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Jussi M Leppilahti, Ulla Harjunmaa, Jorma Järnstedt, Charles Mangani, Marcela Hernández, Taina Tervahartiala, Rodrigo Lopez, Ulla Ashorn, Per Ashorn, Dirk-Rolf Gieselmann, Timo Sorsa
A novel qualitative point-of-care test of activated matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) using noninvasive oral rinse sampling procedures has been developed for the early detection of collagen breakdown indicating periodontal tissue destruction. The main object of this study was to assess the reliability of the test in a low-income setting to identify participants with history of periodontal destruction detected as alveolar bone loss (ABL) in radiographs. This cross-sectional study included 486 women who had recently delivered in rural Malawi...
September 15, 2018: Diagnostics
Joseph Cotler, Carly Holtzman, Catherine Dudun, Leonard A Jason
Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Currently, five PEM-items from the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire (DSQ) were recommended as a first step in measuring this symptom for patients with ME and CFS by the National Institutes of Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NIH/CDC) Common Data Elements' (CDE) working group. The second step in this process, as recommended by the NIH/CDC CDE working group, involves assembling information from various sources to confirm the presence of PEM...
September 11, 2018: Diagnostics
Yongbo Liang, Zhencheng Chen, Rabab Ward, Mohamed Elgendi
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become the biggest threat to human health, and they are accelerated by hypertension. The best way to avoid the many complications of CVDs is to manage and prevent hypertension at an early stage. However, there are no symptoms at all for most types of hypertension, especially for prehypertension. The awareness and control rates of hypertension are extremely low. In this study, a novel hypertension management method based on arterial wave propagation theory and photoplethysmography (PPG) morphological theory was researched to explore the physiological changes in different blood pressure (BP) levels...
September 10, 2018: Diagnostics
Frank Twisk
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), identified as a new clinical entity with distinctive features in 1956, was originally considered as a neuromuscular disease. In 1988 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced the ill-defined concept of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). As predicted, CFS, unjustly considered to be a synonym for ME, pushed ME to the background. To develop effective therapies for of ME and CFS, it is essential to investigate patients with ME specifically. For that reason, an operational definition of ME is indispensable...
September 8, 2018: Diagnostics
Lucile Broncy, Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot
Renal cell carcinoma is a highly malignant cancer that would benefit from non-invasive innovative markers providing early diagnosis and recurrence detection. Circulating tumor cells are a particularly promising marker of tumor invasion that could be used to improve the management of patients with RCC. However, the extensive genetic and immunophenotypic heterogeneity of cells from RCC and their trend to transition to the mesenchymal phenotype when they circulate in blood constitute a challenge for their sensitive and specific detection...
September 3, 2018: Diagnostics
Arlou Kristina Angeles, Simone Bauer, Leonie Ratz, Sabine M Klauck, Holger Sültmann
In the past decade, multi-national and multi-center efforts were launched to sequence prostate cancer genomes, transcriptomes, and epigenomes with the aim of discovering the molecular underpinnings of tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and therapy resistance. Multiple biological markers and pathways have been discovered to be tumor drivers, and a molecular classification of prostate cancer is emerging. Here, we highlight crucial findings of these genome-sequencing projects in localized and advanced disease...
September 2, 2018: Diagnostics
Tomas Rydholm, Andreas Fhager, Mikael Persson, Shireen D Geimer, Paul M Meaney
A breast phantom developed at the Supelec Institute was interrogated to study its suitability for microwave tomography measurements. A microwave measurement system based on 16 monopole antennas and a vector network analyzer was used to study how the S-parameters are influenced by insertion of the phantom. The phantom is a 3D-printed structure consisting of plastic shells that can be filled with tissue mimicking liquids. The phantom was filled with different liquids and tested with the measurement system to determine whether the plastic has any effects on the recovered images or not...
