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Sebastian Povlsen, Bo Povlsen
The diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) has long been a controversial and challenging one. Despite common presentations with pain in the neck and upper extremity, there are a host of presenting patterns that can vary within and between the subdivisions of neurogenic, venous, and arterial TOS. Furthermore, there is a plethora of differential diagnoses, from peripheral compressive neuropathies, to intrinsic shoulder pathologies, to pathologies at the cervical spine. Depending on the subdivision of TOS suspected, diagnostic investigations are currently of varying importance, necessitating high dependence on good history taking and clinical examination...
March 20, 2018: Diagnostics
Denise Thigpen, Amanda Kappler, Rachel Brem
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Estimates indicate a nearly 40% breast cancer mortality reduction when screening women annually starting at age 40. Although mammography is well known to be a powerful screening tool in the detection of early breast cancer, it is imperfect, particularly for women with dense breasts. In women with dense breast tissue, the sensitivity of mammography is reduced. Additionally, women with dense breasts have an increased risk of developing breast cancer while mammography has a lower sensitivity...
March 16, 2018: Diagnostics
Charlotte A Hall, Robert P Chilcott
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) describes the constriction and subsequent dilation of the pupil in response to light as a result of the antagonistic actions of the iris sphincter and dilator muscles. Since these muscles are innervated by the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, respectively, different parameters of the PLR can be used as indicators for either sympathetic or parasympathetic modulation. Thus, the PLR provides an important metric of autonomic nervous system function that has been exploited for a wide range of clinical applications...
March 13, 2018: Diagnostics
Anna Maria Mangano, Massimiliano Pacilio, Pasquale Ialongo, Alessandro Semprebene, Guido Ventroni, Lucio Mango
Here, we present the case of a 64-year-old male patient diagnosed with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with bone metastasis, treated with abiraterone prednisone/prednisolone in combination with223 Ra-dichloride therapy, who had remission and a subsequent relapse of bone metastasis on repeated bone scans after therapy. We also discuss the possibility of continuing the223 Ra-dichloride therapy over the six planned administrations by administering other cycles at the same dose or at higher doses, if shown to be devoid of a significant increase in side effects, based on dosimetry considerations...
February 27, 2018: Diagnostics
Tanya W Moseley, Ashley Stanley, Wei Wei, Jay R Parikh
Newly diagnosed breast abscesses are generally treated as a medical emergency that may necessitate immediate interventional treatment. At our institution, there is no in-house after-hours coverage for breast ultrasonography. We could find no peer-reviewed studies on the cost-effectiveness or clinical management impact of on-call ultrasound technologist coverage for imaging of breast abscesses. The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence of breast abscess in patients with clinical findings highly suggestive of abscess, identify clinical factors associated with breast abscess in such patients, and determine the impact of after-hours emergent or urgent breast ultrasonography on the clinical management of breast abscesses in both outpatients and inpatients...
February 23, 2018: Diagnostics
Nat P Lenzo, Danielle Meyrick, J Harvey Turner
Over 90% of prostate cancers over-express prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and these tumor cells may be accurately targeted for diagnosis by 68 Ga-PSMA-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 68 Ga-PSMA-PET/CT) imaging. This novel molecular imaging modality appears clinically to have superseded CT, and appears superior to MR imaging, for the detection of metastatic disease. 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT has the ability to reliably stage prostate cancer at presentation and can help inform an optimal treatment approach...
February 11, 2018: Diagnostics
David Jun Yan, Vincent Lenoir, Sibylle Chatelain, Salvatore Stefanelli, Minerva Becker
Isolated congenital vomer agenesis is a very rare and poorly understood condition. In the context of dental work-up by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the explored volume of the facial bones occasionally reveals incidental abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year old Caucasian female who underwent CBCT for the pre-treatment evaluation of primary failure of tooth eruption affecting the permanent right upper and inferior molars. CBCT depicted a large defect of the postero-inferior part of the nasal septum without associated soft tissue abnormality and without cranio-facial malformation or cleft palate...
February 10, 2018: Diagnostics
Corinna M Bauer, Howard J Cabral, Ronald J Killiany
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are associated with widespread changes in brain structure and function, as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometry and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography (FDG PET) metabolism. Nevertheless, the ability to differentiate between AD, MCI and normal aging groups can be difficult. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify the combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, MRI morphometry, FDG PET metabolism and neuropsychological test scores to that best differentiate between a sample of normal aging subjects and those with MCI and AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
February 6, 2018: Diagnostics
Crystal D Karakochuk, Amanda M Henderson, Kaitlyn L I Samson, Abeer M Aljaadi, Angela M Devlin, Elodie Becquey, James P Wirth, Fabian Rohner
Recently, a multiplex ELISA (Quansys Biosciences) was developed that measures ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol-binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), α¹-acid glycoprotein (AGP), thyroglobulin, and histidine-rich protein 2. Our primary aim was to conduct a method-comparison study to compare five biomarkers (ferritin, sTfR, RBP, CRP, and AGP) measured with the Quansys assay and a widely-used s-ELISA (VitMin Lab, Willstaett, Germany) with use of serum samples from 180 women and children from Burkina Faso, Cambodia, and Malaysia...
February 2, 2018: Diagnostics
Valentine Saasa, Thomas Malwela, Mervyn Beukes, Matlou Mokgotho, Chaun-Pu Liu, Bonex Mwakikunga
The review describes the technologies used in the field of breath analysis to diagnose and monitor diabetes mellitus. Currently the diagnosis and monitoring of blood glucose and ketone bodies that are used in clinical studies involve the use of blood tests. This method entails pricking fingers for a drop of blood and placing a drop on a sensitive area of a strip which is pre-inserted into an electronic reading instrument. Furthermore, it is painful, invasive and expensive, and can be unsafe if proper handling is not undertaken...
