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Sports Medicine—Open

Michael-Alexander Malahias, Dimitrios Chytas, Kaori Nakamura, Vasileios Raoulis, Masashi Yokota, Vasileios S Nikolaou
Recently, four different operative techniques, referring to the primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair, were described. These are the dynamic intraligamentary stabilization (DIS) with Ligamys™, the Bridge-enhanced repair (BEAR), the use of internal brace, and the refixation with suture anchors. The purpose of this study was to assess the already-published, clinical, and pre-clinical results of those techniques. A literature review was conducted and implemented by three independent researchers. Inclusion criteria were clinical or cadaveric or animal studies about patients suffering from ACL rupture, who were treated with one of those four different arthroscopic techniques of primary ACL repair...
August 9, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Grant W Ralston, Lon Kilgore, Frank B Wyatt, Duncan Buchan, Julien S Baker
BACKGROUND: The current recommendations for resistance training (RT) frequency range from 2 to 5 days per week (days week- 1 ) depending on the subjects' training status. However, the relationship between RT frequency and muscular strength remains controversial with reported variances existing across different population groups. We conducted a meta-analysis that (1) quantified the effects of low (LF; 1 day week- 1 ), medium (MF; 2 days week- 1 ), or high (HF; ≥ 3 days week- 1 ) RT frequency on muscular strength per exercise; (2) examined the effects of different RT frequency on one repetition maximum (1RM) strength gain profiles (multi-joint exercises and single joint exercises); (3) examined the effects of different RT frequency on 1RM strength gain when RT volume is equated; and (4) examined the effects of different RT frequency on 1RM strength gains on upper and lower body...
August 3, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Laetitia Guillemette, Jacqueline L Hay, D Scott Kehler, Naomi C Hamm, Christopher Oldfield, Jonathan M McGavock, Todd A Duhamel
BACKGROUND: Maternal metabolic health during the prenatal period is an established determinant of cardiometabolic disease risk. Many studies have focused on poor offspring outcomes after exposure to poor maternal health, while few have systematically appraised the evidence surrounding the role of maternal exercise in decreasing this risk. The aim of this study is to characterize and quantify the specific impact of prenatal exercise on children's cardiometabolic health markers, at birth and in childhood...
August 2, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Mathieu Nedelec, Anis Aloulou, François Duforez, Tim Meyer, Gregory Dupont
Practicing sport at the highest level is typically accompanied by several stressors and restrictions on personal life. Elite athletes' lifestyle delivers a significant challenge to sleep, due to both the physiological and psychological demands, and the training and competition schedules. Inter-individual variability of sleep patterns (e.g., sleep requirements, chronotype) may have important implications not only for recovery and training schedules but also for the choice of measures to possibly improve sleep...
July 27, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Ross Armstrong, Nicola Relph
BACKGROUND: Dance involves movements of complexity and physical intensity which result in stress on the body. As a consequence, dancers are at risk of injury which can impact on their well-being. Screening tools are used for injury prevention to identify those dancers at risk of injury. The aim of this study was to investigate which screening tools can predict injury in dancers, encompassing all dance genres, levels and ages. METHODS: An electronic search of seven databases from their inception to December 2017 was conducted...
July 18, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
David R Clark, Michael I Lambert, Angus M Hunter
BACKGROUND: Core stability training has grown in popularity over 25 years, initially for back pain prevention or therapy. Subsequently, it developed as a mode of exercise training for health, fitness and sport. The scientific basis for traditional core stability exercise has recently been questioned and challenged, especially in relation to dynamic athletic performance. Reviews have called for clarity on what constitutes anatomy and function of the core, especially in healthy and uninjured people...
July 16, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Eik Dybboe Bjerre, Mette Leth, Nanna Maria Hammer, Julie Midtgaard
BACKGROUND: While clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of structured exercise for prostate cancer survivors, few attempts have been made to investigate and implement sustainable community-based exercise programs supporting adoption of long-term physical activity behavior. Against this background, the aims of this study was to explore the perspectives of experts and stakeholders on the development of a training course and intervention manual used to support the delivery of community-based soccer training in men with prostate cancer (the FC Prostate Community [FCPC] trial)...
July 13, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic P Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
BACKGROUND: Locomotor muscle fatigue (LMMF) and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) are common conditions experienced during long-distance running due to the pooled effect of mechanical and metabolic strain on the locomotor muscles. However, little is known about the instant effects of combined LMMF and EIMD on pacing behaviour and performance during the decisive final stages of 'real-world' long-distance running events. METHODS: Twenty-two highly trained runners (11 females) completed two maximal self-paced 20-km treadmill time trials in a counterbalanced crossover design: (A) in a tapered condition and (B) with LMMF and EIMD...
July 10, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic P Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
BACKGROUND: "Hitting the wall" (HTW) can be understood as a psychophysiological stress process characterised by (A) discrete and poignant onset, (B) dynamic interplay between physiological, affective, motivational, cognitive, and behavioural systems, and (C) unintended alteration of pace and performance. A preceding companion article investigated the psychophysiological responses to 20-km self-paced treadmill time trials after producing exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) via a standardised muscle-lengthening contraction protocol...
July 10, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Monèm Jemni, Mohammad Shoaib Prince, Julien S Baker
It is important that players and coaches have access to objective information on soccer player's physical status for team selection and training purposes. Physiological tests can provide this information. Physiological testing in laboratories and field settings are very common, but both methods have been questioned because of their specificity and accuracy respectively. Currently, football players have their direct aerobic fitness assessed in laboratories using treadmills or cycle ergometers, whilst indirect measures (using estimation of aerobic performance) are performed in the field, typically comprising multiple shuttle runs back and forth over a set distance...
