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Sports Medicine—Open

Yoichi Katsumata, Kohei Omuro, Naotoshi Mitsukawa, Hiroki Nakata
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the relative age effect (RAE), a biased distribution of birth dates, in sport events have been investigated for more than two decades. The present study investigated the characteristics of the RAE in baseball and anthropometric data (height and weight) among recreational junior baseball players as well as elite players, using data extracted from national surveys. METHODS: Birth and anthropometric data were obtained from 4464 Japanese students as elementary school, junior high school, and high school players...
November 30, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Corrin P Walmsley, Sîan A Williams, Tiffany Grisbrook, Catherine Elliott, Christine Imms, Amity Campbell
BACKGROUND: Wearable sensors are portable measurement tools that are becoming increasingly popular for the measurement of joint angle in the upper limb. With many brands emerging on the market, each with variations in hardware and protocols, evidence to inform selection and application is needed. Therefore, the objectives of this review were related to the use of wearable sensors to calculate upper limb joint angle. We aimed to describe (i) the characteristics of commercial and custom wearable sensors, (ii) the populations for whom researchers have adopted wearable sensors, and (iii) their established psychometric properties...
November 29, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Jeff Barfield, Gretchen Oliver
Participation rates in fastpitch softball are continually on the rise, especially in youth. With the increased participation also comes the increased injury susceptibility. Unfortunately, the common misconception about the dynamic 360° windmill softball pitch, that it is a natural motion and thus does not cause stress on the shoulder, deterred investigation into pitching mechanics until recently. As pitching injuries in softball are on the rise, more attention is needed into the mechanics of the windmill softball pitch and injury implications...
November 19, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
James H Hull, Mathew G Wilson
Swimming-induced pulmonary edema is an infrequently encountered cause of acute respiratory distress in open-water swimmers. The condition can be challenging, with athletes often wanting answers to three main questions regarding (i) a definitive and robust diagnosis, (ii) the risk of recurrence, and (iii) what can be done to avoid recurrence. This commentary provides an overview of the best available evidence, in light of a recently published systematic review.
November 19, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Jaime Leppe, Manuela Besomi
BACKGROUND: Previous injury in the last 12 months is the main risk factor for future running-related injuries (RRI) during training and competition environments. However, the relationship between a recent versus old previous injury and a new RRI has not been established yet, nor a separate analysis by different types of runners. METHODS: An online questionnaire was sent to 6000 participants of a running event (10 km, 21 km and 42 km), 10 days following the event...
November 12, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Mikalyn T DeFoor, Lara M Stepleman, Paul C Mann
In comparison to their heterosexual peers, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) student-athletes encounter substantial challenges during their intercollegiate and professional athletic careers including detrimental stereotypes, harassment, and discrimination. Such non-inclusive environments promoted throughout the current Western culture of sport are notably associated with higher incidences of mental health and substance use disorders among LGB athletes across youth, collegiate, and professional sports. There have been significant gains at the collegiate level to address LGB-inclusive practices aimed towards administrators, educators, coaches, and student-athletes; however, there is currently no literature that addresses the unique role of the sports medicine team...
November 6, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Elise R Facer-Childs, Sophie Boiling, George M Balanos
BACKGROUND: Whether you are a morning lark or a night owl has proven to be a key contributor in the timing of peak athletic performance. Recent evidence suggests that accounting for these differences, known as one's chronotype, results in significantly different diurnal performance profiles. However, there is limited research investigating multiple measures of performance simultaneously over the course of a socially constrained day. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the impact of chronotype on indices of cognitive and physical performance at different times of day in healthy volunteers...
October 24, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Noel Pabalan, Phuntila Tharabenjasin, Suphawadee Phababpha, Hamdi Jarjanazi
BACKGROUND: Tendons and ligaments are common sites of musculoskeletal injuries especially during physical activity. The multifactorial etiology of tendon-ligament injury (TLI) includes both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic component could render influence on TLI risk to be either elevation or reduction. OBJECTIVE: Inconsistency of reported associations of the collagen type V alpha 1 chain (COL5A1) polymorphisms, mainly rs12722 (BstUI) and rs13946 (DpnII), with TLI warrant a meta-analysis to determine more precise pooled associations...
October 22, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Daichi Sumi, Chihiro Kojima, Nobukazu Kasai, Kazushige Goto
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced disturbance of acid-base balance and accumulation of extracellular potassium (K+ ) are suggested to elicit fatigue. Exercise under hypoxic conditions may augment exercise-induced alterations of these two factors compared with exercise under normoxia. In the present study, we investigated acid-base balance and potassium kinetics in response to exercise under moderate hypoxic conditions in endurance athletes. METHODS: Nine trained middle-to-long distance athletes [maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) 57...
October 13, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Maria D Gheorghiev, Farzad Hosseini, Jason Moran, Chris E Cooper
BACKGROUND: Pseudoephedrine (PSE), a sympathomimetic drug, commonly used in nasal decongestants, is currently banned in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), as its stimulant activity is claimed to enhance performance. This meta-analysis described the effects of PSE on factors relating to sport performance. METHODS: All included studies were randomised placebo-controlled trials and were conducted in a double blind crossover fashion. All participants (males and females) were deemed to be healthy...
October 5, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Sarah Spencer, John Dickinson, Lindsay Forbes
BACKGROUND: Swimming-induced pulmonary oedema (SIPE) can affect people with no underlying health problems, but may be life threatening and is poorly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the evidence on SIPE incidence, prevalence, risk factors, short- and long-term outcomes, recurrence and effectiveness of interventions to prevent recurrences. METHODS: We carried out a literature search using bibliographic databases and reference lists...
