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Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766316/influence-of-harvest-stage-on-the-pharmacological-effect-of-angelica-dahurica
#1
Wei-Hong Liang, Tung-Wu Chang, Yuh-Chyang Charng
BACKGROUND: Baizhi (Angelica dahurica) has been widely used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, functional food and cosmetic product ingredient, mostly because of the high furanocoumarin compounds in roots. The cropping system of Baizhi with its unique summer dormancy feature, is easily affected by the transition of its growth stages. The aim of this study was to analyze the quantity (size, form and dry weight [DW]) and quality (antioxidant and furanocoumarin content) of taproot and lateral root from three growth stages of Baizhi; vegetative (V-stage), summer dormancy (S-stage) and bolting stage (B-stage)...
May 15, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744709/cryopreservation-without-vitrification-suitable-for-large-scale-cryopreservation-of-orchid-seeds
#2
Emily Schofield, Edward P Jones, Viswambharan Sarasan
BACKGROUND: Orchids are under threat from human activities and climate change, with populations limited to small geographic hotspots. This makes them ideal candidates for ex situ conservation. Orchid seeds are desiccation tolerant, but often have poor longevity in seed banks and cryopreservation of orchid protocorms is complex and expensive. Therefore, simple methods for large-scale storage programs are essential to store orchid seeds of different life forms. Seeds of five species representing epiphytic, lithophytic and terrestrial orchids from the Central Highlands of Madagascar were studied to find a simple and effective system of cryopreservation...
May 9, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691677/expression-of-ovate-family-protein-8-affects-epicuticular-waxes-accumulation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Yao Tang, Wei Zhang, Yan-Li Yin, Peng Feng, Hong-Ling Li, Ying Chang
BACKGROUND: Transcription factors could regulate multiple aspects of plants growth and development, which is significant to plants. Ovate family proteins (OFPs) that are named due to contain OVATE domain, a 70-AA C-terminal conserved domain from the protein OVATE gene encodes, are plant-specific transcription factors family. Some members of OFPs have been shown to function as transcription factors to regulate plant growth and development, but little is known about the function of AtOFP8...
April 24, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616373/ethylene-signaling-modulates-contents-of-catechin-and-ability-of-antioxidant-in-camellia-sinensis
#4
Shun-Wun Ke, Guan-Heng Chen, Chung-Tse Chen, Jason T C Tzen, Chin-Ying Yang
BACKGROUND: Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. There are many secondary metabolites can be found in tea such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and catechins. These secondary metabolites in plants are proved to act protective components for human health effect. Plant hormone ethylene is considered to have an important role in regulation of plant development and signal transduction. This study evaluated the effect of ethylene signaling regulation in phenolic compounds in tea plants...
April 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616358/morphology-taxonomy-and-mating-type-loci-in-natural-populations-of-volvox-carteri-in-taiwan
#5
Hisayoshi Nozaki, Noriko Ueki, Mari Takusagawa, Shota Yamashita, Osami Misumi, Ryo Matsuzaki, Masanobu Kawachi, Yin-Ru Chiang, Jiunn-Tzong Wu
BACKGROUND: Volvox carteri f. nagariensis is a model taxon that has been studied extensively at the cellular and molecular level. The most distinctive morphological attribute of V. carteri f. nagariensis within V. carteri is the production of sexual male spheroids with only a 1:1 ratio of somatic cells to sperm packets or androgonidia (sperm packet initials). However, the morphology of male spheroids of V. carteri f. nagariensis has been examined only in Japanese strains. In addition, V...
April 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589161/phyllanthus-rufuschaneyi-a-new-nickel-hyperaccumulator-from-sabah-borneo-island-with-potential-for-tropical-agromining
#6
Roderick Bouman, Peter van Welzen, Sukaibin Sumail, Guillaume Echevarria, Peter D Erskine, Antony van der Ent
BACKGROUND: Nickel hyperaccumulator plants are of much interest for their evolution and unique ecophysiology, and also for potential applications in agromining-a novel technology that uses plants to extract valuable metals from soil. The majority of nickel hyperaccumulators are known from ultramafic soils in tropical regions (Cuba, New Caledonia and Southeast Asia), and one genus, Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), is globally the most represented taxonomic entity. A number of tropical Phyllanthus-species have the potential to be used as 'metal crops' in agromining operations mainly because of their ease in cultivation and their ability to attain high nickel concentrations and biomass yields...
March 27, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511914/revealing-proteins-associated-with-symbiotic-germination-of-gastrodia-elata-by-proteomic-analysis
#7
Xu Zeng, Yuanyuan Li, Hong Ling, Juan Chen, Shunxing Guo
BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata, a mycoheterotrophic orchid, is a well-known medicinal herb. In nature, the seed germination of G. elata requires proper fungal association, because of the absence of endosperm. To germinate successfully, G. elata obtains nutrition from mycorrhizal fungi such as Mycena. However, Mycena is not able to supply nutrition for the further development and enlargement of protocorms into tubers, flowering and fruit setting of G. elata. To date, current genomic studies on this topic are limited...
