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Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271748/incidental-collision-tumor-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-neuroendocrine-carcinoma
#1
Düriye Betül Yılmaz, Zeynep Bayramoğlu, Gülşah Ünay, Erdem Ayık, Cumhur İbrahim Başsorgun, Gülsüm Özlem Elpek
The composite tumors of the liver are very rare, including the coexistence of HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) with NEC (neuroendocrine carcinoma). The rare occurrence of these tumors necessitates more reported cases in order to fully understand their clinical characteristics, behaviors and treatments. Herein is described an incidental collision tumor of HCC-NEC, along with a review of the literature focusing on their clinicopathological findings and prognosis. The tumor presented here was found incidentally in the hepatectomy specimen of a 56-year-old man who had undergone liver transplantation for rapidly progressive liver failure because of alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271747/role-of-srebps-in-liver-diseases-a-mini-review
#2
REVIEW
Azam Moslehi, Zeinab Hamidi-Zad
Sterol regulator element binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of transcription factors involved in the biogenesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and triglycerides. They also regulate physiological functions of many organs, such as thyroid, brain, heart, pancreas and hormone synthesis. Beside the physiological effects, SREBPs participate in some pathological processes, diabetes, endoplasmic reticulum stress, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease associated with SREBP expression changes. In the liver, SREBPs are involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatitis and hepatic cancer...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271746/the-genetics-of-clinical-liver-diseases-insight-into-the-tm6sf2-e167k-variant
#3
REVIEW
Xiaoyu Zhang, Shousheng Liu, Quanjiang Dong, Yongning Xin, Shiying Xuan
The transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 ( TM6SF2 ) gene E167K variant (rs58542926) was identified by exome-wide association study as a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The TM6SF2 E167K variant features a C-to-T substitution at nucleotide 499, encoding a glutamate with lysine change at codon 167 (E167K). TM6SF2 is markedly expressed in the liver, small intestine and kidney, and has been proposed as an important risk factor for diseases associated with lipid metabolism...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271745/candidate-biomarkers-of-liver-fibrosis-a-concise-pathophysiology-oriented-review
#4
REVIEW
Mattia Bellan, Luigi Mario Castello, Mario Pirisi
Repair of sustained liver injury results in fibrosis (i.e. the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins), and ultimately the complete distortion of parenchymal architecture of the liver, which we call cirrhosis. Detecting and staging of fibrosis is thus a mainstay in the management of chronic liver diseases, since many clinically relevant decisions, such as starting treatment and/or monitoring for complications including hepatocellular carcinoma, may depend on it. The gold standard for fibrosis staging is liver biopsy, the role of which, however, is questioned nowadays because of cost, hazards and poor acceptance by patients...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271744/recent-advances-towards-the-development-of-a-potent-antiviral-against-the-hepatitis-e-virus
#5
REVIEW
Saumya Anang, Nidhi Kaushik, Milan Surjit
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis. It also causes acute liver failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure in many patients, such as those suffering from other infections/liver injuries or organ transplant/chemotherapy recipients. Despite widespread sporadic and epidemic incidents, there is no specific treatment against HEV, justifying an urgent need for developing a potent antiviral against it. This review summarizes the known antiviral candidates and provides an overview of the potential targets for the development of specific antivirals against HEV...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271743/a-systematic-literature-review-of-syphilitic-hepatitis-in-adults
#6
REVIEW
Jiaofeng Huang, Su Lin, Bo Wan, Yueyong Zhu
Syphilitic hepatitis in adults is not frequently found in the population and is easily misdiagnosed. The incidence of viral hepatitis is increasing year by year, concomitantly increasing the importance of obtaining a systematic understanding of the clinical features and treatment strategies for this disease. There is, however, a lack of published definitive data regarding the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and standard treatment options for this disease. Searches were made using the MEDLINE database of PubMed and OVID for syphilitic hepatitis publications from 1951 to 2017 in an attempt to analyze and summarize the clinical characteristics...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271742/hbv-hcv-coinfection-viral-interactions-management-and-viral-reactivation
#7
REVIEW
Marianna G Mavilia, George Y Wu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is a complex clinical entity that has an estimated worldwide prevalence of 1-15%. Most clinical studies have shown that progression of disease is faster in HBV-HCV coinfected patients compared to those with monoinfection. Hepatocellular carcinoma development appears to have higher rate in coinfections. Viral replication in coinfected cells is characterized by a dominance of HCV over HBV replication. There are no established guidelines for treatment of HBV-HCV coinfection...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271741/refining-the-role-of-simultaneous-liver-kidney-transplantation
