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Pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410854/-streptococcus-pneumoniae-outbreaks-and-implications-for-transmission-and-control-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Paul N Zivich, John D Grabenstein, Sylvia I Becker-Dreps, David J Weber
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is capable of causing multiple infectious syndromes and occasionally causes outbreaks. The objective of this review is to update prior outbreak reviews, identify control measures, and comment on transmission. Methods: We conducted a review of published S. pneumoniae outbreaks, defined as at least two linked cases of S. pneumoniae . Results: A total of 98 articles (86 respiratory; 8 conjunctivitis; 2 otitis media; 1 surgical site; 1 multiple), detailing 94 unique outbreaks occurring between 1916 to 2017 were identified...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324081/corynebacteria-as-a-cause-of-pulmonary-infection-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#2
Katharine Yang, Robert L Kruse, Weijie V Lin, Daniel M Musher
Background: In most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), an etiologic agent is not determined; the most common report from the microbiological evaluation of sputum cites "normal respiratory flora." Non-diphtheria Corynebacterium spp. , a component of this flora, is commonly viewed as a contaminant, but it may be the cause of pneumonia and the frequency with which it causes CAP may be underestimated. Case presentations: This report present 3 cases of CAP in which Corynebacterium spp...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263884/decreased-relative-risk-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia-during-the-last-decade-a-nested-case-control-study
#3
Carlos M Luna, Laura Pulido, Michael S Niederman, Alberto Casey, Diego Burgos, Sebastián D Leiva Agüero, Alejandra Grosso, Evangelina Membriani, Andrea C Entrocassi, Marcelo Rodríquez Fermepin, Carlos A Vay, Susana Garcia, Angela Famiglietti
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is one of the most common pathogens of Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP), but recent reports suggest that its incidence may be declining in relation to the use of the conjugate 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in children. We compared the result of the immunochromatographic SP urinary antigen test (SPUAT) and clinical outcomes in patients with CAP admitted in two periods of time: 2001-2002(CAP1) and 2015-2016(CAP2). Methods: This was a matched nested case-control study of two prospectively recorded cohorts of patients admitted with CAP, with SPUAT and blood culture performed in all patients...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062083/the-old-man-s-friend
#4
EDITORIAL
Ger T Rijkers, Stephen I Pelton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003009/how-low-can-we-go-the-implications-of-low-bacterial-load-in-respiratory-microbiota-studies
#5
REVIEW
Robyn L Marsh, Maria T Nelson, Chris E Pope, Amanda J Leach, Lucas R Hoffman, Anne B Chang, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan
Background: Culture-independent sequencing methods are increasingly used to investigate the microbiota associated with human mucosal surfaces, including sites that have low bacterial load in healthy individuals (e.g. the lungs). Standard microbiota methods developed for analysis of high bacterial load specimens (e.g. stool) may require modification when bacterial load is low, as background contamination derived from sterile laboratory reagents and kits can dominate sequence data when few bacteria are present...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992080/anti-protein-immunoglobulin-m-responses-to-pneumococcus-are-not-associated-with-aging
#6
Esther L German, Bahij Al-Hakim, Elena Mitsi, Shaun H Pennington, Jenna F Gritzfeld, Angie D Hyder-Wright, Antonia Banyard, Stephen B Gordon, Andrea M Collins, Daniela M Ferreira
Background: The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection rises considerably in later life. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody levels to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide are known to decrease with age; however, whether levels of IgM antibody to pneumococcal proteins are subject to the same decline has not yet been investigated. Methods: This study measured serum levels and binding capacity of IgM antibody specific to the pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and an unencapsulated pneumococcal strain in serum isolated from hospital patients aged < 60 and ≥ 60, with and without lower respiratory tract infection...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984134/lung-function-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents
#7
REVIEW
Leah N Githinji, Diane M Gray, Heather J Zar
Background: The advent of antiretroviral therapy has led to the improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to adulthood and to HIV becoming a chronic disease in older children and adolescents. Chronic lung disease is common among HIV-infected adolescents. Lung function measurement may help to delineate the spectrum, pathophysiology and guide therapy for HIV-related chronic lung disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the available data on the spectrum and determinants of lung function abnormalities and the impact of antiretroviral therapy on lung function in perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876241/rapid-molecular-assays-for-detection-of-tuberculosis
