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EJNMMI Physics

Mathias Kranz, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Stephan Wilke, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Cornelius K Donat, Steffen Fischer, Marianne Patt, Andreas Schildan, Jörg Patt, René Smits, Alexander Hoepping, Jörg Steinbach, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust
BACKGROUND: Both enantiomers of [(18)F]flubatine are new radioligands for neuroimaging of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with positron emission tomography (PET) exhibiting promising pharmacokinetics which makes them attractive for different clinical questions. In a previous preclinical study, the main advantage of (+)-[(18)F]flubatine compared to (-)-[(18)F]flubatine was its higher binding affinity suggesting that (+)-[(18)F]flubatine might be able to detect also slight reductions of α4β2 nAChRs and could be more sensitive than (-)-[(18)F]flubatine in early stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Paul R Territo, Amanda A Riley, Brian P McCarthy, Gary D Hutchins
Recent advancements in PET instrumentation have made the non-invasive assessment of cardiovascular function in small animals a reality. The majority of small animal PET systems use stationary detector gantries, thus affording high temporal resolution imaging of cardiac function. Systems designed to maximize spatial resolution and detection sensitivity employing rotating gantry designs are suboptimal when high temporal resolution imaging is needed. To overcome this limitation, the current work developed a novel view-sharing data analysis scheme suitable for dynamic cardiac PET imaging using (18)F-NaF as the tracer and tracer kinetic model analysis...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Yasuhiko Ikari, Go Akamatsu, Tomoyuki Nishio, Kenji Ishii, Kengo Ito, Takeshi Iwatsubo, Michio Senda
BACKGROUND: While fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and amyloid PET is valuable for patient management, research, and clinical trial of therapeutics on Alzheimer's disease, the specific details of the PET scanning method including the PET camera model type influence the image quality, which may further affect the interpretation of images and quantitative capabilities. To make multicenter PET data reliable and to establish PET scanning as a universal diagnostic technique and a verified biomarker, we have proposed phantom test procedures and criteria for optimizing image quality across different PET cameras...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Daniëlle Koopman, Jochen A C van Osch, Pieter L Jager, Carlijn J A Tenbergen, Siert Knollema, Cornelis H Slump, Jorn A van Dalen
BACKGROUND: For tumour imaging with PET, the literature proposes to administer a patient-specific FDG activity that depends quadratically on a patient's body weight. However, a practical approach on how to implement such a protocol in clinical practice is currently lacking. We aimed to provide a practical method to determine a FDG activity formula for whole-body PET examinations that satisfies both the EANM guidelines and this quadratic relation. RESULTS: We have developed a methodology that results in a formula describing the patient-specific FDG activity to administer...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Johanna Svensson, Tobias Rydén, Linn Hagmarker, Jens Hemmingsson, Bo Wängberg, Peter Bernhardt
BACKGROUND: (177)Lu-DOTATATE is a valuable treatment option for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumours overexpressing somatostatin receptors. Though well tolerated in general, bone marrow toxicity can, besides renal exposure, become dose limiting and affect the ability to sustain future therapies. The aim of this study was to develop a novel planar image-based method for bone marrow dosimetry and evaluate its correlation with haematological toxicity during (177)Lu-DOTATATE treatment...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Casper Beijst, Mattijs Elschot, Sandra van der Velden, Hugo W A M de Jong
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous real-time fluoroscopic and nuclear imaging could benefit image-guided (oncological) procedures. To this end, a hybrid modality is currently being developed by our group, by combining a c-arm with a gamma camera and a four-pinhole collimator. Accurate determination of the system parameters that describe the position of the x-ray tube, x-ray detector, gamma camera, and collimators is crucial to optimize image quality. The purpose of this study was to develop a calibration method that estimates the system parameters used for reconstruction...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
B Wu, G Warnock, M Zaiss, C Lin, M Chen, Z Zhou, L Mu, D Nanz, R Tuura, G Delso
