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Sports Medicine—Open

Andrew D Schreiner, Brad A Keith, Karen E Abernathy, Jingwen Zhang, Walter A Brzezinski
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise plays a role in cardiovascular risk reduction, but may also be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a population of long-term, competitive swimmers compared with patients within an internal medicine clinic with known risk factors for atrial fibrillation such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized survey data comparing the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in swimmers to a general internal medicine population...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, David Bishop, Greg Shaw, Simon Green
A large proportion of empirical research and reviews investigating the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation have focused predominately on performance outcomes and only speculate about underlying mechanisms responsible for any benefit. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation on mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle fatigue as it translates directly to exercise performance. Mechanistic links between skeletal muscle fatigue, proton accumulation (or metabolic acidosis) and NaHCO3 supplementation have been identified to provide a more targeted, evidence-based approach to direct future research, as well as provide practitioners with a contemporary perspective on the potential applications and limitations of this supplement...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Sabina Cauci, Cinzia Buligan, Micaela Marangone, Maria Pia Francescato
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. METHODS: Italian sportswomen (n = 144; mean age 23.4 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.2 ± 2.2 kg m(-2); sport activity 9.2 ± 4.1 h week(-1)) were analyzed; 48 % were volleyball players, 12.5 % soccer players, 10.4 % track-and-field sports, and followed by other disciplines' athletes...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Laurens Holmes, Joshua Tworig, Joseph Casini, Isabel Morgan, Kathleen O'Brien, Patricia Oceanic, Kirk Dabney
BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussion remains a public health challenge due to its morbidity and mortality. One of the consequences of concussion is cognitive impairment (CI) and cognitive-related symptoms (CRS) which determine, to some extent, physical and behavioral functioning of children who sustain concussion. Despite the high prevalence of CI and CRS associated with concussion, the risk factors are not fully understood. We aimed to characterize CRS and to examine its relationship with race, ethnicity, age, insurance, and sex in a pediatric population...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Charles H Tegeler, Catherine L Tegeler, Jared F Cook, Sung W Lee, Lee Gerdes, Hossam A Shaltout, Christopher M Miles, Sean L Simpson
BACKGROUND: Effective interventions are needed for individuals with persisting post-concussion symptoms. High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring (HIRREM®) is an allostatic, closed-loop, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology, designed to facilitate relaxation and self-optimization of neural oscillations. METHODS: Fifteen athletes (seven females, mean age 18.1 years, SD 2.6) with persisting post-concussion symptoms received 18.7 (SD 6...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
M Schapschröer, S Lemez, J Baker, J Schorer
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have considered the impact of physical exercise on perceptual-cognitive performance. There have also been a substantial number of studies that have examined how perceptual-cognitive skills differ between elite athletes and non-athletes. However, the knowledge on how physical exercise interacts with perceptual-cognitive skill is limited. This systematic review aims to provide detailed information on how athletes' perceptual-cognitive performance is influenced by acute physical exercise load and whether these effects differ between elite athletes and lesser skilled groups...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Andrew Melvin, Jacob George
BACKGROUND: Hot aches, also known as the screaming barfies in North America, are a recognised phenomenon amongst winter climbers, assumed to be triggered by the reperfusion of cold peripheries which then rapidly progresses to a systemic vasodilatory syndrome. Symptoms experienced in the hands include pain, numbness and throbbing followed by systemic symptoms such as nausea, irritability, dizziness and in extreme cases a transient loss of vision and hearing. Despite being well known amongst the winter climbing community, there are no publications in the scientific literature characterising the hot aches...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Ratko Peric, Marco Meucci, Zoran Nikolovski
BACKGROUND: This study examined substrate oxidation at high-intensity exercise and aimed to determine when fat oxidation ends (FATmin). We hypothesized the existence of a connection between the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and FATmin point. METHODS: Breath-by-breath data obtained from indirect calorimetry during a graded treadmill test were used to measure substrate oxidation and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on 47 males (30 athletes (ATL) and 17 non-athletes (NATL))...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Toshiyuki Ohya, Ryo Yamanaka, Hayato Ohnuma, Masahiro Hagiwara, Yasuhiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Some endurance athletes exhibit exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia during high-intensity exercise. Inhalation of hyperoxic gas during exercise has been shown to counteract this exercise-associated reduction in hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2), but the effects of hyperoxic gas inhalation on performance and SaO2 during high-intensity intermittent exercise remain unclear. This study investigated the effects of hyperoxic gas inhalation on performance and SaO2 during high-intensity intermittent cycling exercise...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Thomas Wyss, Maria Boesch, Lilian Roos, Céline Tschopp, Klaus M Frei, Hubert Annen, Roberto La Marca
BACKGROUND: Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. METHODS: The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Naruto Yoshida, Shun Kunugi, Sonoko Mashimo, Yoshihiro Okuma, Akihiko Masunari, Shogo Miyazaki, Tatsuya Hisajima, Shumpei Miyakawa
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity. METHODS: Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity in individuals performing cutting manoeuvres involving either rearfoot strikes (RFS) or forefoot strikes (FFS). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to calculate changes in knee angles, during cutting, and to determine the relationship between muscle activity and knee joint angle...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Daniela Bassi, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Vivian Maria Arakelian, Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso, Ramona Cabiddu, José Carlos Bonjorno Júnior, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
