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Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670627/lr8-expression-in-fibroblasts-of-healthy-and-fibrotic-human-tissues
#1
Anusha Etikala, Greg Bruce, Kelly Hudkins, A S Narayanan
LR8 gene was first reported in a subpopulation of cultured human lung fibroblasts expressing the receptor for C1q-globular domain, and it was not detectable in cultured endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. LR8 mRNA levels were higher in fibrotic lungs. In this study we assessed LR8 production in human tissues and determined if the distribution of fibroblasts producing LR8 is affected in fibrosis. Normal and fibrotic tissue sections from human liver, lung and kidneys were immunostained with antibodies to LR8 and examined for the presence of fibroblasts staining positively and negatively...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691106/recombinant-myostatin-reduces-highly-expressed-micrornas-in-differentiating-c2c12-cells
#2
Zachary A Graham, Rita De Gasperi, William A Bauman, Christopher P Cardozo
Myostatin is small glycopeptide that is produced and secreted by skeletal muscle. It is a potent negative regulator of muscle growth that has been associated with conditions of frailty. In C2C12 cells, myostatin limits cell differentiation. Myostatin acts through activin receptor IIB, activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) and Smad transcription factors. microRNAs (miRNA) are short, 22 base pair nucleotides that bind to the 3' UTR of target mRNA to repress translation or reduce mRNA stability. In the present study, expression in differentiating C2C12 cells of the myomiRs miR-1 and 133a were down-regulated following treatment with 1 μg of recombinant myostatin at 1 d post-induction of differentiation while all myomiRs (miR-1, 133a/b and 206) were upregulated by SB431542, a potent ALK4/5/7 inhibitor which reduces Smad2 signaling, at 1 d and all, with the exception of miR-206, were upregulated by SB431542 at 3 d...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286874/investigation-of-the-adaptor-protein-plic-2-in-multiple-pathways
#3
Khiem Nguyen, Robbins Puthenveetil, Olga Vinogradova
PLIC, Protein Linking IAP (CD47) to Cytoskeleton, have long since been implicated in connecting the extracellular membrane to the intracellular cell cytoskeleton. This phenomenon is supposedly achieved by bridging a receptor protein CD47 to vimentin, an intermediate filament, which in turn regulates integrin dependent cell spreading. Since the discovery of these proteins, the molecular details of the above-mentioned interactions and the underlying complexes are yet to be characterized. Several independent studies have together emphasized PLIC/Ubiquilin's role in the proteasomal degradation pathway...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717785/the-effects-of-high-concentrations-of-ionic-liquid-on-gb1-protein-structure-and-dynamics-probed-by-high-resolution-magic-angle-spinning-nmr-spectroscopy
#4
Lisa Warner, Erica Gjersing, Shelby E Follett, K Wade Elliott, Sergei V Dzyuba, Krisztina Varga
Ionic liquids have great potential in biological applications and biocatalysis, as some ionic liquids can stabilize proteins and enhance enzyme activity, while others have the opposite effect. However, on the molecular level, probing ionic liquid interactions with proteins, especially in solutions containing high concentration of ionic liquids, has been challenging. In the present work the (13)C, (15)N-enriched GB1 model protein was used to demonstrate applicability of high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy to investigate ionic liquid - protein interactions...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664189/insertion-into-lipid-bilayer-of-truncated-phlip-%C3%A2-peptide
#5
Dhammika Weerakkody, Oleg A Andreev, Yana K Reshetnyak
The investigation of pH-dependent membrane-associated folding has both fundamental interest and practical applications for targeting of acidic tumors and specific delivery of therapeutic molecules across membrane of cancer cells. We and others investigated molecular mechanism and medical uses of class of water soluble membrane peptides, pH (Low) Insertion Peptides (pHLIP(®) peptides). Here we employed optical spectroscopy methods to study interactions of the truncated pHLIP(®) peptide (Short pHLIP(®)) with lipid bilayer of membrane...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620651/role-of-an-adenylyl-cyclase-isoform-in-ethanol-s-effect-on-camp-regulated-gene-expression-in-nih-3t3-cells
#6
Rebecca A Hill, Wu Xu, Masami Yoshimura
Previous research has indicated that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction system plays an important role in the predisposition to and development of ethanol abuse in humans. Our laboratory has demonstrated that ethanol is capable of enhancing adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. This effect is AC isoform-specific; type 7 AC (AC7) is most enhanced by ethanol. Therefore, we hypothesized that the expression of a specific AC isoform will play a role on the effect of ethanol on cAMP regulated gene expression. We employed NIH 3T3 cells transfected with AC7 or AC3 as a model system...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497125/mapping-ubiquitination-sites-of-s-cerevisiae-mcm10
#7
Tianji Zhang, Brandy L Fultz, Sapna Das-Bradoo, Anja-Katrin Bielinsky
