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Alice Senescau, Tatiana Kempowsky, Elodie Bernard, Sylvain Messier, Philippe Besse, Richard Fabre, Jean Marie François
Clinical microbiology is experiencing the emergence of the syndromic approach of diagnosis. This paradigm shift will require innovative technologies to detect rapidly, and in a single sample, multiple pathogens associated with an infectious disease. Here, we report on a multiplex technology based on DNA-microarray that allows detecting and discriminating 11 bacteria implicated in respiratory tract infection. The process requires a PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rDNA, a 30 min hybridization step on species-specific oligoprobes covalently linked on dendrimers coated glass slides (DendriChips® ) and a reading of the slides by a dedicated laser scanner...
November 11, 2018: Diagnostics
Theodoros G Soldatos, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Lionel Larribere, Jessica C Hassel, Christos Sachpekidis
Recent studies suggest that combining nivolumab with ipilimumab is a more effective treatment for melanoma patients, compared to using ipilimumab or nivolumab alone. However, treatment with these immunotherapeutic agents is frequently associated with increased risk of toxicity, and (auto-) immune-related adverse events. The precise pathophysiologic mechanisms of these events are not yet clear, and evidence from clinical trials and translational studies remains limited. Our retrospective analysis of ~7700 metastatic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab and/or nivolumab from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) demonstrates that the identified immune-related reactions are specific to ipilimumab and/or nivolumab, and that when the two agents are administered together, their safety profile combines reactions from each drug alone...
October 31, 2018: Diagnostics
Aman Saini, Yash Pershad, Hassan Albadawi, Malia Kuo, Sadeer Alzubaidi, Sailendra Naidu, M-Grace Knuttinen, Rahmi Oklu
Liquid biopsy is the sampling of any biological fluid in an effort to enrich and analyze a tumor's genetic material. Peripheral blood remains the most studied liquid biopsy material, with circulating tumor cells (CTC's) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) allowing the examination and longitudinal monitoring of a tumors genetic landscape. With applications in cancer screening, prognostic stratification, therapy selection and disease surveillance, liquid biopsy represents an exciting new paradigm in the field of cancer diagnostics and offers a less invasive and more comprehensive alternative to conventional tissue biopsy...
October 29, 2018: Diagnostics
Ismo T Räisänen, Anna Maria Heikkinen, Eva Siren, Taina Tervahartiala, Dirk-Rolf Gieselmann, Gerrit-Jan van der Schoor, Peter van der Schoor, Timo Sorsa
Traditional periodontal disease diagnostics are based mainly on clinical examination and radiographs. They assess only past tissue destruction and provide no information on the current disease status or its future progression. The objective is to find out if an active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) point-of-care (PoC) test could provide a cost-effective way to get around this limitation. This cross-sectional study used 47 adolescents and 70 adults, who were clinically examined and their aMMP-8 PoC tested...
October 22, 2018: Diagnostics
Lesya Anishchenko
Psychophysiological state monitoring provides a promising way to detect stress and accurately assess wellbeing. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the advantages of utilizing a new unobtrusive multi-transceiver system on the accuracy of remote psychophysiological state monitoring by means of a bioradar technique. The technique was tested in laboratory conditions with the participation of 35 practically healthy volunteers, who were asked to perform arithmetic and physical workload tests imitating different types of stressors...
October 17, 2018: Diagnostics
Danijela Dejanovic, Annemarie Amtoft, Annika Loft
Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) following stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a common complication in patients that have undergone allogenic SCT but rare in recipients of autologous SCT. Gastro-intestinal tract (GIT)-GVHD can be difficult to diagnose due to non-specific symptoms such as fever, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting; a histological confirmation is therefore required. Here, we present the findings of a whole-body 18 FDG PET/CT with extensive and multifocal involvement of the GIT in a patient that developed severe acute GVHD 93 days post autologous SCT for Hodgkin's lymphoma...
