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Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

Khiem Nguyen, Robbins Puthenveetil, Olga Vinogradova
PLIC, Protein Linking IAP (CD47) to Cytoskeleton, have long since been implicated in connecting the extracellular membrane to the intracellular cell cytoskeleton. This phenomenon is supposedly achieved by bridging a receptor protein CD47 to vimentin, an intermediate filament, which in turn regulates integrin dependent cell spreading. Since the discovery of these proteins, the molecular details of the above-mentioned interactions and the underlying complexes are yet to be characterized. Several independent studies have together emphasized PLIC/Ubiquilin's role in the proteasomal degradation pathway...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Rebecca A Hill, Wu Xu, Masami Yoshimura
Previous research has indicated that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction system plays an important role in the predisposition to and development of ethanol abuse in humans. Our laboratory has demonstrated that ethanol is capable of enhancing adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. This effect is AC isoform-specific; type 7 AC (AC7) is most enhanced by ethanol. Therefore, we hypothesized that the expression of a specific AC isoform will play a role on the effect of ethanol on cAMP regulated gene expression. We employed NIH 3T3 cells transfected with AC7 or AC3 as a model system...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Tianji Zhang, Brandy L Fultz, Sapna Das-Bradoo, Anja-Katrin Bielinsky
Minichromosome maintenance protein (Mcm) 10 is a part of the eukaryotic replication machinery and highly conserved throughout evolution. As a multivalent DNA scaffold, Mcm10 coordinates the action of proteins that are indispensable for lagging strand synthesis, such as the replication clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The binding between Mcm10 and PCNA serves an essential function during DNA elongation and is mediated by the ubiquitination of Mcm10. Here we map lysine 372 as the primary attachment site for ubiquitin on S...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Adam J Black, Bradley S Gordon, Michael D Dennis, Leonard S Jefferson, Scot R Kimball
Expression of the mTORC1 repressor, Regulated in DNA Damage and Development 1 (REDD1), is elevated in skeletal muscle during various catabolic conditions including fasting, hindlimb immobilization, and sepsis. Conversely, REDD1 expression is suppressed by anabolic stimuli such as resistance exercise or nutrient consumption following a fast. Though it is known that nutrient consumption reduces REDD1 expression, it is largely unknown how nutrients and hormones individually contribute to the reduction in REDD1 expression...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Jonathan S Wall, Angela Williams, Craig Wooliver, Emily B Martin, Xiaolin Cheng, R Eric Heidel, Stephen J Kennel
BACKGROUND: Polybasic helical peptides, such as peptide p5, bind human amyloid extracts and synthetic amyloid fibrils. When radiolabeled, peptide p5 has been shown to specifically bind amyloid in vivo thereby allowing imaging of the disease. Structural requirements for heparin and amyloid binding have been studied using analogs of p5 that modify helicity and chirality. METHODS: Peptide-ligand interactions were studied using CD spectroscopy and solution-phase binding assays with radiolabeled p5 analogs...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Arishma Rajkarnikar Singh, Andrew Strankman, Ruzan Orkusyan, Endang Purwantini, Mamta Rawat
Mycobacterium smegmatis contains the low molecular weight thiols, mycothiol (MSH) and ergothioneine (ESH). Examination of transposon mutants disrupted in mshC and egtA, involved in the biosynthesis of MSH and ESH respectively, demonstrated that both mutants were sensitive to oxidative, alkylating, and metal stress. However, the mshC mutant exhibited significantly more protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation than wildtype, while the egtA mutant had less protein and lipid damage than wildtype. We further show that Ohr, KatN, and AhpC, involved in protection against oxidative stress, are upregulated in the egtA mutant...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Satya S Sadhu, Jiashu Xie, Hongwei Zhang, Omathanu Perumal, Xiangming Guan
Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) is the oxidized form of glutathione (GSH). GSH is a tripeptide present in the biological system in mM concentration and is the major antioxidant in the body. An increase in GSSG reflects an increase in intracellular oxidative stress and is associated with disease sates. The increase has also been demonstrated to lead to an increase in protein S-glutathionylation that can affect the structure and function of proteins. Protein S-glutathionylation serves as a regulatory mechanism during cellular oxidative stress...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Elddie Román-Morales, Erika López-Alfonzo, Ruth Pietri, Juan López-Garriga
This work is focused at understanding the interaction of H2S with Myoglobin (Mb), in particular the Sulfmyoglobin (SMb) product, whose physiological role is controversial and not well understood. The scattering curves, Guinier, Kratky, Porod and P(r) plots were analyzed for oxy-Mb and oxy-Hemoglobin I (oxyHbI) in the absence and presence of H2S, using Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS/WAXS) technique. Three dimensional models were also generated from the SAXS/WAXS data. The results show that SMb formation, produced by oxyMb and H2S interaction, induces a change in the protein conformation where its envelope has a very small cleft and the protein is more flexible, less rigid and compact...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Kevork Hagopian, Kyoungmi Kim, José Alberto López-Dominguez, Alexey A Tomilov, Gino A Cortopassi, Jon J Ramsey
