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Alessandro Stecco, Alessandra Trisoglio, Eleonora Soligo, Sara Berardo, Lidiia Sukhovei, Alessandro Carriero
Whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-MRI-DWI) is currently emerging as a diagnostic technique in the evaluation of bone metastases from breast, prostate, lung, thyroid, and melanoma tumors. The most relevant articles regarding the detection of solid tumor bone metastases with MRI have been reviewed and cited. The imaging methods currently used in the detection of bone metastases are bone scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG PET/CT)...
July 9, 2018: Diagnostics
Michael Auer, Harald Hegen, Dagmar Rudzki, Georg Golderer, Florian Deisenhammer
Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) has been used for identification of possible biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, in different studies inconsistent results have been obtained. We wanted to analyze the diagnostic value of 2D-DIGE in early MS patients by comparing protein patterns between single and pooled samples of MS patients and controls. CSF samples of 20 MS patients and 10 control subjects were processed with 2D-DIGE. The so obtained protein patterns were analyzed with DeCyder 6...
July 5, 2018: Diagnostics
Charlotte E Buchanan, Eleanor F Cox, Susan T Francis
A number of imaging readout schemes are proposed for renal arterial spin labeling (ASL) to quantify kidney cortex perfusion, including gradient echo-based methods of balanced fast field echo (bFFE) and gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI), or spin echo-based schemes of spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SE-EPI) and turbo spin-echo (TSE). Here, we compare these two-dimensional (2D) imaging schemes to evaluate the optimal imaging scheme for pulsed ASL (PASL) assessment of human kidney cortex perfusion at 3 T...
June 28, 2018: Diagnostics
María Goñi, Neil Basu, Alison D Murray, Gordon D Waiter
While fatigue is prevalent in chronic diseases, the neural mechanisms underlying this symptom remain unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to enable us to characterize this symptom. The aim of this review was to gather and appraise the current literature on MRI studies of fatigue in chronic diseases. We systematically searched the following databases: MedLine, PsycInfo, Embase and Scopus (inception to April 2016). We selected studies according to a predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
June 21, 2018: Diagnostics
Francis T Hane, Tao Li, Jennifer-Anne Plata, Ayman Hassan, Karl Granberg, Mitchell S Albert
Biomarkers have the potential to aid in the study of Alzheimer’s disease (AD); unfortunately, AD biomarker values often have a high degree of overlap between healthy and AD individuals. This study investigates the potential utility of a series of novel AD biomarkers, the sixty second 129 Xe retention time, and the xenon washout parameter, based on the washout of hyperpolarized 129 Xe from the brain of AD participants following inhalation. The xenon washout parameter is influenced by cerebral perfusion, T1 relaxation of xenon, and the xenon partition coefficient, all factors influenced by AD...
June 6, 2018: Diagnostics
Alessandra La Gioia, Emily Porter, Ilja Merunka, Atif Shahzad, Saqib Salahuddin, Marggie Jones, Martin O'Halloran
Electromagnetic (EM) medical technologies are rapidly expanding worldwide for both diagnostics and therapeutics. As these technologies are low-cost and minimally invasive, they have been the focus of significant research efforts in recent years. Such technologies are often based on the assumption that there is a contrast in the dielectric properties of different tissue types or that the properties of particular tissues fall within a defined range. Thus, accurate knowledge of the dielectric properties of biological tissues is fundamental to EM medical technologies...
June 5, 2018: Diagnostics
Bryony Hayes, Caroline Murphy, Aoife Crawley, Richard O'Kennedy
Cancer is the cause of death for one in seven individuals worldwide. It is widely acknowledged that screening and early diagnosis are of vital importance for improving the likelihood of recovery. However, given the costly, time-consuming, and invasive nature of the many methods currently in use, patients often do not take advantage of the services available to them. Consequently, many researchers are exploring the possibility of developing fast, reliable, and non-invasive diagnostic tools that can be used directly or by local physicians at the point-of-care...
June 2, 2018: Diagnostics
Denise Thigpen, Amanda Kappler, Rachel Brem
Thank you for your thoughtful comments regarding breast density legislation[...].
May 24, 2018: Diagnostics
Wendie A Berg, JoAnn Pushkin
We read with interest the article by Thigpen et al. [1]. With 34 states now having some form of density inform legislation[...].
May 24, 2018: Diagnostics
Bárbara L Oliveira, Daniela Godinho, Martin O'Halloran, Martin Glavin, Edward Jones, Raquel C Conceição
Currently, breast cancer often requires invasive biopsies for diagnosis, motivating researchers to design and develop non-invasive and automated diagnosis systems. Recent microwave breast imaging studies have shown how backscattered signals carry relevant information about the shape of a tumour, and tumour shape is often used with current imaging modalities to assess malignancy. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of microwave breast diagnosis systems which use machine learning to learn characteristics of benign and malignant tumours...
May 19, 2018: Diagnostics
Julie Ann Freischlag
Those who diagnose and treat patients with thoracic outlet syndrome, especially those patientswith neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome, have a practice, which needs to include many modalities todiagnose, treat, and intervene to improve their quality of life for the present and for the future.[...].
May 19, 2018: Diagnostics
Frank Twisk
Recently, the Dutch Health Council published their advisory report on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) which is meant to determine the medical policy with regard to ME in the Netherlands. The Health Council briefly discusses several diagnostic criteria and proposes to use new diagnostic criteria for "ME/CFS" in research and clinical practice in the future. The advisory report then summarizes organic abnormalities observed in the last decades and concludes that "ME/CFS" is a "serious, chronic, multisystem disease"...
