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Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

D Sathya Prabhu, A Panneer Selvam, V Devi Rajeswari
Natural products are vital in drug discovery and the search for anticancer agents has been significant importance to the researchers for a long time. In the present study, aqueous leaf extract of Pouteria sapota (P.sapota) was evaluated for its cytotoxic activity. The leaf extract was preliminarily screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH method for Radical Scavenging Activity, Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenging Activity and Reducing Power Activity. Further, the aqueous leaf extract was screened for cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) in vitro...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Shinji Yamada, Shunsuke Itai, Mika K Kaneko, Satoru Konnai, Yukinari Kato
Mouse podoplanin (mPDPN) is a type I transmembrane sialoglycoprotein, which is expressed on lymphatic endothelial cells, podocytes of the kidney, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. mPDPN is known as a platelet aggregation-inducing factor and possesses four platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG) domains: PLAG1, PLAG2, and PLAG3 in the N-terminus and PLAG4 in the middle of the mPDPN protein. mPDPN overexpression in cancers has been reportedly associated with hematogenous metastasis through interaction with the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 of platelets...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Wakako Kobayashi, Masayuki Ozawa
Transcription factor lymphoid-enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1) is a key molecule in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Slug is one of the Wnt/β-catenin target genes and can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Previously, we have shown that not only wild-type LEF-1 but also LEF-1 lacking the amino-terminal β-catenin-binding region can induce EMT, suggesting that LEF-1 acts independently of β-catenin. Because it has been reported that LEF-1 interacts with β-catenin outside the amino-terminal domain, namely, in the middle part of the molecule, the possible participation of β-catenin has not been formally ruled out...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Shimaa El-Shafey Soliman, Alshimaa Mahmoud Alhanafy, Mona Salah El-Din Habib, Mohamed Hagag, Reda Abdel Latif Ibrahem
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is leading cause of cancer related death and the survival rate for patients with NSCLC remain poor so early diagnosis of NSCLC represents the best opportunity for cure. Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) is extracellular nucleic acids found in cell-free plasma/serum of humans, given the recent approval of a liquid biopsy in lung cancer, the use of circulating tumor DNA as a novel non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarker is promising. Objectives: Studying whether the concentrations of circulating Cell Free DNA in serum can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for NSCLC patients...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Norikazu Kawai, Yukiteru Ouji, Masaharu Sakagami, Takashi Tojo, Noriyoshi Sawabata, Masahide Yoshikawa, Shigeki Taniguchi
Decellularization of tissues is a recently developed technique mostly used to provide a 3-dimensional matrix structure of the original organ, including decellularized lung tissues for lung transplantation. Based on the results of the present study, we propose new utilization of decellularized tissues as inducers of stem cell differentiation. Decellularized lung matrix (L-Mat) samples were prepared from mouse lungs by SDS treatment, then the effects of L-Mat on differentiation of ES cells into lung cells were investigated...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Mami Yamada, Chihiro Hokazono, Mitsuharu Okutsu
Regular exercise during pregnancy can prevent offspring from several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and type II diabetes during adulthood. However, little information is available about whether maternal exercises during pregnancy protect the offspring from infectious diseases, such as sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). This study aimed to investigate whether maternal exercise training protects the offspring from endotoxin-induced septic shock in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice performed voluntary wheel exercises during pregnancy...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Jadwiga Pietkiewicz, Regina Danielewicz, Iwona S Bednarz-Misa, Ireneusz Ceremuga, Jerzy Wiśniewski, Magdalena Mierzchala-Pasierb, Agnieszka Bronowicka-Szydełko, Edmund Ziomek, Andrzej Gamian
