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Diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072629/a-score-based-approach-to-18-f-fdg-pet-images-as-a-tool-to-describe-metabolic-predictors-of-myocardial-doxorubicin-susceptibility
#1
Matteo Bauckneht, Silvia Morbelli, Francesco Fiz, Giulia Ferrarazzo, Roberta Piva, Alberto Nieri, Matteo Sarocchi, Paolo Spallarossa, Maria Elisa Canepari, Eleonora Arboscello, Andrea Bellodi, Massimo Massaia, Andrea Gallamini, Paolo Bruzzi, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti
PURPOSE: To verify the capability of (18)F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to identify patients at higher risk of developing doxorubicin (DXR)-induced cardiotoxicity, using a score-based image approach. METHODS: 36 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT. These patients had shown full remission after DXR-based chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease (DXR dose: 40-50 mg/m² per cycle), and were retrospectively enrolled. Inclusion criteria implied the presence of both pre- and post-chemotherapy clinical evaluation encompassing electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography...
October 26, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039819/single-domain-antibodies-as-new-biomarker-detectors
#2
REVIEW
Chiuan Herng Leow, Katja Fischer, Chiuan Yee Leow, Qin Cheng, Candy Chuah, James McCarthy
Biomarkers are defined as indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers have been widely used for early detection, prediction of response after treatment, and for monitoring the progression of diseases. Antibodies represent promising tools for recognition of biomarkers, and are widely deployed as analytical tools in clinical settings. For immunodiagnostics, antibodies are now exploited as binders for antigens of interest across a range of platforms...
October 17, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039785/prospective-comparison-of-f-18-choline-pet-ct-scan-versus-axial-mri-for-detecting-bone-metastasis-in-biochemically-relapsed-prostate-cancer-patients
#3
Wouter Huysse, Frédéric Lecouvet, Paolo Castellucci, Piet Ost, Valerie Lambrecht, Carlos Artigas, Marie-Laurence Denis, Kathia De Man, Louke Delrue, Lennart Jans, Aurélie De Bruycker, Filip De Vos, Gert De Meerleer, Karel Decaestecker, Valerie Fonteyne, Bieke Lambert
We compared fluor-18 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and axial skeleton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prospectively obtained for the detection of bone metastases in non-castrated patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer following primary treatment. PET/CT was performed 45 min post-injection of 3-4 MBq/kg F-18 methyl choline. MRI included T1- and fluid sensitive T2-weighted images of the spine and pelvis. Readers were initially blinded from other results and all scans underwent independent double reading...
October 17, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039744/implementing-a-multidisciplinary-tumor-board-in-the-community-practice-setting
#4
Michele Lesslie, Jay R Parikh
Multidisciplinary tumor boards are an opportunity for radiologists to demonstrate value to referring clinicians, the hospital, and patients. Multidisciplinary tumor boards are commonly utilized in academic institutions, but may not be readily available in community practice. We discuss strategies academic radiologists may employ to assist in the implementation of a multidisciplinary tumor board in the community practice setting. SUMMARY: Strategies to assist in the implementation of a multidisciplinary tumor board in the community practice setting are described...
October 17, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925968/recent-progress-in-the-development-of-diagnostic-tests-for-malaria
#5
REVIEW
Francis D Krampa, Yaw Aniweh, Gordon A Awandare, Prosper Kanyong
The impact of malaria on global health has continually prompted the need to develop effective diagnostic strategies. In malaria endemic regions, routine diagnosis is hampered by technical and infrastructural challenges to laboratories. These laboratories lack standard facilities, expertise or diagnostic supplies; thus, therapy is administered based on clinical or self-diagnosis. There is the need for accurate diagnosis of malaria due to the continuous increase in the cost of medication, and the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains...
September 19, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914777/the-usefulness-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-the-assessment-of-early-kidney-transplant-function-and-complications
#6
REVIEW
Sara Álvarez Rodríguez, Vital Hevia Palacios, Enrique Sanz Mayayo, Victoria Gómez Dos Santos, Víctor Díez Nicolás, María Dolores Sánchez Gallego, Javier Lorca Álvaro, Francisco Javier Burgos Revilla
OBJECTIVES: The routine diagnostic method for assessment of renal graft dysfunction is Doppler ultrasound. However, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) may provide more information about parenchymal flow and vascular status of kidney allografts. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of CEUS in the immediate post-transplant period, focusing on acute vascular complications. A brief review of available literature and a report of our initial experience is made. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 15 kidney transplant (KT) cases with clinical suspicion of acute surgical complication were assessed with CEUS and conventional Doppler ultrasound (US)...