September 20, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Roxanne Gal, Anne M May, Elon J van Overmeeren, Monique Simons, Evelyn M Monninkhof
BACKGROUND: Worldwide physical activity levels of adults are declining, which is associated with increased chronic disease risk. Wearables and smartphone applications offer new opportunities to change physical activity behaviour. This systematic review summarizes the evidence regarding the effect of wearables and smartphone applications on promoting physical activity. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for RCTs, published since January 2008, on wearables and smartphone applications to promote physical activity...
September 3, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Aimée C Mears, Paul Osei-Owusu, Andy R Harland, Alun Owen, Jonathan R Roberts
BACKGROUND: Injuries in association football (soccer) are debilitating for players and can also be detrimental to the success of a team or club. The type or condition of a playing surface has been empirically linked to injuries, yet results are inconclusive. The overall purpose of this study was to analyse elite football players' perceived links between playing surfaces and injury from a worldwide cohort of players. The results of this study can help to inform areas for future playing surface research aimed at trying to alleviate user concerns and meet user (i...
August 20, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Gerald T Mangine, Brant Cebulla, Yuri Feito
BACKGROUND: CrossFit® practitioners commonly track progress by monitoring their ability to complete a variety of standardized benchmark workouts within a typical class setting. However, objective assessment of progress is challenging because normative data does not currently exist for any of these benchmark workouts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop normative values for five common benchmark workouts (i.e., Fran, Grace, Helen, Filthy-50 [F50], and Fight-Gone-Bad [FGB])...
August 20, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Helen Collins, Samantha Fawkner, Josephine N Booth, Audrey Duncan
BACKGROUND: There has been a rise in research into obesity prevention and treatment programmes in youth, including the effectiveness of resistance-based exercise. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of resistance training interventions on weight status in youth. METHODS: Meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was registered on PROSPERO (registration number CRD42016038365)...
August 20, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Saskia J Te Velde, Kristel Lankhorst, Maremka Zwinkels, Olaf Verschuren, Tim Takken, Janke de Groot
BACKGROUND: Little evidence is available about how sports participation influences psychosocial health and quality of life in children and adolescents with a disability or chronic disease. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to assess the association of sports participation with psychosocial health and with quality of life, among children and adolescents with a disability. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 195 children and adolescents with physical disabilities or chronic diseases (11% cardiovascular, 5% pulmonary, 8% metabolic, 8% musculoskeletal/orthopaedic, 52% neuromuscular and 9% immunological diseases and 1% with cancer), aged 10-19 years, completed questionnaires to assess sports participation, health-related quality of life (DCGM-37), self-perceptions and global self-worth (SPPC or SPPA) and exercise self-efficacy...
August 15, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Michael-Alexander Malahias, Dimitrios Chytas, Kaori Nakamura, Vasileios Raoulis, Masashi Yokota, Vasileios S Nikolaou
Recently, four different operative techniques, referring to the primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair, were described. These are the dynamic intraligamentary stabilization (DIS) with Ligamys™, the Bridge-enhanced repair (BEAR), the use of internal brace, and the refixation with suture anchors. The purpose of this study was to assess the already-published, clinical, and pre-clinical results of those techniques. A literature review was conducted and implemented by three independent researchers. Inclusion criteria were clinical or cadaveric or animal studies about patients suffering from ACL rupture, who were treated with one of those four different arthroscopic techniques of primary ACL repair...
August 9, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Grant W Ralston, Lon Kilgore, Frank B Wyatt, Duncan Buchan, Julien S Baker
BACKGROUND: The current recommendations for resistance training (RT) frequency range from 2 to 5 days per week (days week- 1 ) depending on the subjects' training status. However, the relationship between RT frequency and muscular strength remains controversial with reported variances existing across different population groups. We conducted a meta-analysis that (1) quantified the effects of low (LF; 1 day week- 1 ), medium (MF; 2 days week- 1 ), or high (HF; ≥ 3 days week- 1 ) RT frequency on muscular strength per exercise; (2) examined the effects of different RT frequency on one repetition maximum (1RM) strength gain profiles (multi-joint exercises and single joint exercises); (3) examined the effects of different RT frequency on 1RM strength gain when RT volume is equated; and (4) examined the effects of different RT frequency on 1RM strength gains on upper and lower body...
August 3, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Laetitia Guillemette, Jacqueline L Hay, D Scott Kehler, Naomi C Hamm, Christopher Oldfield, Jonathan M McGavock, Todd A Duhamel
BACKGROUND: Maternal metabolic health during the prenatal period is an established determinant of cardiometabolic disease risk. Many studies have focused on poor offspring outcomes after exposure to poor maternal health, while few have systematically appraised the evidence surrounding the role of maternal exercise in decreasing this risk. The aim of this study is to characterize and quantify the specific impact of prenatal exercise on children's cardiometabolic health markers, at birth and in childhood...
August 2, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Mathieu Nedelec, Anis Aloulou, François Duforez, Tim Meyer, Gregory Dupont
Practicing sport at the highest level is typically accompanied by several stressors and restrictions on personal life. Elite athletes' lifestyle delivers a significant challenge to sleep, due to both the physiological and psychological demands, and the training and competition schedules. Inter-individual variability of sleep patterns (e.g., sleep requirements, chronotype) may have important implications not only for recovery and training schedules but also for the choice of measures to possibly improve sleep...
July 27, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
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