March 6, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455307/adansonia-digitata-and-adansonia-gregorii-fruit-shells-serve-as-a-protection-against-high-temperatures-experienced-during-wildfires
#8
Andreas Kempe, Christoph Neinhuis, Thea Lautenschläger
The thick and woody shell of the fruit of Adansonia species cannot be explained solely by adaptation to zoochory or hydrochory. Since the trunks of Adansonia possess a thick and fire-resistant bark and wildfires occur regularly in its habitat (savannah), we examined with the African Adanonia digitata and the Australian Adansonia gregorii whether the fruit offers protection against high heat typically experienced in wildfires. Heat-resistance tests were conducted by applying a simple heat test based on known temperature and temperature residence times occurring in savannah fires and complemented by tests to reveal the impact of heat on germination since long-term seed dormancy is known for Adansonia...
February 17, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450670/acetylsalicylic-acid-enhance-tolerance-of-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-to-chilling-stress-improving-photosynthesis-antioxidants-and-expression-of-cold-stress-responsive-genes
#9
Mona H Soliman, Aisha A M Alayafi, Amr A El Kelish, Abdelghafar M Abu-Elsaoud
BACKGROUND: High and low temperatures constitute the most damaging type of abiotic stress and limit the survival, and productivity of plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of exogenous applications of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in reducing the deleterious effects of cold stress. Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings were treated with foliar-sprayed ASA at concentrations of 0-3 mM and then subjected to chilling stress at 4 °C for 2 or 4 days. RESULTS: Growth, photosynthesis, biochemical alterations, oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities as well as the expression of cold-responsive genes (CBF3-COR47), were monitored during the experiment...
February 15, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404808/effects-of-different-growth-temperatures-on-growth-development-and-plastid-pigments-metabolism-of-tobacco-nicotiana-tabacum-l-plants
#10
Li Yun Yang, Shuang Long Yang, Jun Ying Li, Jun Hong Ma, Tao Pang, Cong Ming Zou, Bin He, Ming Gong
BACKGROUND: Temperature remarkably affects the growth and metabolism of plants. Tobacco is an important cash crop, and the long-term effects of different growth temperatures (18.5, 23.5 and 28.5 °C, daily average) on growth, development and plastid pigments metabolism of tobacco plants were investigated in this study. RESULTS: Compared with tobacco plants grown under 23.5 °C, treatments with 18.5 and 28.5 °C inhibited the expansion of leaves. The contents of superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ), hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the leaves were significantly increased under 28...
February 5, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357024/plant-regeneration-via-direct-somatic-embryogenesis-from-leaf-explants-of-tolumnia-louise-elmore-elsa
#11
Hui-Ju Shen, Jen-Tsung Chen, Hsiao-Hang Chung, Wei-Chin Chang
BACKGROUND: Tolumnia genus (equitant Oncidium) is a group of small orchids with vivid flower color. Thousands of hybrids have been registered on Royal Horticulture Society and showed great potential for ornamental plant market. The aim of this study is to establish an efficient method for in vitro propagation. RESULTS: Leaf explants taken from in vitro-grown plants were used to induce direct somatic embryogenesis on a modified 1/2 MS medium supplemented with five kinds of cytokinins, 2iP, BA, kinetin, TDZ and zeatin at 0...
January 22, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356905/actinidia-callosa-var-callosa-suppresses-metastatic-potential-of-human-hepatoma-cell-sk-hep1-by-inhibiting-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-through-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-signaling-pathways
#12
Jeng-Shyan Deng, Jui-Shu Chang, Jung-Chun Liao, Wei Chao, Ming-Ming Lee, Chien-Hua Cheng, Guan-Jhong Huang
BACKGROUND: Cancer cell metastasis involving multi-step procedures and cytophysiological property changes may make difficult in the clinical management and death rate increasing. RESULTS: In this study, we first observed that ethyl acetate fraction of Actinidia callosa var. callosa (EAAC) carry out a dose-dependent inhibitory effect without cytotoxicity on the mobility and invasion of highly metastatic SK-Hep1 cells. To investigate the EAAC in cancer metastasis, SK-Hep1 cells were treated with EAAC at various concentrations and then subjected to gelatin zymography, casein zymography and western blot to study the impacts of EAAC on metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1/2 (TIMP-1/2), respectively...
January 22, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335785/heterologous-expression-of-rice-9-cis-epoxycarotenoid-dioxygenase-4-osnced4-in-arabidopsis-confers-sugar-oversensitivity-and-drought-tolerance
#13
San-Gwang Hwang, Chia-Yun Lee, Ching-Shan Tseng
BACKGROUND: The 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases OsNCED4 was cloned from rice in conjunction with OsNCED 1-3 and 5, of which 3 has been shown to function in ABA biosynthesis and alteration of leaf morphology. In higher plants, NCEDs have been shown to be key enzymes controlling ABA biosynthesis and belong to a differentially expressed gene family. Aside from OsNCED3, it remains largely unknown if other OsNCED genes are involved in ABA biosynthesis in rice. Thus, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsNCED4 were generated in the 129B08/nced3 mutant background to explore OsNCED4 function in ABA biosynthesis...