September 15, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880218/development-of-multiplexed-infectious-disease-lateral-flow-assays-challenges-and-opportunities
#7
REVIEW
Khayriyyah Mohd Hanafiah, Norsyahida Arifin, Yazmin Bustami, Rahmah Noordin, Mary Garcia, David Anderson
Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the mainstay of rapid point-of-care diagnostics, with the potential to enable early case management and transform the epidemiology of infectious disease. However, most LFAs only detect single biomarkers. Recognizing the complex nature of human disease, overlapping symptoms and states of co-infections, there is increasing demand for multiplexed systems that can detect multiple biomarkers simultaneously. Due to innate limitations in the design of traditional membrane-based LFAs, multiplexing is arguably limited to a small number of biomarkers...
September 7, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869500/using-na%C3%A3-ve-bayesian-analysis-to-determine-imaging-characteristics-of-kras-mutations-in-metastatic-colon-cancer
#8
Yash Pershad, Siddharth Govindan, Amy K Hara, Mitesh J Borad, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Alex Wallace, Hassan Albadawi, Rahmi Oklu
Genotype, particularly Ras status, greatly affects prognosis and treatment of liver metastasis in colon cancer patients. This pilot aimed to apply word frequency analysis and a naive Bayes classifier on radiology reports to extract distinguishing imaging descriptors of wild-type colon cancer patients and those with v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations. In this institutional-review-board-approved study, we compiled a SNaPshot mutation analysis dataset from 457 colon adenocarcinoma patients...
September 2, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841167/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-findings-in-a-patient-with-chikungunya-virus-infection
#9
Michala Vaaben Rose, Anna Sophie L Kjaer, Elena Markova, Jesper Graff
We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of a patient with Chikungunya infection. An (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed four weeks after debut of symptoms revealed pathological (18)F-FDG uptake in enlarged lymph nodes on both side of the diaphragm, and inflammation of both shoulder and hip joints. Lymphoma and infection were the main differential diagnoses. Follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in the patient performed 14 weeks after the abnormal scan, revealed almost complete resolution of the metabolically active disease...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837092/incorporating-oxygen-enhanced-mri-into-multi-parametric-assessment-of-human-prostate-cancer
#10
Heling Zhou, Rami R Hallac, Qing Yuan, Yao Ding, Zhongwei Zhang, Xian-Jin Xie, Franto Francis, Claus G Roehrborn, R Douglas Sims, Daniel N Costa, Ganesh V Raj, Ralph P Mason
Hypoxia is associated with prostate tumor aggressiveness, local recurrence, and biochemical failure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers insight into tumor pathophysiology and recent reports have related transverse relaxation rate (R₂*) and longitudinal relaxation rate (R₁) measurements to tumor hypoxia. We have investigated the inclusion of oxygen-enhanced MRI for multi-parametric evaluation of tumor malignancy. Multi-parametric MRI sequences at 3 Tesla were evaluated in 10 patients to investigate hypoxia in prostate cancer prior to radical prostatectomy...
August 24, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817080/feasibility-study-of-an-optical-caustic-plasmonic-light-scattering-sensor-for-human-serum-anti-dengue-protein-e-antibody-detection
#11
Antonio A García, Lina S Franco, Miguel A Pirez-Gomez, José L Pech-Pacheco, Jorge F Mendez-Galvan, Carlos Machain-Williams, Lourdes Talavera-Aguilar, José H Espinosa-Carrillo, Miriam M Duarte-Villaseñor, Christian Be-Ortiz, Luz E Espinosa-de Los Monteros, Ariel Castillo-Pacheco, Julian E Garcina-Rejon
Antibody detection and accurate diagnosis of tropical diseases is essential to help prevent the spread of disease. However, most detection methods lack cost-effectiveness and field portability, which are essential features for achieving diagnosis in a timely manner. To address this, 3D-printed oblate spheroid sample chambers were fabricated to measure green light scattering of gold nanoparticles using an optical caustic focus to detect antibodies. Scattering signals of 20-200 nm gold nanoparticles using a green laser were compared to green light emitting diode (LED) light source signals and to Mie theory...
August 17, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28788065/pectoralis-minor-syndrome-subclavicular-brachial-plexus-compression
#12
REVIEW
Richard J Sanders, Stephen J Annest
The diagnosis of brachial plexus compression-either neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) or neurogenic pectoralis minor syndrome (NPMS)-is based on old fashioned history and physical examination. Tests, such as scalene muscle and pectoralis minor muscle blocks are employed to confirm a diagnosis suspected on clinical findings. Electrodiagnostic studies can confirm a diagnosis of nerve compression, but cannot establish it. This is not a diagnosis of exclusion; the differential and associated diagnoses of upper extremity pain are always considered...
July 28, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933752/graphene-field-effect-transistors-for-biomedical-applications-current-status-and-future-prospects
#13
REVIEW
Rhiannan Forsyth, Anitha Devadoss, Owen J Guy
Since the discovery of the two-dimensional (2D) carbon material, graphene, just over a decade ago, the development of graphene-based field effect transistors (G-FETs) has become a widely researched area, particularly for use in point-of-care biomedical applications. G-FETs are particularly attractive as next generation bioelectronics due to their mass-scalability and low cost of the technology's manufacture. Furthermore, G-FETs offer the potential to complete label-free, rapid, and highly sensitive analysis coupled with a high sample throughput...
