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Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)

Jiali Song, Yiting Zhang, Shiwei Song, Wei Su, Riyuan Chen, Guangwen Sun, Yanwei Hao, Houcheng Liu
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a typical monoecism vegetable with individual male and female flowers, which has been used as a plant model for sex determination. It is well known that light is one of the most important environmental stimuli, which control the timing of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development. However, whether light controls sex determination remains elusive. To unravel this problem, we performed high-throughput RNA-Seq analyses, which compared the transcriptomes of shoot apices between R2B1(Red light:Blue light = 2:1)-treated and R4B1(Red light:Blue light = 4:1)-treated cucumber seedlings...
September 10, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Lela Z Culpepper, Hsiao-Hsuan Wang, Tomasz E Koralewski, William E Grant, William E Rogers
BACKGROUND: Invasions by non-native plants contribute to loss of ecosystem biodiversity and productivity, modification of biogeochemical cycles, and inhibition of natural regeneration of native species. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Campus) is one of the most prevalent invasive grasses in the forestlands of Tennessee, United States. We measured the extent of invasion, identified potential factors affecting invasion, and quantified the relative importance of each factor...
August 6, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Guo-Zhang M Song, Kuo-Jung Chao, David Doley, David Yates
BACKGROUND: Hemispherical photography (HP) is a popular method to estimate canopy structure and understorey light environment, which analyses photographs acquired with wide view-angle lens (i.e. fisheye lens). To increase HP accuracy, the approaches of most previous studies were to increase the preciseness of exposure and thresholding of photographs, while ours quantified effects of canopy properties (gap fraction and length of sky-canopy border (SCB)) and errors of exposure and thresholding on the accuracy of HP...
July 28, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Riyadh Muhaidat, Mohammad H Brake, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Robert I Colautti, Amjad Al-Nasser, Muheeb Awawdeh, Khalid Al-Batayneh, Wesam Al Khateeb, Athena D McKown, Jamil Lahham, Ahmad El-Oqlah
BACKGROUND: Blepharis constitutes an important part of the vegetation of the Jordanian arid and semi-arid regions, yet whether one or more species of this genus occurs in the Jordanian area is uncertain. We addressed this question by assessing morphological characters and testing Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers from three populations of Blepharis: two northern (lower slopes of Kufranjah valley and the Dead Sea region) and one southern (Wadi al Yutm). RESULTS: Shoots from randomly chosen Blepharis plants were harvested from each of the three populations for morphological and molecular analyses...
July 25, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Kulsumpun Krobanan, Wei-Chiang Shen
BACKGROUND: The coprophilous ascomycete Sordaria fimicola usually reproduces sexually. Sexual differentiation in S. fimicola is accompanied by cellular and morphological changes, followed by multicellular tissue development to complete the sexual cycle. Although the morphological features of the sexual reproductive structure in S. fimicola have been well characterized, little is known about the nuclear dynamics and organization during these processes. Therefore, in this study, we successfully developed an Agrobacterium-mediated protoplast transformation protocol and generated histone H2B-mCherry-labeled S...
July 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Michael F Fay
With c. 28,000 species, orchids are one of the largest families of flowering plants, and they are also one of the most threatened, in part due to their complex life history strategies. Threats include habitat destruction and climate change, but many orchids are also threatened by unsustainable (often illegal and/or undocumented) harvest for horticulture, food or medicine. The level of these threats now outstrips our abilities to combat them at a species-by-species basis for all species in such a large group as Orchidaceae; if we are to be successful in conserving orchids for the future, we will need to develop approaches that allow us to address the threats on a broader scale to complement focused approaches for the species that are identified as being at the highest risk...
June 5, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Kuan-Fu Lin, Meng-Yu Tsai, Chung-An Lu, Shaw-Jye Wu, Ching-Hui Yeh
Previously, we found that Arabidopsis plants transformed with a construct containing the promoter of Oshsp17.3 from rice fused to the β-glucuronidase gene (GUS), Oshsp17.3Pro::GUS (Oshsp17.3p), showed a GUS signal after heat shock (HS) or azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC) treatment. HS and AZC trigger the heat shock response (HSR) and cytosolic protein response (CPR), respectively, in the cytosol by modulating specific heat shock factor (HSF) activity. Here we further identified that AtHSFA2 (At2g26150), AtHSFA7a (At3g51910), AtHSFB2a (At5g62020), and AtHSFB2b (At4g11660) are HS- and AZC-inducible; AtHSFA4a (At4g18880) is AZC-inducible; and AtHSFA5 (At4g13980) is less AZC- and HS-inducible...
