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Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607308/hepatitis-c-virus-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Page Axley, Zunirah Ahmed, Sujan Ravi, Ashwani K Singal
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related death worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with significantly increased risk for development of HCC. The morbidity and mortality of HCV-related HCC remains high, as rates of HCV cirrhosis continue to increase. The long-term goal of antiviral therapy for chronic HCV is to reduce complications from cirrhosis, including HCC. The advent of new direct-acting antivirals with high rates of virological clearance has revolutionized cure of HCV infection...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607307/current-and-future-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-updated-comprehensive-review
#2
REVIEW
Saleh Daher, Muhammad Massarwa, Ariel A Benson, Tawfik Khoury
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. The principal treatment is surgical resection or liver transplantation, depending on whether the patient is a suitable transplant candidate. However, in most patients with HCC the diagnosis is often late, thereby excluding the patients from definitive surgical resection. Medical treatment includes sorafenib, which is the most commonly used systemic therapy; although, it has been shown to only minimally impact patient survival by several months...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577038/searching-for-bacterial-biofilm-in-recurrent-cholangitis-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-case-presentation-and-introduction-of-an-unexplored-disease-mechanism
#3
Alyssa Y Choi, Florencia Jalikis, Maria Westerhoff, Sarag Boukhar, Elinor Pulcini, Chris Damman, Lei Yu
Inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts are the defining pathological characteristics of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). A previously unexplored mechanism for recurrent cholangitis, one of PSC's most common presentations, is bacterial colonization of the biliary epithelium in the form of biofilm, which may confer resistance to antibiotics and host phagocytic machinery. The aim of the current study was to assess whether bacteria could be seen on the liver explant and whether they organized in the form of biofilm...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577037/chylous-ascites-a-review-of-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Richa Bhardwaj, Haleh Vaziri, Arun Gautam, Enrique Ballesteros, David Karimeddini, George Y Wu
Chylous ascites (CA) is a rare form of ascites that results from the leakage of lipid-rich lymph into the peritoneal cavity. This usually occurs due to trauma and rupture of the lymphatics or increased peritoneal lymphatic pressure secondary to obstruction. The underlying etiologies for CA have been classified as traumatic, congenital, infectious, neoplastic, postoperative, cirrhotic or cardiogenic. Since malignancy and cirrhosis account for about two-thirds of all the cases of CA in Western countries, in this article we have attempted to reclassify CA based on portal and non-portal etiologies...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577036/update-on-liver-failure-following-hepatic-resection-strategies-for-prediction-and-avoidance-of-post-operative-liver-insufficiency
#5
REVIEW
Amir A Rahnemai-Azar, Jordan M Cloyd, Sharon M Weber, Mary Dillhoff, Carl Schmidt, Emily R Winslow, Timothy M Pawlik
Liver resection is increasingly used for a variety of benign and malignant conditions. Despite advances in preoperative selection, surgical technique and perioperative management, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality following liver resection. Given the devastating physiological consequences of PHLF and the lack of effective treatment options, identifying risk factors and preventative strategies for PHLF is paramount. In the past, a major limitation to conducting high quality research on risk factors and prevention strategies for PHLF has been the absence of a standardized definition...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577035/alcoholic-hepatitis-lost-in-translation
#6
REVIEW
Benjamin L Woolbright, Hartmut Jaeschke
Alcoholic hepatitis is the most severe and acute form of alcoholic liver disease. The mortality rate associated with alcoholic hepatitis is high, largely due to the lack of suitable pharmacological interventions. While there has been substantial research in the area, generating pharmacological interventions has been plagued by the lack of a robust mouse model both for testing and for understanding the underlying pathology. A number of major notable advances have been made in this area recently, with the goal of generating a mouse model of alcoholic hepatitis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577034/activation-of-anti-tumor-immune-response-by-ablation-of-hcc-with-nanosecond-pulsed-electric-field
#7
REVIEW
Xiaobo Xu, Yiling Chen, Ruiqing Zhang, Xudong Miao, Xinhua Chen
Locoregional therapy is playing an increasingly important role in the non-surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The novel technique of non-thermal electric ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field has been recognized as a potential locoregional methodology for indicated HCC. This manuscript explores the most recent studies to indicate its unique anti-tumor immune response. The possible immune mechanism, termed as nano-pulse stimulation, was also analyzed.