September 1, 2018: Diagnostics
Marvin C J Lim, Anne-Marie Baird, John Aird, John Greene, Dhruv Kapoor, Steven G Gray, Ray McDermott, Stephen P Finn
The treatment landscape of prostate cancer has evolved rapidly over the past five years. The explosion in treatment advances has been witnessed in parallel with significant progress in the field of molecular biomarkers. The advent of next-generation sequencing has enabled the molecular profiling of the genomic and transcriptomic architecture of prostate and other cancers. Coupled with this, is a renewed interest in the role of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) in prostate cancer biology. ncRNA consists of several different classes including small non-coding RNA (sncRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), and circular RNA (circRNA)...
August 30, 2018: Diagnostics
Kevin Leone, Cristina Poggiana, Rita Zamarchi
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have aroused increasing interest not only in mechanistic studies of metastasis, but also for translational applications, such as patient monitoring, treatment choice, and treatment change due to tumor resistance. In this review, we will assess the state of the art about the study of the interactions between CTCs and the immune system. We intend to analyze the impact that the cells of the immune system have in limiting or promoting the metastatic capability of CTCs. To this purpose, we will examine studies that correlate CTCs, immune cells, and patient prognosis, and we will also discuss relevant animal models that have contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms of immune-mediated metastasis...
August 30, 2018: Diagnostics
Melissa J Whaley, Laurel T Jenkins, Fang Hu, Alexander Chen, Seydou Diarra, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Claudio T Sacchi, Xin Wang
Detection of Neisseria meningitidis has become less time- and resource-intensive with a monoplex direct real-time PCR (drt-PCR) to amplify genes from clinical specimens without DNA extraction. To further improve efficiency, we evaluated two triplex drt-PCR assays for the detection of meningococcal serogroups AWX and BCY. The sensitivity and specificity of the triplex assays were assessed using 228 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from meningitis patients and compared to the monoplex for six serogroups. The lower limit of detection range for six serogroup-specific drt-PCR assays was 178⁻5264 CFU/mL by monoplex and 68⁻2221 CFU/mL by triplex...
August 30, 2018: Diagnostics
Agnieszka Latosinska, Maria Frantzi, Axel S Merseburger, Harald Mischak
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in men. Despite the broad use of prostate-specific antigen test that resulted in an increase in number of diagnosed cases, disease management needs to be improved. Proteomic biomarkers alone and or in combination with clinical and pathological risk calculators are expected to improve on decreasing the unnecessary biopsies, stratify low risk patients, and predict response to treatment. To this end, significant efforts have been undertaken to identify novel biomarkers that can accurately discriminate between indolent and aggressive cancer forms and indicate those men at high risk for developing prostate cancer that require immediate treatment...
August 29, 2018: Diagnostics
Soheila Gheisari, Daniel R Catchpoole, Amanda Charlton, Zsombor Melegh, Elise Gradhand, Paul J Kennedy
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid malignancy in early childhood. Optimal management of neuroblastoma depends on many factors, including histopathological classification. Although histopathology study is considered the gold standard for classification of neuroblastoma histological images, computers can help to extract many more features some of which may not be recognizable by human eyes. This paper, proposes a combination of Scale Invariant Feature Transform with feature encoding algorithm to extract highly discriminative features...
August 28, 2018: Diagnostics
Patrick Haubruck, Raban Heller, Michael C Tanner, Volker Daniel, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Farhoud Bolourchi, Arash Moghaddam, Christian Fischer
The current study investigates if contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) or cytokine expression analysis (CEA) evaluating vascularization are capable of predicting the outcome of non-union therapy. Patients with tibial non-unions were surgically treated and participated in our follow-up program including perioperative collection of blood as well as CEUS analysis. Two groups were formed: Responders in group 1 (G1, N = 8) and Non-Responders in group 2 (G2, N = 5). Serum cytokine expression and local microperfusion were compared and correlated to the radiologic outcome...
