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NPJ Schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592819/spatial-and-temporal-boundaries-of-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-leading-to-schizophrenia
#1
Kazu Nakazawa, Vivek Jeevakumar, Kazuhito Nakao
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction is one of the most prevalent models of schizophrenia. For example, healthy subjects treated with uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists elicit positive, negative, and cognitive-like symptoms of schizophrenia. Patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, which is likely caused by autoantibody-mediated down-regulation of cell surface N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, often experience psychiatric symptoms similar to schizophrenia initially...
February 3, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578413/dna-methylation-in-schizophrenia-in-different-patient-derived-cell-types
#2
Alejandra M Vitale, Nicholas A Matigian, Alexandre S Cristino, Katia Nones, Sugandha Ravishankar, Bernadette Bellette, Yongjun Fan, Stephen A Wood, Ernst Wolvetang, Alan Mackay-Sim
DNA methylation of gene promoter regions represses transcription and is a mechanism via which environmental risk factors could affect cells during development in individuals at risk for schizophrenia. We investigated DNA methylation in patient-derived cells that might shed light on early development in schizophrenia. Induced pluripotent stem cells may reflect a "ground state" upon which developmental and environmental influences would be minimal. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells are an adult-derived neuro-ectodermal stem cell modified by developmental and environmental influences...
January 23, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578432/effects-of-childhood-and-adolescence-physical-activity-patterns-on-psychosis-risk-a-general-population-cohort-study
#3
Elina Sormunen, Maiju M Saarinen, Raimo K R Salokangas, Risto Telama, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Tuija Tammelin, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Jarmo Hietala
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are associated with high morbidity and mortality in somatic diseases. The risk factors of this excess mortality include, e.g., obesity, dietary factors, and physical inactivity, especially after the onset of psychosis, but there are limited early developmental data on these factors in individuals who later develop psychosis. A population-based cohort study "Cardiovascular Risk of Young Finns" started in 1980 with 3596 children and adolescents from six different age groups (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years)...
January 13, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578419/altered-sulcogyral-patterns-of-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-a-large-cohort-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
Shuichi Isomura, Ryota Hashimoto, Motoaki Nakamura, Yoji Hirano, Fumio Yamashita, Shin Jimbo, Hidenaga Yamamori, Michiko Fujimoto, Yuka Yasuda, Ryan P Mears, Toshiaki Onitsuka
Abnormalities in prenatal brain development contribute to schizophrenia vulnerability. Orbitofrontal cortex sulcogyral patterns are largely determined during prenatal development, and four types of orbitofrontal cortex sulcogyral patterns have been classified in humans. Altered orbitofrontal cortex patterns have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia using magnetic resonance imaging; however, sample sizes of previous studies were small-medium effects for detection, and gender manifestation for orbitofrontal cortex sulcogyral patterns is unclear...
January 12, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577336/on-discontinuing-treatment-in-schizophrenia-a-clinical-conundrum
#5
EDITORIAL
Robin Emsley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578405/personalized-medicine-for-schizophrenia
#6
EDITORIAL
Peter F Buckley, Brian J Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578381/enabling-point-of-care-testing-and-personalized-medicine-for-schizophrenia
#7
EDITORIAL
Paul C Guest, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560268/learning-stable-and-predictive-network-based-patterns-of-schizophrenia-and-its-clinical-symptoms
#8
Mina Gheiratmand, Irina Rish, Guillermo A Cecchi, Matthew R G Brown, Russell Greiner, Pablo I Polosecki, Pouya Bashivan, Andrew J Greenshaw, Rajamannar Ramasubbu, Serdar M Dursun
Schizophrenia is often associated with disrupted brain connectivity. However, identifying specific neuroimaging-based patterns pathognomonic for schizophrenia and related symptom severity remains a challenging open problem requiring large-scale data-driven analyses emphasizing not only statistical significance but also stability across multiple datasets, contexts and cohorts. Accurate prediction on previously unseen subjects, or generalization, is also essential for any useful biomarker of schizophrenia. In order to build a predictive model based on functional network feature patterns, we studied whole-brain fMRI functional networks, both at the voxel level and lower-resolution supervoxel level...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560267/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-functional-connectivity-predicts-therapeutic-efficacy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multivariate-pattern-recognition-study