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577033/traditional-chinese-medicine-and-herb-induced-liver-injury-comparison-with-drug-induced-liver-injury
#8
REVIEW
Jing Jing, Rolf Teschke
Cases of suspected herb-induced liver injury (HILI) caused by herbal Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) and of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are commonly published in the scientific literature worldwide. As opposed to the multiplicity of botanical chemicals in herbal TCM products, which are often mixtures of several herbs, conventional Western drugs contain only a single synthetic chemical. It is therefore of interest to study how HILI by TCM and DILI compare with each other, and to what extent results from each liver injury type can be transferred to the other...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577032/autoimmune-hepatitis-in-the-asia-pacific-area
#9
REVIEW
Qi-Xia Wang, Li Yan, Xiong Ma
Autoimmune hepatitis has been considered as a relatively rare immunological liver disease, especially in the Asia-Pacific area. Although the diagnosis criteria and immunosuppressive treatment regimens have been established, there are still some challenges. According to the different presentations, the personalized management of patients who suffer from this disease, including those with chronic or acute severe onset, the autoantibody-negative phenotype and cirrhosis are necessarily descriptive. Each subgroup of patients should receive an individualized therapy...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577031/hepatitis-e-still-waters-run-deep
#10
REVIEW
Moritz von Wulffen, Dirk Westhölter, Marc Lütgehetmann, Sven Pischke
Hepatitis E is an infectious inflammatory disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single-stranded RNA virus. Today, it is estimated that there are more than 20 million HEV infections every year, leading to 3.3 million symptomatic cases and more than 56,000 deaths. For a long time it was believed that HEV was a travel-associated disease, endemic in developing countries with poor hygienic standards and unsafe water supply. However, over the past years, publications have demonstrated that autochthonous HEV infections in industrialized countries are far more common than previously thought...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577030/eus-guided-gall-bladder-drainage-in-severe-liver-disease-a-single-center-experience-in-critically-ill-cirrhotics
#11
Kapil Dev Jamwal, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Rakhi Maiwall, Barjesh Kumar Sharma, Shiv Kumar Sarin
Background and Aims : Acute calculous cholecystitis with impending gall bladder perforation in severe liver diseases including decompensated cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is difficult to manage, due to the procedures such as cholecystectomy and per cutaneous cholecystostomy being associated with high risk and complications in these patients. Methods : Four cases of severe liver disease with acute calculous cholecystitis who presented to the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (New Delhi, India) for further management were included in the study if they underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided gall bladder drainage (EUS-GBD)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577029/hbsag-loss-with-peg-interferon-alfa-2a-in-hepatitis-b-patients-with-partial-response-to-nucleos-t-ide-analog-new-switch-study
#12
Peng Hu, Jia Shang, Wenhong Zhang, Guozhong Gong, Yongguo Li, Xinyue Chen, Jianning Jiang, Qing Xie, Xiaoguang Dou, Yongtao Sun, Yufang Li, Yingxia Liu, Guozhen Liu, Dewen Mao, Xiaoling Chi, Hong Tang, Xiaoou Li, Yao Xie, Xiaoping Chen, Jiaji Jiang, Ping Zhao, Jinlin Hou, Zhiliang Gao, Huimin Fan, Jiguang Ding, Dazhi Zhang, Hong Ren
Background and Aims: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss is seldom achieved with nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients but may be enhanced by switching to finite pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) alfa-2a. We assessed HBsAg loss with 48- and 96-week Peg-IFN alfa-2a in chronic hepatitis B patients with partial response to a previous NA. Methods: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients who achieved HBeAg loss and hepatitis B virus DNA <200 IU/mL with previous adefovir, lamivudine or entecavir treatment were randomized 1:1 to receive Peg-IFN alfa-2a for 48 ( n = 153) or 96 weeks ( n = 150)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577028/sustained-responses-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-drug-resistance-after-peg-interferon-alfa-2a-add-on-treatment-a-long-term-cohort-study
#13
Yunhua Liu, Weikun Li, Ting Jia, Dan Peng, Huimin Li, Xiaofei Li, Songqin Lv