October 15, 2018: Diagnostics
Zhongji Han, Zhousheng Xiao, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Hamid Moradi, Tariq Shafi, Sushrut S Waikar, L Darryl Quarles, Zhi Yu, Adrienne Tin, Josef Coresh, Csaba P Kovesdy
End stage renal disease (ESRD) is characterized by complex metabolic abnormalities, yet the clinical relevance of specific biomarkers remains unclear. The development of multiplex diagnostic platforms is creating opportunities to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. SOMAscan is an innovative multiplex proteomic platform which can measure >1300 proteins. In the present study, we performed SOMAscan analysis of plasma samples and validated the measurements by comparison with selected biomarkers...
October 8, 2018: Diagnostics
Liliana R Santos, Celestino Neves, Miguel Melo, Paula Soares
Selenium is an essential micronutrient that is required for the synthesis of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins, processing a wide range of health effects. It is known that the thyroid is one of the tissues that contain more selenium. The "selenostasis" maintenance seems to contribute to the prevention of immune mediated thyroid disorders. Prospective, observational studies, randomized, controlled studies evaluating selenium supplementation, and review articles that are available in Medline and PubMed have undergone scrutiny...
October 4, 2018: Diagnostics
Oke Gerke, Sören Möller, Birgit Debrabant, Ulrich Halekoh
The Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies (GRRAS) were proposed in 2011 to support transparent and accurate reporting. These studies may be conducted with the primary aim of estimating reliability and/or agreement itself, but are more often than not part of larger diagnostic accuracy studies, clinical trials, or epidemiological studies. As such, the study design may be compromised in terms of practicability issues, preventing the collection of sufficient results. We presented an example from a consultancy with a difficult mission and discussed five questions that concern the very nature of such a study (agreement vs...
September 24, 2018: Diagnostics
Jussi M Leppilahti, Ulla Harjunmaa, Jorma Järnstedt, Charles Mangani, Marcela Hernández, Taina Tervahartiala, Rodrigo Lopez, Ulla Ashorn, Per Ashorn, Dirk-Rolf Gieselmann, Timo Sorsa
A novel qualitative point-of-care test of activated matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) using noninvasive oral rinse sampling procedures has been developed for the early detection of collagen breakdown indicating periodontal tissue destruction. The main object of this study was to assess the reliability of the test in a low-income setting to identify participants with history of periodontal destruction detected as alveolar bone loss (ABL) in radiographs. This cross-sectional study included 486 women who had recently delivered in rural Malawi...
September 15, 2018: Diagnostics
Joseph Cotler, Carly Holtzman, Catherine Dudun, Leonard A Jason
Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a key symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Currently, five PEM-items from the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire (DSQ) were recommended as a first step in measuring this symptom for patients with ME and CFS by the National Institutes of Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NIH/CDC) Common Data Elements' (CDE) working group. The second step in this process, as recommended by the NIH/CDC CDE working group, involves assembling information from various sources to confirm the presence of PEM...
September 11, 2018: Diagnostics
Yongbo Liang, Zhencheng Chen, Rabab Ward, Mohamed Elgendi
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become the biggest threat to human health, and they are accelerated by hypertension. The best way to avoid the many complications of CVDs is to manage and prevent hypertension at an early stage. However, there are no symptoms at all for most types of hypertension, especially for prehypertension. The awareness and control rates of hypertension are extremely low. In this study, a novel hypertension management method based on arterial wave propagation theory and photoplethysmography (PPG) morphological theory was researched to explore the physiological changes in different blood pressure (BP) levels...
September 10, 2018: Diagnostics
Frank Twisk
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), identified as a new clinical entity with distinctive features in 1956, was originally considered as a neuromuscular disease. In 1988 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced the ill-defined concept of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). As predicted, CFS, unjustly considered to be a synonym for ME, pushed ME to the background. To develop effective therapies for of ME and CFS, it is essential to investigate patients with ME specifically. For that reason, an operational definition of ME is indispensable...
September 8, 2018: Diagnostics
Lucile Broncy, Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot
Renal cell carcinoma is a highly malignant cancer that would benefit from non-invasive innovative markers providing early diagnosis and recurrence detection. Circulating tumor cells are a particularly promising marker of tumor invasion that could be used to improve the management of patients with RCC. However, the extensive genetic and immunophenotypic heterogeneity of cells from RCC and their trend to transition to the mesenchymal phenotype when they circulate in blood constitute a challenge for their sensitive and specific detection...