#8
REVIEW
Sabiha M Hussain, Kalathil K Sureshkumar
Adoption of the model for end-stage liver disease score by Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) deceased donor liver allocation policy in 2002 has led to an increase in the number of simultaneous liver kidney (SLK) transplantation. Since kidney function recovery following liver transplantation is difficult to predict, allocation of the kidney for SLK transplantation thus far has not been based on much rationale and evidence. Lack of OPTN policy towards SLK organ allocation has resulted in great variations among transplant centers regarding SLK transplantation...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271740/liver-transplantation-for-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hong-kong
#9
REVIEW
Ka Wing Ma, Kenneth Siu Ho Chok, James Yan Yue Fung, Chung Mau Lo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Curative resection is frequently limited in Hong Kong by hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis, and liver transplantation is the treatment of choice. Liver transplantation has been shown to produce superior oncological benefits, when compared to hepatectomy for HCC. New developments in the context of patient selection criteria, modification of organ allocation, bridging therapy, salvage liver transplantation and pharmaceutical breakthrough have improved the survival of HCC patients...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271739/normothermic-ex-vivo-liver-perfusion-and-the-clinical-implications-for-liver-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
Clifford Akateh, Eliza W Beal, Bryan A Whitson, Sylvester M Black
Despite significant improvements in outcomes after liver transplantation, many patients continue to die on the waiting list, while awaiting an available organ for transplantation. Organ shortage is not only due to an inadequate number of available organs, but also the inability to adequately assess and evaluate these organs prior to transplantation. Over the last few decades, ex-vivo perfusion of the liver has emerged as a useful technique for both improved organ preservation and assessment of organs prior to transplantation...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271738/future-pharmacotherapy-for-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-review-of-phase-2-and-3-trials
#11
REVIEW
James J Connolly, Kohtaro Ooka, Joseph K Lim
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) results from inflammation and hepatocyte injury in the setting of hepatic steatosis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis increases the risk of progression to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and is the most rapidly growing etiology for liver failure and indication for liver transplantation in the USA. Weight loss and lifestyle modification remain the standard first-line treatment, as no USA Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy currently exists. The past decade has seen an explosion of interest in drug development targeting pathologic pathways in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, with numerous phase 2 and 3 trials currently in progress...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271737/hepatitis-c-virus-clearance-by-direct-acting-antiviral-results-in-rapid-resolution-of-hepatocytic-injury-as-indicated-by-both-alanine-aminotransferase-and-aspartate-aminotransferase-normalization
#12
Tung Huynh, Johnathan Zhang, Ke-Qin Hu
Background and Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in hepatocytic injury with elevation of both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). It remains to be determined if direct-acting antiviral treatment can terminate hepatocytic injury following virologic response. To this end, we evaluated the pattern and predicting factors of ALT and AST normalization during and after direct-acting antiviral treatment with sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12). Methods: Single-center retrospective study on 115 HCV-infected patients who achieved SVR12 was performed...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271736/microwave-ablation-in-intermediate-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-cirrhosis-an-italian-multicenter-prospective-study
#13
Antonio Giorgio, Pietro Gatti, Luca Montesarchio, Maria Gabriella Merola, Ferdinando Amendola, Andrea Calvanese, Gaetano Iaquinto, Massimiliano Fontana, Emanuela Ciracì, Stefano Semeraro, Bruno Santoro, Carmine Coppola, Paolo Matteucci, Valentina Giorgio
Background and Aims: To report long-term results in treatment of intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotics using new high-powered microwaves (MWS) ablation alone. Methods: This multicenter study included 215 cirrhotics (age range: 67-84 years; 137 males; 149 Child A, 66 Child B) who underwent percutaneous ultrasound-guided high-powered MWS ablation instead of transarterial chemoembolization. Among the patient population, 109 had a single nodule (Ø 5.3-8 cm) [group A], 70 had 2 nodules (Ø 3-6 cm) [group B] and 36 had 3-5 nodules (Ø 1...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271735/elimination-of-hepatitis-c-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#14
Sammy Saab, Youssef Challita, Phillip H Chen, Melissa A Jimenez, Alex D Lee, Elena G Saab, Timothy Ahn, Gina Choi, Francisco A Durazo, Mohamed M El-Kabany, Steven-Huy B Han, Jonathan Grotts, Vatche G Agopian, Ronald W Busuttil