Shc proteins play a role in energy metabolism through interaction with the insulin receptor. The aim of this study was to determine whether Shc proteins influence liver glycolysis and gluconeogenesis under both fed and fasted states. Decreased glycolytic and increased gluconeogenic and transamination enzyme activities were observed in ShcKO versus WT mice. Levels of key regulatory metabolites, such as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, matched the activity of metabolic pathways. Protein levels of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes were not different...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Hui Yan, Hui Li, James Denney, Christopher Daniels, Krishna Singh, Balvin Chua, Charles Stuart, Yi Caudle, Ronald Hamdy, Gene LeSage, Deling Yin
Sepsis is an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response to persistent bacteria infection with high morbidity and mortality rate clinically. β-arrestin 2 modulates cell survival and cell death in different systems. However, the effect of β-arrestin 2 on sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is not yet known. Here, we show that β-arrestin 2 overexpression significantly enhances animal survival following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Importantly, overexpression of β-arrestin 2 in mice prevents CLP-induced cardiac dysfunction...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
June Ho Shin, Mikel D Haggadone, John B Sunwoo
The Distal-less (Dlx) homeobox transcription factors (TFs) play a prominent role in regulating multiple facets of vertebrate biology. Though widely studied as mediators of tissue development, recent work has uncovered a role for this TF family in modulating the vertebrate hematopoietic compartment. Pertinent to our study, murine Dlx1-3 are expressed in an innate lymphocyte population known as natural killer (NK) cells, and they are implicated to assume a functional role in the NK cell maturation pathway. However, Dlx target genes are poorly understood...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Jingtan Su, Karthik Balakrishna Chandrababu, Janet Moradian-Oldak
Interactions between enamel matrix proteins are important for enamel biomineralization. In recent in situ studies, we showed that the N-terminal proteolytic product of ameloblastin co-localized with amelogenin around the prism boundaries. However, the molecular mechanisms of such interactions are still unclear. Here, in order to determine the interacting domains between amelogenin and ameloblastin, we designed four ameloblastin peptides derived from different regions of the full-length protein (AB1, AB2 and AB3 at N-terminus, and AB6 at C-terminus) and studied their interactions with recombinant amelogenin (rP172), and the tyrosine-rich amelogenin polypeptide (TRAP)...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Kevin A Meyer, Christopher K Neeley, Nicki A Baker, Alexandra R Washabaugh, Carmen G Flesher, Barbara S Nelson, Timothy L Frankel, Carey N Lumeng, Costas A Lyssiotis, Michelle L Wynn, Andrew D Rhim, Robert W O'Rourke
Adipocytes promote progression of multiple cancers, but their role in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is poorly defined. Nutrient transfer is a mechanism underlying stromal cell-cancer crosstalk. We studied the role of adipocytes in regulating in vitro PanIN and PDAC cell proliferation with a focus on glutamine metabolism. Murine 3T3L1 adipocytes were used to model adipocytes. Cell lines derived from PKCY mice were used to model PanIN and PDAC. Co-culture was used to study the effect of adipocytes on PanIN and PDAC cell proliferation in response to manipulation of glutamine metabolism...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Suneetha Amara, Margaret Whalen, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi
Macrophages play a critical role in inflammation and antigen-presentation. Abnormal macrophage function has been attributed in autoimmune diseases and cancer progression. Recent evidence suggests that high salt tissue micro-environment causes changes in macrophage activation. In our current report, we studied the role of extracellular sodium chloride on phenotype changes in peripheral circulating monocyte/macrophages collected from healthy donors. High salt (0.2 M NaCl vs basal 0.1 M NaCl) treatment resulted in a decrease in MΦ1 macrophage phenotype (CD11b(+)CD14(high)CD16(low)) from 77...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Megan L Finch-Edmondson, Robyn P Strauss, Joshua S Clayton, George C Yeoh, Bernard A Callus
The yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key effector of the mammalian Hippo signaling pathway. YAP has eight known alternately spliced isoforms and these are widely expressed across multiple tissues. Variable effects have been ascribed to different YAP isoforms by inducing their expression in cells, but whether these differences are due to variability in the transcriptional potency of individual YAP isoforms has not been addressed. Indeed a systematic comparison of the transcriptional potencies of YAP isoforms has not been done...