The search for novel image contrasts has been a major driving force in the magnetic resonance (MR) research community, in order to gain further information on the body's physiological and pathological conditions.Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a novel MR technique that enables imaging certain compounds at concentrations that are too low to impact the contrast of standard MR imaging and too low to directly be detected in MRS at typical water imaging resolution. For this to be possible, the target compound must be capable of exchanging protons with the surrounding water molecules...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Takeshi Hara, Tadahiko Ishihara, Takahiko Asano, Masayuki Matsuo, Tetsuro Katafuchi, Hiroshi Fujita
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to specify a simple procedure for a robust data conversion of radioactivity value between plastic scintillator (PL) and NaI scintillator (NaI) devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radioactivity estimate of 100 blood samples was measured by the two devices. The two radioactivities were plotted on the same graph. The least-squares method was applied to obtain the conversion function. The differences between the actual radioradioy (N) from the NaI device and the estimated radioactivity for NaI (N') from the PL device activity (P) were statistically analyzed...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Jonathan I Gear, Craig Cummings, Allison J Craig, Antigoni Divoli, Clive D C Long, Michael Tapner, Glenn D Flux
BACKGROUND: The use of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is rapidly increasing, and the need for quantification and dosimetry is becoming more widespread to facilitate treatment planning and verification. The aim of this project was to develop an anthropomorphic phantom that can be used as a validation tool for post-SIRT imaging and its application to dosimetry. METHOD: The phantom design was based on anatomical data obtained from a T1-weighted volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) on a Siemens Aera 1...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Fabien Salesses, Paul Perez, Aline E Maillard, Julie Blanchard, Sabine Mallard, Laurence Bordenave
BACKGROUND: The recent spread of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) poses extremity dosimetry challenges. The question arose whether the radiation dose measured by the ring thermoluminescent dosimeter usually worn on the proximal phalanx (P1) of the index finger measures doses that are representative of the true doses received by the upper extremities of the operators. A prospective individual dosimetry study was performed in which the personal equivalent dose Hp (0...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Johanna Svensson, Linn Hagmarker, Tobias Magnander, Bo Wängberg, Peter Bernhardt
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin analogue-based radionuclide therapy with (177)Lu-DOTATATE is an important treatment option for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumours overexpressing somatostatin receptors. In addition to the kidneys, the bone marrow is a major dose-limiting organ. The correlation between developed haematological toxicity and absorbed dose to the bone marrow is poor, which indicates that other factors affect haematological response. The spleen has an important role in the haematopoetic system, including being a reservoir for blood cells...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Wendy A McDougald, Robert S Miyaoka, Adam M Alessio, Robert L Harrison, Thomas K Lewellen
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was twofold: to evaluate the quantitative stability of a SPECT/CT gamma camera over time and to determine if daily flood acquisitions can reliably serve as calibration factors for quantitative SPECT. Using a cylindrical water phantom filled with measured amounts of (99m)Tc, factors were calculated to convert counts/cc to activity/cps. Measurements were made over an 18-month period. System sensitivity data calculated from (57)Co daily quality assurance (DQA) flood acquisitions were then compared to the (99m)Tc calibration factors to determine the relationship of the factors...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
N E Makris, R Boellaard, C W Menke, A A Lammertsma, M C Huisman
BACKGROUND: The study aims to develop and validate an automatic delineation method for estimating red bone marrow (RM) activity concentration and absorbed dose in (89)Zr positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies. Five patients with advanced colorectal cancer received 37.1 ± 0.9 MBq [(89)Zr] cetuximab within 2 h after administration of a therapeutic dose of 500 mg m(-2) unlabelled cetuximab. Per patient, five PET/CT scans were acquired on a Gemini TF-64 PET/CT scanner at 1, 24, 48, 96 and 144 h post injection...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Andrew P Robinson, Jill Tipping, David M Cullen, David Hamilton, Richard Brown, Alex Flynn, Christopher Oldfield, Emma Page, Emlyn Price, Andrew Smith, Richard Snee
