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ACS Central Science

Jun Nishida, John P Breen, Boning Wu, Michael D Fayer
The role that interfaces play in the dynamics of liquids is a fundamental scientific problem with vast importance in technological applications. From material science to biology, e.g., batteries to cell membranes, liquid properties at interfaces are frequently determinant in the nature of chemical processes. For most liquids, like water, the influence of an interface falls off on a ∼1 nm distance scale. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a vast class of unusual liquids composed of complex cations and anions that are liquid salts at room temperature...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Virginia Mazzini, Vincent S J Craig
The properties of all electrolyte solutions, whether the solvent is aqueous or nonaqueous, are strongly dependent on the nature of the ions in solution. The consequences of these specific-ion effects are significant and manifest from biochemistry to battery technology. The "law of matching water affinities" (LMWA) has proven to be a powerful concept for understanding and predicting specific-ion effects in a wide range of systems, including the stability of proteins and colloids, solubility, the behavior of lipids, surfactants, and polyelectrolytes, and catalysis in water and ionic liquids...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Chelsea Anorma, Jamila Hedhli, Thomas E Bearrood, Nicholas W Pino, Sarah H Gardner, Hiroshi Inaba, Pamela Zhang, Yanfen Li, Daven Feng, Sara E Dibrell, Kristopher A Kilian, Lawrence W Dobrucki, Timothy M Fan, Jefferson Chan
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are progenitor cells that contribute to treatment-resistant phenotypes during relapse. CSCs exist in specific tissue microenvironments that cell cultures and more complex models cannot mimic. Therefore, the development of new approaches that can detect CSCs and report on specific properties (e.g., stem cell plasticity) in their native environment have profound implications for studying CSC biology. Herein, we present AlDeSense, a turn-on fluorescent probe for aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) and Ctrl-AlDeSense, a matching nonresponsive reagent...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Dong-Kyu Lee, Euiyeon Na, Seongoh Park, Jeong Hill Park, Johan Lim, Sung Won Kwon
Cancer detection relying on the release of volatile biomarkers has been extensively studied, but the individual biochemical processes of the cells from which biogenic volatiles originate have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Inadequate determination of the metabolic origin of the volatile biomarkers has limited the progress of the scientific and practical applications of volatile biomarkers. To overcome the current limitations, we developed a metabolism tracking approach combining stable isotope labeling and flux analysis of volatiles to trace the intracellular metabolism-derived volatiles and to reveal their relation to cancer metabolic pathways...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Yael Tsarfati, Shaked Rosenne, Haim Weissman, Linda J W Shimon, Dvir Gur, Benjamin A Palmer, Boris Rybtchinski
Organic crystals are of primary importance in pharmaceuticals, functional materials, and biological systems; however, organic crystallization mechanisms are not well-understood. It has been recognized that "nonclassical" organic crystallization from solution involving transient amorphous precursors is ubiquitous. Understanding how these precursors evolve into crystals is a key challenge. Here, we uncover the crystallization mechanisms of two simple aromatic compounds (perylene diimides), employing direct structural imaging by cryogenic electron microscopy...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Margaret N Holme, M Harunur Rashid, Michael R Thomas, Hanna M G Barriga, Karla Luise Herpoldt, Richard K Heenan, Cécile A Dreiss, José Leobardo Bañuelos, Hai-Nan Xie, Irene Yarovsky, Molly M Stevens
Understanding the origins of lipid membrane bilayer rearrangement in response to external stimuli is an essential component of cell biology and the bottom-up design of liposomes for biomedical applications. The enzymes phospholipase C and D (PLC and PLD) both cleave the phosphorus-oxygen bonds of phosphate esters in phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids. The atomic position of this hydrolysis reaction has huge implications for the stability of PC-containing self-assembled structures, such as the cell wall and lipid-based vesicle drug delivery vectors...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Wen-Ting Chu, Jin Wang
Large-scale conformational changes of proteins, including the open-closed transitions, are crucial for a variety of protein functions. These open-closed transitions are often associated with ligand binding. However, the understandings of the underlying mechanisms of the conformational changes within proteins during the open-closed transitions are still challenging at present. In this study, we quantified the intrinsic underlying conformational energy landscapes of five different proteins with large-scale open-closed transitions...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Gustav Emilsson, Yusuke Sakiyama, Bita Malekian, Kunli Xiong, Zeynep Adali-Kaya, Roderick Y H Lim, Andreas B Dahlin
