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Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159315/l-arginine-biosensors-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Neelam Verma, Ashish Kumar Singh, Minni Singh
Arginine has been considered as the most potent nutraceutics discovered ever, due to its powerful healing property, and it's been known to scientists as the Miracle Molecule. Arginine detection in fermented food products is necessary because, high level of arginine in foods forms ethyl carbamate (EC) during the fermentation process. Therefore, L-arginine detection in fermented food products is very important as a control measure for quality of fermented foods, food supplements and beverages including wine. In clinical analysis arginine detection is important due to their enormous inherent versatility in various metabolic pathways, topmost in the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor growth...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159314/vasoconstriction-triggered-by-hydrogen-sulfide-evidence-for-na-k-2cl-cotransport-and-l-type-ca-2-channel-mediated-pathway
#2
Sergei N Orlov, Svetlana V Gusakova, Liudmila V Smaglii, Svetlana V Koltsova, Svetalana V Sidorenko
Objectives: This study examined the dose-dependent actions of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on isometric contractions and ion transport in rat aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC). Methods: Isometric contraction was measured in ring aortas segments from male Wistar rats. Activity of Na(+)/K(+)-pump and Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-)cotransport was measured in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta as ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-resistant, bumetanide-sensitive components of the (86)Rb influx, respectively...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090283/bacillus-and-biopolymer-prospects-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Swati Mohapatra, Sudipta Maity, Hirak Ranjan Dash, Surajit Das, Swati Pattnaik, Chandi Charan Rath, Deviprasad Samantaray
The microbially derived polyhydroxyalkanoates biopolymers could impact the global climate scenario by replacing the conventional non-degradable, petrochemical-based polymer. The biogenesis, characterization and properties of PHAs by Bacillus species using renewable substrates have been elaborated by many for their wide applications. On the other hand Bacillus species are advantageous over other bacteria due to their abundance even in extreme ecological conditions, higher growth rates even on cheap substrates, higher PHAs production ability, and the ease of extracting the PHAs...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090282/expression-of-reg-family-genes-in-human-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-its-regulation
#4
Chikatsugu Tsuchida, Sumiyo Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Maiko Taked, Asako Itaya-Hironaka, Akiyo Yamauchi, Masayasu Misu, Ryogo Shobatake, Tomoko Uchiyama, Mai Makino, Irma Pujol-Autonell, Marta Vives-Pi, Chiho Ohbayashi, Shin Takasawa
The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) reflects a balance between mucosal injury and reparative mechanisms. Some regenerating gene (Reg) family members have been reported to be expressed in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to be involved as proliferative mucosal factors in IBD. However, expression of all REG family genes in IBD is still unclear. Here, we analyzed expression of all REG family genes (REG Iα, REG Iβ, REG III, HIP/PAP, and REG IV) in biopsy specimens of UC and CD by real-time RT-PCR...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090281/in-vitro-anti-biofilm-and-anti-bacterial-activity-of-sesbania-grandiflora-extract-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Arumugam Dhanesh Gandhi, Dhandapani Kayal Vizhi, Kubendiran Lavanya, V N Kalpana, V Devi Rajeswari, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam
The main objective of this research is to investigate the anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Sesbania grandiflora (S. grandiflora) against Staphylococcus aureus. S. grandiflora extract were prepared and analyzed with UV -Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering. Biofilm forming pathogens were identified by congo-red assay. Quantification of Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) particularly protein and carbohydrate were calculated. The efficacy of the herbal extract S...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090280/trim33-regulates-early-maturation-of-mouse-embryoid-bodies-in-vitro
#6
Sudha Rajderkar, Christopher Panaretos, Vesa Kaartinen
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an established model for investigating developmental processes, disease conditions, tissue regeneration and therapeutic targets. Previous studies have shown that tripartite motif-containing 33 protein (Trim33) functions as a chromatin reader during Nodal-induced mesoderm induction. Here we report that despite reduced proliferation, mouse ESCs deficient in Trim33 remained pluripotent when cultured under non-differentiating conditions. However, when induced to differentiate to embryoid bodies (EBs), the mutant cultures showed increased cell shedding and apoptosis at day 3 of differentiation...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090279/selenium-nanoparticles-induce-suppressed-function-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-inhibit-dalton-s-lymphoma-proliferation
#7
Pramod Kumar Gautam, Sanjay Kumar, M S Tomar, Rishi Kant Singh, A Acharya, Sanjay Kumar, B Ram