May 21, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Wei-Hong Liang, Tung-Wu Chang, Yuh-Chyang Charng
BACKGROUND: Baizhi (Angelica dahurica) has been widely used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, functional food and cosmetic product ingredient, mostly because of the high furanocoumarin compounds in roots. The cropping system of Baizhi with its unique summer dormancy feature, is easily affected by the transition of its growth stages. The aim of this study was to analyze the quantity (size, form and dry weight [DW]) and quality (antioxidant and furanocoumarin content) of taproot and lateral root from three growth stages of Baizhi; vegetative (V-stage), summer dormancy (S-stage) and bolting stage (B-stage)...
May 15, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Emily Schofield, Edward P Jones, Viswambharan Sarasan
BACKGROUND: Orchids are under threat from human activities and climate change, with populations limited to small geographic hotspots. This makes them ideal candidates for ex situ conservation. Orchid seeds are desiccation tolerant, but often have poor longevity in seed banks and cryopreservation of orchid protocorms is complex and expensive. Therefore, simple methods for large-scale storage programs are essential to store orchid seeds of different life forms. Seeds of five species representing epiphytic, lithophytic and terrestrial orchids from the Central Highlands of Madagascar were studied to find a simple and effective system of cryopreservation...
May 9, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Yao Tang, Wei Zhang, Yan-Li Yin, Peng Feng, Hong-Ling Li, Ying Chang
BACKGROUND: Transcription factors could regulate multiple aspects of plants growth and development, which is significant to plants. Ovate family proteins (OFPs) that are named due to contain OVATE domain, a 70-AA C-terminal conserved domain from the protein OVATE gene encodes, are plant-specific transcription factors family. Some members of OFPs have been shown to function as transcription factors to regulate plant growth and development, but little is known about the function of AtOFP8...
April 24, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Shun-Wun Ke, Guan-Heng Chen, Chung-Tse Chen, Jason T C Tzen, Chin-Ying Yang
BACKGROUND: Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. There are many secondary metabolites can be found in tea such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and catechins. These secondary metabolites in plants are proved to act protective components for human health effect. Plant hormone ethylene is considered to have an important role in regulation of plant development and signal transduction. This study evaluated the effect of ethylene signaling regulation in phenolic compounds in tea plants...
April 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Hisayoshi Nozaki, Noriko Ueki, Mari Takusagawa, Shota Yamashita, Osami Misumi, Ryo Matsuzaki, Masanobu Kawachi, Yin-Ru Chiang, Jiunn-Tzong Wu
BACKGROUND: Volvox carteri f. nagariensis is a model taxon that has been studied extensively at the cellular and molecular level. The most distinctive morphological attribute of V. carteri f. nagariensis within V. carteri is the production of sexual male spheroids with only a 1:1 ratio of somatic cells to sperm packets or androgonidia (sperm packet initials). However, the morphology of male spheroids of V. carteri f. nagariensis has been examined only in Japanese strains. In addition, V...
April 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Roderick Bouman, Peter van Welzen, Sukaibin Sumail, Guillaume Echevarria, Peter D Erskine, Antony van der Ent
BACKGROUND: Nickel hyperaccumulator plants are of much interest for their evolution and unique ecophysiology, and also for potential applications in agromining-a novel technology that uses plants to extract valuable metals from soil. The majority of nickel hyperaccumulators are known from ultramafic soils in tropical regions (Cuba, New Caledonia and Southeast Asia), and one genus, Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), is globally the most represented taxonomic entity. A number of tropical Phyllanthus-species have the potential to be used as 'metal crops' in agromining operations mainly because of their ease in cultivation and their ability to attain high nickel concentrations and biomass yields...
March 27, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Xu Zeng, Yuanyuan Li, Hong Ling, Juan Chen, Shunxing Guo
BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata, a mycoheterotrophic orchid, is a well-known medicinal herb. In nature, the seed germination of G. elata requires proper fungal association, because of the absence of endosperm. To germinate successfully, G. elata obtains nutrition from mycorrhizal fungi such as Mycena. However, Mycena is not able to supply nutrition for the further development and enlargement of protocorms into tubers, flowering and fruit setting of G. elata. To date, current genomic studies on this topic are limited...
