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NPJ Schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361502/efficacy-of-different-types-of-cognitive-enhancers-for-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis
#1
Igne Sinkeviciute, Marieke Begemann, Merel Prikken, Bob Oranje, Erik Johnsen, Wan U Lei, Kenneth Hugdahl, Rune A Kroken, Carina Rau, Jolien D Jacobs, Silvia Mattaroccia, Iris E Sommer
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, which is predictive for functional outcomes and is, therefore, a treatment target in itself. Yet, literature on efficacy of different pharmaco-therapeutic options is inconsistent. This quantitative review provides an overview of studies that investigated potential cognitive enhancers in schizophrenia. We included pharmacological agents, which target different neurotransmitter systems and evaluated their efficacy on overall cognitive functioning and seven separate cognitive domains...
October 25, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323274/diverse-definitions-of-the-early-course-of-schizophrenia-a-targeted-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Richard Newton, Alice Rouleau, Anna-Greta Nylander, Jean-Yves Loze, Henrike K Resemann, Sara Steeves, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder and patients experience significant comorbidity, especially cognitive and psychosocial deficits, already at the onset of disease. Previous research suggests that treatment during the earlier stages of disease reduces disease burden, and that a longer time of untreated psychosis has a negative impact on treatment outcomes. A targeted literature review was conducted to gain insight into the definitions currently used to describe patients with a recent diagnosis of schizophrenia in the early course of disease ('early' schizophrenia)...
October 15, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282970/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-schizotypal-personality-disorder-evidence-from-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Sophie K Kirchner, Astrid Roeh, Jana Nolden, Alkomiet Hasan
The main objective of this review was to evaluate studies on the diagnosis, treatment, and course of schizotypal personality disorder and to provide a clinical guidance on the basis of that evaluation. A systematic search in the PubMed/MEDLINE databases was conducted. Two independent reviewers extracted and assessed the quality of the data. A total of 54 studies were eligible for inclusion: 18 were on diagnostic instruments; 22, on pharmacological treatment; 3, on psychotherapy; and 13, on the longitudinal course of the disease...
October 3, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232371/the-language-profile-of-formal-thought-disorder
#4
Derya Çokal, Gabriel Sevilla, William Stephen Jones, Vitor Zimmerer, Felicity Deamer, Maggie Douglas, Helen Spencer, Douglas Turkington, Nicol Ferrier, Rosemary Varley, Stuart Watson, Wolfram Hinzen
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is clinically manifested as disorganized speech, but there have been only few investigations of its linguistic properties. We examined how disturbance of thought may relate to the referential function of language as expressed in the use of noun phrases (NPs) and the complexity of sentence structures. We used a comic strip description task to elicit language samples from 30 participants with schizophrenia (SZ), 15 with moderate or severe FTD (SZ + FTD), and 15 minimal or no FTD (SZ-FTD), as well as 15 first-degree relatives of people with SZ (FDRs) and 15 neurotypical controls (NC)...
September 19, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224750/addendum-voxel-based-brain-wide-association-study-of-aberrant-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-implicates-thalamocortical-circuitry
#5
Wei Cheng, Lena Palaniyappan, Mingli Li, Keith M Kendrick, Jie Zhang, Qiang Luo, Zening Liu, Rongjun Yu, Wei Deng, Qiang Wang, Xiaohong Ma, Wanjun Guo, Susan Francis, Peter Liddle, Andrew R Mayer, Gunter Schumann, Tao Li, Jianfeng Feng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177811/medial-septum-activation-produces-opposite-effects-on-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-and-substantia-nigra-in-mam-vs-normal-rats
#6
David M Bortz, Anthony A Grace
The medial septum (MS) differentially impacts midbrain dopamine (DA) neuron activity via the ventral hippocampus, a region implicated in DA-related disorders. However, whether MS regulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is disrupted in a developmental disruption model of schizophrenia is unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed at gestational day 17 to methylazoxymethanol (MAM) or saline. As adults, NMDA (0.75 µg/0.2 µL) was infused into the MS, and either DA neuron activity in the VTA and SNc (7-9 anesthetized rats per group) or amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion (AIH, 11-13 rats per group) was measured...
September 3, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131491/genetic-vulnerability-to-dusp22-promoter-hypermethylation-is-involved-in-the-relation-between-in-utero-famine-exposure-and-schizophrenia
#7
M P Boks, L C Houtepen, Z Xu, Y He, G Ursini, A X Maihofer, P Rajarajan, Q Yu, H Xu, Y Wu, S Wang, J P Shi, H E Hulshoff Pol, E Strengman, B P F Rutten, A E Jaffe, J E Kleinman, D G Baker, E M Hol, S Akbarian, C M Nievergelt, L D De Witte, C H Vinkers, D R Weinberger, J Yu, R S Kahn
Epigenetic changes may account for the doubled risk to develop schizophrenia in individuals exposed to famine in utero. We therefore investigated DNA methylation in a unique sample of patients and healthy individuals conceived during the great famine in China. Subsequently, we examined two case-control samples without famine exposure in whole blood and brain tissue. To shed light on the causality of the relation between famine exposure and DNA methylation, we exposed human fibroblasts to nutritional deprivation...
