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EJNMMI Physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460190/quantitative-analysis-of-phantom-studies-of-111-in-and-68-ga-imaging-of-neuroendocrine-tumours
#1
L Jönsson, A Stenvall, E Mattsson, E Larsson, A Sundlöv, T Ohlsson, C Hindorf
BACKGROUND: Nuclear medicine imaging of neuroendocrine tumours is performed either by SPECT/CT imaging, using111 In-octreotide or by PET/CT imaging using68 Ga-radiolabelled somatostatin analogs. These imaging techniques will give different image quality and different detection thresholds for tumours, depending on size and activity uptake. The aim was to evaluate the image quality for111 In-SPECT and68 Ga-PET imaging, i.e. the smallest volume possible to visualize for different source-to-background activity ratios...
February 20, 2018: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388075/mr-based-motion-correction-for-cardiac-pet-parametric-imaging-a-simulation-study
#2
Rong Guo, Yoann Petibon, Yixin Ma, Georges El Fakhri, Kui Ying, Jinsong Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Both cardiac and respiratory motions bias the kinetic parameters measured by dynamic PET. The aim of this study was to perform a realistic positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance (PET-MR) simulation study using 4D XCAT to evaluate the impact of MR-based motion correction on the estimation of PET myocardial kinetic parameters using PET-MR. Dynamic activity distributions were obtained based on a one-tissue compartment model with realistic kinetic parameters and an arterial input function...
February 1, 2018: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322344/deadtime-effects-in-quantification-of-177lu-activity-for-radionuclide-therapy
#3
Carlos F Uribe, Pedro L Esquinas, Marjorie Gonzalez, Wei Zhao, Jesse Tanguay, Anna Celler
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the deadtime (DT) effects that are present in 177Lu images acquired after radionuclide therapy injection, assess differences in DT based on the full spectrum and the photopeak-only measurements, and design a method to correct for the deadtime losses. A Siemens SymbiaT SPECT/CT camera with a medium energy collimator was used. A 295-mL bottle was placed off-center inside a large cylinder filled with water, and 177Lu activity was sequentially added up to a maximum of 9...
January 11, 2018: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302810/fast-gpu-based-monte-carlo-code-for-spect-ct-reconstructions-generates-improved-177lu-images
#4
T Rydén, J Heydorn Lagerlöf, J Hemmingsson, I Marin, J Svensson, M Båth, P Gjertsson, P Bernhardt
BACKGROUND: Full Monte Carlo (MC)-based SPECT reconstructions have a strong potential for correcting for image degrading factors, but the reconstruction times are long. The objective of this study was to develop a highly parallel Monte Carlo code for fast, ordered subset expectation maximum (OSEM) reconstructions of SPECT/CT images. The MC code was written in the Compute Unified Device Architecture language for a computer with four graphics processing units (GPUs) (GeForce GTX Titan X, Nvidia, USA)...
January 4, 2018: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247300/monte-carlo-based-quantitative-pinhole-spect-reconstruction-using-a-ray-tracing-back-projector
#5
Mikael Peterson, Johan Gustafsson, Michael Ljungberg
BACKGROUND: Monte Carlo simulations provide accurate models of nuclear medicine imaging systems as they can properly account for the full physics of photon transport. The accuracy of the model included in the maximum-likelihood-expectation-maximization (ML-EM) reconstruction limits the overall accuracy of the reconstruction results. In this paper, we present a Monte Carlo-based ML-EM reconstruction method for pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) that has been incorporated into the SIMIND Monte Carlo program...
December 15, 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230607/the-effect-of-high-count-rates-on-cardiac-perfusion-quantification-in-a-simultaneous-pet-mr-system-using-a-cardiac-perfusion-phantom
#6
Jim O' Doherty, Zacharias Chalampalakis, Paul Schleyer, Muhummad Sohaib Nazir, Amedeo Chiribiri, Paul K Marsden
BACKGROUND: PET-MRI is under investigation as a new strategy for quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging. Consideration is required as to the maximum scanner count rate in order to limit dead-time losses resulting from administered activity in the scanner field of view during the first pass of the radiotracer. RESULTS: We performed a decaying-source experiment to investigate the high count-rate performance of a PET-MR system (Siemens mMR) over the expected range of activities during a clinical study...
December 11, 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209862/model-selection-criteria-for-dynamic-brain-pet-studies
#7
Sandeep S V Golla, Sofie M Adriaanse, Maqsood Yaqub, Albert D Windhorst, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Bart N M van Berckel, Ronald Boellaard
BACKGROUND:  Several criteria exist to identify the optimal model for quantification of tracer kinetics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correspondence in kinetic model preference identification for brain PET studies among five model selection criteria: Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), AIC unbiased (AICC), model selection criterion (MSC), Schwartz Criterion (SC), and F-test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six tracers were evaluated: [11C]FMZ, [11C]GMOM, [11C]PK11195, [11C]Raclopride, [18F]FDG, and [11C]PHT, including data from five subjects per tracer...