Background and Aims: The use of additional nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) without cross-resistance to previously used NAs as a rescue therapy is recommended by most international guidelines for chronic hepatitis B patients with NA-resistance. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of peg-interferon (PegIFN) alfa-2a and NA in these patients, comparing to those who switch to an alternative NA therapy without cross-resistance. Methods: In this prospective, comparative and cohort study, data were collected from the patients' hospital records...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577027/upgrade-combination-response-is-limited-by-prolonged-nucelos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-in-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-real-life-study
#14
Qiaohe Wang, Hu Li, Daohai Ding, Mingli Peng, Hong Ren, Peng Hu
Background and Aims: Few previous studies have reported on a combination response (hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA undetected, alanine aminotransferase normalization and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion) following nucleos(t)ide analogue (NAs) long-term therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aimed to investigate the combination response on long-term NAs therapy in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB and to determine whether prolonged therapy is beneficial for combination response, particularly in optimal patients (baseline alanine aminotransferase level ≥5 upper limit of normal and HBV DNA level <109 copies/mL)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577026/consensus-on-pegylated-interferon-alpha-in-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#15
Wenhong Zhang, Dazhi Zhang, Xiaoguang Dou, Qing Xie, Jiaji Jiang, Xinyue Chen, Hong Ren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226108/severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-atypical-presentation-with-markedly-elevated-alkaline-phosphatase
#16
Page Axley, Kirk Russ, Ashwani K Singal
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory liver disease with poor prognosis. Infections in AH are difficult to detect and contribute to short-term mortality. Intrahepatic cholestasis and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels are also associated with worse outcomes. This report describes an uncommon presentation of severe AH.
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226107/cholangitis-diagnosis-treatment-and-prognosis
#17
REVIEW
Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh
Cholangitis is a serious life-threatening situation affecting the hepatobiliary system. This review provides an update regarding the clinical and pathological features of various forms of cholangitis. A comprehensive search was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge databases. It was found that the etiology and pathogenesis of cholangitis are heterogeneous. Cholangitis can be categorized as primary sclerosing (PSC), secondary (acute) cholangitis, and a recently characterized form, known as IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226106/elevated-liver-enzymes-in-asymptomatic-patients-what-should-i-do
#18
REVIEW
Mazyar Malakouti, Archish Kataria, Sayed K Ali, Steven Schenker
Elevated liver enzymes are a common scenario encountered by physicians in clinical practice. For many physicians, however, evaluation of such a problem in patients presenting with no symptoms can be challenging. Evidence supporting a standardized approach to evaluation is lacking. Although alterations of liver enzymes could be a normal physiological phenomenon in certain cases, it may also reflect potential liver injury in others, necessitating its further assessment and management. In this article, we provide a guide to primary care clinicians to interpret abnormal elevation of liver enzymes in asymptomatic patients using a step-wise algorithm...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226105/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-clinical-update
#19
REVIEW
Joseph M Pappachan, Shithu Babu, Babu Krishnan, Nishal C Ravindran
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries because of the obesity epidemic. The disease increases liver-related morbidity and mortality, and often increases the risk for other comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance related to metabolic syndrome is the main pathogenic trigger that, in association with adverse genetic, humoral, hormonal and lifestyle factors, precipitates development of NAFLD...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226104/hepatitis-e-a-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Juliana Ayres de Alencar Arrais Guerra, Katia Cristina Kampa, Daphne Gonçalves Benatti Morsoletto, Alcindo Pissaia Junior, Cláudia Alexandra Pontes Ivantes
Hepatitis E is the fifth known form of human viral hepatitis. Although not very common in our clinical practice, the incidence in Western countries is increasing. Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) may be related to acute illness, liver failure, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. HEV itself is an RNA virus, with eight described genotypes (HEV 1-8), four of which more commonly affect humans and have, thus, been better studied. Besides liver manifestations, genotype 3 is also related to extra-hepatic manifestations, such as neurological, renal and rheumatological...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
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