August 21, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038210/schizophrenia-related-dysbindin-1-gene-is-required-for-innate-immune-response-and-homeostasis-in-the-developing-subventricular-zone
#8
Abeer R Al-Shammari, Sanjeev K Bhardwaj, Ksenia Musaelyan, Lalit K Srivastava, Francis G Szele
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder likely caused by environmental and genetic risk factors but functional interactions between the risk factors are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that dysbindin-1 (Dtnbp1) gene mutation combined with postnatal exposure to viral mimetic polyI:C results in schizophrenia-related behavioural changes in adulthood, and mediates polyI:C-induced inflammation in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Adult Sandy (Sdy, Dtnbp1 mutant) mice given early postnatal polyI:C injections displayed reduced prepulse inhibition of startle, reduced locomotion and deficits in novel object recognition...
July 23, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950691/the-role-of-panss-symptoms-and-adverse-events-in-explaining-the-effects-of-paliperidone-on-social-functioning-a-causal-mediation-analysis-approach
#9
Xue Zou, Yiwen Zhu, John W Jackson, Andrea Bellavia, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Franca Centorrino, Linda Valeri
To date, no study has evaluated the joint role of symptoms and adverse events as mediators of the effect of second-generation antipsychotics on patients' social functioning. We used recently developed methods for mediation analysis with multiple mediators to clarify the interplay of adverse events and symptoms in explaining the effects of paliperidone (R code for implementing the mediation analysis for multiple mediators is provided). We used data from 490 participants in a 6-week randomized dose-response trial that assigned three fixed dosages of ER OROS paliperidone (3, 9, and 15 mg/day)...
June 27, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950586/risk-of-weight-gain-for-specific-antipsychotic-drugs-a-meta-analysis
#10
Jacob Spertus, Marcela Horvitz-Lennon, Haley Abing, Sharon-Lise Normand
People with schizophrenia are at considerably higher risk of cardiometabolic morbidity than the general population. Second-generation antipsychotic drugs contribute to that risk partly through their weight gain effects, exacerbating an already high burden of disease. While standard 'as-randomized' analyses of clinical trials provide valuable information, they ignore adherence patterns across treatment arms, confounding estimates of realized treatment exposure on outcome. We assess the effect of specific second-generation antipsychotics on weight gain, defined as at least a 7% increase in weight from randomization, using a Bayesian hierarchical model network meta-analysis with individual patient level data...
June 27, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950580/the-open-translational-science-in-schizophrenia-optics-project-an-open-science-project-bringing-together-janssen-clinical-trial-and-nimh-data
#11
REVIEW
Marsha A Wilcox, Adam J Savitz, Anjené M Addington, Gary S Gray, Eva C Guinan, John W Jackson, Thomas Lehner, Sharon-Lise Normand, Hardeep Ranu, Geetha Senthil, Jake Spertus, Linda Valeri, Joseph S Ross
Clinical trial data are the gold standard for evaluating pharmaceutical safety and efficacy. There is an ethical and scientific imperative for transparency and data sharing to confirm published results and generate new knowledge. The Open Translational Science in Schizophrenia (OPTICS) Project was an open-science initiative aggregating Janssen clinical trial and NIH/NIMH data from real-world studies and trials in schizophrenia. The project aims were to show the value of using shared data to examine: therapeutic safety and efficacy; disease etiologies and course; and methods development...
June 27, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941938/neurapro-a-multi-centre-rct-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-versus-placebo-in-young-people-at-ultra-high-risk-of-psychotic-disorders-medium-term-follow-up-and-clinical-course
#12
B Nelson, G P Amminger, H P Yuen, C Markulev, S Lavoie, M R Schäfer, J A Hartmann, N Mossaheb, M Schlögelhofer, S Smesny, I B Hickie, G Berger, E Y H Chen, L de Haan, D H Nieman, M Nordentoft, A Riecher-Rössler, S Verma, A Thompson, A R Yung, P D McGorry
This study reports a medium-term follow-up of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) patients. Primary outcomes of interest were transition to psychosis and symptomatic and functional outcome. A secondary aim was to investigate clinical predictors of medium-term outcome. Three hundred four UHR participants were recruited across 10 specialised early psychosis services in Australia, Asia, and Europe. The intervention consisted of 1...
June 25, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925851/trajectories-and-changes-in-individual-items-of-positive-and-negative-syndrome-scale-among-schizophrenia-patients-prior-to-impending-relapse
#13
Dai Wang, Srihari Gopal, Susan Baker, Vaibhav A Narayan
Effective early detection of impending relapse may offer opportunities for early interventions to prevent full relapse in schizophrenia patients. Previously reported early warning signs were not consistently validated by prospective studies. It remains unclear which symptoms are most predictive of relapse. To prioritize the symptoms to be captured by periodic self-report in technology-enabled remote assessment solutions for monitoring symptoms and detecting relapse early, we analyzed data from three relapse-prevention studies to identify individual items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) that changed the most prior to relapse and to understand exactly when these symptoms manifested...
