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Diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783760/diagnosing-breast-cancer-with-microwave-technology-remaining-challenges-and-potential-solutions-with-machine-learning
#1
Bárbara L Oliveira, Daniela Godinho, Martin O'Halloran, Martin Glavin, Edward Jones, Raquel C Conceição
Currently, breast cancer often requires invasive biopsies for diagnosis, motivating researchers to design and develop non-invasive and automated diagnosis systems. Recent microwave breast imaging studies have shown how backscattered signals carry relevant information about the shape of a tumour, and tumour shape is often used with current imaging modalities to assess malignancy. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of microwave breast diagnosis systems which use machine learning to learn characteristics of benign and malignant tumours...
May 19, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783723/the-art-of-caring-in-the-treatment-of-thoracic-outlet-syndrome
#2
EDITORIAL
Julie Ann Freischlag
Those who diagnose and treat patients with thoracic outlet syndrome, especially those patientswith neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome, have a practice, which needs to include many modalities todiagnose, treat, and intervene to improve their quality of life for the present and for the future.[...].
May 19, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772739/dutch-health-council-advisory-report-on-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-taking-the-wrong-turn
#3
Frank Twisk
Recently, the Dutch Health Council published their advisory report on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) which is meant to determine the medical policy with regard to ME in the Netherlands. The Health Council briefly discusses several diagnostic criteria and proposes to use new diagnostic criteria for "ME/CFS" in research and clinical practice in the future. The advisory report then summarizes organic abnormalities observed in the last decades and concludes that "ME/CFS" is a "serious, chronic, multisystem disease"...
May 16, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772738/angiogenesis-pet-tracer-uptake-68-ga-nodaga-e-crgdyk-%C3%A2-in-induced-myocardial-infarction-and-stromal-cell-treatment-in-minipigs
#4
Thomas Rasmussen, Bjarke Follin, Jens Kastrup, Malene Brandt-Larsen, Jacob Madsen, Thomas Emil Christensen, Morten Juhl, Smadar Cohen, Karsten Pharao Hammelev, Christian Holdflod Møller, Jens Peter Goetze, Philip Hasbak, Andreas Kjær
Angiogenesis is considered integral to the reparative process after ischemic injury. The αv β₃ integrin is a critical modulator of angiogenesis and highly expressed in activated endothelial cells. 68 Ga-NODAGA-E[(cRGDyK)]₂ (RGD) is a positron-emission-tomography (PET) ligand targeted towards αv β₃ integrin. The aim was to present data for the uptake of RGD and correlate it with histology and to further illustrate the differences in angiogenesis due to porcine adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (pASC) or saline treatment in minipigs after induction of myocardial infarction (MI)...
May 16, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747402/the-clinical-relevance-of-methods-for-handling-inconclusive-medical-test-results-quantification-of-uncertainty-in-medical-decision-making-and-screening
#5
REVIEW
Johannes A Landsheer
BACKGROUND: although the existence of inconclusive medical test results or bio-markers is widely recognized, there are indications that this inherent diagnostic uncertainty is sometimes ignored. This paper discusses three methods for defining and determining inconclusive medical test results, which use different definitions and differ in clinical relevance. METHODS: the TG-ROC (two graphs receiver operating characteristics) method is the easiest to use, while the grey zone method and the uncertain interval method require more extensive calculations...
May 9, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747380/cancer-diagnosis-using-a-liquid-biopsy-challenges-and-expectations
#6
REVIEW
Francesc Castro-Giner, Sofia Gkountela, Cinzia Donato, Ilaria Alborelli, Luca Quagliata, Charlotte K Y Ng, Salvatore Piscuoglio, Nicola Aceto
The field of cancer diagnostics has recently been impacted by new and exciting developments in the area of liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive alternative to surgical biopsies of solid tissues, typically achieved through the withdrawal of a blood sample or other body fluids, allowing the interrogation of tumor-derived material including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) fragments that are present at a given time point. In this short review, we discuss a few studies that summarize the state-of-the-art in the liquid biopsy field from a diagnostic perspective, and speculate on current challenges and expectations of implementing liquid biopsy testing for cancer diagnosis and monitoring in the clinical setting...
