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Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)

Chih-Kai Yang, Yu-Chung Chiang, Bing-Hong Huang, Li-Ping Ju, Pei-Chun Liao
BACKGROUND: Most genera of Fagaceae are thought to have originated in the temperate regions except for the genus Lithocarpus, the stone oaks. Lithocarpus is distributed in subtropical and tropical Asia, and its ancestral population is hypothesized to be distributed in tropical regions in Borneo and Indochina. Borneo and the nearby islands (the Greater Sunda Islands) were connected to the Malay Peninsula and Indochina prior to the Pliocene epoch and formed the former Sundaland continent...
November 8, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Wei Wu, Yanchun Yan
BACKGROUND: Chloroplast is indispensable for plant response to environmental stresses, growth and development, whose function is regulated by different plant hormones. The chloroplast proteome is encoded by chloroplast genome and nuclear genome, which play essential roles in plant photosynthesis, metabolism and other biological processes. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are key transcription factors in activating the ethylene signaling pathway and plant response to abiotic stress. But we know little about how ethylene regulates plastid function under drought stress condition...
October 29, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Chieh-Lung Lin, Ming-Jer Tsai, Chuen-Hsu Fu, Tun-Tschu Chang, Hoi-Tung Li, King-Fai Wong
BACKGROUND: There are estimated 180-220 species of Tuber described in the world, but the diversity of the genus in Taiwan is poorly known, with only two species recorded, i.e., Tuber formosanum and T. furfuraceum. During our survey of hypogenous fungi in Taiwan, a whitish truffle belongs to Puberulum clade was collected from roots of Keteleeria fortunei var. cyclolepis in central Taiwan and appeared to differ from the two recorded species. RESULTS: The whitish truffle is herein described as a new species Tuber elevatireticulatum, which is distinguished from closely resembled Asian whitish truffles species like Tuber thailandicum, T...
October 29, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Kuan-Ting Hsin, Chun-Neng Wang
BACKGROUND: Bilateral symmetry flower (zygomorphy) is the ancestral state for Gesneriaceae species. Yet independent reversions to actinomorphy have been parallelly evolved in several lineages. Conandron ramondioides is a natural radially symmetrical species survived in dense shade mountainous habitats where specialist pollinators are scarce. Whether the mutations in floral symmetry genes such as CYC, RAD and DIV genes, or their expression pattern shifts contribute to the reversion to actinomorphy in C...
October 29, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Kyu Ho Lee, Sang Woo Park, Yeon Jeong Kim, Yeon Jong Koo, Jong Tae Song, Hak Soo Seo
BACKGROUND: Seed size has been extensively studied in crop plants, as it determines crop yield. However, the mechanism of seed development remains elusive. In this study, we explored the mechanism of seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.), and identified proteins affecting seed size. RESULTS: Proteomic analysis showed that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, chitinase 14 (CHT14), and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) accumulated to high levels in the seeds of the natural japonica rice mutant Oochikara, which carries a loss-of-function mutation in the grain width 2 (GW2) gene; GW2 encodes a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase...
October 26, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Xin Zheng, Liang Chen, Xiaofang Li
BACKGROUND: Plant ZIP genes represent an important transporter family involved in metal transport. Evidence has implied that some ZIPs may contribute to plant Cd uptake, but a genome-wide examination of ZIPs' role in Cd tolerance and uptake has rarely been reported. In this study, a genome-wide bioinformatic screening of candidate ZIP genes in Arabidopsis and rice was performed, followed by a systematic determination of their expression profile in response to Cd stress. Typical up-regulated ZIPs genes were then expressed in yeast cells to examine their effect on hosts' Cd uptake...
September 25, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Jiali Song, Yiting Zhang, Shiwei Song, Wei Su, Riyuan Chen, Guangwen Sun, Yanwei Hao, Houcheng Liu
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a typical monoecism vegetable with individual male and female flowers, which has been used as a plant model for sex determination. It is well known that light is one of the most important environmental stimuli, which control the timing of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development. However, whether light controls sex determination remains elusive. To unravel this problem, we performed high-throughput RNA-Seq analyses, which compared the transcriptomes of shoot apices between R2B1(Red light:Blue light = 2:1)-treated and R4B1(Red light:Blue light = 4:1)-treated cucumber seedlings...
