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Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

Qingyou Du, Sofija Jovanović, Andriy Sukhodub, Yong Shi Ngoi, Aashray Lal, Marina Zheleva, Aleksandar Jovanović
Some recent studies associated insulin therapy with negative cardiovascular events and shorter lifespan. SUR2A, a KATP channel subunit, regulate cardioprotection and cardiac ageing. Here, we have tested whether glucose and insulin regulate expression of SUR2A/KATP channel subunits and resistance to metabolic stress in heart H9c2 cells. Absence of glucose in culture media decreased SUR2A mRNA, while mRNAs of Kir6.2, Kir6.1, SUR1 and IES SUR2B were increased. 2-deoxyglucose (50 mM) decreased mRNAs of SUR2A, SUR2B and SUR1, did not affect IES SUR2A and IES SUR2B mRNAs and increased Kir6...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Ganeshkumar Krishnamoorthy, Prashanth Alluvada, Esayas Alemayehu, Shahul Hameed Mohammed Sherieff, Wasihun A Addi, Timothy Kwa, Janarthanan Krishnamoorthy
<mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>Log D</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> the logarithm ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msub> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>log</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>10</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> </mml:msub> </mml:math> ) of the distribution coefficient ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>D</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> ), is one of the important parameters used in Lipinski's rule to assess the druggability of a molecule in pharmaceutical formulations...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Vance B Matthews, Caroline Rudnicka, Markus P Schlaich
The sympathetic nervous system plays a crucial role in metabolic function and glucose homeostasis. Norepinephrine is the main neurotransmitter released from sympathetic neurons. The major goal of our studies was to examine the impact of norepinephrine on metabolism related gene expression in obesity in vivo . Interestingly, we discovered that norepinephrine had a detrimental effect in our studies. C57BL6/J mice fed a high fat diet were intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 or 2 mg/kg/day norepinephrine. These doses of norepinephrine have been used previously by other researchers...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Woojin Kang, Eri Ishida, Kenji Yamatoya, Akihiro Nakamura, Mami Miyado, Yoshitaka Miyamoto, Maki Iwai, Kuniko Tatsumi, Takakazu Saito, Kazuki Saito, Natsuko Kawano, Toshio Hamatani, Akihiro Umezawa, Kenji Miyado, Hidekazu Saito
Autophagic recycling of cell parts is generally termed as the opposite of cell death. Here, we explored the relation between cell death and autophagy by examining granulosa cell layers that control oocyte quality, which is important for the success of fertilization. Granulosa cell layers were collected from infertile women and morphologically divided into four types, viz., mature (MCCs), immature (ICCs), and dysmature cumulus cells (DCCs), and mural granulosa cells (MGCs). Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), which is involved in autophagosome formation, was expressed excessively in DCCs and MGCs, and their chromosomal DNA was highly fragmented...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Sunil Kumar Shah, D N Jhade
Piper betle (Petiole) is used of herbal methods for fertility regulation is widely accepted alternative for the synthetic drugs containing chemical having side effects. Piper betle (Petiole) is the plant having several medical properties but no reports were available on the antifertility activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifertility activity of extracts of Piper betle (Petiole) on female wistar rats at the doses 500 mg/kg b.wt./day for 30 days. Different parameters were studied in female wistar rats including effect of Reproductive outcome, Anti-implantation, Abortifacient and Estrogenic & Anti-estrogenic activity, were observed...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Shunsuke Itai, Shinji Yamada, Mika K Kaneko, Masato Sano, Takuro Nakamura, Miyuki Yanaka, Saori Handa, Kayo Hisamatsu, Yoshimi Nakamura, Yoshikazu Furusawa, Masato Fukui, Tomokazu Ohishi, Manabu Kawada, Hiroyuki Harada, Yukinari Kato
Oral cancers constitute approximately 2% of all cancers, with the most common histological type being oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), representing 90% of oral cancers. Although diagnostic technologies and therapeutic techniques have progressed, the survival rate of patients with OSCC is still 60%, whereas the incidence rate has increased. Podocalyxin (PODXL) is a highly glycosylated type I transmembrane protein that is detected in normal tissues such as heart, breast, and pancreas as well as in many cancers, including lung, renal, breast, colorectal, and oral cancers...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Thi Hai Yen Tran, Aya Fukuda, Shiho Aizawa, Phuong Linh Bui, Yohei Hayashi, Ken Nishimura, Koji Hisatake
