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NPJ Schizophrenia

Ana L Fernandez-Cruz, Ola Mohamed Ali, Gifty Asare, Morgan S Whyte, Ishan Walpola, Julia Segal, J Bruno Debruille
Some personal drives correspond to extraordinary social roles. Given that behavioral strategies associated with such drives may conflict with those associated with ordinary roles, they could cause behavioral disorganization. To test whether they do so independent of the factors responsible for full-blown schizotypy and schizophrenia, these drives were assessed in the general population. Two hundred and nine healthy volunteers were individually presented with hundreds of names of social roles in experimental psychology conditions...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Fabienne Harrisberger, Roman Buechler, Renata Smieskova, Claudia Lenz, Anna Walter, Laura Egloff, Kerstin Bendfeldt, Andor E Simon, Diana Wotruba, Anastasia Theodoridou, Wulf Rössler, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Undine E Lang, Karsten Heekeren, Stefan Borgwardt
Reduction in hippocampal volume is a hallmark of schizophrenia and already present in the clinical high-risk state. Nevertheless, other subcortical structures, such as the thalamus, amygdala and pallidum can differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls. We studied the role of hippocampal and subcortical structures in clinical high-risk individuals from two cohorts. High-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI brain scans of a total of 91 clinical high-risk individuals and 64 healthy controls were collected in two centers...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Thalia F van der Doef, Lot D de Witte, Arjen L Sutterland, Ellen Jobse, Maqsood Yaqub, Ronald Boellaard, Lieuwe de Haan, Jonas Eriksson, Adriaan A Lammertsma, René S Kahn, Bart N M van Berckel
Evidence is accumulating that immune dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been hypothesized that microglia activation is present in patients with schizophrenia. Various in vivo and post-mortem studies have investigated this hypothesis, but as yet with inconclusive results. Microglia activation is associated with elevations in 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) levels, which can be measured with the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer (R)-[(11)C]PK11195. The purpose of the present study was to investigate microglia activation in psychosis in vivo at an early stage of the disease...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Carolina Makowski, Michael Bodnar, Ashok K Malla, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage
Recent work has clearly established that early persistent negative symptoms (ePNS) can be observed following a first episode of psychosis (FEP), and can negatively affect functional outcome. There is also evidence for cortical changes associated with ePNS. Given that a FEP often occurs during a period of ongoing complex brain development and maturation, neuroanatomical changes may have a specific age-related component. The current study examines cortical thickness (CT) and trajectories with age using longitudinal structural imaging...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Jing Yang Tee, Ratneswary Sutharsan, Yongjun Fan, Alan Mackay-Sim
Reelin expression is reduced in various regions in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia patients but the exact role of reelin function in the neurobiology of schizophrenia remains elusive. Absence of reelin in knockout mouse causes inverted lamination of the neocortex due to aberrant neuronal migration. The aim of this study was to utilize patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived (ONS) cells to investigate whether extracellular reelin alters cell motility in schizophrenia patient-derived cells. ONS cells from nine patients were compared with cells from nine matched healthy controls...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Madhavi Ganapathiraju, Srilakshmi Chaparala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Pippa A Thomson, Barbara Duff, Douglas H R Blackwood, Liana Romaniuk, Andrew Watson, Heather C Whalley, Xiang Li, Maria R Dauvermann, T William J Moorhead, Catherine Bois, Niamh M Ryan, Holly Redpath, Lynsey Hall, Stewart W Morris, Edwin J R van Beek, Neil Roberts, David J Porteous, David St Clair, Brandon Whitcher, John Dunlop, Nicholas J Brandon, Zoë A Hughes, Jeremy Hall, Andrew McIntosh, Stephen M Lawrie