Selenium Nanoparticle (SeNPs) is reported that it enhances and maintains optimal immune during infection and malignancies. To this end, we examined the role of selenium on TAMS whose anti-tumor function suppressed which favor tumor progression. BALB/c (H2d) strain of mice non-Hodgkin type of Dalton's cell line was used to check the role of carboxlic group induced, synthesized SeNPs on TAMs. Screening of IC50 value was done primarily trypen blue exclusion assay and 50% proliferation of DL cells inhibited 40 ng/ml to 50 ng/...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090278/alleviation-of-lipopolysaccharide-d-galactosamine-induced-liver-injury-in-leukocyte-cell-derived-chemotaxin-2-deficient-mice
#8
Akinori Okumura, Takeshi Saito, Minoru Tobiume, Yuki Hashimoto, Yuko Sato, Takashi Umeyama, Minoru Nagi, Koichi Tanabe, Hiroyuki Unoki-Kubota, Yasushi Kaburagi, Hideki Hasegawa, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Satoshi Yamagoe
Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a secreted pleiotropic protein that is mainly produced by the liver. We have previously shown that LECT2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory liver diseases. Lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/d-GalN)-induced acute liver injury is a known animal model of fulminant hepatic failure. Here we found that this hepatic injury was alleviated in LECT2-deficient mice. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, which mediate this hepatitis, had significantly decreased in these mice, with the decrease in IFN-γ production notably greater than that in TNF-α...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090277/temperature-and-osmotic-stress-dependence-of-the-thermodynamics-for-binding-linker-histone-h1-0-its-carboxyl-domain-h1-0-c-or-globular-domain-h1-0-g-to-b-dna
#9
V R Machha, C G Mikek, S Wellman, E A Lewis
Linker histones (H1) are the basic proteins in higher eukaryotes that are responsible for the final condensation of chromatin. In contrast to the nucleosome core histone proteins, the role of H1 in compacting DNA is not clearly understood. In this study ITC was used to measure the binding constant, enthalpy change, and binding site size for the interactions of H1(0), or its C-terminal (H1(0)-C) and globular (H1(0)-G) domains to highly polymerized calf-thymus DNA at temperatures from 288 K to 308 K. Heat capacity changes, ΔCp, for these same H1(0) binding interactions were estimated from the temperature dependence of the enthalpy changes...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090276/a-novel-mammalian-glucokinase-exhibiting-exclusive-inorganic-polyphosphate-dependence-in-the-cell-nucleus
#10
Antasar Ali, D Claire Wathes, Angelina Swali, Helena Burns, Shamus Burns
BACKGROUND: Hexokinase and glucokinase enzymes are ubiquitously expressed and use ATP and ADP as substrates in mammalian systems and a variety of polyphosphate substrates and/or ATP in some eukaryotic and microbial systems. Polyphosphate synthesising or utilizing enzymes are widely expressed in microbial systems but have not been reported in mammalian systems, despite the presence of polyphosphate in mammalian cells. Only two micro-organisms have previously been shown to express an enzyme that uses polyphosphate exclusively...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090275/activation-of-tpa-response-element-present-in-human-lemur-tyrosine-kinase-2-lmtk2-gene-increases-its-expression
#11
Isha Dey, Neil A Bradbury
Regulatory elements present in the promoter of a gene drive the expression of the gene in response to various stimuli. Lemur Tyrosine Kinase 2 (LMTK2) is a membrane-anchored Serine/Threonine kinase involved in endosomal protein trafficking and androgen signaling amongst other processes. Previous studies have shown this protein to be of therapeutic importance in cystic fibrosis and prostate cancer. However, nothing is known about the endogenous expression of this protein and its regulation. In this study, we analyzed the gene encoding human LMTK2, to look for possible regulatory elements that could affect its expression...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090274/a-novel-lrp1-binding-peptide-l57-that-crosses-the-blood-brain-barrier
#12
Kotaro Sakamoto, Tokuyuki Shinohara, Yusuke Adachi, Taiji Asami, Tetsuya Ohtaki
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle to drug delivery into the central nervous system (CNS), in particular for macromolecules such as peptides and proteins. However, certain macromolecules can reach the CNS via a receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) pathway, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is one of the promising receptors for RMT. An LRP1 ligand peptide, Angiopep-2, was reported to pass through the BBB and deliver covalently conjugated drugs into the CNS. While conjugation of LRP1 ligands with drugs would be an effective approach for drug delivery to the CNS, no other reliable LRP1 ligands have been reported to date...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090273/nmr-spectra-of-pb2-627-the-rna-binding-domain-in-influenza-a-virus-rna-polymerase-that-contains-the-pathogenicity-factor-lysine-627-and-improvement-of-the-spectra-by-small-osmolytes
#13
Yusuke S Kato, Masaru Tanokura, Takashi Kuzuhara
The influenza A virus, which has an RNA genome, requires RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for transcription and replication. The polymerase is comprised of the subunits PA, PB1, and PB2. The C-terminal RNA-binding domain in PB2 contains lysine 627 (PB2 627), which is associated with pathogenicity and host range. However, the structure and molecular mechanism of PB2 627 in solution remain obscure. Here, we investigated PB2 627 in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and detected inhomogeneity in the intensities of backbone amide proton signals due to local fluctuations in structure...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955800/transcriptome-analysis-of-mammary-epithelial-cell-gene-expression-reveals-novel-roles-of-the-extracellular-matrix