September 3, 2018: Diagnostics
Arlou Kristina Angeles, Simone Bauer, Leonie Ratz, Sabine M Klauck, Holger Sültmann
In the past decade, multi-national and multi-center efforts were launched to sequence prostate cancer genomes, transcriptomes, and epigenomes with the aim of discovering the molecular underpinnings of tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and therapy resistance. Multiple biological markers and pathways have been discovered to be tumor drivers, and a molecular classification of prostate cancer is emerging. Here, we highlight crucial findings of these genome-sequencing projects in localized and advanced disease...
September 2, 2018: Diagnostics
Tomas Rydholm, Andreas Fhager, Mikael Persson, Shireen D Geimer, Paul M Meaney
A breast phantom developed at the Supelec Institute was interrogated to study its suitability for microwave tomography measurements. A microwave measurement system based on 16 monopole antennas and a vector network analyzer was used to study how the S-parameters are influenced by insertion of the phantom. The phantom is a 3D-printed structure consisting of plastic shells that can be filled with tissue mimicking liquids. The phantom was filled with different liquids and tested with the measurement system to determine whether the plastic has any effects on the recovered images or not...
September 1, 2018: Diagnostics
Marvin C J Lim, Anne-Marie Baird, John Aird, John Greene, Dhruv Kapoor, Steven G Gray, Ray McDermott, Stephen P Finn
The treatment landscape of prostate cancer has evolved rapidly over the past five years. The explosion in treatment advances has been witnessed in parallel with significant progress in the field of molecular biomarkers. The advent of next-generation sequencing has enabled the molecular profiling of the genomic and transcriptomic architecture of prostate and other cancers. Coupled with this, is a renewed interest in the role of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) in prostate cancer biology. ncRNA consists of several different classes including small non-coding RNA (sncRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), and circular RNA (circRNA)...
August 30, 2018: Diagnostics
Kevin Leone, Cristina Poggiana, Rita Zamarchi
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have aroused increasing interest not only in mechanistic studies of metastasis, but also for translational applications, such as patient monitoring, treatment choice, and treatment change due to tumor resistance. In this review, we will assess the state of the art about the study of the interactions between CTCs and the immune system. We intend to analyze the impact that the cells of the immune system have in limiting or promoting the metastatic capability of CTCs. To this purpose, we will examine studies that correlate CTCs, immune cells, and patient prognosis, and we will also discuss relevant animal models that have contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms of immune-mediated metastasis...
August 30, 2018: Diagnostics
Melissa J Whaley, Laurel T Jenkins, Fang Hu, Alexander Chen, Seydou Diarra, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Claudio T Sacchi, Xin Wang
Detection of Neisseria meningitidis has become less time- and resource-intensive with a monoplex direct real-time PCR (drt-PCR) to amplify genes from clinical specimens without DNA extraction. To further improve efficiency, we evaluated two triplex drt-PCR assays for the detection of meningococcal serogroups AWX and BCY. The sensitivity and specificity of the triplex assays were assessed using 228 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from meningitis patients and compared to the monoplex for six serogroups. The lower limit of detection range for six serogroup-specific drt-PCR assays was 178⁻5264 CFU/mL by monoplex and 68⁻2221 CFU/mL by triplex...
August 30, 2018: Diagnostics
Agnieszka Latosinska, Maria Frantzi, Axel S Merseburger, Harald Mischak
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in men. Despite the broad use of prostate-specific antigen test that resulted in an increase in number of diagnosed cases, disease management needs to be improved. Proteomic biomarkers alone and or in combination with clinical and pathological risk calculators are expected to improve on decreasing the unnecessary biopsies, stratify low risk patients, and predict response to treatment. To this end, significant efforts have been undertaken to identify novel biomarkers that can accurately discriminate between indolent and aggressive cancer forms and indicate those men at high risk for developing prostate cancer that require immediate treatment...
August 29, 2018: Diagnostics
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