Human α- and β-enolases are highly homologous enzymes, difficult to differentiate immunologically. In this work, we describe production, purification and properties of anti-α- and anti-β-enolase polyclonal antibodies. To raise antibodies, rabbits were injected with enolase isoenzymes that were purified from human kidney (α-enolase) and skeletal muscle (β-enolase). Selective anti-α- and anti-β-enolase antibodies were obtained by affinity chromatography on either α- or β-enolase-Sepharose columns. On Western blots, antibodies directed against human β-enolase, did not react with human α-isoenzyme, but recognized pig and rat β-enolase...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Masao Yamasaki, Kensaku Hamada, Kento Fujii, Kazuo Nishiyama, Yumi Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Tari, Kaori Araki, Teruaki Arakawa
Blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei ) leaf has recently attracted attention as an anti-obesity food component. In this study, we examined the effects of blueberry leaf extract (BLEx) on insulin signaling in C2C12 differentiated myoblasts. The results showed that BLEx promotes the intracellular uptake of 2-[ N -(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2- N BDG) and phosphorylation of Akt under insulin stimulation. In addition, pretreatment with BLEx ameliorated TNF-α-nduced insulin resistance with regard to 2-NBDG uptake and Akt phosphorylation...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Natalia Ruiz-Lafuente, Alfredo Minguela, Antonio Parrado
Dedicator-of-cytokinesis (DOCK) proteins are a family of guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) for Rho GTPases. The DOCK-D homology subfamily comprises DOCK9, DOCK10, and DOCK11. DOCK9 and DOCK11 are GEFs for Cdc42 and induce filopodia, while DOCK10 is a dual GEF for Cdc42 and Rac1 and induces filopodia and ruffles. We provide data showing that DOCK9, the only one of the DOCK-D members that is not considered hematopoietic, is nevertheless expressed at high levels in T lymphocytes, as do DOCK10 and DOCK11, although unlike these, it is not expressed in B lymphocytes...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Rocco Adiutori, Johan Aarum, Irene Zubiri, Michael Bremang, Stephan Jung, Denise Sheer, Ian Pike, Andrea Malaspina
Protein aggregation in biofluids is a poorly understood phenomenon. Under normal physiological conditions, fluid-borne aggregates may contain plasma or cell proteins prone to aggregation. Recent observations suggest that neurofilaments (Nf), the building blocks of neurons and a biomarker of neurodegeneration, are included in high molecular weight complexes in circulation. The composition of these Nf-containing hetero-aggregates (NCH) may change in systemic or organ-specific pathologies, providing the basis to develop novel disease biomarkers...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
M S Manu, Deepanjan Ghosh, Bhushan P Chaudhari, Sureshkumar Ramasamy
Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are a special class of membrane proteins that carry out vital functions in all living cells. Targeting mechanisms of TA proteins are investigated as the best example for post-translational protein targeting in yeast. Of the several mechanisms, Guided Entry of Tail-anchored protein (GET) pathway plays a major role in TA protein targeting. Many in silico and in vivo analyses are geared to identify TA proteins and their targeting mechanisms in different systems including Arabidopsis thaliana ...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Keishi Yamasaki, Koji Nishi, Makoto Anraku, Kazuaki Taguchi, Toru Maruyama, Masaki Otagiri
It is well known that various physiological factors such as pH, endogenous substances or post-translational modifications can affect the conformational state of human serum albumin (HSA). In a previous study, we reported that both pH- and long chain fatty acid-induced conformational changes can alter the interactive binding of ligands to the two principal binding sites of HSA, namely, site I and site II. In the present study, the effect of metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) caused by ascorbate/oxygen/trace metals on HSA structure and the interactive binding between dansyl-L-asparagine (DNSA; a site I ligand) and ibuprofen (a site II ligand) at pH 6...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
K Sri Vinusha, K Deepika, T Sudhakar Johnson, Ganesh K Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal
Probiotics are amongst the most common microbes in the gastro-intestinal tract of humans and other animals. Prominent among probiotics are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . They offer wide-ranging health promoting benefits to the host which include reduction in pathological alterations, stimulation of mucosal immunity and interaction with mediators of inflammation among others. Proteomics plays a vital role in understanding biological functions of a cell. Proteomics is also slowly and steadily adding to the existing knowledge on role of probiotics...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
A Purandaradas, T Silambarasan, Kadarkarai Murugan, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam, Arumugam Dhanesh Gandhi, Kayal Vizhi Dhandapani, Devipriya Anbumani, P Kavitha
