for recurrent cholangitis, one of PSC's most common presentations, is bacterial colonization of the biliary epithelium in the form of biofilm, which may confer resistance to antibiotics and host phagocytic machinery. The aim of the current study was to assess whether bacteria could be seen on the liver explant and whether they organized in the form of biofilm...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577037/chylous-ascites-a-review-of-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Richa Bhardwaj, Haleh Vaziri, Arun Gautam, Enrique Ballesteros, David Karimeddini, George Y Wu
Chylous ascites (CA) is a rare form of ascites that results from the leakage of lipid-rich lymph into the peritoneal cavity. This usually occurs due to trauma and rupture of the lymphatics or increased peritoneal lymphatic pressure secondary to obstruction. The underlying etiologies for CA have been classified as traumatic, congenital, infectious, neoplastic, postoperative, cirrhotic or cardiogenic. Since malignancy and cirrhosis account for about two-thirds of all the cases of CA in Western countries, in this article we have attempted to reclassify CA based on portal and non-portal etiologies...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577036/update-on-liver-failure-following-hepatic-resection-strategies-for-prediction-and-avoidance-of-post-operative-liver-insufficiency
#20
REVIEW
Amir A Rahnemai-Azar, Jordan M Cloyd, Sharon M Weber, Mary Dillhoff, Carl Schmidt, Emily R Winslow, Timothy M Pawlik
Liver resection is increasingly used for a variety of benign and malignant conditions. Despite advances in preoperative selection, surgical technique and perioperative management, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality following liver resection. Given the devastating physiological consequences of PHLF and the lack of effective treatment options, identifying risk factors and preventative strategies for PHLF is paramount. In the past, a major limitation to conducting high quality research on risk factors and prevention strategies for PHLF has been the absence of a standardized definition...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
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