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Gastroenterology Research

Jamil Shah, Abul Shahidullah
Colorectal polyps are growths that form on the epithelium of the colon and rectum. While their prevalence varies considerably from region to region, they are common in adults. In fact, among asymptomatic, average-risk individuals at 50 years of age, the prevalence of colorectal polyps averages roughly 10% in sigmoidoscopy studies and more than 25% in colonoscopy studies. Approximately two-thirds of all colorectal polyps are adenomatous precancerous lesions that have the potential to become malignant. Usually, they are discovered and resected during colonoscopy...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Abubakr Adam, Mechu Narayanan, Christine Hachem
Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial glands outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can involve any part of the bowel but most commonly affects the recto-sigmoid part of the bowel. This case shows the endoscopic views of bowel endometriosis and also elaborates on how to approach and manage similar cases of bowel endometriosis. Patients with bowel endometriosis are better managed and treated with a multidisciplinary team including gastroenterologist, gynecologist and colorectal surgeon.
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Vijay Gayam, Amrendra Kumar Mandal, Mazin Khalid, Jaspreet Kaler, Shivani Thapa, Pavani Garlapati, Arshpal Gill, Ragin Alex, Binav Shrestha
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease which can manifest in many different organ systems. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is common in SLE, but the symptoms are usually mild. More severe GI complications including acute pancreatitis and peptic ulcer bleeding are rare but represent a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a case of a 25-year-old Hispanic female with a severe SLE flare. The initial presentation included symptoms of hematemesis and epigastric abdominal pain secondary to both gastric ulceration and acute pancreatitis, an atypical presentation of an SLE flare...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Binav Shrestha, Mazin Khalid, Vijay Gayam, Osama Mukhtar, Shivani Thapa, Amrendra K Mandal, Jaspreet Kaler, Mowyad Khalid, Pavani Garlapati, Shamah Iqbal, Gerald Posner
Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon tumors. They are believed to be neuronal in origin and are usually found in the head and/or neck area of the body. They have also been reported in various locations of the gastrointestinal (GI) system, usually discovered during routine screening colonoscopy. We report a case of GCT in a 58-year-old asymptomatic African American female as a metachronous tumor of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, which was an incidental finding in screening colonoscopy...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Vijay Gayam, Amrendra Kumar Mandal, Mazin Khalid, Osama Mukhtar, Arshpal Gill, Pavani Garlapati, Benjamin Tiongson, Jagannath Sherigar, Mohammed Mansour, Smruti Mohanty
Background: Low serum vitamin D levels in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is associated with advanced liver fibrosis; and there remains an imprecise relationship with the treatment response based on the vitamin D levels. Previous studies have shown conflicting results on the vitamin D levels, and association with treatment response in CHC treated with interferon-based regimens. Methods: Patients with CHC treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) between January 2016 and December 2017 in the community clinic setting were retrospectively analyzed...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Koichiro Mandai, Koji Uno, Kenjiro Yasuda
Background: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS) is associated with a relatively high proportion of adverse events, and this is attributable to the lack of standardized protocols and specialized equipment. Although the outcomes of EUS-HGS may differ between patients with and those without surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy, there have been no reports on this topic. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EUS-HGS using our standardized method and to compare the outcomes between patients with and those without surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Muhammad Yasir Khan, Ahmed Dirweesh, Waqas Javed Siddiqui
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Polyp detection rate (PDR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR) are key focus in endoscopic research for CRC screening and prevention. Use of anti-spasmodic agents during colonoscopy to help identify adenomas and polyps has remained a controversial topic. Hyoscine butyl bromide (HBB) is the most commonly used anti-spasmodic agent in patients undergoing colonoscopy. Some randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have questioned the clinical efficacy and safety of routine use of HBB for polyp and adenoma detection rates...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Mustapha M El-Halabi, Patrick R Barrett, Melissa Martinez Mateo, Nabil F Fayad
Background: Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a proven quality metric for colonoscopy. The value of ADR for the evaluation of gastroenterology fellows is not well established. The aim of this study is to calculate and evaluate the utility of ADR as a measure of competency for gastroenterology fellows. Methods: Colonoscopies for the purposes of screening and surveillance, on which gastroenterology fellows participated at the Richard L. Roudebush VAMC (one of the primary training sites at Indiana University), during a 9-month period, were included...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Aya Cervantes, Ruma G Singh, Sayali A Pendharkar, Sakina H Bharmal, Maxim S Petrov
Background: Maori, indigenous people of New Zealand, have at least two times higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes in comparison with the general population in the country. Gut and pancreatic hormone profile differences as well as pro-inflammatory milieu may contribute to this disparity. The aim was to investigate the differences in gut hormones, pancreatic hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines between Maori and non-Maori individuals. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Takuji Kawamura, Hiroaki Sakai, Tomoya Ogawa, Naokuni Sakiyama, Yuki Ueda, Atsushi Shirakawa, Yusuke Okada, Kasumi Sanada, Kojiro Nakase, Koichiro Mandai, Azumi Suzuki, Atsuhiro Morita, Kiyohito Tanaka, Koji Uno, Kenjiro Yasuda