Control of molecular translocation through nanoscale apertures is of great interest for DNA sequencing, biomolecular filters, and new platforms for single molecule analysis. However, methods for controlling the permeability of nanopores are very limited. Here, we show how nanopores functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) brushes, which fully prevent protein translocation, can be reversibly gated to an "open" state by binding of single IgG antibodies that disrupt the macromolecular barrier. On the basis of surface plasmon resonance data we propose a two-state model describing the antibody-polymer interaction kinetics...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Zeeshan Ahmad, Tian Xie, Chinmay Maheshwari, Jeffrey C Grossman, Venkatasubramanian Viswanathan
Next generation batteries based on lithium (Li) metal anodes have been plagued by the dendritic electrodeposition of Li metal on the anode during cycling, resulting in short circuit and capacity loss. Suppression of dendritic growth through the use of solid electrolytes has emerged as one of the most promising strategies for enabling the use of Li metal anodes. We perform a computational screening of over 12 000 inorganic solids based on their ability to suppress dendrite initiation in contact with Li metal anode...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Saikat Manna, William J Howitz, Nathan J Oldenhuis, Alexander C Eldredge, Jingjing Shen, Fnu Naorem Nihesh, Melissa B Lodoen, Zhibin Guan, Aaron P Esser-Kahn
The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a role in the inflammatory response to vaccines, in antimicrobial host defense, and in autoimmune diseases. However, its mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. NLRP3 has been shown to be activated by diverse stimuli including microbial toxins, ATP, particulate matter, etc. that activate multiple cellular processes. There have been two major challenges in translating inflammasome activators into controlled adjuvants. Both stem from their chemical and structural diversity...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Yu Tan, Henry Huang, David C Ayers, Jie Song
Viscoelasticity, stiffness, and degradation of tissue matrices regulate cell behavior, yet predictive synergistic tuning of these properties in synthetic cellular niches remains elusive. We hypothesize that reversible physical cross-linking can be quantitatively introduced to synthetic hydrogels to accelerate stress relaxation and enhance network stiffness, while strategic placement of isolated labile linkages near cross-linking sites can predict hydrogel degradation, both of which are essential for creating adaptive cellular niches...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Jinjun Gao, Fan Yang, Jinteng Che, Yu Han, Yankun Wang, Nan Chen, Daniel W Bak, Shuchang Lai, Xiao Xie, Eranthie Weerapana, Chu Wang
Selenium (Se), as an essential trace element, plays crucial roles in many organisms including humans. The biological functions of selenium are mainly mediated by selenoproteins, a unique class of selenium-containing proteins in which selenium is inserted in the form of selenocysteine. Due to their low abundance and uneven tissue distribution, detection of selenoproteins within proteomes is very challenging, and therefore functional studies of these proteins are limited. In this study, we developed a computational method, named as selenium-encoded isotopic signature targeted profiling (SESTAR), which utilizes the distinct natural isotopic distribution of selenium to assist detection of trace selenium-containing signals from shotgun-proteomic data...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Neal K Devaraj
Bioorthogonal reactions have found widespread use in applications ranging from glycan engineering to in vivo imaging. Researchers have devised numerous reactions that can be predictably performed in a biological setting. Depending on the requirements of the intended application, one or more reactions from the available toolkit can be readily deployed. As an increasing number of investigators explore and apply chemical reactions in living systems, it is clear that there are a myriad of ways in which the field may advance...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
D Wasserberg, P Jonkheijm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Pamela V Chang, Catherine L Grimes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Melissa Pandika
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Emma Hiolski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Andrew L Ferguson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Ji-Soo Jang, Won-Tae Koo, Dong-Ha Kim, Il-Doo Kim
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are used as a new intriguing class of templates, which enable the creation of porous inorganic nanostructures via calcination. In this work, we first introduce in situ coupling of multidimensional MOFs for producing heterogeneous metal-oxide composite with multiple p-n junctions. Controlling relative ratios of two mixed solvents (water and ethanol), in zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) growth, leads to the distinctive morphological evolution such as rod, sheet, and polyhedron particles...
July 25, 2018: ACS Central Science
Joseph C Grim, Tobin E Brown, Brian A Aguado, Douglas A Chapnick, Alexandrea L Viert, Xuedong Liu, Kristi S Anseth
Biomolecule-functionalized hydrogels have emerged as valuable cell culture platforms to recapitulate the mechanical and biochemical properties of the extracellular niche. The typical strategy to functionalize hydrogels with biomolecules involves directly tethering them to the hydrogel backbone resulting in a static material. Thus, this approach fails to capture the dynamic changes in biomolecule composition that occur during biological processes or that may be required for regenerative medicine applications...
July 25, 2018: ACS Central Science
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