#14
Stephen S Wanyonyi, Amit Kumar, Ryan Du Preez, Christophe Lefevre, Kevin R Nicholas
BACKGROUND: The unique lactation strategy of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugeni) has been invaluable in evaluating the role of lactogenic hormones and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the local control of mammary gland function. However molecular pathways through which hormones and ECM exert their effect on wallaby mammary gland function remain unclear. This study undertakes transcriptome analysis of wallaby mammary epithelial cells (WallMEC) following treatment with mammary ECM from two distinct stages of lactation...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955799/liposomal-delivery-of-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors-augments-ut-15c-stimulated-atp-release-from-human-erythrocytes
#15
Elizabeth A Bowles, Dimitri Feys, Nuran Ercal, Randy S Sprague
The use of liposomes to affect targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents to specific sites may result in the reduction of side effects and an increase in drug efficacy. Since liposomes are delivered intravascularly, erythrocytes, which constitute almost half of the volume of blood, are ideal targets for liposomal drug delivery. In vivo, erythrocytes serve not only in the role of oxygen transport but also as participants in the regulation of vascular diameter through the regulated release of the potent vasodilator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955798/an-appropriate-loading-control-for-western-blot-analysis-in-animal-models-of-myocardial-ischemic-infarction
#16
Xin Nie, Chen Li, Sheng Hu, Fulai Xue, Y James Kang, Wenjing Zhang
An appropriate loading control is critical for Western blot analysis. Housekeeping proteins (HKPs), such as β-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin, are commonly used to normalize protein expression. But HKP expression can be impacted by certain experimental conditions, such as ischemic myocardial infarction. This study was undertaken to look for an appropriate loading control for western blot analysis of ischemic myocardium. Myocardial ischemic infarction was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation in Rhesus monkeys and C57BL/6 mice...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955797/genetic-validation-and-spectroscopic-detailing-of-dhn-melanin-extracted-from-an-environmental-fungus
#17
Nitya Meenakshi Raman, Suganthi Ramasamy
Accurate characterization of melanin using analytical methodologies has proved to be difficult due to its heterogeneity, insolubility in wide pH and broad range of solvents. The present study was undertaken to characterize melanin extracted from an environmental Aspergillus fumigatus AFGRD105 by studying its genes, chemical properties and spectral data. A gene based approach to confirm the type of melanin carried out indicated the extracted melanin to be of the dihydroxynaphthalene type. On comparison with synthetic melanin, UV-Vis and IR spectra of the extracted melanin revealed characteristic peaks that can be further used for confirmation of DHN-melanin extracted from any source...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955796/biphasic-and-directed-translocation-of-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE-inside-cultured-endothelial-cells-before-migration
#18
Masataka Arai, Tomoya Shimada, Chihiro Kora, Kazuhiro Nakashima, Toshihiro Sera, Susumu Kudo
Mechanical wounding of an endothelial monolayer induces an immediate Ca(2+) wave. Several hours later, the denuded area is covered by endothelial cells (ECs) that migrate to the wound. This migration process is closely related to protein kinase Cα (PKCα), a Ca(2+)-dependent protein that translocates from the cytosol to the cell membrane. Because the cells adjacent to the wounded area are the first to migrate into the wound, we investigated whether a mechanical wound immediately induces PKCα translocation in adjacent cells...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955795/extraction-efficiency-phytochemical-profiles-and-antioxidative-properties-of-different-parts-of-saptarangi-salacia-chinensis-l-an-important-underutilized-plant
#19
Dhanaji M Ghadage, Parthraj R Kshirsagar, Sandeep R Pai, Jaykumar J Chavan
The study aimed to evaluate extraction efficiency, detection and quantification of phytochemicals, minerals and antioxidative capacity of different parts of Salacia chinensis L. Continuous shaking extraction, steam bath assisted extraction, ultrasonic extraction and microwave assisted extraction with varied time intervals were employed for extraction of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidants. Preliminary screening revealed the presence of wide array of metabolites along with carbohydrates and starch. Steam bath assisted extraction for 10 min exposure was found most suitable for extraction phenolics (46...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955794/effects-of-aqueous-cinnamon-extract-on-chemically-induced-carcinoma-of-hamster-cheek-pouch-mucosa
#20
Samah K Ezzat, Mazen T AbuElkhair, Mohamed I Mourad, Mohamed E Helal, Mohammed E Grawish
This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE) on 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch (HCP) mucosa. Sixty male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into six equal groups. The hamsters of groups I, II and III received no treatment, DMBA and ACE respectively, for 16 weeks. Groups IV and V were handled as group II and concomitantly treated with ACE for the same period and additionally group V received ACE for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of DMBA application...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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