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Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

Monica X Li, Shorena Gelozia, Gaddafi I Danmaliki, Yurong Wen, Philip B Liu, M Joanne Lemieux, Frederick G West, Brian D Sykes, Peter M Hwang
The compound MCI-154 was previously shown to increase the calcium sensitivity of cardiac muscle contraction. Using solution NMR spectroscopy, we demonstrate that MCI-154 interacts with the calcium-sensing subunit of the cardiac troponin complex, cardiac troponin C (cTnC). Surprisingly, however, it binds only to the structural C-terminal domain of cTnC (cCTnC), and not to the regulatory N-terminal domain (cNTnC) that determines the calcium sensitivity of cardiac muscle. Physiologically, cTnC is always bound to cardiac troponin I (cTnI), so we examined its interaction with MCI-154 in the presence of two soluble constructs, cTnI1-77 and cTnI135-209 , which contain all of the segments of cTnI known to interact with cTnC...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Terence L Kirley, Kenneth D Greis, Andrew B Norman
Monoclonal antibodies and derived fragments are used extensively both experimentally and therapeutically. Thorough characterization of such antibodies is necessary and includes assessment of their thermal and storage stabilities. Thus, assessment of the underlying conformational stabilities of the antibodies is also important. We recently documented that non-reducing SDS-PAGE can be used to assess both monoclonal and polyclonal IgG domain thermal unfolding in SDS. Utilizing this same h2E2 anti-cocaine mAb, in this study we generated and analyzed various mAb antibody fragments to delineate the structural domains of the antibody responsible for the observed discrete bands following various heating protocols and analysis by non-reducing SDS-PAGE...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yuxiong Lu, Junichi Maruyama, Keiko Kuwata, Hiroyuki Fukuda, Hiroaki Iwasa, Kyoko Arimoto-Matsuzaki, Haruhiko Sugimura, Yutaka Hata
Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is a serine/threonine-kinase with two doublecortin (DCX) domains. DCLK1 is associated with microtubules via DCX domains and regulates microtubule polymerization. DCLK1 is known to be expressed in cancer stem cells and provides cancer cells with tumor-initiating capacity. Accumulating clinical evidence supports that DCLK1 is associated with tumor aggressiveness and is an important prognostic marker in various human cancers. However, the mechanism, by which DCLK1 causes oncogenesis, is not yet elucidated...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Zhaoshuai Wang, Wei Lu, Prasangi Rajapaksha, Thomas Wilkop, Yuguang Cai, Yinan Wei
Many membrane proteins exist and function as oligomers or protein complexes. Routine analytical methods involve extraction and solubilization of the proteins with detergents, which could disturb their actual oligomeric state. AcrB is a trimeric inner membrane multidrug transporter in E. coli . In previous studies, we created a mutant AcrBP223G , which behaves like a monomer when extracted from the cell membrane. However, the actual oligomeric state of AcrBP223G in cell membranes remained unclear, which complicated the interpretation of the mechanism by which the mutation affects function...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Atsuhiro Shimizu, Haruka Fujimori, Yusuke Minakawa, Yusuke Matsuno, Mai Hyodo, Yasufumi Murakami, Ken-Ichi Yoshioka
Deamination of 5-methyl cytosine is a major cause of cancer-driver mutations in inflammation-associated cancers. The deaminase APOBEC3B is expressed in these cancers and causes mutations under replication stress; however, the mechanisms by which APOBEC3B mediates deamination and its association with genomic disorders are still unclear. Here, we show that APOBEC3B is stabilized to induce deamination reaction in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), resulting in the formation of long-lasting DSBs. Uracil, the major deamination product, is subsequently targeted by base excision repair (BER) through uracil-DNA glycosylase 2 (UNG2); hence late-onset DSBs arise as by-products of BER...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Kavita Rana, Kimberly Pantoja, Liping Xiao
Bone loss is a common complication in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD). The mechanism(s) of bone loss in SCD subjects has not been fully investigated, and there are no targeted therapies to prevent or treat compromised bone health in this population. Recent studies showed that depletion of gut microbiota with antibiotics significantly reduced the number of aged neutrophils, thereby dramatically improved the inflammation-related organ damages in SCD mice. Since neutrophils, abundantly present in bone marrow (BM), regulate bone cells, and BM neutrophils, induced by inflammatory cytokines, are associated with a low number of osteoblasts (OBs), we hypothesize that neutrophil aging in the BM of SCD mice impairs OB function...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Junko Suga, Keiko Izumiyama, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Shigehira Saji