July 26, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753985/new-biomarkers-and-diagnostic-tools-for-the-management-of-fever-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-overview-of-the-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Camille Escadafal, Christian Nsanzabana, Julie Archer, Violet Chihota, William Rodriguez, Sabine Dittrich
A lack of simple, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic tests for febrile illnesses other than malaria leads to overtreatment with antibiotics for those who test negative for malaria, and contributes to the global rise in antimicrobial resistance. New tests for the detection of host biomarkers provide promising tools to differentiate bacterial from non-bacterial infections in febrile patients. However, most available biomarker tests are not currently used in resource-limited settings, and very few evaluations have been performed in low- and middle-income country populations with non-severe febrile illness...
July 21, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726731/the-use-of-imaging-in-the-prediction-and-assessment-of-cancer-treatment-toxicity
#15
REVIEW
Hossein Jadvar
Multimodal imaging is commonly used in the management of patients with cancer. Imaging plays pivotal roles in the diagnosis, initial staging, treatment response assessment, restaging after treatment and the prognosis of many cancers. Indeed, it is difficult to imagine modern precision cancer care without the use of multimodal molecular imaging, which is advancing at a rapid pace with innovative developments in imaging sciences and an improved understanding of the complex biology of cancer. Cancer therapy often leads to undesirable toxicity, which can range from an asymptomatic subclinical state to severe end organ damage and even death...
July 20, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703785/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-brain-starch-to-bench-and-bedside
#16
REVIEW
Matthias Pawlowski, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Duning
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Over the last three decades, research has advanced dramatically and provided a detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In parallel, assays for the detection of biomarkers that reflect the typical Alzheimer's disease-associated pathology have been developed and validated in myriads of clinical studies. Such biomarkers complement clinical diagnosis and improve diagnostic accuracy. The use of biomarkers will become even more important with the advent of disease-modifying therapies...
July 13, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698484/dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-of-both-hips-helps-appropriate-diagnosis-of-low-bone-mineral-density-and-osteoporosis
#17
Pia Afzelius, Mette-Marie Garding, Stig Molsted
Controversy still remains regarding the use of bilateral hip scanning when bone mineral density (BMD) is measured, and bilateral hip scanning is not mandatory in international guidelines for screening of osteoporosis. BMD of both hips and the lumbar spine was analyzed in 133 consecutive individuals. There were discrepancies between the lowest T-scores of both hips. Fourteen of the 133 participants (11%) were diagnosed with a poorer BMD status when the BMD of the hip of the dominant leg was analyzed. The total hip BMD of the dominant hip was lower than in the non-dominant hip, (p = 0...
July 9, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677648/advancing-point-of-care-poc-testing-using-human-saliva-as-liquid-biopsy
#18
REVIEW
Rabia Sannam Khan, Zohaib Khurshid, Faris Yahya Ibrahim Asiri
Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field for the encroachment of point of care technology (PoCT). The necessity of the development of point-of-care (PoC) technology, the potential of saliva, identification and validation of biomarkers through salivary diagnostic toolboxes, and a broad overview of emerging technologies is discussed in this review. Furthermore, novel advanced techniques incorporated in devices for the early detection and diagnosis of several oral and systemic diseases in a non-invasive, easily-monitored, less time consuming, and in a personalised way is explicated...
July 4, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677632/ultrasonographic-diagnosis-of-thoracic-outlet-syndrome-secondary-to-brachial-plexus-piercing-variation
#19
Vanessa Leonhard, Gregory Caldwell, Mei Goh, Sean Reeder, Heather F Smith
Structural variations of the thoracic outlet create a unique risk for neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) that is difficult to diagnose clinically. Common anatomical variations in brachial plexus (BP) branching were recently discovered in which portions of the proximal plexus pierce the anterior scalene. This results in possible impingement of BP nerves within the muscle belly and, therefore, predisposition for nTOS. We hypothesized that some cases of disputed nTOS result from these BP branching variants...
July 4, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654016/salivary-immune-and-metabolic-marker-analysis-simma-a-diagnostic-test-to-predict-caries-risk
#20
Alex Mira, Alejandro Artacho, Anny Camelo-Castillo, Sandra Garcia-Esteban, Aurea Simon-Soro
By using ELISA and colorimetric tests, we have measured 25 compounds in individuals with and without dental caries at different time points of dental biofilm formation and time of the day. We find that some compounds appear to be affected by circadian rhythms, others by dental plaque maturity, and others show constant values during a 24 h period. Using univariate analysis and cross-validation techniques, we have selected six components measured at specific time points that maximize the diagnostic separation of health and disease conditions...
June 27, 2017: Diagnostics
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