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Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

Rakesh M Patil, Nanasaheb D Thorat, Prajkta B Shete, Poonam A Bedge, Shambala Gavde, Meghnad G Joshi, Syed A M Tofail, Raghvendra A Bohara
Recently lots of efforts have been taken to develop superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for biomedical applications. So it is utmost necessary to have in depth knowledge of the toxicity occurred by this material. This article is designed in such way that it covers all the associated toxicity issues of SPIONs. It mainly emphasis on toxicity occurred at different levels including cellular alterations in the form of damage to nucleic acids due to oxidative stress and altered cellular response. In addition focus is been devoted for in vitro and in vivo toxicity of SPIONs, so that a better therapeutics can be designed...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Sankhajit Bhattacharjee, Pramod Kumar Yadava
Measles is a highly transmissible disease caused by measles virus and remains a major cause of child mortality in developing countries. Measles virus nucleoprotein (N) encapsidates the RNA genome of the virus for providing protection from host cell endonucleases and for specific recognition of viral RNA as template for transcription and replication. This protein is over-expressed at the time of viral replication. The C-terminal of N protein is intrinsically disordered, which enables this protein to interact with several host cell proteins...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Alexey Teplyakov, Galina Obmolova, Gary L Gilliland
The homeostatic chemokine CCL17, also known as thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC), has been associated with various diseases such as asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, atopic dermatitis and ulcerative colitis. Neutralization of CCL17 by antibody treatment ameliorates the impact of disease by blocking influx of T cells. Monoclonal antibody M116 derived from a combinatorial library shows potency in neutralizing CCL17-induced signaling. To gain insight into the structural determinants of antigen recognition, the crystal structure of M116 Fab was determined in complex with CCL17 and in the unbound form...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Ramendra Singh Parmar, Charu Singh
Actinomycetes, a large group of filamentous bacteria account for 70-80% of secondary metabolites available commercially. The present investigation was undertaken with an aim to identify and characterize pigment from actinomycetes. Actinomycetes were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples collected from different regions of Madhya Pradesh state. Out of 85 actinomycetes, only 5 actinomycetes showed pigment production and based on diffusible pigment production ability one actinomycete ARITM02 was selected. The extraction of pigment was done by solvent extraction method using methanol and purified by TLC and column chromatography...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Hernán F Peñaloza, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Susan M Bueno
Interleukin-10 production and lung neutrophil infiltration are two essential components of the balanced immune response to pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Here we describe the existence of two neutrophil subsets in lungs during experimental S. pneumoniae infection in mice, which have different size, granularity and expression of activation markers. During infection, both neutrophils subsets were increased in the lungs of IL-10 producing mice, however this increment was significantly higher in the absence of this cytokine...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Tatsuya Saito, Yasuko Tanaka, Yoshiyuki Morishita, Kenichi Ishibashi
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is caused by the mutation of polycystins (PC-1 or PC-2), in which cysts start from the collecting duct to extend to all nephron segments with eventual end stage renal failure. The cyst development is attenuated by a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan which, however, will not affect proximal tubule cysts devoid of V2 receptor. Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) is expressed selectively in the proximal tubule of the kidney and AQP11-null kidneys have a disruptive PC-1 trafficking to the plasma membrane to develop polycystic kidneys...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Nirosha J Murugan, Nicolas Rouleau, Lukasz M Karbowski, Michael A Persinger
Early detection is a critically important factor when successfully diagnosing and treating cancer. Whereas contemporary molecular techniques are capable of identifying biomarkers associated with cancer, surgical interventions are required to biopsy tissue. The common imaging alternative, positron-emission tomography (PET), involves the use of nuclear material which poses some risks. Novel, non-invasive techniques to assess the degree to which tissues express malignant properties are now needed. Recent developments in biophoton research have made it possible to discriminate cancerous cells from normal cells both in vitro and in vivo...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Denny Joseph Manual Kollareth, Chuchun L Chang, Inge H Hansen, Richard J Deckelbaum
Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers are widely used as non-metabolizable tracers for lipoproteins and lipid emulsions in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Since cholesteryl ethers do not leave cells after uptake and are not hydrolyzed by mammalian cellular enzymes, these compounds can act as markers for cumulative cell uptakes of labeled particles. We have employed [3H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether to study the uptake and distribution of triglyceride-rich emulsion particles on animal models. However, questionable unexpected results compelled us to analyze the stability of these ethers...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Mücella Arikan Yorgun, Khalid Rashid, Alexander Aslanidis, Charlotte Bresgen, Katharina Dannhausen, Thomas Langmann
Microglia activation plays an important role in immune responses in the CNS including the retina. Crocin, a plant-derived carotenoid, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative capacity in models of retinal damage and degeneration. If these neuroprotective effects could be mediated by direct modulation of microglial cells is unclear. Here, we examined the direct effects of crocin on key functions and pro-inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglia...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Jinyan Sun, Ohgew Kweon, Jinshan Jin, Gui-Xin He, Xiyu Li, Carl E Cerniglia, Huizhong Chen
We previously identified a highly active homodimeric FMN-dependent NADH-preferred azoreductase (AzoA) from Enterococcus faecalis, which cleaves the azo bonds (R-N˭N-R) of diverse azo dyes, and determined its crystal structure. The preliminary network-based mutational analysis suggested that the two residues, Arg-21 and Asn-121, have an apparent mutational potential for fine-tuning of AzoA, based on their beneficial pleiotropic feedbacks. However, epistasis between the two promising mutational spots in AzoA has not been obtained in terms of substrate binding and azoreductase activity...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yuqing Gong, Pallabita Chowdhury, Narasimha M Midde, Mohammad A Rahman, Murali M Yallapu, Santosh Kumar
Purpose: Monocytes serve as sanctuary sites for HIV-1 from which virus is difficult to be eliminated. Therefore, an effective viral suppression in monocytes is critical for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study focuses on a new strategy using nanoformulation to optimize the efficacy of ART drugs in HIV-infected monocytes. Methods: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based elvitegravir nanoparticles (PLGA-EVG) were prepared by nano-precipitation technique...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Neelam Verma, Ashish Kumar Singh, Minni Singh
Arginine has been considered as the most potent nutraceutics discovered ever, due to its powerful healing property, and it's been known to scientists as the Miracle Molecule. Arginine detection in fermented food products is necessary because, high level of arginine in foods forms ethyl carbamate (EC) during the fermentation process. Therefore, L-arginine detection in fermented food products is very important as a control measure for quality of fermented foods, food supplements and beverages including wine. In clinical analysis arginine detection is important due to their enormous inherent versatility in various metabolic pathways, topmost in the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor growth...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Sergei N Orlov, Svetlana V Gusakova, Liudmila V Smaglii, Svetlana V Koltsova, Svetalana V Sidorenko
Objectives: This study examined the dose-dependent actions of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on isometric contractions and ion transport in rat aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC). Methods: Isometric contraction was measured in ring aortas segments from male Wistar rats. Activity of Na(+)/K(+)-pump and Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-)cotransport was measured in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta as ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-resistant, bumetanide-sensitive components of the (86)Rb influx, respectively...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Swati Mohapatra, Sudipta Maity, Hirak Ranjan Dash, Surajit Das, Swati Pattnaik, Chandi Charan Rath, Deviprasad Samantaray