HER3, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase super family, is overexpressed in a number of cancers, and is associated with malignant phenotypes. Control of the protein stability of the membrane, as well as nuclear receptors, has been known to be an important process affecting tumor cells; however, their relationships have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that estradiol promotes rapid degradation of HER3 via the proteasome pathway in ER-positive breast cancer, MCF-7. ER prevented HER3 degradation, and knockdown of ER expression by si-RNA promoted rapid degradation of HER3...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yoon-Jin Kim, Dong Hee Seo, Seung Hee Lee, Sung-Hoon Lee, Geun-Ho An, Hee-Jin Ahn, Daekee Kwon, Kwang-Won Seo, Kyung-Sun Kang
Developing treatments that inhibit skin aging is an important research project. Rejuvenation, which focuses on prevention of skin aging, is one of the major issues. Recent studies suggested that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete many cytokines, which are important in wound healing. In this study, we investigated the effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells conditioned media (USC-CM) in cutaneous wound healing and collagen synthesis. We found that USC-CM has many useful growth factors associated with skin rejuvenation, such as Epithelial Growth Factor (EGF), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), Collagen type 1, and especially, one of the rejuvenation factors, the growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11)...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Eman A E Badr, Mohamed Farag Ali Assar, Suzy F Gohar, Mohamed Hamdy Badr, Rawda Magdy Hathout, Salah Mohamed El-Kousy
Objective: To study the potential role of miRNA34a gene expression and its relationship with P53 gene expression, fate, stage, metastasis and overall survival of colorectal cancer. Patients and methods: This study was carried out 30 patients with colon adenocarcinoma, 30 patients with benign colon polyp and 30 apparently healthy persons served as controls. All participants were subjected to full history taking, general clinical examination. Complete blood count, liver and kidney function, determination of serum tumor markers were done...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yoshitaka Iso, Sayaka Usui, Masashi Toyoda, Jeffrey L Spees, Akihiro Umezawa, Hiroshi Suzuki
We investigated whether mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based treatment could inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in a rat model of carotid arterial injury and explored potential mechanisms underlying the positive effects of MSC therapy on vascular remodeling/repair. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent balloon injury to their right carotid arteries. After 2 days, we administered cultured MSCs from bone marrow of GFP-transgenic rats (0.8 × 106 cells, n = 10) or vehicle (controls, n = 10) to adventitial sites of the injured arteries...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Takahiro Yaguchi, Takafumi Onishi
Recently, it has reported that overeating of lipid-food has led to increase the amount of estrogen in vivo and the incidence of endometrial carcinomas. It is well-known that ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family G2 (ABCG2) is highly expressed in cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs possess the ability for differentiation, tumorigenesis, stem cell self-renewal, and the efflux of anti-cancer drug and these abilities affect malignancy of cancer cells. However, little is known about the relationship between the expression of ABCG2 and malignancy of cancer cells...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Xiaofei Feng, Kangxian Li, Fangming Tan, Mei Zhu, Jieyi Zhou, Yongjun Lai, Lingfeng Zeng, Yingting Ye, Jing Huang, Xiaosong Wu, Shasha Li
Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective role of Radix Fici Hirtae on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Methods: The component of Radix Fici Hirtae was extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol and divided into three dose groups of high, medium and low according to the clinical man's normal dose of the 50 g crude drug/d (0.83 g/kg body weight). Saline in concentration of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL and 2...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Hirofumi Iitsuka, Keiichi Koizumi, Akiko Inujima, Mikiko Suzaki, Yusuke Mizuno, Yoshiki Takeshita, Takeshi Eto, Yoshiki Otsuka, Ryo Shimada, Mengxin Liu, Keisuke Ikeda, Minoru Nakano, Ryo Suzuki, Kazuo Maruyama, Yue Zhou, Hiroaki Sakurai, Naotoshi Shibahara
Herbal medicine is mainly prepared from boiling herbal water extracts. Many epoch-making immunosuppressant drugs, such as glycyrrhizic acid (old example) and FTY720 (current example), were developed from herbal secondary metabolites in the boiling water extract by partition with organic solvents. However, few immunostimulants have been discovered by this method. Instead of the usual method, we aimed to find a novel immunostimulant component by two unique methods in the research of herbal medicine: ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Natalia Ruiz-Lafuente, Manuel Muro, Alfredo Minguela, Antonio Parrado