Increased urbanization and increase in population has led to an increased demand for fuels. The result is the prices of fuels are reaching new heights every day. Using low-cost feedstocks such as rendered animal fats in biodiesel production will reduce biodiesel expenditures. One of the low-cost feedstocks for biodiesel production from poultry feathers. This paper describes a new and environmentally friendly process for developing biodiesel production technology from feather waste produced in poultry industry...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Vani Jaswal, Jeyanthi Palanivelu, Ramalingam C
Conventional and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is popularly used due to side-effects and failure of approved methods, for diseases like Epilepsy and Cancer. Amygdalin, a cyanogenic diglycoside is commonly administered for cancer with other CAM therapies like vitamins and seeds of fruits like apricots and bitter almonds, due to its ability to hydrolyse to hydrogen cyanide (HCN), benzaldehyde and glucose. Over the years, several cases of cyanide toxicity on ingestion have been documented. In-vitro and in-vivo studies using various doses and modes of administration, like IV administration studies that showed no HCN formation, point to the role played by the gut microbiota for the commonly seen poisoning on consumption...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Alakesh Bera, Sajal Biring
Binding of recombinant prion protein with small highly structured RNAs, prokaryotic and eukaryotic prion protein mRNA pseudoknots, tRNA and polyA has been studied by the change in fluorescence anisotropy of the intrinsic tryptophan groups of the protein. The affinities of these RNAs to the prion protein and the number of sites where the protein binds to the nucleic acids do not vary appreciably although the RNAs have very different compositions and structures. The binding parameters do not depend upon pH of the solution and show a poor co-operativity...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Rajshekhar A Kore, Jacob L Edmondson, Samir V Jenkins, Azemat Jamshidi-Parsian, Ruud P M Dings, Nathan S Reyna, Robert J Griffin
Hypoxia, a hallmark characteristic of glioblastoma (GBM) induces changes in the transcriptome and the proteome of tumor cells. We discovered that hypoxic stress produces significant qualitative and quantitative changes in the protein content of secreted exosomes from GBM cells. Among the proteins found to be selectively elevated in hypoxic exosomes were protein-lysine 6-oxidase (LOX), thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), vascular derived endothelial factor (VEGF) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), well studied contributors to tumor progression, metastasis and angiogenesis...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Huong T T Phan, Naofumi Shimokawa, Neha Sharma, Masahiro Takagi, Mun'delanji C Vestergaard
Oxidized cholesterol has been widely reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism by which they affect the disease is not fully understood. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effect of 7-ketocholesterol (7keto) on membrane-mediated aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ-42), one of the critical pathogenic events in AD. We have shown that when cholesterol is present in lipid vesicles, kinetics of Aβ nuclei formation is moderately hindered while that of fibril growth was considerably accelerated...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Katsuhisa Sakaguchi, Yuto Hinata, Yuki Kagawa, Kiyotaka Iwasaki, Satoshi Tsuneda, Tatsuya Shimizu, Mitsuo Umezu
Assembling three-dimensional (3D) tissues from single cells necessitates the use of various advanced technological methods because higher-density tissues require numerous complex capillary structures to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients. Accordingly, creating healthy culture conditions to support 3D cardiac tissues requires an appropriate balance between the supplied nutrients and cell metabolism. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and efficient method for low-temperature cultivation (< 37 °C) that decreases cell metabolism for facilitating the buildup of 3D cardiac tissues...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Pranveer Singh
Recent advances in Recombinant antibody technology / Antibody Engineering has given impetus to the genetic manipulation of antibody fragments that has paved the way for better understanding of the structure and functions of immunoglobulins and also has escalated their use in immunotherapy. Bacterial expression system such as Escherichia coli has complemented this technique through the expression of recombinant antibodies. Present communication has attempted to optimize the expression and refolding protocol of single chain fragment variable (ScFv) and single chain antigen binding fragment (ScFab) using E...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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