December 6, 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199391/variations-in-the-practice-of-molecular-radiotherapy-and-implementation-of-dosimetry-results-from-a-european-survey
#8
Katarina Sjögreen Gleisner, Emiliano Spezi, Pavel Solny, Pablo Minguez Gabina, Francesco Cicone, Caroline Stokke, Carlo Chiesa, Maria Paphiti, Boudewijn Brans, Mattias Sandström, Jill Tipping, Mark Konijnenberg, Glenn Flux
BACKGROUND: Currently, the implementation of dosimetry in molecular radiotherapy (MRT) is not well investigated, and in view of the Council Directive (2013/59/Euratom), there is a need to understand the current availability of dosimetry-based MRT in clinical practice and research studies. The aim of this study was to assess the current practice of MRT and dosimetry across European countries. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to European countries...
December 4, 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726076/ejection-fraction-in-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-assessed-with-a-dynamic-phantom-comparison-between-iq-spect-and-lehr
#9
Eero Hippeläinen, Teemu Mäkelä, Touko Kaasalainen, Erna Kaleva
BACKGROUND: Developments in single photon emission tomography instrumentation and reconstruction methods present a potential for decreasing acquisition times. One of such recent options for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is IQ-SPECT. This study was motivated by the inconsistency in the reported ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular (LV) volume results between IQ-SPECT and more conventional low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimation protocols. IQ-SPECT and LEHR quantitative results were compared while the equivalent number of iterations (EI) was varied...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685477/design-and-implementation-of-a-prototype-head-and-neck-phantom-for-the-performance-evaluation-of-gamma-imaging-systems
#10
Mohammed S Alqahtani, John E Lees, Sarah L Bugby, Piyal Samara-Ratna, Aik H Ng, Alan C Perkins
BACKGROUND: A prototype anthropomorphic head and neck phantom has been designed to simulate the adult head and neck anatomy including some internal organs and tissues of interest, such as thyroid gland and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). The design of the head and neck phantom includes an inner jig holding the simulated SLNs and thyroid gland. The thyroid gland structure was manufactured using three-dimensional (3D) printing taking into consideration the morphology and shape of a healthy adult thyroid gland...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577291/a-czt-based-blood-counter-for-quantitative-molecular-imaging
#11
Romain Espagnet, Andrea Frezza, Jean-Pierre Martin, Louis-André Hamel, Laëtitia Lechippey, Jean-Mathieu Beauregard, Philippe Després
BACKGROUND: Robust quantitative analysis in positron emission tomography (PET) and in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) typically requires the time-activity curve as an input function for the pharmacokinetic modeling of tracer uptake. For this purpose, a new automated tool for the determination of blood activity as a function of time is presented. The device, compact enough to be used on the patient bed, relies on a peristaltic pump for continuous blood withdrawal at user-defined rates...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560574/eortc-pet-response-criteria-are-more-influenced-by-reconstruction-inconsistencies-than-percist-but-both-benefit-from-the-earl-harmonization-program
#12
Charline Lasnon, Elske Quak, Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Philippe Robin, Michael S Hofman, David Bourhis, Jason Callahan, David S Binns, Cédric Desmonts, Pierre-Yves Salaun, Rodney J Hicks, Nicolas Aide
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the consistency of PET evaluation response criteria in solid tumours (PERCIST) and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) classification across different reconstruction algorithms and whether aligning standardized uptake values (SUVs) to the European Association of Nuclear Medicine acquisition (EANM)/EARL standards provides more consistent response classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline (PET1) and response assessment (PET2) scans in 61 patients with non-small cell lung cancer were acquired in protocols compliant with the EANM guidelines and were reconstructed with point-spread function (PSF) or PSF + time-of-flight (TOF) reconstruction for optimal tumour detection and with a standardized ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction known to fulfil EANM harmonizing standards...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466279/using-31-p-mri-of-hydroxyapatite-for-bone-attenuation-correction-in-pet-mri-proof-of-concept-in-the-rodent-brain
#13
Vincent Lebon, Sébastien Jan, Yoann Fontyn, Brice Tiret, Géraldine Pottier, Emilie Jaumain, Julien Valette
BACKGROUND: The correction of γ-photon attenuation in PET-MRI remains a critical issue, especially for bone attenuation. This problem is of great importance for brain studies due to the density of the skull. Current techniques for skull attenuation correction (AC) provide indirect estimates of cortical bone density, leading to inaccurate estimates of brain activity. The purpose of this study was to develop an alternate method for bone attenuation correction based on NMR. The proposed approach relies on the detection of hydroxyapatite crystals by zero echo time (ZTE) MRI of (31)P, providing individual and quantitative assessment of bone density...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451906/saul-hertz-md-and-the-birth-of-radionuclide-therapy
#14
EDITORIAL
Frederic H Fahey, Frederick D Grant, James H Thrall