The Th2 cytokine IL-4 triggers a signaling cascade which activates transcription by STAT6. The goals of the present study are to define the transcriptomic response of mouse spleen B cells (mSBC) to IL-4 used as single stimulus, its specificity compared to human peripheral blood B cells (hPBBC) and to mouse spleen T cells (mSTC), and the pathways affected. Oligonucleotide-based microarrays were performed using two references, the untreated sample and the cells cultured without IL-4, an experimental design which reduces the potential confounding effect of cellular stress during culture...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Subhash T Kumbhar, Shriniwas P Patil, Hemant D Une
Canna indica L. (Cannaceae) roots and rhizomes were reported to possess various biological properties like antimicrobial, anthelmintic potential and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition. In our previous studies, they showed antidiabetic activity on normal rats and rats co-addicted with caffeine and nicotine. In the pursuit of the phytochemical/s responsible for these biological activities, present study was aimed at phytochemical evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of C. indica L. roots and rhizomes; including preliminary screening, thin layer chromatography, H1 -NMR and HR-LC/MS-MS analysis...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Kazuko Iwamoto, Shuichi Kamo, Yuichi Takada, Ayana Ieda, Takatoshi Yamashita, Toshiro Sato, Nobuhiro Zaima, Tatsuya Moriyama
Soyasapogenol is a soyasaponin aglycone, which has been suggested to exert a more potent function than the glycoside form. In this study, the effect of soyasapogenol A and B on cultured adipocyte cell function was investigated using mouse 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine for differentiation to adipocytes, and the cells were then cultured in the presence of soyasapogenol A or B (6.25 or 12.5 µM). The media were harvested and refreshed every 2 d...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Jimena Rinaldi, Ignacio Fernández, Lucía M Poth, William E Shepard, Martin Savko, Fernando A Goldbaum, Sebastián Klinke
The pathogenic bacterium Brucella abortus codes for a multi-domain dimeric cytoplasmic histidine kinase called LOV-HK, which is a key blue light-activated virulence factor in this microorganism. The structural basis of the light activation mechanism of this protein remains unclear. In this work, full-length LOV-HK was cloned, expressed and purified. The protein was activated by light and crystallized under a controlled illumination environment. The merge of 14 individual native data sets collected on a single crystal resulted in a complete X-ray diffraction data set to a resolution of 3...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Shuichi Asano, Satoru Ito, Mika Morosawa, Kishio Furuya, Keiji Naruse, Masahiro Sokabe, Etsuro Yamaguchi, Yoshinori Hasegawa
Activation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells plays a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Because ASM is an important therapeutic target in asthma, it is beneficial to develop bioengineered ASM models available for assessing physiological and biophysical properties of ASM cells. In the physiological condition in vivo , ASM cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM) and exposed to mechanical stresses such as cyclic stretch. We utilized a 3-D culture model of human ASM cells embedded in type-I collagen gel...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Huong Thi Nguyen Nguyen, Hiroki Kato, Keiji Masuda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Yuta Hirofuji, Hiroshi Sato, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Fumiko Takayama, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interactions, restrictive interests, and repetitive stereotypic behaviors. Among the various mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ASD, dysfunctions of dopaminergic signaling and mitochondria have been hypothesized to explain the core symptoms of children with ASD. However, only a few studies focusing on the pathological association between dopaminergic neurons (DN) and mitochondria in ASD have been performed using patient-derived stem cells and in vitro differentiated neurons...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
J M Organ, M R Allen, A Myers-White, W Elkhatib, K D O'Neill, N X Chen, S M Moe, K G Avin
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression results in musculoskeletal dysfunction that is associated with a higher likelihood of hospitalization and is predictive of hospitalizations and mortality. Despite this, there is a lack of effective interventions to treat the musculoskeletal dysfunction. We studied treadmill running as an intervention to improve musculoskeletal health in a translational rat model that has slowly progressive CKD. CKD rats were subjected to treadmill exercise or no treadmill exercise for 10 weeks (n = 8 each group)...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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