#9
Peng Li, Ri-Xing Jing, Rong-Jiang Zhao, Zeng-Bo Ding, Le Shi, Hong-Qiang Sun, Xiao Lin, Teng-Teng Fan, Wen-Tian Dong, Yong Fan, Lin Lu
Previous studies suggested that electroconvulsive therapy can influence regional metabolism and dopamine signaling, thereby alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia. It remains unclear what patients may benefit more from the treatment. The present study sought to identify biomarkers that predict the electroconvulsive therapy response in individual patients. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 34 controls were included in this study. Patients were scanned prior to treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics only (n = 16) or a combination of antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy (n = 13)...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560266/the-effect-of-cognitive-remediation-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#10
Louise Birkedal Glenthøj, Carsten Hjorthøj, Tina Dam Kristensen, Charlie Andrew Davidson, Merete Nordentoft
Cognitive deficits are prominent features of the ultra-high risk state for psychosis that are known to impact functioning and course of illness. Cognitive remediation appears to be the most promising treatment approach to alleviate the cognitive deficits, which may translate into functional improvements. This study systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive remediation in the ultra-high risk population. The electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase were searched using keywords related to cognitive remediation and the UHR state...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560265/isoform-specific-differences-in-phospholipase-c-beta-1-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-and-suicide
#11
M Udawela, E Scarr, S Boer, J Y Um, A J Hannan, C McOmish, C C Felder, E A Thomas, B Dean
Our previous study demonstrated that phospholipase C beta 1 mRNA was down-regulated in Brodmann's area 46 from subjects with schizophrenia. However, phospholipase C beta 1 protein has also been shown to be lower in Brodmann's area 8 and 9 from teenage suicide subjects, creating a potential confound in interpreting the findings in schizophrenia due to the high suicide rate associated with this disorder. To begin to reconcile and consolidate these findings, in this study, we measured mRNA and protein levels of phospholipase C beta 1 variants a and b in Brodmann's area 46 and Brodmann's area 9 from subjects with schizophrenia, many of whom were suicide completers, and determined the diagnostic specificity of observed findings...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560264/thought-disorder-measured-as-random-speech-structure-classifies-negative-symptoms-and-schizophrenia-diagnosis-6-months-in-advance
#12
Natália B Mota, Mauro Copelli, Sidarta Ribeiro
In chronic psychotic patients, word graph analysis shows potential as complementary psychiatric assessment. This analysis relies mostly on connectedness, a structural feature of speech that is anti-correlated with negative symptoms. Here we aimed to verify whether speech disorganization during the first clinical contact, as measured by graph connectedness, can correctly classify negative symptoms and the schizophrenia diagnosis 6 months in advance. Positive and negative syndrome scale scores and memory reports were collected from 21 patients undergoing first clinical contact for recent-onset psychosis, followed for 6 months to establish diagnosis, and compared to 21 well-matched healthy subjects...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560263/dopamine-d2-receptors-and-the-circadian-clock-reciprocally-mediate-antipsychotic-drug-induced-metabolic-disturbances
#13
Zachary Freyberg, Michael J McCarthy
Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed medications, used for numerous psychiatric illnesses. However, antipsychotic drugs cause serious metabolic side effects that can lead to substantial weight gain and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. While individual drugs differ, all antipsychotic drugs may cause these important side effects to varying degrees. Given that the single unifying property shared by these medications is blockade of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, these receptors likely play a role in antipsychotic drug-induced metabolic side effects...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560262/decreased-free-d-aspartate-levels-are-linked-to-enhanced-d-aspartate-oxidase-activity-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-schizophrenia-patients
#14
Tommaso Nuzzo, Silvia Sacchi, Francesco Errico, Simona Keller, Orazio Palumbo, Ermanno Florio, Daniela Punzo, Francesco Napolitano, Massimiliano Copetti, Massimo Carella, Lorenzo Chiariotti, Alessandro Bertolino, Loredano Pollegioni, Alessandro Usiello
