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Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777986/transcription-factor-dlx3-induces-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-promoter-activity
#1
June Ho Shin, Mikel D Haggadone, John B Sunwoo
The Distal-less (Dlx) homeobox transcription factors (TFs) play a prominent role in regulating multiple facets of vertebrate biology. Though widely studied as mediators of tissue development, recent work has uncovered a role for this TF family in modulating the vertebrate hematopoietic compartment. Pertinent to our study, murine Dlx1-3 are expressed in an innate lymphocyte population known as natural killer (NK) cells, and they are implicated to assume a functional role in the NK cell maturation pathway. However, Dlx target genes are poorly understood...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725968/ameloblastin-peptide-encoded-by-exon-5-interacts-with-amelogenin-n-terminus
#2
Jingtan Su, Karthik Balakrishna Chandrababu, Janet Moradian-Oldak
Interactions between enamel matrix proteins are important for enamel biomineralization. In recent in situ studies, we showed that the N-terminal proteolytic product of ameloblastin co-localized with amelogenin around the prism boundaries. However, the molecular mechanisms of such interactions are still unclear. Here, in order to determine the interacting domains between amelogenin and ameloblastin, we designed four ameloblastin peptides derived from different regions of the full-length protein (AB1, AB2 and AB3 at N-terminus, and AB6 at C-terminus) and studied their interactions with recombinant amelogenin (rP172), and the tyrosine-rich amelogenin polypeptide (TRAP)...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617308/adipocytes-promote-pancreatic-cancer-cell-proliferation-via-glutamine-transfer
#3
Kevin A Meyer, Christopher K Neeley, Nicki A Baker, Alexandra R Washabaugh, Carmen G Flesher, Barbara S Nelson, Timothy L Frankel, Carey N Lumeng, Costas A Lyssiotis, Michelle L Wynn, Andrew D Rhim, Robert W O'Rourke
Adipocytes promote progression of multiple cancers, but their role in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is poorly defined. Nutrient transfer is a mechanism underlying stromal cell-cancer crosstalk. We studied the role of adipocytes in regulating in vitro PanIN and PDAC cell proliferation with a focus on glutamine metabolism. Murine 3T3L1 adipocytes were used to model adipocytes. Cell lines derived from PKCY mice were used to model PanIN and PDAC. Co-culture was used to study the effect of adipocytes on PanIN and PDAC cell proliferation in response to manipulation of glutamine metabolism...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231721/high-salt-induces-anti-inflammatory-m%C3%AE-2-like-phenotype-in-peripheral-macrophages
#4
Suneetha Amara, Margaret Whalen, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi
Macrophages play a critical role in inflammation and antigen-presentation. Abnormal macrophage function has been attributed in autoimmune diseases and cancer progression. Recent evidence suggests that high salt tissue micro-environment causes changes in macrophage activation. In our current report, we studied the role of extracellular sodium chloride on phenotype changes in peripheral circulating monocyte/macrophages collected from healthy donors. High salt (0.2 M NaCl vs basal 0.1 M NaCl) treatment resulted in a decrease in MΦ1 macrophage phenotype (CD11b(+)CD14(high)CD16(low)) from 77...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482547/electroporation-by-subnanosecond-pulses
#5
Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Andrei G Pakhomov
Electropermeabilization of cell membranes by micro- and nanosecond-duration stimuli has been studied extensively, whereas effects of picosecond electric pulses (psEP) remain essentially unexplored. We utilized whole-cell patch clamp and Di-8-ANEPPS voltage-sensitive dye measurements to characterize plasma membrane effects of 500 ps stimuli in rat hippocampal neurons (RHN), NG108, and CHO cells. Even a single 500-ps pulse at 190 kV/cm increased membrane conductance and depolarized cells. These effects were augmented by applying brief psEP bursts (5-125 pulses), whereas the rate of pulse delivery (8Hz - 1 kHz) played little role...
July 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092337/glypican-5-is-a-tumor-suppressor-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#6
Lixia Guo, Jingyu Wang, Ting Zhang, Yanan Yang
Glypican-5 (GPC5) belongs to the glypican family of proteoglycans that have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, ranging from cell proliferation to morphogenesis. However, the role of GPC5 in human cancer remains poorly understood. We report that knockdown of GPC5 in bronchial epithelial cells promoted, and forced expression of GPC5 in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cells suppressed, the anchorage-independent cell growth. In vivo, expression of GPC5 inhibited xenograft tumor growth of NSCLC cells...
July 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092336/subsarcolemmal-mitochondria-isolated-with-the-proteolytic-enzyme-nagarse-exhibit-greater-protein-specific-activities-and-functional-coupling
#7
Katon A Kras, Wayne T Willis, Natalie Barker, Traci Czyzyk, Paul R Langlais, Christos S Katsanos
Skeletal muscle mitochondria are arranged as a reticulum. Insight into the functional characteristics of such structure is achieved by viewing the network as consisting of "subsarcolemmal" (SS) and "intermyofibrillar" (IMF) regions. During the decades, most, but not all, published studies have reported higher (sometimes over 2-fold) enzyme and enzyme-pathway protein-specific activities in IMF compared to SS mitochondria. We tested the hypothesis that non-mitochondrial protein contamination might account for much of the apparently lower specific activities of isolated SS mitochondria...