March 6, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Andreas Kempe, Christoph Neinhuis, Thea Lautenschläger
The thick and woody shell of the fruit of Adansonia species cannot be explained solely by adaptation to zoochory or hydrochory. Since the trunks of Adansonia possess a thick and fire-resistant bark and wildfires occur regularly in its habitat (savannah), we examined with the African Adanonia digitata and the Australian Adansonia gregorii whether the fruit offers protection against high heat typically experienced in wildfires. Heat-resistance tests were conducted by applying a simple heat test based on known temperature and temperature residence times occurring in savannah fires and complemented by tests to reveal the impact of heat on germination since long-term seed dormancy is known for Adansonia...
February 17, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Mona H Soliman, Aisha A M Alayafi, Amr A El Kelish, Abdelghafar M Abu-Elsaoud
BACKGROUND: High and low temperatures constitute the most damaging type of abiotic stress and limit the survival, and productivity of plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of exogenous applications of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in reducing the deleterious effects of cold stress. Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings were treated with foliar-sprayed ASA at concentrations of 0-3 mM and then subjected to chilling stress at 4 °C for 2 or 4 days. RESULTS: Growth, photosynthesis, biochemical alterations, oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities as well as the expression of cold-responsive genes (CBF3-COR47), were monitored during the experiment...
February 15, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Li Yun Yang, Shuang Long Yang, Jun Ying Li, Jun Hong Ma, Tao Pang, Cong Ming Zou, Bin He, Ming Gong
BACKGROUND: Temperature remarkably affects the growth and metabolism of plants. Tobacco is an important cash crop, and the long-term effects of different growth temperatures (18.5, 23.5 and 28.5 °C, daily average) on growth, development and plastid pigments metabolism of tobacco plants were investigated in this study. RESULTS: Compared with tobacco plants grown under 23.5 °C, treatments with 18.5 and 28.5 °C inhibited the expansion of leaves. The contents of superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ), hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the leaves were significantly increased under 28...
February 5, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Hui-Ju Shen, Jen-Tsung Chen, Hsiao-Hang Chung, Wei-Chin Chang
BACKGROUND: Tolumnia genus (equitant Oncidium) is a group of small orchids with vivid flower color. Thousands of hybrids have been registered on Royal Horticulture Society and showed great potential for ornamental plant market. The aim of this study is to establish an efficient method for in vitro propagation. RESULTS: Leaf explants taken from in vitro-grown plants were used to induce direct somatic embryogenesis on a modified 1/2 MS medium supplemented with five kinds of cytokinins, 2iP, BA, kinetin, TDZ and zeatin at 0...
January 22, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Jeng-Shyan Deng, Jui-Shu Chang, Jung-Chun Liao, Wei Chao, Ming-Ming Lee, Chien-Hua Cheng, Guan-Jhong Huang
BACKGROUND: Cancer cell metastasis involving multi-step procedures and cytophysiological property changes may make difficult in the clinical management and death rate increasing. RESULTS: In this study, we first observed that ethyl acetate fraction of Actinidia callosa var. callosa (EAAC) carry out a dose-dependent inhibitory effect without cytotoxicity on the mobility and invasion of highly metastatic SK-Hep1 cells. To investigate the EAAC in cancer metastasis, SK-Hep1 cells were treated with EAAC at various concentrations and then subjected to gelatin zymography, casein zymography and western blot to study the impacts of EAAC on metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1/2 (TIMP-1/2), respectively...
January 22, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
San-Gwang Hwang, Chia-Yun Lee, Ching-Shan Tseng
BACKGROUND: The 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases OsNCED4 was cloned from rice in conjunction with OsNCED 1-3 and 5, of which 3 has been shown to function in ABA biosynthesis and alteration of leaf morphology. In higher plants, NCEDs have been shown to be key enzymes controlling ABA biosynthesis and belong to a differentially expressed gene family. Aside from OsNCED3, it remains largely unknown if other OsNCED genes are involved in ABA biosynthesis in rice. Thus, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsNCED4 were generated in the 129B08/nced3 mutant background to explore OsNCED4 function in ABA biosynthesis...
January 15, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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