#8
REVIEW
Rkia Eddabra, Hassan Ait Benhassou
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains an important public health problem at the global level. It is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant Mycobacterium strains and HIV co-infection. Over the past decade, important progress has been made for better control of the disease. While microscopy and culture continue to be indispensible for laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis, the range of several molecular diagnostic tests, including the nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have expanded tremendously...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632801/cilostazol-for-the-prevention-of-pneumonia-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Hirotaka Nakashima, Kazuhisa Watanabe, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Yusuke Suzuki, Masafumi Kuzuya
Background: Pneumonia is a very common disease, especially among the elderly. Various drugs' preventive effects against pneumonia have been reported. The antiplatelet drug cilostazol is used to prevent pneumonia, but the robustness of its efficacy is unclear. This review estimates the effectiveness of cilostazol for preventing pneumonia in elderly individuals. Methods: The following databases were searched from the earliest record to January 2016, without language restriction (the secondary search was conducted on February 2017): MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Ichushi-Web...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593979/the-association-between-pre-hospital-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-in-hospital-mortality-in-adults-presenting-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-an-observational-study
#10
Biswajit Chakrabarti, Dan Wootton, Steven Lane, Elizabeth Kanwar, Joseph Somers, Jacyln Proctor, Nancy Prospero, Mark Woodhead
Background: The majority of patients with community acquired-pneumonia (CAP) are treated in primary care and the mortality in this group is very low. However, a small but significant proportion of patients who begin treatment in the community subsequently require admission due to symptomatic deterioration. This study compared patients who received community antibiotics prior to admission to those who had not, and looked for associations with clinical outcomes. Methods: This study analysed the Advancing Quality (AQ) Pneumonia database of patients admitted with CAP to 9 acute hospitals in the northwest of England over a 12-month period...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318106/pneumococcal-vaccination-in-older-persons-where-are-we-today
#11
REVIEW
Paul Van Buynder, Robert Booy
Disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae , the pneumococcus, remains a major source of illness in older persons. Globally, it remains the most important pathogen in respiratory infection deaths. Conjugated pneumococcal vaccines are used extensively in national pediatric programs, whereas a polysaccharide vaccine is used in all age groups, but mainly in the elderly and for high-risk groups. Recent data from the Netherlands led to the licensing in many countries of conjugated pneumococcal vaccines for older persons...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299402/rationale-and-methods-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-immunogenicity-safety-and-impact-on-carriage-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-and-polysaccharide-vaccines-in-infants-in-papua-new-guinea
#12
Deborah Lehmann, Wendy Kirarock, Anita H J van den Biggelaar, Megan Passey, Peter Jacoby, Gerard Saleu, Geraldine Masiria, Birunu Nivio, Andrew Greenhill, Tilda Orami, Jacinta Francis, Rebecca Ford, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Vela Solomon, Peter C Richmond, William S Pomat
Background: Children in third-world settings including Papua New Guinea (PNG) experience early onset of carriage with a broad range of pneumococcal serotypes, resulting in a high incidence of severe pneumococcal disease and deaths in the first 2 years of life. Vaccination trials in high endemicity settings are needed to provide evidence and guidance on optimal strategies to protect children in these settings against pneumococcal infections. Methods: This report describes the rationale, objectives, methods, study population, follow-up and specimen collection for a vaccination trial conducted in an endemic and logistically challenging setting in PNG...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255661/rocking-pneumonia
#13
EDITORIAL
Ger T Rijkers, Maria Rodriguez Gomez
Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term "rocking pneumonia" in his 1956 song "Roll over Beethoven", pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is caused mainly by the cold and rain and that treatment is hardly possible, aside from a shot of rhythm and blues...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226070/economic-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-elderly-patients-a-japanese-perspective