Minichromosome maintenance protein (Mcm) 10 is a part of the eukaryotic replication machinery and highly conserved throughout evolution. As a multivalent DNA scaffold, Mcm10 coordinates the action of proteins that are indispensable for lagging strand synthesis, such as the replication clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The binding between Mcm10 and PCNA serves an essential function during DNA elongation and is mediated by the ubiquitination of Mcm10. Here we map lysine 372 as the primary attachment site for ubiquitin on S...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367506/regulation-of-protein-and-mrna-expression-of-the-mtorc1-repressor-redd1-in-response-to-leucine-and-serum
#8
Adam J Black, Bradley S Gordon, Michael D Dennis, Leonard S Jefferson, Scot R Kimball
Expression of the mTORC1 repressor, Regulated in DNA Damage and Development 1 (REDD1), is elevated in skeletal muscle during various catabolic conditions including fasting, hindlimb immobilization, and sepsis. Conversely, REDD1 expression is suppressed by anabolic stimuli such as resistance exercise or nutrient consumption following a fast. Though it is known that nutrient consumption reduces REDD1 expression, it is largely unknown how nutrients and hormones individually contribute to the reduction in REDD1 expression...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345062/secondary-structure-propensity-and-chirality-of-the-amyloidophilic-peptide-p5-and-its-analogues-impacts-ligand-binding-in-vitro-characterization
#9
Jonathan S Wall, Angela Williams, Craig Wooliver, Emily B Martin, Xiaolin Cheng, R Eric Heidel, Stephen J Kennel
BACKGROUND: Polybasic helical peptides, such as peptide p5, bind human amyloid extracts and synthetic amyloid fibrils. When radiolabeled, peptide p5 has been shown to specifically bind amyloid in vivo thereby allowing imaging of the disease. Structural requirements for heparin and amyloid binding have been studied using analogs of p5 that modify helicity and chirality. METHODS: Peptide-ligand interactions were studied using CD spectroscopy and solution-phase binding assays with radiolabeled p5 analogs...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220152/lack-of-mycothiol-and-ergothioneine-induces-different-protective-mechanisms-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#10
Arishma Rajkarnikar Singh, Andrew Strankman, Ruzan Orkusyan, Endang Purwantini, Mamta Rawat
Mycobacterium smegmatis contains the low molecular weight thiols, mycothiol (MSH) and ergothioneine (ESH). Examination of transposon mutants disrupted in mshC and egtA, involved in the biosynthesis of MSH and ESH respectively, demonstrated that both mutants were sensitive to oxidative, alkylating, and metal stress. However, the mshC mutant exhibited significantly more protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation than wildtype, while the egtA mutant had less protein and lipid damage than wildtype. We further show that Ohr, KatN, and AhpC, involved in protection against oxidative stress, are upregulated in the egtA mutant...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758151/the-effect-of-diet-induced-serum-hypercholesterolemia-on-the-surfactant-system-and-the-development-of-lung-injury
#11
Scott Milos, Joshua Qua Hiansen, Brandon Banaschewski, Yi Y Zuo, Li-Juan Yao, Lynda A McCaig, James Lewis, Cory M Yamashita, Ruud A W Veldhuizen
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a pulmonary disorder associated with alterations to the pulmonary surfactant system. Recent studies showed that supra-physiological levels of cholesterol in surfactant contribute to impaired function. Since cholesterol is incorporated into surfactant within the alveolar type II cells which derives its cholesterol from serum, it was hypothesized that serum hypercholesterolemia would predispose the host to the development of lung injury due to alterations of cholesterol content in the surfactant system...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409182/glutathione-disulfide-liposomes-a-research-tool-for-the-study-of-glutathione-disulfide-associated-functions-and-dysfunctions
#12
Satya S Sadhu, Jiashu Xie, Hongwei Zhang, Omathanu Perumal, Xiangming Guan
Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) is the oxidized form of glutathione (GSH). GSH is a tripeptide present in the biological system in mM concentration and is the major antioxidant in the body. An increase in GSSG reflects an increase in intracellular oxidative stress and is associated with disease sates. The increase has also been demonstrated to lead to an increase in protein S-glutathionylation that can affect the structure and function of proteins. Protein S-glutathionylation serves as a regulatory mechanism during cellular oxidative stress...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138567/sulfmyoglobin-conformational-change-a-role-in-the-decrease-of-oxy-myoglobin-functionality
#13
Elddie Román-Morales, Erika López-Alfonzo, Ruth Pietri, Juan López-Garriga
This work is focused at understanding the interaction of H2S with Myoglobin (Mb), in particular the Sulfmyoglobin (SMb) product, whose physiological role is controversial and not well understood. The scattering curves, Guinier, Kratky, Porod and P(r) plots were analyzed for oxy-Mb and oxy-Hemoglobin I (oxyHbI) in the absence and presence of H2S, using Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS/WAXS) technique. Three dimensional models were also generated from the SAXS/WAXS data. The results show that SMb formation, produced by oxyMb and H2S interaction, induces a change in the protein conformation where its envelope has a very small cleft and the protein is more flexible, less rigid and compact...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133633/mice-with-low-levels-of-shc-proteins-display-reduced-glycolytic-and-increased-gluconeogenic-activities-in-liver
#14
Kevork Hagopian, Kyoungmi Kim, José Alberto López-Dominguez, Alexey A Tomilov, Gino A Cortopassi, Jon J Ramsey