August 24, 2018: Diagnostics
Dennis Wörtge, Jochen Moll, Viktor Krozer, Babak Bazrafshan, Frank Hübner, Clara Park, Thomas J Vogl
Hemispherical and cylindrical antenna arrays are widely used in radar-based and tomography-based microwave breast imaging systems. Based on the dielectric contrast between healthy and malignant tissue, a three-dimensional image could be formed to locate the tumor. However, conventional X-ray mammography as the golden standard in breast cancer screening produces two-dimensional breast images so that a comparison between the 3D microwave image and the 2D mammogram could be difficult. In this paper, we present the design and realisation of a UWB breast imaging prototype for the frequency band from 1 to 9 GHz...
August 21, 2018: Diagnostics
Angie Fasoula, Luc Duchesne, Julio Daniel Gil Cano, Peter Lawrence, Guillaume Robin, Jean-Gael Bernard
This paper presents the Wavelia microwave breast imaging system that has been recently installed at the Galway University Hospital, Ireland, for a first-in-human pilot clinical test. Microwave breast imaging has been extensively investigated over the last two decades as an alternative imaging modality that could potentially bring complementary information to state-of-the-art modalities such as X-ray mammography. Following an overview of the main working principles of this technology, the Wavelia imaging system architecture is presented, as are the radar signal processing algorithms that are used in forming the microwave images in which small tumors could be detectable for disease diagnosis...
August 18, 2018: Diagnostics
Zhenzhuang Miao, Panagiotis Kosmas, Syed Ahsan
This paper studies how limited information in data acquired by a wideband microwave tomography (MWT) system can affect the quality of reconstructed images. Limitations can arise from experimental errors, mismatch between the system and its model in the imaging algorithm, or losses in the immersion and coupling medium which are required to moderate this mismatch. We also present a strategy for improving reconstruction performance by discarding data that is dominated by experimental errors. The approach relies on recording transmitted signals in a wide frequency range, and then correlating the data in different frequencies...
August 14, 2018: Diagnostics
Aitana Pascual-Belda, Antonio Díaz-Parra, David Moratal
The study of resting-state functional brain networks is a powerful tool to understand the neurological bases of a variety of disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this work, we have studied the differences in functional brain connectivity between a group of 74 ASD subjects and a group of 82 typical-development (TD) subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We have used a network approach whereby the brain is divided into discrete regions or nodes that interact with each other through connections or edges...
August 7, 2018: Diagnostics
Tobias Todsen, Mads Georg Stage, Christoffer Holst Hahn
Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is a common complication to acute tonsillitis. The treatment is drainage of the abscess, but many needle aspirations are unsuccessful due to a low diagnostic accuracy based on oral examination only. In this article, we describe how intraoral ultrasound can be added to improve the diagnostic work-up of PTA and present a novel technique for ultrasound-guided aspiration of PTA, using a small pencil-shaped transducer. We present our first clinical experiences with this technique and describe how it could be integrated in a clinical setting to guide safe and successful needle aspirations of PTA...
August 2, 2018: Diagnostics
Kevin Cao, Callum Arthurs, Ali Atta-Ul, Michael Millar, Mariana Beltran, Jochen Neuhaus, Lars-Christian Horn, Rui Henrique, Aamir Ahmed, Christopher Thrasivoulou
Prostate cancer is the third highest cause of male mortality in the developed world, with the burden of the disease increasing dramatically with demographic change. There are significant limitations to the current diagnostic regimens and no established effective screening modality. To this end, research has discovered hundreds of potential 'biomarkers' that may one day be of use in screening, diagnosis or prognostication. However, the barriers to bringing biomarkers to clinical evaluation and eventually into clinical usage have yet to be realised...
July 27, 2018: Diagnostics
Akiyoshi Hizukuri, Ryohei Nakayama
It can be difficult for clinicians to accurately discriminate among histological classifications of breast lesions on ultrasonographic images. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) scheme for determining histological classifications of breast lesions using a convolutional neural network (CNN). Our database consisted of 578 breast ultrasonographic images. It included 287 malignant (217 invasive carcinomas and 70 noninvasive carcinomas) and 291 benign lesions (111 cysts and 180 fibroadenomas)...
July 25, 2018: Diagnostics
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