Background: Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection (U-EMR) has emerged as an alternative technique for the resection of colorectal lesions. This study aimed to evaluate our initial experience using U-EMR. Methods: This is a single-center, retrospective case series study. We analyzed the clinical outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent U-EMR in our endoscopy center, from December 2015 to February 2017. Results: Our analysis included 64 lesions, contributed by 38 patients, with a mean age of 68...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Burcin Baran, Nazli Mert Ozupek, Nihal Yerli Tetik, Emine Acar, Omer Bekcioglu, Yasemin Baskin
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with a high mortality rate at the advanced stages. However, colorectal cancer is not a single type of tumor; its pathogenesis depends on the anatomical location of the tumor and differs between right side and left side of the colon. Tumors in the proximal colon (right side) and distal colon (left side) exhibit different molecular characteristics and histology. In the right-sided tumors, mutations in the DNA mismatch repair pathway are commonly observed; and these tumors generally have a flat histology...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Stelios F Assimakopoulos, Christos Triantos, Ioannis Maroulis, Charalambos Gogos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Bharat Bajantri, Dmitry Lvovsky
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a disorder of sleep breathing that is a result of recurrent and intermittent hypoxia during sleep induced by the repeated partial or complete collapse of the upper airway, eventually causing chronic intermittent hypoxia. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is divided into non-alcoholic fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Animal and human studies showed that obesity is associated with chronic liver hypoxia, even in the presence of systemic normoxia causing inflammation and release of cytokines...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Bharat Panuganti, Ea-Sle Chang, Cyril W Helm, Theresa Schwartz, Eddy C Hsueh, Jinhua Piao, Jinping Lai, Jula Veerapong
Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) are combined to treat peritoneal surface malignancies (PSM). The objective of cytoreduction is to eradicate macroscopic disease, while HIPEC addresses residual microscopic disease. Currently, there are no protocols guiding treatment of cirrhotic patients with PSM. We report the case of a cirrhotic patient with signet ring cell (SRC) appendiceal adenocarcinoma who underwent normothermic, as opposed to hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC)...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Muhammad Bader Hammami, Elizabeth M Noonan, Anuj Chhaparia, Feras Al Khatib, Juri Bassuner, Christine Hachem
Pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) develop from the spread of infection through the portal circulation, biliary infections or arterial hematogenous seeding in the setting of systemic infections. PLA are often poly-microbial and are uncommonly reported to be due to anaerobic species. We report the case of a previously healthy, immunocompetent 63-year-old man with hepatic abscesses as a result of Fusobacterium nucleatum periodontal disease. In addition, a systemic review of the literature is performed. Fusobacterium is a very rare cause of PLA in immunocompetent hosts with only a handful of cases reported in the literature...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Zubair Khan, Nauman Siddiqui, Muhammad Wasif Saif
Mostly Streptococcus bovis ( S. bovis ) bacteremia and endocarditis (60%) has been found to be associated with underlying colorectal cancer (CRC). Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) bacteremia and endocarditis has no identifiable source in most of the cases. E. faecalis is part of normal gut flora that can translocate through the intestine and cause the systemic infection. With any intestinal lesion or tumor, the barrier is breached and the gut flora like E. faecalis can translocate and cause infection. A 55-years-old male known to have non-ischemic cardiomyopathy with implantation of automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) and atrial fibrillation presented with weight loss, fever and back pain...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Konika Sharma, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Nancy Merrell
Diphyllobothrium latum ( D. latum ) infection in humans is uncommon in the United States. Although there has been a drastic decline in the report of D. latum infection in this region, physicians should be aware of an uncommon presentation and its clinical relevance. We report a case of 55-year-old female of Ecuadorian/Peruvian origin who presented with an unknown cause of chronic right lower quadrant abdominal pain for 2 months without other particular symptoms. Initial workup revealed evidence of iron deficiency anemia, and stool occult blood test was positive...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Syed Hasan, Zubair Khan, Mohammad Saud Khan, Umar Darr, Toseef Javaid, Raheel Ahmed, Ali Nawras
We present a case of a 60-year-old female patient who has significant medical history of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed 2 years back and had undergone right nephrectomy and chemotherapy. She presented to the hospital with complaints of abdominal pain and jaundice of 2 weeks duration and was found to have periampullary mass lesion causing compression of distal common bile duct on imaging with computed tomography of abdomen. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and endoscopic ultrasound showed ampullary mass lesion causing biliary obstruction along with abdominal lymphadenopathy...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Chen Yang, Li Sun, Lingxin Zhang, Lixin Zhou, Dongfeng Niu, Wenfeng Cao, Zhongwu Li, Xiaozheng Huang, Qiang Kang, Lin Jia, Marina Platik, Xiuli Liu, Jinping Lai, Dengfeng Cao
Background: Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a novel marker for colorectal adenocarcinomas but little is known about its expression in appendiceal adenocarcinomas. We aim to investigate SATB2 in these tumors and colorectal adenocarcinomas with comparison to CDX2. Methods: Immunohistochemical stains for SATB2 and CDX2 were performed in 49 appendiceal adenocarcinomas (23 conventional, 26 adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids (AdexGCCs)) and 57 colorectal adenocarcinomas...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Hua Xiao, Yu Wang, Hu Quan, Yongzhong Ouyang
Background: To investigate the incidence, causes and risk factors for unplanned reoperation because of early complications within 30 days of radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: The study cohort comprised 1,948 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer between November 2010 and April 2017. The incidence, causes and outcomes of unplanned reoperation were examined and the risk factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
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