#14
Keiko Konomura, Hideaki Nagai, Manabu Akazawa
Background: This study aimed to estimate the economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among elderly patients in Japan. In addition, the study evaluated the relationship between total treatment cost and CAP risk factors. Methods: An administrative database was searched for elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) who had pneumonia (ICD-10 code: J12-J18) and an antibiotic prescription between 1 June 2014 and 31 May 2015. The all-cause total healthcare costs of outpatient and inpatient CAP episodes were calculated...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209590/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-adults-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#15
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119074/case-report-on-a-defective-antibody-response-against-pneumococcal-serotype-9v-in-a-patient-with-a-single-episode-of-pneumonia
#16
Diana van Kessel, Thijs Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Bob Meek, Suzan van Mens, Jan Grutters, Ger Rijkers
Background: Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal pneumonia an impaired antibody response to the infecting pneumococcal serotype can sometimes be found. It is unknown whether these patients are unable to produce an adequate anti-polysaccharide antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination after recovery. Case presentation: The authors describe a case of invasive pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9V in a previously healthy 35-year-old female...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043150/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-united-kingdom-a-call-to-action
#17
EDITORIAL
James Chalmers, James Campling, Gillian Ellsbury, Peter M Hawkey, Harish Madhava, Mary Slack
Pneumococcal disease has a high burden in adults in the United Kingdom (UK); however, the total burden is underestimated, principally because most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are non-invasive. Research into pneumonia receives poor funding relative to its disease burden (global mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and years lived with disability), ranking just 20 out of 25 for investment in infectious diseases in the UK. The current accuracy of data for establishing incidence rates is questionable, and it is a reflection of the paucity of research that much of the background information available derives from nearly 30 years ago...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021946/predictors-of-pneumococcal-carriage-and-the-effect-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-in-the-western-australian-aboriginal-population
#18
Deirdre A Collins, Anke Hoskins, Thomas Snelling, Kalpani Senasinghe, Jacinta Bowman, Natalie A Stemberger, Amanda J Leach, Deborah Lehmann
BACKGROUND: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal people in 2001. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in July 2011, covering six additional pneumococcal serotypes; however, IPD rates remained high in Aboriginal people in WA. Upper respiratory tract pneumococcal carriage can precede IPD, and PCVs alter serotype distribution. METHODS: To assess the impact of PCV13 introduction, identify emerging serotypes, and assess risk factors for carriage, nasopharyngeal swabs and information on demographic characteristics, health, medication and living conditions from Aboriginal children and adults across WA from August 2008 to November 2014 were collected...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879065/pharmacologic-inhibition-of-mek1-2-reduces-lung-inflammation-without-impairing-bacterial-clearance-in-experimental-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#19
Matthew E Long, Ke-Qin Gong, William E Eddy, W Conrad Liles, Anne M Manicone
This study was designed to test the therapeutic potential of a MEK1/2 inhibitor (MEKi) in an experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The study found that treatment with MEKi reduced alveolar neutrophilic inflammation and led to faster recovery of weight compared to carrier-treated mice, without impairing bacterial clearance. Alveolar macrophages isolated from MEKi-treated mice also had increased M2 gene and protein expression, supporting the concept that MEKi modulates in vivo macrophage inflammatory responses...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856082/atypical-bacterial-pneumonia-in-the-hiv-infected-population
#20
REVIEW
Breanne M Head, Adriana Trajtman, Zulma V Rueda, Lázaro Vélez, Yoav Keynan
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are more susceptible to respiratory tract infections by other infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi) as their disease progresses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Despite effective antiretroviral therapy, bacterial pneumonia (the most frequently occurring HIV-associated pulmonary illness) remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV-infected population. Over the last few decades, studies have looked at the role of atypical bacterial pneumonia (i...
2017: Pneumonia
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