The microbially derived polyhydroxyalkanoates biopolymers could impact the global climate scenario by replacing the conventional non-degradable, petrochemical-based polymer. The biogenesis, characterization and properties of PHAs by Bacillus species using renewable substrates have been elaborated by many for their wide applications. On the other hand Bacillus species are advantageous over other bacteria due to their abundance even in extreme ecological conditions, higher growth rates even on cheap substrates, higher PHAs production ability, and the ease of extracting the PHAs...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Chikatsugu Tsuchida, Sumiyo Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Maiko Taked, Asako Itaya-Hironaka, Akiyo Yamauchi, Masayasu Misu, Ryogo Shobatake, Tomoko Uchiyama, Mai Makino, Irma Pujol-Autonell, Marta Vives-Pi, Chiho Ohbayashi, Shin Takasawa
The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) reflects a balance between mucosal injury and reparative mechanisms. Some regenerating gene (Reg) family members have been reported to be expressed in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to be involved as proliferative mucosal factors in IBD. However, expression of all REG family genes in IBD is still unclear. Here, we analyzed expression of all REG family genes (REG Iα, REG Iβ, REG III, HIP/PAP, and REG IV) in biopsy specimens of UC and CD by real-time RT-PCR...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Arumugam Dhanesh Gandhi, Dhandapani Kayal Vizhi, Kubendiran Lavanya, V N Kalpana, V Devi Rajeswari, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam
The main objective of this research is to investigate the anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Sesbania grandiflora (S. grandiflora) against Staphylococcus aureus. S. grandiflora extract were prepared and analyzed with UV -Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering. Biofilm forming pathogens were identified by congo-red assay. Quantification of Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) particularly protein and carbohydrate were calculated. The efficacy of the herbal extract S...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Sudha Rajderkar, Christopher Panaretos, Vesa Kaartinen
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an established model for investigating developmental processes, disease conditions, tissue regeneration and therapeutic targets. Previous studies have shown that tripartite motif-containing 33 protein (Trim33) functions as a chromatin reader during Nodal-induced mesoderm induction. Here we report that despite reduced proliferation, mouse ESCs deficient in Trim33 remained pluripotent when cultured under non-differentiating conditions. However, when induced to differentiate to embryoid bodies (EBs), the mutant cultures showed increased cell shedding and apoptosis at day 3 of differentiation...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Pramod Kumar Gautam, Sanjay Kumar, M S Tomar, Rishi Kant Singh, A Acharya, Sanjay Kumar, B Ram
Selenium Nanoparticle (SeNPs) is reported that it enhances and maintains optimal immune during infection and malignancies. To this end, we examined the role of selenium on TAMS whose anti-tumor function suppressed which favor tumor progression. BALB/c (H2d) strain of mice non-Hodgkin type of Dalton's cell line was used to check the role of carboxlic group induced, synthesized SeNPs on TAMs. Screening of IC50 value was done primarily trypen blue exclusion assay and 50% proliferation of DL cells inhibited 40 ng/ml to 50 ng/...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Akinori Okumura, Takeshi Saito, Minoru Tobiume, Yuki Hashimoto, Yuko Sato, Takashi Umeyama, Minoru Nagi, Koichi Tanabe, Hiroyuki Unoki-Kubota, Yasushi Kaburagi, Hideki Hasegawa, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Satoshi Yamagoe
Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a secreted pleiotropic protein that is mainly produced by the liver. We have previously shown that LECT2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory liver diseases. Lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/d-GalN)-induced acute liver injury is a known animal model of fulminant hepatic failure. Here we found that this hepatic injury was alleviated in LECT2-deficient mice. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, which mediate this hepatitis, had significantly decreased in these mice, with the decrease in IFN-γ production notably greater than that in TNF-α...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
V R Machha, C G Mikek, S Wellman, E A Lewis
Linker histones (H1) are the basic proteins in higher eukaryotes that are responsible for the final condensation of chromatin. In contrast to the nucleosome core histone proteins, the role of H1 in compacting DNA is not clearly understood. In this study ITC was used to measure the binding constant, enthalpy change, and binding site size for the interactions of H1(0), or its C-terminal (H1(0)-C) and globular (H1(0)-G) domains to highly polymerized calf-thymus DNA at temperatures from 288 K to 308 K. Heat capacity changes, ΔCp, for these same H1(0) binding interactions were estimated from the temperature dependence of the enthalpy changes...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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