BACKGROUND: Concurrent aerobic and resistance training (CART) programs have been widely recommended as an important strategy to improve physiologic and functional performance in patients with chronic diseases. However, the impact of a personalized CART program in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires investigation. Therefore, the primary aim of the current study is to investigate the impact of CART programs on metabolic profile, glycemic control, and exercise capacity in patients with diabetes...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Liz Gough, Lindy M Castell, Rosalba Gatti, Richard J Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has many direct and indirect actions and roles including substrate regulation and priming of some cells of the immune system, and the expected aspects of growth and repair. Different concentrations in human body fluids reflect the exercise-induced growth hormone response (EIGR) after exercise. In populations such as elite athletes, the invasive nature of venous sampling is poorly accepted. Thus, this study examines possible viable alternatives such as urine and saliva samples and the GH concentration...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Kayle Shapero, James Deluca, Miranda Contursi, Meagan Wasfy, Rory B Weiner, Gregory D Lewis, Adolph Hutter, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Masters athletes (MAs), people over the age of 35 that participate in competitive sports, are a rapidly growing population that may be uniquely at risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive clinical CV profile of MA. METHODS: An electronic Internet-based survey (survey response rate = 66 %) was used to characterize a community cohort of MAs residing in Eastern Massachusetts, USA. Clinical and lifestyle factors associated with prevalent CV disease were determined using logistic regression...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Patrick S Tucker, Aaron T Scanlan, Rebecca K Vella, Vincent J Dalbo
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an irreversible disease that diminishes length and quality of life. Emerging evidence suggests CKD progression and genomic integrity are inversely and causally related. To reduce health complications related to CKD progression, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. To date, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with postulations regarding the mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. In order to examine the ability of aerobic exercise to encourage improvements in genomic integrity, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 85 % VO2max), low intensity training (LIT; 45-50 % VO2max), and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Morteza Khodaee, George T Edelman, Jack Spittler, Randall Wilber, Brian J Krabak, Daniel Solomon, Scott Riewald, Alicia Kendig, Laura M Borgelt, Mark Riederer, Vladimir Puzovic, Scott Rodeo
Swimming is one of the most popular sports worldwide. Competitive swimming is one of the most watched sports during the Olympic Games. Swimming has unique medical challenges as a result of a variety of environmental and chemical exposures. Musculoskeletal overuse injuries, overtraining, respiratory problems, and dermatologic conditions are among the most common problems swimmers encounter. Although not unique to swimming, overtraining is a serious condition which can have significant negative impact on swimmers' health and performance...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Heather Brown, Frauke Becker, Kofi Antwi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global death. Physical activity can help individuals reduce their CVD risk. However, the biological mechanisms explaining the link between physical activity and CVD risk and how they may be mediated by socioeconomic status are not well understood. METHODS: We use cross-sectional data from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey, UK, to investigate the association between two biomarkers for CVD risk: cholesterol ratio and triglyceride levels and four different measures of physical activity: moderate, mild, self-reported activity rating, and walking 30 min or more a week using multivariate logistic regression...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Philip B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
While the words "fit" and "healthy" are often used synonymously in everyday language, the terms have entirely separate meanings. Fitness describes the ability to perform a given exercise task, and health explains a person's state of well-being, where physiological systems work in harmony. Although we typically view athletes as fit and healthy, they often are not. The global term we place on unhealthy athletes is the overtraining syndrome. In this current opinion, we propose that two primary drivers may contribute to the development of the overtraining syndrome, namely high training intensity and the modern-day highly processed, high glycemic diet...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Kathryn E Myhre, Bryant J Webber, Thomas L Cropper, Juste N Tchandja, Dale M Ahrendt, Christopher A Dillon, Roy W Haas, Samantha L Guy, Mary T Pawlak, Susan P Federinko
BACKGROUND: Anemia has been implicated in adverse health outcomes of athletes and military trainees, ranging from overuse injuries to degraded physical and cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate prevalence of anemia among US Air Force (USAF) basic trainees, to compare physical performance and discharge rates between anemic and non-anemic trainees, and to determine the risks and relative risks of being discharged for anemic versus non-anemic women and men. METHODS: All USAF basic trainees were screened for anemia between July 2013 and January 2014, during an 8-week basic training course at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, TX...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Kimberley A Andersen, Paul N Grimshaw, Richard M Kelso, David J Bentley
Injuries are common within military populations, with high incidence rates well established in the literature. Injuries cause a substantial number of working days lost, a significant cost through compensation claims and an increased risk of attrition. In an effort to address this, a considerable amount of research has gone into identifying the most prevalent types of injury and their associated risk factors. Collective evidence suggests that training and equipment contribute to a large proportion of the injuries sustained...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
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