Shc proteins play a role in energy metabolism through interaction with the insulin receptor. The aim of this study was to determine whether Shc proteins influence liver glycolysis and gluconeogenesis under both fed and fasted states. Decreased glycolytic and increased gluconeogenic and transamination enzyme activities were observed in ShcKO versus WT mice. Levels of key regulatory metabolites, such as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, matched the activity of metabolic pathways. Protein levels of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes were not different...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957549/%C3%AE-arrestin-2-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-in-polymicrobial-sepsis-through-gp130-and-p38
#15
Hui Yan, Hui Li, James Denney, Christopher Daniels, Krishna Singh, Balvin Chua, Charles Stuart, Yi Caudle, Ronald Hamdy, Gene LeSage, Deling Yin
Sepsis is an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response to persistent bacteria infection with high morbidity and mortality rate clinically. β-arrestin 2 modulates cell survival and cell death in different systems. However, the effect of β-arrestin 2 on sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is not yet known. Here, we show that β-arrestin 2 overexpression significantly enhances animal survival following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Importantly, overexpression of β-arrestin 2 in mice prevents CLP-induced cardiac dysfunction...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777986/transcription-factor-dlx3-induces-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-promoter-activity
#16
June Ho Shin, Mikel D Haggadone, John B Sunwoo
The Distal-less (Dlx) homeobox transcription factors (TFs) play a prominent role in regulating multiple facets of vertebrate biology. Though widely studied as mediators of tissue development, recent work has uncovered a role for this TF family in modulating the vertebrate hematopoietic compartment. Pertinent to our study, murine Dlx1-3 are expressed in an innate lymphocyte population known as natural killer (NK) cells, and they are implicated to assume a functional role in the NK cell maturation pathway. However, Dlx target genes are poorly understood...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725968/ameloblastin-peptide-encoded-by-exon-5-interacts-with-amelogenin-n-terminus
#17
Jingtan Su, Karthik Balakrishna Chandrababu, Janet Moradian-Oldak
Interactions between enamel matrix proteins are important for enamel biomineralization. In recent in situ studies, we showed that the N-terminal proteolytic product of ameloblastin co-localized with amelogenin around the prism boundaries. However, the molecular mechanisms of such interactions are still unclear. Here, in order to determine the interacting domains between amelogenin and ameloblastin, we designed four ameloblastin peptides derived from different regions of the full-length protein (AB1, AB2 and AB3 at N-terminus, and AB6 at C-terminus) and studied their interactions with recombinant amelogenin (rP172), and the tyrosine-rich amelogenin polypeptide (TRAP)...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617308/adipocytes-promote-pancreatic-cancer-cell-proliferation-via-glutamine-transfer
#18
Kevin A Meyer, Christopher K Neeley, Nicki A Baker, Alexandra R Washabaugh, Carmen G Flesher, Barbara S Nelson, Timothy L Frankel, Carey N Lumeng, Costas A Lyssiotis, Michelle L Wynn, Andrew D Rhim, Robert W O'Rourke
Adipocytes promote progression of multiple cancers, but their role in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is poorly defined. Nutrient transfer is a mechanism underlying stromal cell-cancer crosstalk. We studied the role of adipocytes in regulating in vitro PanIN and PDAC cell proliferation with a focus on glutamine metabolism. Murine 3T3L1 adipocytes were used to model adipocytes. Cell lines derived from PKCY mice were used to model PanIN and PDAC. Co-culture was used to study the effect of adipocytes on PanIN and PDAC cell proliferation in response to manipulation of glutamine metabolism...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231721/high-salt-induces-anti-inflammatory-m%C3%AE-2-like-phenotype-in-peripheral-macrophages
#19
Suneetha Amara, Margaret Whalen, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi
Macrophages play a critical role in inflammation and antigen-presentation. Abnormal macrophage function has been attributed in autoimmune diseases and cancer progression. Recent evidence suggests that high salt tissue micro-environment causes changes in macrophage activation. In our current report, we studied the role of extracellular sodium chloride on phenotype changes in peripheral circulating monocyte/macrophages collected from healthy donors. High salt (0.2 M NaCl vs basal 0.1 M NaCl) treatment resulted in a decrease in MΦ1 macrophage phenotype (CD11b(+)CD14(high)CD16(low)) from 77...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018981/splice-variant-insertions-in-the-c-terminus-impairs-yap-s-transactivation-domain
#20
Megan L Finch-Edmondson, Robyn P Strauss, Joshua S Clayton, George C Yeoh, Bernard A Callus
The yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key effector of the mammalian Hippo signaling pathway. YAP has eight known alternately spliced isoforms and these are widely expressed across multiple tissues. Variable effects have been ascribed to different YAP isoforms by inducing their expression in cells, but whether these differences are due to variability in the transcriptional potency of individual YAP isoforms has not been addressed. Indeed a systematic comparison of the transcriptional potencies of YAP isoforms has not been done...
July 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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