January 31, 2018: Diagnostics
Garret Adam, Kevin Wang, Christopher J Demaree, Jenny S Jiang, Mathew Cheung, Carlos F Bechara, Peter H Lin
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a neurovascular condition involving the upper extremity, which is known to occur in individuals who perform chronic repetitive upper extremity activities. We prospectively evaluate the incidence of TOS in high-performance musicians who played bowed string musicians. Sixty-four high-performance string instrument musicians from orchestras and professional musical bands were included in the study. Fifty-two healthy volunteers formed an age-matched control group. Bilateral upper extremity duplex scanning for subclavian vessel compression was performed in all subjects...
January 25, 2018: Diagnostics
Colin P Ryan, Nicolas J Mouawad, Patrick S Vaccaro, Michael R Go
Controversies in the treatment of venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS) have been discussed for decades, but still persist. Calls for more objective reporting standards have pushed practice towards comprehensive venous evaluations and interventions after first rib resection (FRR) for all patients. In our practice, we have relied on patient-centered, patient-reported outcomes to guide adjunctive treatment and measure success. Thus, we sought to investigate the use of thrombolysis versus anticoagulation alone, timing of FRR following thrombolysis, post-FRR venous intervention, and FRR for McCleery syndrome (MCS) and their impact on patient symptoms and return to function...
January 23, 2018: Diagnostics
Mohamed Elgendi, Abdulla Al-Ali, Amr Mohamed, Rabab Ward
Recent advances in mobile technology have created a shift towards using battery-driven devices in remote monitoring settings and smart homes. Clinicians are carrying out diagnostic and screening procedures based on the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals collected remotely for outpatients who need continuous monitoring. High-speed transmission and analysis of large recorded ECG signals are essential, especially with the increased use of battery-powered devices. Exploring low-power alternative compression methodologies that have high efficiency and that enable ECG signal collection, transmission, and analysis in a smart home or remote location is required...
January 16, 2018: Diagnostics
Lars J Petersen, Jesper Strandberg, Louise Stenholt, Martin B Johansen, Helle D Zacho
Bone scintigraphy is key in imaging skeletal metastases in newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Unfortunately, a notable proportion of scans are not readily classified as positive or negative but deemed indeterminate. The extent of reporting of indeterminate bone scans and how such scans are handled in clinical trials are not known. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases up to October 2016. The main outcome of interest was the reporting of indeterminate bone scans, analyses of how such scans were managed, and exploratory analyses of the association of study characteristics and the reporting of indeterminate bone scan results...
January 16, 2018: Diagnostics
Marie Øbro Fosbøl, Anders Bilde, Jeppe Friborg, Eric von Benzon, Andreas Kjær, Christian von Buchwald, Lise Borgwardt
Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is an uncommon neuroendocrine tumor originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium and accounts for 3-6% of all intranasal tumors [¹]. ENBs can be locally aggressive and cause invasion and destruction of surrounding structures. Histological grading and clinical stage at presentation are highly predictive of survival and especially presence of lymph node and distant metastases are determining prognostic factors [²,³,⁴,⁵]. Thus, reliable imaging is essential in these patients...
January 14, 2018: Diagnostics
Jesse Peek, Cornelis G Vos, Çağdas Ünlü, Michiel A Schreve, Rob H W van de Mortel, Jean-Paul P M de Vries
First rib resection for thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is clinically successful and safe in most patients. However, long-term functional outcomes are still insufficiently known. Long-term functional outcome was assessed using a validated questionnaire. A multicenter retrospective cohort study including all patients who underwent operations for TOS from January 2005 until December 2016. Clinical records were reviewed and the long-term functional outcome was assessed by the 11-item version of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire...
January 12, 2018: Diagnostics
Carrie Haslam, Samar Damiati, Toby Whitley, Paul Davey, Emmanuel Ifeachor, Shakil A Awan
We report on the development of label-free chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene field effect transistor (GFET) immunosensors for the sensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), a glycoprotein risk biomarker of certain cancers. The GFET sensors were fabricated on Si/SiO₂ substrate using photolithography with evaporated chromium and sputtered gold contacts. GFET channels were functionalised with a linker molecule to an immobile anti-hCG antibody on the surface of graphene. The binding reaction of the antibody with varying concentration levels of hCG antigen demonstrated the limit of detection of the GFET sensors to be below 1 pg/mL using four-probe electrical measurements...
January 8, 2018: Diagnostics
Tze Min Wah, Steven Sourbron, Daniel Jonathan Wilson, Derek Magee, Walter Martin Gregory, Peter John Selby, David L Buckley
AIM: To investigate if the early treatment effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be detected with dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI and to correlate RCC perfusion with RFA treatment time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 20 patients undergoing RFA of their 21 RCCs were evaluated with DCE-MRI before and at one month after RFA treatment. Perfusion was estimated using the maximum slope technique at two independent sittings. Total RCC blood flow was correlated with total RFA treatment time, tumour location, size and histology...
January 8, 2018: Diagnostics
Fabio Nery, Isky Gordon, David L Thomas
Tissue perfusion allows for delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues, and in the kidneys is also a key determinant of glomerular filtration. Quantification of regional renal perfusion provides a potential window into renal (patho) physiology. However, non-invasive, practical, and robust methods to measure renal perfusion remain elusive, particularly in the clinic. Arterial spin labeling (ASL), a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, is arguably the only available method with potential to meet all these needs...
January 5, 2018: Diagnostics
Edward J Pavlik
Ovarian cancer screening has been described in scientific reports [1-4], as well as in reviews and summaries[...].
December 29, 2017: Diagnostics
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