May 16, 2018: Diagnostics
Thomas Rasmussen, Bjarke Follin, Jens Kastrup, Malene Brandt-Larsen, Jacob Madsen, Thomas Emil Christensen, Morten Juhl, Smadar Cohen, Karsten Pharao Hammelev, Christian Holdflod Møller, Jens Peter Goetze, Philip Hasbak, Andreas Kjær
Angiogenesis is considered integral to the reparative process after ischemic injury. The αv β₃ integrin is a critical modulator of angiogenesis and highly expressed in activated endothelial cells. 68 Ga-NODAGA-E[(cRGDyK)]₂ (RGD) is a positron-emission-tomography (PET) ligand targeted towards αv β₃ integrin. The aim was to present data for the uptake of RGD and correlate it with histology and to further illustrate the differences in angiogenesis due to porcine adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (pASC) or saline treatment in minipigs after induction of myocardial infarction (MI)...
May 16, 2018: Diagnostics
Johannes A Landsheer
BACKGROUND: although the existence of inconclusive medical test results or bio-markers is widely recognized, there are indications that this inherent diagnostic uncertainty is sometimes ignored. This paper discusses three methods for defining and determining inconclusive medical test results, which use different definitions and differ in clinical relevance. METHODS: the TG-ROC (two graphs receiver operating characteristics) method is the easiest to use, while the grey zone method and the uncertain interval method require more extensive calculations...
May 9, 2018: Diagnostics
Francesc Castro-Giner, Sofia Gkountela, Cinzia Donato, Ilaria Alborelli, Luca Quagliata, Charlotte K Y Ng, Salvatore Piscuoglio, Nicola Aceto
The field of cancer diagnostics has recently been impacted by new and exciting developments in the area of liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive alternative to surgical biopsies of solid tissues, typically achieved through the withdrawal of a blood sample or other body fluids, allowing the interrogation of tumor-derived material including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) fragments that are present at a given time point. In this short review, we discuss a few studies that summarize the state-of-the-art in the liquid biopsy field from a diagnostic perspective, and speculate on current challenges and expectations of implementing liquid biopsy testing for cancer diagnosis and monitoring in the clinical setting...
May 9, 2018: Diagnostics
Jenna Kitz, Lori E Lowes, David Goodale, Alison L Allan
The majority of cancer deaths occur because of metastasis since current therapies are largely non-curative in the metastatic setting. The use of in vivo preclinical mouse models for assessing metastasis is, therefore, critical for developing effective new cancer biomarkers and therapies. Although a number of quantitative tools have been previously developed to study in vivo metastasis, the detection and quantification of rare metastatic events has remained challenging. This review will discuss the use of circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis as an effective means of tracking and characterizing metastatic disease progression in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer and the resulting lessons learned about CTC and metastasis biology...
April 28, 2018: Diagnostics
Aiza Khan, Consolato Sergi
Sialidosis (MIM 256550) is a rare, autosomal recessive inherited disorder, caused by α- N -acetyl neuraminidase deficiency resulting from a mutation in the neuraminidase gene ( NEU1 ), located on 6p21.33. This genetic alteration leads to abnormal intracellular accumulation as well as urinary excretion of sialyloligosaccharides. A definitive diagnosis is made after the identification of a mutation in the NEU1 gene. So far, 40 mutations of NEU1 have been reported. An association exists between the impact of the individual mutations and the severity of clinical presentation of sialidosis...
April 25, 2018: Diagnostics
Consolato Sergi, Aneesh Dhiman, Jo-Ann Gray
The primary indication of fine-needle aspiration cytology of the head and neck region is a thyroid nodule or a mass located in the cervical area or the head. Although a thyroid nodule may raise the suspicion of malignancy, less than one in 20 cases results in a carcinoma. In addition, the list of differential diagnoses is quite different according to the age of the patient. A number of benign lesions, such as branchial cysts, sialadenosis, and sialoadenitis are often seen in childhood and youth. The malignant lesions that are on the top of the list of a pediatric mass of the head and neck (H&N) region include rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland...
April 22, 2018: Diagnostics
Jane Maestri Brittain, Lars Christian Gormsen, Eric von Benzon, Kim Francis Andersen
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) are related rheumatic diseases which are occasionally present concomitantly. PMR is characterized by synovitis and bursitis. In LVV, inflammation of the blood vessel wall is seen. Both disorders can be difficult to diagnose since patients often present non-specific symptoms and results of blood tests. The non-specific symptoms cannot always be distinguished from symptoms indicating an occult malignancy. We present a case of PMR and LVV in a Scandinavian man visualized on [18 F]-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) with the presentation of typically affected sites of joints and arteries and with the same imaging modality ruling out occult malignancy...
April 22, 2018: Diagnostics
Peter Ping Lin
Conventional circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection technologies are restricted to large tumor cells (> white blood cells (WBCs)), or those unique carcinoma cells with double positive expression of surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for isolation, and intracellular structural protein cytokeratins (CKs) for identification. With respect to detecting the full spectrum of highly heterogeneous circulating rare cells (CRCs), including CTCs and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), it is imperative to develop a strategy systematically coordinating all tri-elements of nucleic acids, biomarker proteins, and cellular morphology, to effectively enrich and comprehensively identify CRCs...
April 18, 2018: Diagnostics
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