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with naive pluripotency is important for their applications in regenerative medicine. In female iPSCs, acquisition of naive pluripotency is coupled to X chromosome reactivation (XCR) during somatic cell reprogramming, and live cell monitoring of XCR is potentially useful for analyzing how iPSCs acquire naive pluripotency. Here we generated female mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that carry the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and humanized Kusabira-Orange (hKO) genes inserted into an intergenic site near either the Syap1 or Taf1 gene on both X chromosomes...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Atsushi Fukunaga, Shingo Maeta, Bajaj Reema, Makoto Nakakido, Kouhei Tsumoto
Antibodies are widely used not only as therapeutic agents but also as research tools and diagnostic agents, and extensive efforts have been made to generate antibodies that have higher affinity. It was recently reported that introduction of charged residues into the framework region of an antibody improved its affinity; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we used kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the antibody-antigen interaction to investigate the molecular mechanism by which an antibody with introduced charged residues recognizes its antigen with higher affinity...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Mika K Kaneko, Shinji Yamada, Shunsuke Itai, Yoshikazu Furusawa, Takuro Nakamura, Miyuki Yanaka, Saori Handa, Kayo Hisamatsu, Yoshimi Nakamura, Masato Fukui, Hiroyuki Harada, Yukinari Kato
The alpha-thalassemia/mental-retardation-syndrome-X-linked (ATRX) gene is located on the q arm of the X chromosome. ATRX gene mutations were first discovered in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and subsequently in other cancer subtypes, including gliomas. Molecular subgrouping of gliomas has been more important than conventional histological classifications. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, and ATRX and the codeletion of chromosomes 1p/19q are used as biomarkers for diagnosing the subtypes of diffuse gliomas...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Chisato Inoue, Sayaka Sobue, Yuka Aoyama, Naoki Mizutani, Yoshiyuki Kawamoto, Yuji Nishizawa, Masatoshi Ichihara, Akihiro Abe, Fumihiko Hayakawa, Motoshi Suzuki, Yoshinori Nozawa, Takashi Murate
Imatinib (IMT), a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has drastically changed the treatment strategy for Ph+ ALL (Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia). However, TKI resistance remains a serious problem for patient prognosis. Here, a Ph+ ALL cell line NphA2 and the IMT-resistant subline NphA2/STIR were analyzed to identify a potential novel treatment strategy. We also examined other Ph+ ALL cells, MR87 and its IMT-resistant subline, MR87/STIR. IMT induced apoptosis of NphA2 and MR87 but had no effect on resistant sublines...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Peter R Wills
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Leonard T Rael, Raphael Bar-Or, Kaysie L Banton, Charles W Mains, Michael Roshon, Allen H Tanner, Mark J Lieser, David L Acuna, David Bar-Or
After a traumatic insult, macrophages can become activated leading to general inflammation at the site of injury. Activated macrophages are partially regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) which when activated suppresses inflammation by limiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promoting the over expression of immuno-modulatory mediators. This study aims to determine whether the low molecular weight fraction of 5% human serum albumin (LMWF5A) and N-acetyl kynurenine (NAK), an N-acetyl tryptophan (NAT) breakdown product in LMWF5A, can regulate inflammation by inhibiting macrophage activation through the AhR since kynurenine is a known AhR agonist...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Laila E Amin
Immunosuppressive drugs can compromise local or general defense mechanisms and can lead to oral candidiasis. Ozone therapy has a wide range of applications in almost every field of dentistry. Its unique properties include immunostimulant, analgesic, antihypnotic, detoxicating, and antimicrobial actions. Sixty male healthy rats were immunosuppressed with dexamethasone in their drinking water one week before candida infection. The animals were divided into four equal groups. Rats of group 1 were kept without any manipulation and those of group II were given oral inoculums of C...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Paul D Hamilton, Usha P Andley