June 19, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Steve den Hollander, Ben Jones, Michael Lambert, Sharief Hendricks
BACKGROUND: Video analysis is a common tool used in rugby union research to describe match performance. Studies using video analysis range from broad statistical studies of commercial databases to in-depth case-studies of specific match events. The range of types of studies using video analysis in rugby union, and how different studies apply the methodology, can make it difficult to compare the results of studies and translate the findings to a real-world setting. In attempt to consolidate the information on video analysis in rugby, a critical review of the literature was performed...
June 18, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Lewis J Macgregor, Malcolm M Fairweather, Ryan M Bennett, Angus M Hunter
BACKGROUND: Foam rolling (FR) has been shown to alleviate some symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage and has been suggested to increase range of motion (ROM) without negatively impacting strength. However, it is unclear what neuromuscular effects, if any, mediate these changes. METHODS: In a randomized, crossover design, 16 healthy active males completed 2 min of rest or FR of the knee extensors on three consecutive days. Mechanical properties of vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were assessed via Tensiomyography...
June 8, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Katherine J Ombrellaro, Nita Perumal, Johannes Zeiher, Jens Hoebel, Till Ittermann, Ralf Ewert, Marcus Dörr, Thomas Keil, Gert B M Mensink, Jonas D Finger
BACKGROUND: This review aims to (1) consolidate evidence regarding the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), (2) conduct a meta-analysis of the association between SES and CRF using methodologically comparable data, stratified by sex, and (3) test whether the association varies after adjustment for physical activity (PA). METHODS: A systematic review of studies from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), Scientific Electronic Library Online (ScIELO), and Cochrane Library without time or language restrictions, which investigated associations between SES and CRF...
June 7, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Steffi L Colyer, Murray Evans, Darren P Cosker, Aki I T Salo
BACKGROUND: The study of human movement within sports biomechanics and rehabilitation settings has made considerable progress over recent decades. However, developing a motion analysis system that collects accurate kinematic data in a timely, unobtrusive and externally valid manner remains an open challenge. MAIN BODY: This narrative review considers the evolution of methods for extracting kinematic information from images, observing how technology has progressed from laborious manual approaches to optoelectronic marker-based systems...
June 5, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Amy M Bender, Doug Lawson, Penny Werthner, Charles H Samuels
BACKGROUND: Previous research has established that general sleep screening questionnaires are not valid and reliable in an athlete population. The Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) was developed to address this need. While the initial validation of the ASSQ has been established, the clinical validity of the ASSQ has yet to be determined. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the clinical validity of the ASSQ. METHODS: Canadian National Team athletes (N = 199; mean age 24...
June 4, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Simon Nichols, Claire Taylor, Richard Page, Anna Kallvikbacka-Bennett, Fiona Nation, Toni Goodman, Andrew L Clark, Sean Carroll, Lee Ingle
BACKGROUND: Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with lower morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The mechanisms for this are not fully understood. A more favourable cardiometabolic risk factor profile may be responsible; however, few studies have comprehensively evaluated cardiometabolic risk factors in relation to CRF amongst patients with CHD. We aimed to explore differences in cardiometabolic risk and 5-year all-cause mortality risk in patients with CHD who have low, moderate, and high levels of CRF...
May 30, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Ben William Strafford, Pawel van der Steen, Keith Davids, Joseph Antony Stone
Analyses of talent development in sport have identified that skill can be enhanced through early and continued involvement in donor sports which share affordances (opportunities for action) with a performer's main target sport. Aligning key ideas of the Athletic Skills Model and ecological dynamics theory, we propose how the sport of parkour could provide a representative and adaptive platform for developing athletic skill (e.g. coordination, timing, balance, agility, spatial awareness and muscular strength)...
May 24, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Andrew J Gardner, Ryan Kohler, Warren McDonald, Gordon W Fuller, Ross Tucker, Michael Makdissi
BACKGROUND: Sideline video review has been increasingly used to evaluate risk of concussive injury during match play of a number of collision sports, with the view to reducing the incidence of match play concussion injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sideline video review for identifying and evaluating head impact events in Rugby Union. METHODS: All Australian teams' 2015 Super Rugby season matches were studied. Meaningful head impact events (HIEs) were identified, comprising events identified and acted upon during matches and events identified through a post-season retrospective review...
May 24, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Bruce L Mitchell
Sickle cell trait has long been considered a benign condition but continues to be the leading cause of death in young African Americans in military basic training and civilian organized sports. There continues to be a great deal of controversy surrounding sickle cell trait and its association with exercise-related morbidity and sudden death. Even though sickle cell trait has a high prevalence among African Americans, many clinicians believe the potential adverse consequences should have been mitigated by actions such as universal screening in the USA at birth for sickle hemoglobin, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) rule changes, and changes in the US Military boot camp system...
May 23, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Fieke Rongen, Jim McKenna, Stephen Cobley, Kevin Till
Talent identification and development systems (TIDS) are commonly used in professional sport to convert youth athletes into sporting stars of the future. Acknowledging that only a few athletes can "make it," the necessity and healthiness of TIDS have recently been questioned based on their increased professionalism, high training, and competition volumes, but limited effectiveness. In this short communication, we suggest that the key issues associated with TIDS are not due to their overall concept, but with how they are designed and implemented...
May 22, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
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