May 9, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710776/circulating-tumor-cell-analysis-in-preclinical-mouse-models-of-metastasis
#7
REVIEW
Jenna Kitz, Lori E Lowes, David Goodale, Alison L Allan
The majority of cancer deaths occur because of metastasis since current therapies are largely non-curative in the metastatic setting. The use of in vivo preclinical mouse models for assessing metastasis is, therefore, critical for developing effective new cancer biomarkers and therapies. Although a number of quantitative tools have been previously developed to study in vivo metastasis, the detection and quantification of rare metastatic events has remained challenging. This review will discuss the use of circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis as an effective means of tracking and characterizing metastatic disease progression in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer and the resulting lessons learned about CTC and metastasis biology...
April 28, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693572/sialidosis-a-review-of-morphology-and-molecular-biology-of-a-rare-pediatric-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Aiza Khan, Consolato Sergi
Sialidosis (MIM 256550) is a rare, autosomal recessive inherited disorder, caused by α- N -acetyl neuraminidase deficiency resulting from a mutation in the neuraminidase gene ( NEU1 ), located on 6p21.33. This genetic alteration leads to abnormal intracellular accumulation as well as urinary excretion of sialyloligosaccharides. A definitive diagnosis is made after the identification of a mutation in the NEU1 gene. So far, 40 mutations of NEU1 have been reported. An association exists between the impact of the individual mutations and the severity of clinical presentation of sialidosis...
April 25, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690556/fine-needle-aspiration-cytology-for-neck-masses-in-childhood-an-illustrative-approach
#9
REVIEW
Consolato Sergi, Aneesh Dhiman, Jo-Ann Gray
The primary indication of fine-needle aspiration cytology of the head and neck region is a thyroid nodule or a mass located in the cervical area or the head. Although a thyroid nodule may raise the suspicion of malignancy, less than one in 20 cases results in a carcinoma. In addition, the list of differential diagnoses is quite different according to the age of the patient. A number of benign lesions, such as branchial cysts, sialadenosis, and sialoadenitis are often seen in childhood and youth. The malignant lesions that are on the top of the list of a pediatric mass of the head and neck (H&N) region include rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland...
April 22, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690555/concomitant-polymyalgia-rheumatica-and-large-vessel-vasculitis-visualized-on-18-f-fdg-pet-ct
#10
Jane Maestri Brittain, Lars Christian Gormsen, Eric von Benzon, Kim Francis Andersen
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) are related rheumatic diseases which are occasionally present concomitantly. PMR is characterized by synovitis and bursitis. In LVV, inflammation of the blood vessel wall is seen. Both disorders can be difficult to diagnose since patients often present non-specific symptoms and results of blood tests. The non-specific symptoms cannot always be distinguished from symptoms indicating an occult malignancy. We present a case of PMR and LVV in a Scandinavian man visualized on [18 F]-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) with the presentation of typically affected sites of joints and arteries and with the same imaging modality ruling out occult malignancy...
April 22, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670052/aneuploid-ctc-and-cec
#11
REVIEW
Peter Ping Lin
Conventional circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection technologies are restricted to large tumor cells (> white blood cells (WBCs)), or those unique carcinoma cells with double positive expression of surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for isolation, and intracellular structural protein cytokeratins (CKs) for identification. With respect to detecting the full spectrum of highly heterogeneous circulating rare cells (CRCs), including CTCs and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), it is imperative to develop a strategy systematically coordinating all tri-elements of nucleic acids, biomarker proteins, and cellular morphology, to effectively enrich and comprehensively identify CRCs...
April 18, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670012/percutaneous-imaging-guided-biopsy-of-bone-metastases
#12
REVIEW
Dimitrios Filippiadis, Argyro Mazioti, Alexios Kelekis
Approximately 70% of cancer patients will eventually develop bone metastases. Spine, due to the abundance of red marrow in the vertebral bodies and the communication of deep thoracic-pelvic veins with valve-less vertebral venous plexuses, is the most common site of osseous metastatic disease. Open biopsies run the risk of destabilizing an already diseased spinal or peripheral skeleton segment. Percutaneous biopsies obviate such issues and provide immediate confirmation of correct needle location in the area of interest...
April 18, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673157/optimization-of-stress-based-microfluidic-testing-for-methicillin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-strains
#13
Maxim Kalashnikov, Jean C Lee, Alexis F Sauer-Budge
The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is driving the development of innovative, rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) tools as a way to provide more targeted and timely antibiotic treatment. We have previously presented a stress-based microfluidic method for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this method, stress is used to potentiate the action of antibiotics, and cell death is measured as a proxy for susceptibility...