The aggregation of crystallins in lenses is associated with cataract formation. We previously reported that mutant crystallins are associated with an increased abundance of histones in knock-in and knockout mouse models. However, very little is known about the specific interactions between lens crystallins and histones. Here, we performed in vitro analyses to determine whether α-crystallin interacts with histones directly. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed a strong histone-α-crystallin binding with a K d of 4 × 10-7 M, and the thermodynamic parameters suggested that the interaction was both entropy and enthalpy driven...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Youki Ueda, Weilin Gu, Hiromichi Dansako, Hye-Sook Kim, Sayaka Yoshizaki, Nobuaki Okumura, Tomohiro Ishikawa, Hironori Nishitsuji, Fumihiro Kato, Takayuki Hishiki, Shinya Satoh, Koji Ishii, Michiaki Masuda, Kunitada Shimotohno, Masanori Ikeda, Nobuyuki Kato
The chemically synthesized endoperoxide compound N-89 and its derivative N-251 were shown to have potent antimalarial activity. We previously demonstrated that N-89 and N-251 potently inhibited the RNA replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV), which belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Since antimalarial and anti-HCV mechanisms have not been clarified, we were interested whether N-89 and N-251 possessed the activity against viruses other than HCV. In this study, we examined the effects of N-89 and N-251 on other flaviviruses (dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus) and hepatitis viruses (hepatitis B virus and hepatitis E virus)...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
D Sathya Prabhu, A Panneer Selvam, V Devi Rajeswari
Natural products are vital in drug discovery and the search for anticancer agents has been significant importance to the researchers for a long time. In the present study, aqueous leaf extract of Pouteria sapota (P.sapota) was evaluated for its cytotoxic activity. The leaf extract was preliminarily screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH method for Radical Scavenging Activity, Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenging Activity and Reducing Power Activity. Further, the aqueous leaf extract was screened for cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) in vitro...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Shinji Yamada, Shunsuke Itai, Mika K Kaneko, Satoru Konnai, Yukinari Kato
Mouse podoplanin (mPDPN) is a type I transmembrane sialoglycoprotein, which is expressed on lymphatic endothelial cells, podocytes of the kidney, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. mPDPN is known as a platelet aggregation-inducing factor and possesses four platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG) domains: PLAG1, PLAG2, and PLAG3 in the N-terminus and PLAG4 in the middle of the mPDPN protein. mPDPN overexpression in cancers has been reportedly associated with hematogenous metastasis through interaction with the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 of platelets...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Wakako Kobayashi, Masayuki Ozawa
Transcription factor lymphoid-enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1) is a key molecule in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Slug is one of the Wnt/β-catenin target genes and can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Previously, we have shown that not only wild-type LEF-1 but also LEF-1 lacking the amino-terminal β-catenin-binding region can induce EMT, suggesting that LEF-1 acts independently of β-catenin. Because it has been reported that LEF-1 interacts with β-catenin outside the amino-terminal domain, namely, in the middle part of the molecule, the possible participation of β-catenin has not been formally ruled out...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Shimaa El-Shafey Soliman, Alshimaa Mahmoud Alhanafy, Mona Salah El-Din Habib, Mohamed Hagag, Reda Abdel Latif Ibrahem
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is leading cause of cancer related death and the survival rate for patients with NSCLC remain poor so early diagnosis of NSCLC represents the best opportunity for cure. Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) is extracellular nucleic acids found in cell-free plasma/serum of humans, given the recent approval of a liquid biopsy in lung cancer, the use of circulating tumor DNA as a novel non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarker is promising. Objectives: Studying whether the concentrations of circulating Cell Free DNA in serum can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for NSCLC patients...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Norikazu Kawai, Yukiteru Ouji, Masaharu Sakagami, Takashi Tojo, Noriyoshi Sawabata, Masahide Yoshikawa, Shigeki Taniguchi
Decellularization of tissues is a recently developed technique mostly used to provide a 3-dimensional matrix structure of the original organ, including decellularized lung tissues for lung transplantation. Based on the results of the present study, we propose new utilization of decellularized tissues as inducers of stem cell differentiation. Decellularized lung matrix (L-Mat) samples were prepared from mouse lungs by SDS treatment, then the effects of L-Mat on differentiation of ES cells into lung cells were investigated...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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