June 20, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808011/impairment-in-delay-discounting-in-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder-but-not-primary-mood-disorders
#14
Hannah E Brown, Kamber L Hart, Leslie A Snapper, Joshua L Roffman, Roy H Perlis
A measure of planning and impulse control, the delay-discounting (DD) task estimates the extent to which an individual decreases the perceived value of a reward as the reward is delayed. We examined cross-disorder performance between healthy controls (n = 88), individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 23), major depressive disorder (n = 43), and primary psychotic disorders (schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder; n = 51) on the DD task (using a $10 delayed larger reward), as well as the interaction of DD scores with other symptom domains (cognition, psychosis, and affect)...
May 28, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736018/evaluation-of-fronto-striatal-networks-during-cognitive-control-in-unmedicated-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-the-effect-of-antipsychotic-medication
#15
Elyse J Cadena, David M White, Nina V Kraguljac, Meredith A Reid, Adrienne C Lahti
To understand the mechanism of cognitive control dysfunction in schizophrenia, it is critical to characterize brain function without the confounding effect of medication. It is also important to establish the extent to which antipsychotic medication restores brain function and whether those changes are related to psychosis improvement. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia, initially unmedicated and after a 6-week course of risperidone, and 20 healthy controls (HC) studied twice, 6 weeks apart, performed an fMRI task...
May 7, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654278/identification-of-somatic-mutations-in-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-psychiatric-disorders
#16
Masaki Nishioka, Miki Bundo, Junko Ueda, Akane Yoshikawa, Fumichika Nishimura, Tsukasa Sasaki, Chihiro Kakiuchi, Kiyoto Kasai, Tadafumi Kato, Kazuya Iwamoto
Monozygotic twins are assumed to have identical genomes. Based on this assumption, phenotypic discordance in monozygotic twins has been previously attributed to environmental factors. However, recent genomic studies have identified characteristic somatic mutations in monozygotic twins discordant for Darier disease, Van der Woude syndrome, and Dravet syndrome. Here, we explored somatic mutations in four pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia or delusional disorder. We analyzed whole exome sequence data obtained from blood samples and identified seven somatic mutations in one twin pair discordant for delusional disorder...
April 13, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626190/a-crossroad-for-validating-digital-tools-in-schizophrenia-and-mental-health
#17
EDITORIAL
John Torous, Patrick Staples, Ian Barnett, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, Matcheri Keshavan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555928/altered-dna-methylation-associated-with-a-translocation-linked-to-major-mental-illness
#18
Daniel L McCartney, Rosie M Walker, Stewart W Morris, Susan M Anderson, Barbara J Duff, Riccardo E Marioni, J Kirsty Millar, Shane E McCarthy, Niamh M Ryan, Stephen M Lawrie, Andrew R Watson, Douglas H R Blackwood, Pippa A Thomson, Andrew M McIntosh, W Richard McCombie, David J Porteous, Kathryn L Evans
Recent work has highlighted a possible role for altered epigenetic modifications, including differential DNA methylation, in susceptibility to psychiatric illness. Here, we investigate blood-based DNA methylation in a large family where a balanced translocation between chromosomes 1 and 11 shows genome-wide significant linkage to psychiatric illness. Genome-wide DNA methylation was profiled in whole-blood-derived DNA from 41 individuals using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA)...
March 19, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463818/changed-frontal-pole-gene-expression-suggest-altered-interplay-between-neurotransmitter-developmental-and-inflammatory-pathways-in-schizophrenia
#19
Elizabeth Scarr, Madhara Udawela, Brian Dean
Schizophrenia (Sz) probably occurs after genetically susceptible individuals encounter a deleterious environmental factor that triggers epigenetic mechanisms to change CNS gene expression. To determine if omnibus changes in CNS gene expression are present in Sz, we compared mRNA levels in the frontal pole (Brodmann's area (BA) 10), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9) and cingulate cortex (BA 33) from 15 subjects with Sz and 15 controls using the Affymetrix™ Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. Differences in mRNA levels (±≥20%; p < 0...
February 20, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449557/differential-patterns-of-contextual-organization-of-memory-in-first-episode-psychosis
#20
Vishnu P Murty, Rachel A McKinney, Sarah DuBrow, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Gretchen L Haas, Beatriz Luna
Contextual information is used to support and organize episodic memory. Prior research has reliably shown memory deficits in psychosis; however, little research has characterized how this population uses contextual information during memory recall. We employed an approach founded in a computational framework of free recall to quantify how individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP, N = 97) and controls (CON, N = 55) use temporal and semantic context to organize memory recall. Free recall was characterized using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R)...
February 15, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
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