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Journal of Translational Science

Waldemar Popik, Hernan Correa, Atanu Khatua, David M Aronoff, Donald J Alcendor
Background: Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is problematic after kidney transplantation. Human mesangial cells along with human glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes constitute the renal glomerular vascular unit (GVU). HCMV infection of the GVU is poorly understood. Methods: GVU cells infectivity was analysed by microscopy and immunofluorescence. Cytokines profiles were measured by Luminex assays. Renal tissue analysis for HCMV infection was performed by immunohistochemistry...
February 2019: Journal of Translational Science
Gloria Lee, Joseph Plaksin, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Gabrielle Gold-von Simson
Drug discovery and development (DDD) is a collaborative, dynamic process of great interest to researchers, but an area where there is a lack of formal training. The Drug Development Educational Program (DDEP) at New York University was created in 2012 to stimulate an improved, multidisciplinary DDD workforce by educating early stage scientists as well as a variety of other like-minded students. The first course of the program emphasizes post-compounding aspects of DDD; the second course focuses on molecular signaling pathways...
2018: Journal of Translational Science
Gloria Lee, Jay D Kranzler, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Gabrielle Gold-von Simson
PhDs and post-doctoral biomedical graduates, in greater numbers, are choosing industry based careers. However, most scientists do not have formal training in business strategies and venture creation and may find senior management positions untenable. To fill this training gap, "Biotechnology Industry: Structure and Strategy" was offered at New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM). The course focuses on the business aspects of translational medicine and research translation and incorporates the practice of business case discussions, mock negotiation, and direct interactions into the didactic...
2018: Journal of Translational Science
Brisas Flores, Hirsh D Trivedi, Simon C Robson, Alan Bonder
The presence of cirrhosis poses an increased risk of both thrombosis and bleeding in individuals with chronic liver disease. This duality is a result of a dynamic disequilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant states in individuals with cirrhosis. The mechanism of this imbalance in cirrhosis remains unclear. It is known that the progression of cirrhosis leads to decreased synthetic function and a concurrent lack of natural anticoagulants. Other proposed mechanisms contributing to this hemostatic imbalance include decreased platelet production, increased platelet destruction from hypersplenism, decreased synthesis of Vitamin K-dependent and independent clotting factors and anticoagulant factors, and alterations in purinergic signaling pathways...
May 2017: Journal of Translational Science
Kenneth Maiese
Life expectancy of individuals in both developed and undeveloped nations continues to rise at an unprecedented rate. Coupled to this increase in longevity for individuals is the rise in the incidence of chronic neurodegenerative disorders that includes Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently, almost ten percent of the population over the age of 65 suffers from AD, a disorder that is presently without definitive therapy to prevent the onset or progression of cognitive loss. Yet, it is estimated that AD will continue to significantly increase throughout the world to impact millions of individuals and foster the escalation of healthcare costs...
July 2016: Journal of Translational Science
Kenneth Maiese
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a severe public health problem that impacts more than four million individuals in the United States alone and is increasing in incidence on a global scale. Importantly, TBI can result in acute as well as chronic impairments for the nervous system leaving individuals with chronic disability and in instances of severe trauma, death becomes the ultimate outcome. In light of the significant negative health consequences of TBI, multiple therapeutic strategies are under investigation, but those focusing upon the cytokine and growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) have generated a great degree of enthusiasm...
