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Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome

David Miller, Merlene Miller, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Marcelo Febo
There are approximately 14,500 clinics and programs in America that provide treatment for all types of addictive behaviors we call "Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)". While most of these have good intentions to provide needed help to the victims of RDS, we propose herein that most of their efforts, especially during periods of aftercare, are not based on the existing scientific evidence. We use "aftercare" to refer to any form of program or therapy following primary treatment including 12-Step programs. Very few programs actually provide any evidenced-based treatment approaches during this most vulnerable period in recovery...
October 21, 2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Benjamin C Nephew, Christopher Murgatroyd, Florent Pittet, Marcelo Febo
Two research areas that could benefit from a greater focus on the role of the reward pathway are maternal depression and maternal addiction. Both depression and addiction in mothers are mediated by deficiencies in the reward pathway and represent substantial risks to the health of offspring and future generations. This targeted review discusses maternal reward deficits in depressed and addicted mothers, neural, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms, and the transgenerational transmission of these deficits from mother to offspring...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
James Fratantonio, Lawrence Andrade, Marcelo Febo
Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance use disorder treatment centers...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Thomas Simpatico, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Zsolt Demetrovics, James Fratantonio, Gozde Agan, Marcelo Febo, Mark S Gold
Earlier work from our laboratory, showing anti-addiction activity of a nutraceutical consisting of amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition properties and our discovery of the first polymorphic gene (Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene [DRD2]) to associate with severe alcoholism serves as a blue-print for the development of "Personalized Medicine" in addiction. Prior to the later genetic finding, we developed the concept of Brain Reward Cascade, which continues to act as an important component for stratification of addiction risk through neurogenetics...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Peter K Thanos, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Eliot Gardner, Zsolt Demetrovics, Claudia Fahlke, Brett C Haberstick, Kristina Dushaj, Mark S Gold
Recently there has been debate concerning the role of brain dopamine in reward and addiction. David Nutt and associates eloquently proposed that dopamine (DA) may be central to psycho stimulant dependence and some what important for alcohol, but not important for opiates, nicotine or even cannabis. Others have also argued that surfeit theories can explain for example cocaine seeking behavior as well as non-substance-related addictive behaviors. It seems prudent to distinguish between what constitutes "surfeit" compared to" deficit" in terms of short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) brain reward circuitry responsivity...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Benjamin Thompson, Zsolt Demotrovics, John Femino, John Giordano, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Scott Teitelbaum, David E Smith, A Kennison Roy, Gozde Agan, James Fratantonio, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Mark S Gold
There are some who suggest that alcoholism and drug abuse are not diseases at all and that they are not consequences of a brain disorder as espoused recently by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). Some would argue that addicts can quit on their own and moderate their alcohol and drug intake. When they present to a treatment program or enter the 12 Step Program & Fellowship, many addicts finally achieve complete abstinence. However, when controlled drinking fails, there may be successful alternatives that fit particular groups of individuals...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Eric R Braverman, Marcelo Febo, Mona Li, Mark S Gold
Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction, and intoxication. Some research into those harms will be reviewed here and misgivings about the use of Pregnenolone, to treat cannabis addiction and intoxication explained. Pregnenolone considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, has recently been shown to protect the brain from Cannabis intoxication...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Edward Justin Modestino, Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Mark S Gold, Drake D Duane, Sarah G S Sultan, Sanford H Auerbach
We theorise that in some cases Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) predisposes to narcolepsy and hypersomnia, and that there may be a shared pathophysiology with various addictions [Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)]. Reticence to acknowledge such connections may be due to a narrow nosological framework. Additionally, we theorise that the development of narcolepsy on a baseline of ADHD/RDS leads to an additional assault on the dopaminergic reward system in such individuals. In this study, we propose to test these hypotheses by using a combination of broad genetic screening, and neuroimaging with and without pharmacological intervention, in those with pure ADHD, pure narcolepsy, and the combined ADHD-narcolepsy phenotype...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Gozde Agan, James Fratantonio, Mark S Gold
BACKGROUND: Lucid Dreams are a form of dream life, during which the dreamer may be aware that he/she is dreaming, can stop/re-start the dreams, depending on the pleasantness or unpleasant nature of the dream, and experiences the dream as if he/she were fully awake. Depending on their content, they may be pleasant, un-pleasant or terrifying, at least in the context of patients, who also exhibit characteristics of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Gozde Agan, James Fratantonio, Thomas Simpatico, Marcelo Febo, Brett C Haberstick, Andrew Smolen, Mark S Gold
BACKGROUND: The Brain Reward Cascade (BRC) is an interaction of neurotransmitters and their respective genes to control the amount of dopamine released within the brain. Any variations within this pathway, whether genetic or environmental (epigenetic), may result in addictive behaviors or RDS, which was coined to define addictive behaviors and their genetic components. METHODS: To carry out this review we searched a number of important databases including: Filtered: Cochrane Systematic reviews; DARE; Pubmed Central Clinical Quaries; National Guideline Clearinghouse and unfiltered resources: PsychINFO; ACP PIER; PsychSage; Pubmed/Medline...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Stephen J Schoenthaler, Kenneth Blum, Eric R Braverman, John Giordano, Ben Thompson, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Margaret A Madigan, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Zsolt Demotrovics, Roger L Waite, Mark S Gold
BACKGROUND: The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Sampada Sinha, Kenneth Blum
It is unclear whether pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder (OUD) should be continued for short or long-term. Before introduction of buprenorphine, methadone was the primary pharmacotherapy for OUD in the United States. Because of its specific pharmacokinetic properties methadone was recommended for long-term use with some justification. Introduction of buprenorphine however has altered the treatment protocol because of milder adverse effects and withdrawal symptoms. The adverse effects of buprenorphine are milder but not negligible...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Daniel H Angres, Mark S Gold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
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