September 10, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Lela Z Culpepper, Hsiao-Hsuan Wang, Tomasz E Koralewski, William E Grant, William E Rogers
BACKGROUND: Invasions by non-native plants contribute to loss of ecosystem biodiversity and productivity, modification of biogeochemical cycles, and inhibition of natural regeneration of native species. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Campus) is one of the most prevalent invasive grasses in the forestlands of Tennessee, United States. We measured the extent of invasion, identified potential factors affecting invasion, and quantified the relative importance of each factor...
August 6, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Guo-Zhang M Song, Kuo-Jung Chao, David Doley, David Yates
BACKGROUND: Hemispherical photography (HP) is a popular method to estimate canopy structure and understorey light environment, which analyses photographs acquired with wide view-angle lens (i.e. fisheye lens). To increase HP accuracy, the approaches of most previous studies were to increase the preciseness of exposure and thresholding of photographs, while ours quantified effects of canopy properties (gap fraction and length of sky-canopy border (SCB)) and errors of exposure and thresholding on the accuracy of HP...
July 28, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Riyadh Muhaidat, Mohammad H Brake, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Robert I Colautti, Amjad Al-Nasser, Muheeb Awawdeh, Khalid Al-Batayneh, Wesam Al Khateeb, Athena D McKown, Jamil Lahham, Ahmad El-Oqlah
BACKGROUND: Blepharis constitutes an important part of the vegetation of the Jordanian arid and semi-arid regions, yet whether one or more species of this genus occurs in the Jordanian area is uncertain. We addressed this question by assessing morphological characters and testing Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers from three populations of Blepharis: two northern (lower slopes of Kufranjah valley and the Dead Sea region) and one southern (Wadi al Yutm). RESULTS: Shoots from randomly chosen Blepharis plants were harvested from each of the three populations for morphological and molecular analyses...
July 25, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Kulsumpun Krobanan, Wei-Chiang Shen
BACKGROUND: The coprophilous ascomycete Sordaria fimicola usually reproduces sexually. Sexual differentiation in S. fimicola is accompanied by cellular and morphological changes, followed by multicellular tissue development to complete the sexual cycle. Although the morphological features of the sexual reproductive structure in S. fimicola have been well characterized, little is known about the nuclear dynamics and organization during these processes. Therefore, in this study, we successfully developed an Agrobacterium-mediated protoplast transformation protocol and generated histone H2B-mCherry-labeled S...
July 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Michael F Fay
With c. 28,000 species, orchids are one of the largest families of flowering plants, and they are also one of the most threatened, in part due to their complex life history strategies. Threats include habitat destruction and climate change, but many orchids are also threatened by unsustainable (often illegal and/or undocumented) harvest for horticulture, food or medicine. The level of these threats now outstrips our abilities to combat them at a species-by-species basis for all species in such a large group as Orchidaceae; if we are to be successful in conserving orchids for the future, we will need to develop approaches that allow us to address the threats on a broader scale to complement focused approaches for the species that are identified as being at the highest risk...
June 5, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Kuan-Fu Lin, Meng-Yu Tsai, Chung-An Lu, Shaw-Jye Wu, Ching-Hui Yeh
Previously, we found that Arabidopsis plants transformed with a construct containing the promoter of Oshsp17.3 from rice fused to the β-glucuronidase gene (GUS), Oshsp17.3Pro::GUS (Oshsp17.3p), showed a GUS signal after heat shock (HS) or azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC) treatment. HS and AZC trigger the heat shock response (HSR) and cytosolic protein response (CPR), respectively, in the cytosol by modulating specific heat shock factor (HSF) activity. Here we further identified that AtHSFA2 (At2g26150), AtHSFA7a (At3g51910), AtHSFB2a (At5g62020), and AtHSFB2b (At4g11660) are HS- and AZC-inducible; AtHSFA4a (At4g18880) is AZC-inducible; and AtHSFA5 (At4g13980) is less AZC- and HS-inducible...