April 17, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641512/perspective-on-cancer-therapeutics-utilizing-analysis-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#14
Keun-Yeong Jeong, Eun Kyung Kim, Min Hee Park, Hwan Mook Kim
Various methods are available for cancer screening, and the methods are performed depending on the origin site of cancer. Among these methods, biopsy followed by medical imaging is the most common. After cancer progression is determined, an optimal treatment-such as surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy-is selected. A new assay has been developed that detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Tracking changes in CTCs may reveal important tumoral sensitivity information or resistance patterns to specific regimens and prompt changes in therapy on a personalized basis...
April 11, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617294/synthesized-mammography-clinical-evidence-appearance-and-implementation
#15
REVIEW
Melissa A Durand
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has improved conventional mammography by increasing cancer detection while reducing recall rates. However, these benefits come at the cost of increased radiation dose. Synthesized mammography (s2D) has been developed to provide the advantages of DBT with nearly half the radiation dose. Since its F.D.A. approval, multiple studies have evaluated the clinical performance of s2D. In clinical practice, s2D images are not identical to conventional 2D images and are designed for interpretation with DBT as a complement...
April 4, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558408/diagnosing-thoracic-outlet-syndrome-current-approaches-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Sebastian Povlsen, Bo Povlsen
The diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) has long been a controversial and challenging one. Despite common presentations with pain in the neck and upper extremity, there are a host of presenting patterns that can vary within and between the subdivisions of neurogenic, venous, and arterial TOS. Furthermore, there is a plethora of differential diagnoses, from peripheral compressive neuropathies, to intrinsic shoulder pathologies, to pathologies at the cervical spine. Depending on the subdivision of TOS suspected, diagnostic investigations are currently of varying importance, necessitating high dependence on good history taking and clinical examination...
March 20, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547532/the-role-of-ultrasound-in-screening-dense-breasts-a-review-of-the-literature-and-practical-solutions-for-implementation
#17
REVIEW
Denise Thigpen, Amanda Kappler, Rachel Brem
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Estimates indicate a nearly 40% breast cancer mortality reduction when screening women annually starting at age 40. Although mammography is well known to be a powerful screening tool in the detection of early breast cancer, it is imperfect, particularly for women with dense breasts. In women with dense breast tissue, the sensitivity of mammography is reduced. Additionally, women with dense breasts have an increased risk of developing breast cancer while mammography has a lower sensitivity...
March 16, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534018/eyeing-up-the-future-of-the-pupillary-light-reflex-in-neurodiagnostics
#18
REVIEW
Charlotte A Hall, Robert P Chilcott
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) describes the constriction and subsequent dilation of the pupil in response to light as a result of the antagonistic actions of the iris sphincter and dilator muscles. Since these muscles are innervated by the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, respectively, different parameters of the PLR can be used as indicators for either sympathetic or parasympathetic modulation. Thus, the PLR provides an important metric of autonomic nervous system function that has been exploited for a wide range of clinical applications...
March 13, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495541/dosimetry-based-consideration-on-remission-and-relapse-after-therapy-with-223-ra-dichloride-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-crpc-with-bone-metastases-a-case-report
#19
Anna Maria Mangano, Massimiliano Pacilio, Pasquale Ialongo, Alessandro Semprebene, Guido Ventroni, Lucio Mango
Here, we present the case of a 64-year-old male patient diagnosed with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with bone metastasis, treated with abiraterone prednisone/prednisolone in combination with 223 Ra-dichloride therapy, who had remission and a subsequent relapse of bone metastasis on repeated bone scans after therapy. We also discuss the possibility of continuing the 223 Ra-dichloride therapy over the six planned administrations by administering other cycles at the same dose or at higher doses, if shown to be devoid of a significant increase in side effects, based on dosimetry considerations...
February 27, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473859/impact-on-clinical-management-of-after-hours-emergent-or-urgent-breast-ultrasonography-in-patients-with-clinically-suspected-breast-abscesses
#20
Tanya W Moseley, Ashley Stanley, Wei Wei, Jay R Parikh
Newly diagnosed breast abscesses are generally treated as a medical emergency that may necessitate immediate interventional treatment. At our institution, there is no in-house after-hours coverage for breast ultrasonography. We could find no peer-reviewed studies on the cost-effectiveness or clinical management impact of on-call ultrasound technologist coverage for imaging of breast abscesses. The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence of breast abscess in patients with clinical findings highly suggestive of abscess, identify clinical factors associated with breast abscess in such patients, and determine the impact of after-hours emergent or urgent breast ultrasonography on the clinical management of breast abscesses in both outpatients and inpatients...
February 23, 2018: Diagnostics
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