January 15, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299696/phalaenopsis-pollinia-storage-at-sub-zero-temperature-and-its-pollen-viability-assessment
#14
Shih-Chang Yuan, Shih-Wen Chin, Chen-Yu Lee, Fure-Chyi Chen
BACKGROUND: In a breeding program, usually only superior parents are chosen for cross hybridization. Pollens of elite cultivars may not be available at hand. Properly stored pollens provide an opportunity for cross hybridization at unavailable time. RESULTS: Pollen of a Phalaenopsis hybrid was evaluated for the storage ability at different temperatures, including room temperature, 4, - 20, and - 80 °C for up to 96 weeks. The viability of pollen was assessed by TTC staining, in vitro germination and hand pollination during and after storage...
January 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247328/identification-and-cytochemical-immunolocalization-of-acetyl-coa-acetyltransferase-involved-in-the-terpenoid-mevalonate-pathway-in-euphorbia-helioscopia-laticifers
#15
Meng Wang, Dou Wang, Qing Zhang, Jia Chai, Yong Peng, Xia Cai
BACKGROUND: Terpenoids, the largest class of natural products in the plant kingdom, have been widely used in medicine. The precursors of terpenoids, isoprene phosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), were synthesized from a mevalonate (MVA) pathway and a 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway respectively. The acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (AACT) is the initial enzyme in MVA pathway and is considered presently to be essential for terpenoid backbone biosynthesis...
December 16, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234904/post-genomics-era-for-orchid-research
#16
REVIEW
Wen-Chieh Tsai, Anne Dievart, Chia-Chi Hsu, Yu-Yun Hsiao, Shang-Yi Chiou, Hsin Huang, Hong-Hwa Chen
Among 300,000 species in angiosperms, Orchidaceae containing 30,000 species is one of the largest families. Almost every habitats on earth have orchid plants successfully colonized, and it indicates that orchids are among the plants with significant ecological and evolutionary importance. So far, four orchid genomes have been sequenced, including Phalaenopsis equestris, Dendrobium catenatum, Dendrobium officinale, and Apostaceae shengen. Here, we review the current progress and the direction of orchid research in the post genomics era...
December 12, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230592/correction-to-soil-respiration-patterns-and-rates-at-three-taiwanese-forest-plantations-dependence-on-elevation-temperature-precipitation-and-litterfall
#17
Yu-Hsuan Huang, Chih-Yu Hung, I-Rhy Lin, Tomonori Kume, Oleg V Menyailo, Chih-Hsin Cheng
Unfortunately, the original article (Huang et al. 2017) contained some errors. The Fig. 4 displayed incorrectly. The correct figure can be found below.
December 12, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222727/a-method-for-facilitating-the-seed-germination-of-a-mycoheterotrophic-orchid-gastrodia-pubilabiata-using-decomposed-leaf-litter-harboring-a-basidiomycete-fungus-mycena-sp
#18
Kana Higaki, Kento Rammitsu, Yumi Yamashita, Tomohisa Yukawa, Yuki Ogura-Tsujita
BACKGROUND: Mycoheterotrophic plants are one of the most difficult plant groups to conserve because they are entirely dependent on symbiotic fungi. Establishment of viable culture systems would greatly aid their conservation. We describe a simple culture system for the mycoheterotrophic orchid, Gastrodia pubilabiata, that does not require laboratory facilities. The orchid is symbiotic with leaf-litter-decomposing fungi. RESULTS: Gastrodia pubilabiata seeds were incubated in plastic boxes or glass bottles filled with leaf litter collected from the natural habitat of the species...
December 8, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209870/photosynthetic-acclimation-of-grammatophyllum-speciosum-to-growth-irradiance-under-natural-conditions-in-singapore
#19
Jie He, Regina M P Lim, Sabrina H J Dass, Tim W Yam
Grammatophyllum speciosum, a native species to Singapore, have become extinct mainly due to habitat loss. Recently, Singapore has reintroduced G. speciosum into the natural environment under the orchid conservation programme. In this study, leaves of G. speciosum grown under low light (LL) under natural conditions had faster expansion rate and higher specific leaf area than leaves grown under intermediate light (IL) and high light (HL). All leaves had more than 95% midday relative water content. Although midday Fv /Fm ratios were lower in HL leaves than in IL and LL leaves, none of them exhibited chronic photoinhibition...
December 5, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198038/photosynthetic-gas-exchange-responses-of-swietenia-macrophylla-king-and-melia-azedarach-l-plantations-under-drought-conditions
#20
Hong-Chyi Jhou, Ya-Nan Wang, Chung-Shien Wu, Jui-Chu Yu, Chung-I Chen
BACKGROUND: The environmental stresses caused by climate change have become more severe in recent decades, affecting tree growth and physiology. Tropical forests have great potential for global carbon sequestration. However, they suffer from heavy rainfall and prolonged dry periods due to climate change. Swietenia macrophylla King and Melia azedarach L. are economically valuable trees that are widely planted in southern Taiwan. Plantations are exposed to either prolonged dry periods or heavy rainfall within the seasons of tropical monsoon areas...
December 2, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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