July 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Andrei G Pakhomov
Electropermeabilization of cell membranes by micro- and nanosecond-duration stimuli has been studied extensively, whereas effects of picosecond electric pulses (psEP) remain essentially unexplored. We utilized whole-cell patch clamp and Di-8-ANEPPS voltage-sensitive dye measurements to characterize plasma membrane effects of 500 ps stimuli in rat hippocampal neurons (RHN), NG108, and CHO cells. Even a single 500-ps pulse at 190 kV/cm increased membrane conductance and depolarized cells. These effects were augmented by applying brief psEP bursts (5-125 pulses), whereas the rate of pulse delivery (8Hz - 1 kHz) played little role...
July 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Lixia Guo, Jingyu Wang, Ting Zhang, Yanan Yang
Glypican-5 (GPC5) belongs to the glypican family of proteoglycans that have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, ranging from cell proliferation to morphogenesis. However, the role of GPC5 in human cancer remains poorly understood. We report that knockdown of GPC5 in bronchial epithelial cells promoted, and forced expression of GPC5 in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cells suppressed, the anchorage-independent cell growth. In vivo, expression of GPC5 inhibited xenograft tumor growth of NSCLC cells...
July 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Katon A Kras, Wayne T Willis, Natalie Barker, Traci Czyzyk, Paul R Langlais, Christos S Katsanos
Skeletal muscle mitochondria are arranged as a reticulum. Insight into the functional characteristics of such structure is achieved by viewing the network as consisting of "subsarcolemmal" (SS) and "intermyofibrillar" (IMF) regions. During the decades, most, but not all, published studies have reported higher (sometimes over 2-fold) enzyme and enzyme-pathway protein-specific activities in IMF compared to SS mitochondria. We tested the hypothesis that non-mitochondrial protein contamination might account for much of the apparently lower specific activities of isolated SS mitochondria...
July 1, 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Beverly W Baron, Rebecca M Baron, Joseph M Baron
The human BCL6 gene, which is involved in the pathogenesis of certain human lymphomas, encodes a transcriptional repressor that is needed for germinal center B cell development and T follicular helper cell differentiation. Our goal was to identify BCL6 target genes using a cell system in which BCL6 repressive effects are inhibited followed by subtractive hybridization, and we detected the RUVBL1 (Pontin, TIP49) gene as a potential target of BCL6 repression. Here we show that the BCL6 protein significantly represses RUVBL1 transcription (6...
July 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Jing Lin, Kai Xu, Jack A Roth, Lin Ji
The small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated target mRNA cleavage activity generates cleaved mRNA fragments with varied termini, which creates major technical challenges for the accurate and efficient detection and verification of cleavage sites on target mRNAs. Here we used a sensitive stem-loop array reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (SLA-RT-PCR) approach to detect and verify the siRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage sites by determining precise sequences at the 3'-termini of cleaved mRNA fragments in human cells under physiological conditions...
July 1, 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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