March 2016: Journal of Translational Science
Sufang Liu, Feng Tao
Motor cortex stimulation provides an alternate approach for intractable pain treatment. Optogenetic manipulation can produce gain- or loss-of-function in specific type of cells following light application. This state-of-the-art technology may be used in motor cortex stimulation to produce circuit-specific neuromodulation and regulate neuronal activities in motor cortex, thereby treating pain in the clinic. Here, we discuss the principle of optogenetics-mediated motor cortex stimulation and discuss its potential application in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
Martin R Schiller
Several theories for the origin of life have gained widespread acceptance, led by primordial soup, chemical evolution, metabolism first, and the RNA world. However, while new and existing theories often address a key step, there is less focus on a comprehensive abiogenic continuum leading to the last universal common ancestor. Herein, I present the "minimotif synthesis" hypothesis unifying select origin of life theories with new and revised steps. The hypothesis is based on first principles, on the concept of selection over long time scales, and on a stepwise progression toward complexity...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
Mara de Moura Gondim Prata, A Havt, D T Bolick, R Pinkerton, Aam Lima, R L Guerrant
Fecal biomarkers have emerged as important tools to assess intestinal inflammation and enteropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the fecal markers, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin (FL), calprotectin (FC) and lipocalin-2 (Lcn-2), and to compare differences by breastfeeding status as well as normalization by fecal protein or by fecal weight. Simultaneous, quantitative MPO, FL, FC and Lcn-2, levels were determined in frozen fecal specimens collected from 78 children (mean age 15...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
Kenneth Maiese
Circular ribonucleic acids (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 100 nucleotides in length with thousands of members in mammalian cells. The presence of circRNAs is believed to be even greater than that of messenger RNAs. Identification of circRNAs occurred approximately 37 years ago with the subsequent demonstration that covalent bonds are necessary for the unique circular structure of these ribonucleic acids. However, present understanding of the complex biological role of circRNAs remains limited and requires further elucidation...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
Anthony R Mawson
Neither the mechanisms of parturition nor the pathogenesis of preterm birth are well understood. Poor nutritional status has been suspected as a major causal factor, since vitamin A concentrations are low in preterm infants. However, even large enteral doses of vitamin A from birth fail to increase plasma concentrations of vitamin A or improve outcomes in preterm and/or extremely low birthweight infants. These findings suggest an underlying impairment in the secretion of vitamin A from the liver, where about 80% of the vitamin is stored...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
Kenneth Maiese
Oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, protein misfolding, programmed cell death with apoptosis and autophagy, and the promotion of aging -dependent processes. Mitochondria control the processing of redox energy that yields adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the oxidation of glucose, pyruvate, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Ultimately, the generation of ROS occurs with the aerobic production of ATP. Although reduced levels of ROS may lead to tolerance against metabolic, mechanical, and oxidative stressors and the generation of brief periods of ROS during ischemia-reperfusion models may limit cellular injury, under most circumstances ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to apoptotic caspase activation and autophagy induction that can result in cellular demise...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
Kimiko Ishiguro, Yong-Lian Zhu, Z Ping Lin, Philip G Penketh, Krishnamurthy Shyam, Rui Zhu, Raymond P Baumann, Alan C Sartorelli, Thomas J Rutherford, Elena S Ratner
Although epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) are initially treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, EOCs vary in platinum responsiveness. Cataloging antineoplastic agents according to their effectiveness against platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive EOC cell lines is valuable for development of therapeutic strategies to avoid platinum inefficacy and to exploit platinum sensitivity. TOV-21G devoid of FANCF expression, OV-90 and SKOV-3 were employed as examples of platinum-sensitive, platinum-intermediate and platinum-resistant cell lines, respectively...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
Kenneth Maiese
As the world's population continues to age, it is estimated that degenerative joint disease disorders such as osteoarthritis will impact at least 130 million individuals throughout the globe by the year 2050. Advanced age, obesity, genetics, gender, bone density, trauma, and a poor level of physical activity can lead to the onset and progression of osteoarthritis. However, factors that lead to degenerative joint disease and involve gender, genetics, epigenetic mechanisms, and advanced age are not within the control of an individual...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
Kenneth Maiese
Small non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are now becoming recognized as significant agents that can affect the onset and progression of numerous disorders throughout the body. In particular, miRNAs also may determine stem cell renewal and differentiation. Intimately tied to the ability of miRNAs to govern stem cell proliferation are the proliferative pathways of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1) and the cell survival mechanisms of autophagy that can be coupled to the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)...
November 2015: Journal of Translational Science
Edwin E Reyes, Marc Gillard, Ryan Duggan, Kristen Wroblewski, Steven Kregel, Masis Isikbay, Jacob Kach, Hannah Brechka, David J Vander Weele, Russell Z Szmulewitz, Donald J Vander Griend
The function and clinical utility of stem cell markers in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains unresolved, and their expression may confer important therapeutic opportunities for staging and therapy. In the adult human prostate, CD133 (PROM1) expression identifies infrequent prostate epithelial progenitor cells and putative cancer stem cells. Previous work demonstrated an association with CD133 and cancer cell proliferation using in vitro model systems. The primary objective here was to investigate the expression of CD133 in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from patients with mCRPC and to test the hypothesis that patients with mCRPC had CD133-positive CTCs associated with increased cell proliferation, changes in the androgen receptor (AR) protein expression, or AR nuclear co-localization...
July 2015: Journal of Translational Science
Kenneth Maiese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 28, 2015: Journal of Translational Science
Kenneth Maiese
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other malignant gliomas are considered to be the most prevalent of primary malignant brain tumors. The incidence of these tumors per year is reported as 4.13 per 100,000 individuals per year. The median survival time following the diagnosis of GBM is approximately fifteen months in the setting of providing presently available treatments with surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy. Given these statistics, new strategies for the treatment of GBM and other aggressive tumors of the brain are warranted...
2015: Journal of Translational Science
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