May 21, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Wei-Hong Liang, Tung-Wu Chang, Yuh-Chyang Charng
BACKGROUND: Baizhi (Angelica dahurica) has been widely used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, functional food and cosmetic product ingredient, mostly because of the high furanocoumarin compounds in roots. The cropping system of Baizhi with its unique summer dormancy feature, is easily affected by the transition of its growth stages. The aim of this study was to analyze the quantity (size, form and dry weight [DW]) and quality (antioxidant and furanocoumarin content) of taproot and lateral root from three growth stages of Baizhi; vegetative (V-stage), summer dormancy (S-stage) and bolting stage (B-stage)...
May 15, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Emily Schofield, Edward P Jones, Viswambharan Sarasan
BACKGROUND: Orchids are under threat from human activities and climate change, with populations limited to small geographic hotspots. This makes them ideal candidates for ex situ conservation. Orchid seeds are desiccation tolerant, but often have poor longevity in seed banks and cryopreservation of orchid protocorms is complex and expensive. Therefore, simple methods for large-scale storage programs are essential to store orchid seeds of different life forms. Seeds of five species representing epiphytic, lithophytic and terrestrial orchids from the Central Highlands of Madagascar were studied to find a simple and effective system of cryopreservation...
May 9, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Yao Tang, Wei Zhang, Yan-Li Yin, Peng Feng, Hong-Ling Li, Ying Chang
BACKGROUND: Transcription factors could regulate multiple aspects of plants growth and development, which is significant to plants. Ovate family proteins (OFPs) that are named due to contain OVATE domain, a 70-AA C-terminal conserved domain from the protein OVATE gene encodes, are plant-specific transcription factors family. Some members of OFPs have been shown to function as transcription factors to regulate plant growth and development, but little is known about the function of AtOFP8...
April 24, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Shun-Wun Ke, Guan-Heng Chen, Chung-Tse Chen, Jason T C Tzen, Chin-Ying Yang
BACKGROUND: Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. There are many secondary metabolites can be found in tea such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and catechins. These secondary metabolites in plants are proved to act protective components for human health effect. Plant hormone ethylene is considered to have an important role in regulation of plant development and signal transduction. This study evaluated the effect of ethylene signaling regulation in phenolic compounds in tea plants...
April 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Hisayoshi Nozaki, Noriko Ueki, Mari Takusagawa, Shota Yamashita, Osami Misumi, Ryo Matsuzaki, Masanobu Kawachi, Yin-Ru Chiang, Jiunn-Tzong Wu
BACKGROUND: Volvox carteri f. nagariensis is a model taxon that has been studied extensively at the cellular and molecular level. The most distinctive morphological attribute of V. carteri f. nagariensis within V. carteri is the production of sexual male spheroids with only a 1:1 ratio of somatic cells to sperm packets or androgonidia (sperm packet initials). However, the morphology of male spheroids of V. carteri f. nagariensis has been examined only in Japanese strains. In addition, V...
April 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Roderick Bouman, Peter van Welzen, Sukaibin Sumail, Guillaume Echevarria, Peter D Erskine, Antony van der Ent
BACKGROUND: Nickel hyperaccumulator plants are of much interest for their evolution and unique ecophysiology, and also for potential applications in agromining-a novel technology that uses plants to extract valuable metals from soil. The majority of nickel hyperaccumulators are known from ultramafic soils in tropical regions (Cuba, New Caledonia and Southeast Asia), and one genus, Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), is globally the most represented taxonomic entity. A number of tropical Phyllanthus-species have the potential to be used as 'metal crops' in agromining operations mainly because of their ease in cultivation and their ability to attain high nickel concentrations and biomass yields...
March 27, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Xu Zeng, Yuanyuan Li, Hong Ling, Juan Chen, Shunxing Guo
BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata, a mycoheterotrophic orchid, is a well-known medicinal herb. In nature, the seed germination of G. elata requires proper fungal association, because of the absence of endosperm. To germinate successfully, G. elata obtains nutrition from mycorrhizal fungi such as Mycena. However, Mycena is not able to supply nutrition for the further development and enlargement of protocorms into tubers, flowering and fruit setting of G. elata. To date, current genomic studies on this topic are limited...
March 6, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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