July 1, 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066592/the-relationship-between-ruvbl1-pontin-tip49-nmp238-and-bcl6-in-benign-and-malignant-human-lymphoid-tissues
#8
Beverly W Baron, Rebecca M Baron, Joseph M Baron
The human BCL6 gene, which is involved in the pathogenesis of certain human lymphomas, encodes a transcriptional repressor that is needed for germinal center B cell development and T follicular helper cell differentiation. Our goal was to identify BCL6 target genes using a cell system in which BCL6 repressive effects are inhibited followed by subtractive hybridization, and we detected the RUVBL1 (Pontin, TIP49) gene as a potential target of BCL6 repression. Here we show that the BCL6 protein significantly represses RUVBL1 transcription (6...
July 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949742/detection-of-sirna-mediated-target-mrna-cleavage-activities-in-human-cells-by-a-novel-stem-loop-array-rt-pcr-analysis
#9
Jing Lin, Kai Xu, Jack A Roth, Lin Ji
The small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated target mRNA cleavage activity generates cleaved mRNA fragments with varied termini, which creates major technical challenges for the accurate and efficient detection and verification of cleavage sites on target mRNAs. Here we used a sensitive stem-loop array reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (SLA-RT-PCR) approach to detect and verify the siRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage sites by determining precise sequences at the 3'-termini of cleaved mRNA fragments in human cells under physiological conditions...
July 1, 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158678/n-terminal-dentin-sialoprotein-fragment-induces-type-i-collagen-production-and-upregulates-dentinogenesis-marker-expression-in-osteoblasts
#10
Haytham Jaha, Dina Husein, Yoshio Ohyama, Dongliang Xu, Shigeki Suzuki, George T-J Huang, Yoshiyuki Mochida
Bone and dentin are mineralized extracellular matrices produced by osteoblasts and odontoblasts, respectively, and their major organic portion is type I collagen. Dentinogenesis Imperfecta (DGI) is one of the most common clinically- and genetically-based disturbances of dentin formation, causing irreversible dentin defects. Among several types of DGI, patients with DGI type II exhibit opalescent dentin with partial or complete pulp obliteration. It has been previously reported that the non-sense mutation (c...
June 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047992/rapid-identification-of-ubiquitination-and-sumoylation-target-sites-by-microfluidic-peptide-array
#11
Bing Zhu, Tierra R Farris, Sarah L Milligan, Haosi Chen, Ruijuan Zhu, Aailing Hong, Xiaochuan Zhou, Xiaolian Gao, Jere W McBride
SUMOylation and ubiquitination are two essential post translational modifications (PTMs) involved in the regulation of important biological processes in eukaryotic cells. Identification of ubiquitin (Ub) and small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-conjugated lysine residues in proteins is critical for understanding the role of ubiquitination and SUMOylation, but remains experimentally challenging. We have developed a powerful in vitro Ub/SUMO assay using a novel high density peptide array incorporated within a microfluidic device that allows rapid identification of ubiquitination and SUMOylation sites on target proteins...
March 1, 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878066/steroidogenesis-and-early-response-gene-expression-in-ma-10-leydig-tumor-cells-following-heterologous-receptor-down-regulation-and-cellular-desensitization
#12
Tsuey-Ming Chen, Frank S Czerwiec, David Puett
The Leydig tumor cell line, MA-10, expresses the luteinizing hormone receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor that, when activated with luteinizing hormone or chorionic gonadotropin (CG), stimulates cAMP production and subsequent steroidogenesis, notably progesterone. These cells also respond to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and phorbol esters with increased steroid biosynthesis. In order to probe the intracellular pathways along with heterologous receptor down-regulation and cellular desensitization, cells were preincubated with EGF or phorbol esters and then challenged with CG, EGF, dibutryl-cyclic AMP, and a phorbol ester...
March 1, 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709389/sulfite-oxidase-activity-of-cytochrome-c-role-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#13
Murugesan Velayutham, Craig F Hemann, Arturo J Cardounel, Jay L Zweier
In humans, sulfite is generated endogenously by the metabolism of sulfur containing amino acids such as methionine and cysteine. Sulfite is also formed from exposure to sulfur dioxide, one of the major environmental pollutants. Sulfite is used as an antioxidant and preservative in dried fruits, vegetables, and beverages such as wine. Sulfite is also used as a stabilizer in many drugs. Sulfite toxicity has been associated with allergic reactions characterized by sulfite sensitivity, asthma, and anaphylactic shock...