BACKGROUND: Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations for molecular radiotherapy require accurate activity quantification. This is commonly derived from Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging using a calibration factor relating detected counts to known activity in a phantom insert. METHODS: A series of phantom inserts, based on the mathematical models underlying many clinical dosimetry calculations, have been produced using 3D printing techniques...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Sune H Keller, Björn Jakoby, Susanne Svalling, Andreas Kjaer, Liselotte Højgaard, Thomas L Klausen
BACKGROUND: We present a quick and easy method to perform quantitatively accurate PET scans of typical water-filled PET plastic shell phantoms on the Siemens Biograph mMR PET/MR system. We perform regular cross-calibrations (Xcal) of our PET systems, including the PET/MR, using a Siemens mCT water phantom. LONG-TERM STABILITY: The mMR calibration stability was evaluated over a 3-year period where 54 cross-calibrations were acquired, showing that the mMR on average underestimated the concentration by 16 %, consistently due to the use of MR-based μ-maps...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Wataru Takeuchi, Atsuro Suzuki, Tohru Shiga, Naoki Kubo, Yuichi Morimoto, Yuichiro Ueno, Keiji Kobashi, Kikuo Umegaki, Nagara Tamaki
BACKGROUND: A brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system using cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid-state detectors was previously developed. This CdTe-SPECT system is suitable for simultaneous dual-radionuclide imaging due to its fine energy resolution (6.6 %). However, the problems of down-scatter and low-energy tail due to the spectral characteristics of a pixelated solid-state detector should be addressed. The objective of this work was to develop a system for simultaneous Tc-99m and I-123 brain studies and evaluate its accuracy...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Anna Turco, Johan Nuyts, Olivier Gheysens, Jürgen Duchenne, Jens-Uwe Voigt, Piet Claus, Kathleen Vunckx
BACKGROUND: The limited spatial resolution of the clinical PET scanners results in image blurring and does not allow for accurate quantification of very thin or small structures (known as partial volume effect). In cardiac imaging, clinically relevant questions, e.g. to accurately define the extent or the residual metabolic activity of scarred myocardial tissue, could benefit from partial volume correction (PVC) techniques. The use of high-resolution anatomical information for improved reconstruction of the PET datasets has been successfully applied in other anatomical regions...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Maurizio Conti, Lars Eriksson
With the increased interest in new PET tracers, gene-targeted therapy, immunoPET, and theranostics, other radioisotopes will be increasingly used in clinical PET scanners, in addition to (18)F. Some of the most interesting radioisotopes with prospective use in the new fields are not pure short-range β(+) emitters but can be associated with gamma emissions in coincidence with the annihilation radiation (prompt gamma), gamma-gamma cascades, intense Bremsstrahlung radiation, high-energy positrons that may escape out of the patient skin, and high-energy gamma rays that result in some e (+)/e (-) pair production...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Adam E Hansen, Flemming L Andersen, Sarah T Henriksen, Alexandre Vignaud, Jan H Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Liselotte Højgaard, Andreas Kjaer, Thomas L Klausen
BACKGROUND: Integrated PET/MRI with hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((13)C-MRSI) offers simultaneous, dual-modality metabolic imaging. A prerequisite for the use of simultaneous imaging is the absence of interference between the two modalities. This has been documented for a clinical whole-body system using simultaneous (1)H-MRI and PET but never for (13)C-MRSI and PET. Here, the feasibility of simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI as well as hyperpolarized (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is evaluated using phantom experiments...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Marie-Odile Habert, Sullivan Marie, Hugo Bertin, Moana Reynal, Jean-Baptiste Martini, Mamadou Diallo, Aurélie Kas, Régine Trébossen
BACKGROUND: CATI is a French initiative launched in 2010 to handle the neuroimaging of a large cohort of subjects recruited for an Alzheimer's research program called MEMENTO. This paper presents our test protocol and results obtained for the 22 PET centres (overall 13 different scanners) involved in the MEMENTO cohort. We determined acquisition parameters using phantom experiments prior to patient studies, with the aim of optimizing PET quantitative values to the highest possible per site, while reducing, if possible, variability across centres...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
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