The year, 2016, marked the 75th anniversary of Dr. Saul Hertz first using radioiodine to treat a patient with thyroid disease. In November of 1936, a luncheon was held of the faculty of Harvard Medical School where Karl Compton, PhD, president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was invited to give a presentation entitled "What Physics Can Do for Biology and Medicine." Saul Hertz who attended the luncheon spontaneously asked the very pertinent question that perhaps changed the course of treatment of thyroid disease, "Could iodine be made radioactive artificially?" We review the events leading up to the asking of this question, the preclinical investigations by Dr...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283990/cerenkov-luminescence-imaging-physics-principles-and-potential-applications-in-biomedical-sciences
#15
REVIEW
Esther Ciarrocchi, Nicola Belcari
Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a novel imaging modality to study charged particles with optical methods by detecting the Cerenkov luminescence produced in tissue. This paper first describes the physical processes that govern the production and transport in tissue of Cerenkov luminescence. The detectors used for CLI and their most relevant specifications to optimize the acquisition of the Cerenkov signal are then presented, and CLI is compared with the other optical imaging modalities sharing the same data acquisition and processing methods...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260215/minimum-lesion-detectability-as-a-measure-of-pet-system-performance
#16
Stephen Adler, Jurgen Seidel, Peter Choyke, Michael V Knopp, Katherine Binzel, Jun Zhang, Craig Barker, Shielah Conant, Roberto Maass-Moreno
BACKGROUND: A phantom in combination with an imaging protocol was developed to measure the limit of small lesion detection on different PET systems. Seven small spheres with inner diameters ranging from 3.95 up to 15.43 mm were imaged in a Jaszczak ECT Phantom, in air, in a cold background, and with sphere to background contrast ratios of 15:1 down to 1.88:1. The imaging times varied from 1 to 16 min. The imaging protocol was performed on the Gemini TF and Vereos by Philips, the mCT and HRRT by Siemens, and the Discovery 710 by General Electric...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251575/mlaa-based-attenuation-correction-of-flexible-hardware-components-in-hybrid-pet-mr-imaging
#17
Thorsten Heußer, Christopher M Rank, Yannick Berker, Martin T Freitag, Marc Kachelrieß
BACKGROUND: Accurate PET quantification demands attenuation correction (AC) for both patient and hardware attenuation of the 511 keV annihilation photons. In hybrid PET/MR imaging, AC for stationary hardware components such as patient table and MR head coil is straightforward, employing CT-derived attenuation templates. AC for flexible hardware components such as MR-safe headphones and MR radiofrequency (RF) surface coils is more challenging. Registration-based approaches, aligning CT-based attenuation templates with the current patient position, have been proposed but are not used in clinical routine...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211032/depth-of-interaction-determination-in-monolithic-scintillator-with-double-side-sipm-readout
#18
Matteo Morrocchi, Giovanni Ambrosi, Maria Giuseppina Bisogni, Filippo Bosi, Marco Boretto, Piergiorgio Cerello, Maria Ionica, Ben Liu, Francesco Pennazio, Maria Antonietta Piliero, Giovanni Pirrone, Vasile Postolache, Richard Wheadon, Alberto Del Guerra
BACKGROUND: Monolithic scintillators read out by arrays of photodetectors represent a promising solution to obtain high spatial resolution and the depth of interaction (DOI) of the annihilation photon. We have recently investigated a detector geometry composed of a monolithic scintillator readout on two sides by silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays, and we have proposed two parameters for the DOI determination: the difference in the number of triggered SiPMs on the two sides of the detector and the difference in the maximum collected signal on a single SiPM on each side...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205113/cardiac-pet-ct-with-rb-82-optimization-of-image-acquisition-and-reconstruction-parameters
#19
P Chilra, S Gnesin, G Allenbach, M Monteiro, J O Prior, L Vieira, J A Pires Jorge
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to characterize the influence of time-of-flight (TOF) and point spread function (PSF) recovery corrections, as well as ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction parameters, in (82)Rb PET/CT quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Rest and stress list-mode dynamic (82)Rb PET acquisition data from 10 patients without myocardial flow defects and 10 patients with myocardial blood flow defects were reconstructed retrospectively...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144857/digital-pet-compliance-to-earl-accreditation-specifications
#20
Daniëlle Koopman, Maureen Groot Koerkamp, Pieter L Jager, Hester Arkies, Siert Knollema, Cornelis H Slump, Pedro G Sanches, Jorn A van Dalen
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to evaluate if a recently introduced TOF PET system with digital photon counting technology (Philips Healthcare), potentially providing an improved image quality over analogue systems, can fulfil EANM research Ltd (EARL) accreditation specifications for tumour imaging with FDG-PET/CT. FINDINGS: We have performed a phantom study on a digital TOF PET system using a NEMA NU2-2001 image quality phantom with six fillable spheres. Phantom preparation and PET/CT acquisition were performed according to the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
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