March 1, 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26688832/curcumin-inhibits-3t3-l1-preadipocyte-proliferation-by-mechanisms-involving-post-transcriptional-p27-regulation
#14
Bradley S Ferguson, Heesun Nam, Ron F Morrison
Previous reports from our lab have shown that Skp2 is necessary for p27 degradation and cell cycle progression during adipocyte differentiation. Data presented here demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity phytochemical curcumin blocked Skp2 protein accumulation during early adipocyte hyperplasia. In addition, curcumin dose-dependently induced p27 protein accumulation and G1 arrest of synchronously replicating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Of note, p27 protein accumulation occurred in the presence of decreased p27 mRNA suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation...
March 1, 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457330/the-functional-co-operativity-of-tissue-nonspecific-alkaline-phosphatase-tnap-and-phospho1-during-initiation-of-skeletal-mineralization
#15
Carmen Huesa, Dean Houston, Tina Kiffer-Moreira, Manisha M Yadav, Jose Luis Millan, Colin Farquharson
Phosphatases are recognised to have important functions in the initiation of skeletal mineralization. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and PHOSPHO1 are indispensable for bone and cartilage mineralization but their functional relationship in the mineralization process remains unclear. In this study, we have used osteoblast and ex-vivo metatarsal cultures to obtain biochemical evidence for co-operativity and cross-talk between PHOSPHO1 and TNAP in the initiation of mineralization. Clones 14 and 24 of the MC3T3-E1 cell line were used in the initial studies...
December 1, 2015: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26393238/characterization-of-an-african-trypanosome-mutant-refractory-to-lectin-induced-death
#16
Amber L Hackler, Yijian Qiu, Stephen L Patrick, Soo Hee Lee, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, James C Morris
Incubation of African trypanosomes with the lectin concanavalin A (conA) leads to alteration in cellular DNA content, DNA degradation, and surface membrane blebbing. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a conA-refractory Trypanosoma brucei line. These insect stage parasites were resistant to conA killing, with a mediun lethal dose at least 50-fold greater than the parental line. Fluorescence-based experiments revealed that the resistant cells bound less lectin when compared to the parental line...
December 1, 2015: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900604/collagen-i-and-the-fibroblast-high-protein-expression-requires-a-new-paradigm-of-post-transcriptional-feedback-regulation
#17
Richard I Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Scaling protein production seems like a simple perturbation of transcriptional control. However, when embryonic tendon fibroblasts have to produce >50% procollagen and secrete it from the cell 4 times faster than the average protein, this taxes the cellular machinery and requires a fresh look at how the pathway is controlled. Ascorbate, a reducing agent, can stimulate procollagen production 6-fold. Procollagen mRNA levels goes up 6-fold but requires 3 days for the cell to accomplish this task...
September 2015: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457329/micro-rnas-and-macrophage-diversity-in-atherosclerosis-new-players-new-challenges%C3%A2-new-opportunities-for-therapeutic-intervention
#18
Guillermo Vazquez
Efforts in experimental therapeutics of atherosclerosis are mostly focused on identifying candidate targets that can be exploited in developing new strategies to reduce plaque progression, induce its regression and/or improve stability of advanced lesions. Plaque macrophages are central players in all these processes, and consequently a significant amount of research is devoted to understanding mechanisms that regulate, for instance, macrophage apoptosis, necrosis or migration. Macrophage diversity is a key feature of the macrophage population in the plaque and can impact many aspects of lesion development...
September 1, 2015: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457328/selection-and-characterization-of-high-affinity-vegfr1-antibodies-from-a-novel-human-binary-code-scfv-phage-library
#19
Xiaolei Wang, Hye-Yeong Kim, Brendon Wahlberg, W Barry Edwards
VEGFR1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. It is upregulated in angiogenic endothelial cells and expressed on human tumor cells as well. VEGFR1 positive hematopoietic progenitor cells home to sites of distant metastases prior to the arrival of the tumor cells thus establishing a pre-metastatic niche. To discover high affinity human antibodies selective for VEGFR1 molecular imaging or for molecularly targeted therapy, a novel phage display scFv library was assembled and characterized...
September 1, 2015: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26309907/folate-dependent-hydrolysis-of-acetyl-coenzyme-a-by-recombinant-human-and-rodent-arylamine-n-acetyltransferases
#20
Marcus W Stepp, Galina Mamaliga, Mark A Doll, J Christopher States, David W Hein
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the N-acetylation of arylamines and hydrazines and the O-acetylation of N-hydroxy-arylamines. Recently, studies report that human NAT1 and mouse Nat2 hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) into acetate and coenzyme A in a folate-dependent fashion, a previously unknown function. In this study, our goal was to confirm these findings and determine the apparent Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants (Vmax and Km) of the folate-dependent AcCoA hydrolysis for human NAT1/NAT2, and the rodent analogs rat Nat1/Nat2, mouse Nat1/Nat2, and hamster Nat1/Nat2...
September 2015: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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