Background and Aims: Recurrent hepatitis C (HCV) disease in liver transplant (LT) recipients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. With the availability of noninterferon-based therapy, eliminating HCV may be achievable in LT recipients. Methods: We studied all consecutive recipients who underwent LT at the University of California Los Angeles between January 2005 and June 2017. We collected data on date of transplant and last follow-up, as well as laboratory values. We also recorded type and timing of antiviral therapy relative to LT...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271734/ca-125-significance-in-cirrhosis-and-correlation-with-disease-severity-and-portal-hypertension-a-retrospective-study
#15
Raja Gr Edula, Sujit Muthukuru, Serban Moroianu, Yucai Wang, Vivek Lingiah, Phoenix Fung, Nikolaos T Pyrsopoulos
Background and Aims: To evaluate the prevalence and significance of elevated cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) levels in patients with cirrhosis being treated in a tertiary care liver center and its correlation with objective markers of disease severity. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 172 adult patients with cirrhosis (due to any etiology) after obtaining CA-125 serum analysis. Demographics, etiology of cirrhosis, model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, Child's Turcotte-Pugh classification, albumin bilirubin (ALBI) score, degree of ascites, presence of esophageal varices, serum CA-125 level and various other parameters were collected...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951369/ribavirin-in-acute-hepatitis-e-infection-in-patients-with-gynecological-cancer-a-case-series
#16
Dominik Bettinger, Stefan Schlabe, Sven Pischke, Michael R Mallmann, Mignon-Denise Keyver-Paik, Walther Kuhn, Christian P Strassburg, Robert Thimme, Ulrich Spengler
Hepatitis E virus infection is usually a self-limited disease. However, during the last years there has been growing evidence for prolonged and chronic infection occurring in patients with immunosuppression. Also patients with malignant and rheumatic diseases have been identified to be at risk for chronic hepatitis E. However, their course and prognosis are not well characterized and there have been no reports of hepatitis E virus infection in patients with gynecological cancer. Here, we report three Caucasian females with breast and ovarian cancers presenting with elevation of aminotransferase levels during anticancer treatment...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951368/ct-mri-li-rads-v2017-a-comprehensive-guide-for-beginners
#17
REVIEW
Francesca Patella, Filippo Pesapane, Enrico Maria Fumarola, Ilaria Emili, Riccardo Spairani, Salvatore Alessio Angileri, Silvia Tresoldi, Giuseppe Franceschelli, Gianpaolo Carrafiello
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deceases worldwide. Early diagnosis is essential for correct management and improvement of prognosis. Proposed for the first time in 2011 and updated for the last time in 2017, the Liver Imaging-Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) is a comprehensive system for standardized interpretation and reporting of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver examinations, endorsed by the American College of Radiology to achieve congruence with HCC diagnostic criteria in at-risk populations...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951367/noninvasive-quantitative-detection-methods-of-liver-fat-content-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
REVIEW
Shujing Lv, Sushan Jiang, Shousheng Liu, Quanjiang Dong, Yongning Xin, Shiying Xuan
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis to NAFLD-related liver cirrhosis and is a main cause of chronic liver diseases. Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis are at a great risk of the progression to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which are tightly associated with liver-related mortality. Liver biopsy is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of NAFLD, but some defects, such as serious complications, sampling error and variability in histologic evaluation among pathologists, remain problematic...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951366/differentiating-cystic-liver-lesions-a-review-of-imaging-modalities-diagnosis-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Marianna G Mavilia, Tina Pakala, Marco Molina, George Y Wu
Hepatic cysts (HCs) are frequently discovered incidentally on abdominal imaging. The prevalence of HCs has been reported as high as 15-18% in the United States. Although most cysts are benign, some are malignant or premalignant. It is important to diagnose cystic lesions in order to properly manage them. Imaging with conventional ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be used to further characterize and diagnose HCs. Ultrasound is typically the first-line imaging modality, whereas more advanced imaging can help narrow down the specific lesion...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951365/non-invasive-in-vivo-imaging-grading-of-liver-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Hanyu Jiang, Tianying Zheng, Ting Duan, Jie Chen, Bin Song
Liver fibrosis (LF), a common consequence of chronic liver diseases with various etiologies, is characterized by excessive accumulation of macromolecules, including collagen, glycoproteins and proteoglycans, in the liver. LF can result in hepatic dysfunction, cirrhosis, portal hypertension and, in some cases, hepatocellular carcinoma. As the current gold standard for diagnosing LF, liver biopsy, however, is invasive and prone to sampling errors and procedure-related complications. Therefore, developing noninvasive, precise and reproducible imaging tests for diagnosing and staging LF is of great significance...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
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