It is long acknowledged that the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor co-agonist, d-serine, plays a crucial role in several N-methyl d-aspartate receptor-mediated physiological and pathological processes, including schizophrenia. Besides d-serine, another free d-amino acid, d-aspartate, is involved in the activation of N-methyl d-aspartate receptors acting as an agonist of this receptor subclass, and is abundantly detected in the developing human brain. Based on the hypothesis of N-methyl d-aspartate receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and considering the ability of d-aspartate and d-serine to stimulate N-methyl d-aspartate receptor-dependent transmission, in the present work we assessed the concentration of these two d-amino acids in the post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560261/brain-structure-function-and-neurochemistry-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-magnetic-resonance-neuroimaging-literature
#15
Badari Birur, Nina Vanessa Kraguljac, Richard C Shelton, Adrienne Carol Lahti
Since Emil Kraepelin's conceptualization of endogenous psychoses as dementia praecox and manic depression, the separation between primary psychotic disorders and primary affective disorders has been much debated. We conducted a systematic review of case-control studies contrasting magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A literature search in PubMed of studies published between January 2005 and December 2016 was conducted, and 50 structural, 29 functional, 7 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and 8 combined imaging and genetic studies were deemed eligible for systematic review...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560260/science-of-recovery-in-schizophrenia-research-brain-and-psychological-substrates-of-personalized-value
#16
EDITORIAL
Kiyoto Kasai, Masato Fukuda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560259/dna-methylation-evidence-against-the-accelerated-aging-hypothesis-of-schizophrenia
#17
Brandon C McKinney, Huang Lin, Ying Ding, David A Lewis, Robert A Sweet
The accelerated aging hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that physiological changes throughout the body that are associated with normal aging occur at an earlier age in individuals with schizophrenia. Testing this hypothesis has been limited by problems measuring biological age. Recently, a method using DNA methylation levels at 353 genomic sites to produce "DNA methylation age", an estimate of tissue biological age, was described and validated. We used this method to test the hypothesis in the postmortem superior temporal gyrus of 22 non-psychiatric control and 22 schizophrenia subjects...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560258/vulnerability-to-omega-3-deprivation-in-a-mouse-model-of-nmda-receptor-hypofunction
#18
Rehnuma Islam, Marc-Olivier Trépanier, Marija Milenkovic, Wendy Horsfall, Ali Salahpour, Richard P Bazinet, Amy J Ramsey
Several studies have found decreased levels of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain and blood of schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, dietary ω-3 supplements may improve schizophrenia symptoms and delay the onset of first-episode psychosis. We used an animal model of NMDA receptor hypofunction, NR1KD mice, to understand whether changes in glutamate neurotransmission could lead to changes in brain and serum fatty acids. We further asked whether dietary manipulations of ω-3, either depletion or supplementation, would affect schizophrenia-relevant behaviors of NR1KD mice...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560257/generating-testable-hypotheses-for-schizophrenia-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-pathogenesis-by-integrating-epidemiological-genomic-and-protein-interaction-data
#19
Tulsi A Malavia, Srilakshmi Chaparala, Joel Wood, Kodavali Chowdari, Konasale M Prasad, Lora McClain, Anil G Jegga, Madhavi K Ganapathiraju, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar
Patients with schizophrenia and their relatives have reduced prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis. Schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis genome-wide association studies also indicate negative genetic correlations, suggesting that there may be shared pathogenesis at the DNA level or downstream. A portion of the inverse prevalence could be attributed to pleiotropy, i.e., variants of a single nucleotide polymorphism that could confer differential risk for these disorders. To study the basis for such an interrelationship, we initially compared lists of single nucleotide polymorphisms with significant genetic associations (p < 1(e-8)) for schizophrenia or rheumatoid arthritis, evaluating patterns of linkage disequilibrium and apparent pleiotropic risk profiles...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560256/schizophrenia-genetics-comes-to-translation
#20
EDITORIAL
Enrico Domenici
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
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