Rare genetic variants of large effect can help elucidate the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Here we expand the clinical and genetic analyses of a family with a (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation multiply affected by major psychiatric illness and test the effect of the translocation on the structure and function of prefrontal, and temporal brain regions. The translocation showed significant linkage (LOD score 6.1) with a clinical phenotype that included schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and recurrent major depressive disorder...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Natalie Matosin, Francesca Fernandez-Enright, Jeremy S Lum, Martin Engel, Jessica L Andrews, Nils C Gassen, Klaus V Wagner, Mathias V Schmidt, Kelly A Newell
Alterations of postsynaptic density (PSD)95-complex proteins in schizophrenia ostensibly induce deficits in synaptic plasticity, the molecular process underlying cognitive functions. Although some PSD95-complex proteins have been previously examined in the hippocampus in schizophrenia, the status of other equally important molecules is unclear. This is especially true in the cornu ammonis (CA)1 hippocampal subfield, a region that is critically involved in the pathophysiology of the illness. We thus performed a quantitative immunoblot experiment to examine PSD95 and several of its associated proteins in the CA1 region, using post mortem brain samples derived from schizophrenia subjects with age-, sex-, and post mortem interval-matched controls (n=20/group)...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Matthias Kirschner, Oliver M Hager, Martin Bischof, Matthias N Hartmann-Riemer, Agne Kluge, Erich Seifritz, Philippe N Tobler, Stefan Kaiser
Theoretical principles of information processing and empirical findings suggest that to efficiently represent all possible rewards in the natural environment, reward-sensitive neurons have to adapt their coding range dynamically to the current reward context. Adaptation ensures that the reward system is most sensitive for the most likely rewards, enabling the system to efficiently represent a potentially infinite range of reward information. A deficit in neural adaptation would prevent precise representation of rewards and could have detrimental effects for an organism's ability to optimally engage with its environment...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Catherine R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, F Markus Leweke, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
Immune aberrations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have led to the hypotheses that infectious agents or corresponding immune responses might contribute to psychiatric etiopathogeneses. We investigated case-control differences in exposure to the opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and examined associations with cognition, medication, lifestyle, and somatic conditions. We quantified C. albicans IgG antibodies in two cohorts totaling 947 individuals and evaluated odds ratios (OR) of exposure with psychiatric disorder using multivariate regressions...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Raymond Ck Chan, Diane C Gooding, Hai-Song Shi, Fu-Lei Geng, Dong-Jie Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Wen-Hua Liu, Yi Wang, Chao Yan, Chuan Shi, Simon Sy Lui, Eric Fc Cheung
According to Meehl's model of schizotypy, there is a latent personality organization associated with the diathesis for schizophrenia that can be identified in several ways. We sought to examine the structural invariance of four Chapman psychosis-proneness scales (CPPS) across three groups of putative schizotypes, namely, clinically-, biologically-, and psychometrically-identified schizotypes. We examined the factor structure of the Perceptual Aberration (PER), Magical Ideation (MIS), Revised Social Anhedonia (RSAS), and Revised Physical Anhedonia (RPAS) scales in 196 schizophrenia patients, 197 non-psychotic first-degree relatives, and 1,724 non-clinical young adults...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Jennifer Ann Hadley, Nina Vanessa Kraguljac, David Matthew White, Lawrence Ver Hoef, Janell Tabora, Adrienne Carol Lahti
A number of neuroimaging studies have provided evidence in support of the hypothesis that faulty interactions between spatially disparate brain regions underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, but it remains unclear to what degree antipsychotic medications affect these. We hypothesized that the balance between functional integration and segregation of brain networks is impaired in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia, but that it can be partially restored by antipsychotic medications. We included 32 unmedicated patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and 32 matched healthy controls (HC) in this study...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Madhavi K Ganapathiraju, Mohamed Thahir, Adam Handen, Saumendra N Sarkar, Robert A Sweet, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Christine E Loscher, Eileen M Bauer, Srilakshmi Chaparala
Genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia (GWAS) have revealed the role of rare and common genetic variants, but the functional effects of the risk variants remain to be understood. Protein interactome-based studies can facilitate the study of molecular mechanisms by which the risk genes relate to schizophrenia (SZ) genesis, but protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are unknown for many of the liability genes. We developed a computational model to discover PPIs, which is found to be highly accurate according to computational evaluations and experimental validations of selected PPIs...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Iris E Sommer, Carrie E Bearden, Edwin van Dellen, Elemi J Breetvelt, Sasja N Duijff, Kim Maijer, Therese van Amelsvoort, Lieuwe de Haan, Raquel E Gur, Celso Arango, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Christiaan H Vinkers, Jacob As Vorstman
Intervention strategies in adolescents at ultra high-risk (UHR) for psychosis are promising for reducing conversion to overt illness, but have only limited impact on functional outcome. Recent studies suggest that cognition does not further decline during the UHR stage. As social and cognitive impairments typically develop before the first psychotic episode and even years before the UHR stage, prevention should also start much earlier in the groups at risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Early intervention strategies could aim to improve stress resilience, optimize brain maturation, and prevent or alleviate adverse environmental circumstances...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Elizabeth Scarr, Madhara Udawela, Mark A Greenough, Jaclyn Neo, Myoung Suk Seo, Tammie T Money, Aradhana Upadhyay, Ashley I Bush, Ian P Everall, Elizabeth A Thomas, Brian Dean
Our expression microarray studies showed messenger RNA (mRNA) for solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 12 (SLC39A12) was higher in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from subjects with schizophrenia (Sz) in comparison with controls. To better understand the significance of these data we ascertained whether SLC39A12 mRNA was altered in a number of cortical regions (Brodmann's area (BA) 8, 9, 44) from subjects with Sz, in BA 9 from subjects with mood disorders and in rats treated with antipsychotic drugs...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Bess Y H Lam, Adrian Raine, Tatia M C Lee
Prior longitudinal studies have established the relationship between schizophrenia and violence. However, previous studies on aggression and schizotypal personality are scarce. The present study examines whether peer victimization mediates the relationship between schizotypy and reactive-proactive aggression, and whether theory of mind (ToM) moderates this mediation. Schizotypy, peer victimization, reactive-proactive aggression, and ToM were assessed in 237 undergraduates. Peer victimization mediated the relationship between schizotypy and reactive aggression...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Peter W Foltz, Mark Rosenstein, Brita Elvevåg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Inkyu S Lee, Claudia M B Carvalho, Panagiotis Douvaras, Seok-Man Ho, Brigham J Hartley, Luciana W Zuccherato, Ian G Ladran, Arthur J Siegel, Shane McCarthy, Dheeraj Malhotra, Jonathan Sebat, Judith Rapoport, Valentina Fossati, James R Lupski, Deborah L Levy, Kristen J Brennand
Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ), are complex disorders with a high degree of heritability. Genetic studies have identified several candidate genes associated with these disorders, including contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2). Traditionally, in animal models or in vitro, the function of CNTNAP2 has been studied by genetic deletion or transcriptional knockdown, which reduce the expression of the entire gene; however, it remains unclear whether the mutations identified in clinical settings are sufficient to alter CNTNAP2 expression in human neurons...
June 24, 2015: NPJ Schizophrenia
Lia Mesbah-Oskui, John Georgiou, John C Roder
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of working memory deficits in schizophrenia, the neuronal mechanisms mediating these deficits are not fully understood(1-3). Importantly, deficits in spatial working memory are identified in numerous mouse models that exhibit schizophrenia-like endophenotypes(4-7). The hippocampus is one of the major brain regions that actively encodes spatial location, possessing pyramidal neurons, commonly referred to as 'place cells', that fire in a location-specific manner(8)...
April 1, 2015: NPJ Schizophrenia
Marco Colizzi, Conrad Iyegbe, John Powell, Giuseppe Blasi, Alessandro Bertolino, Robin M Murray, Marta Di Forti
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/npjschz.2015.25.].
2015: NPJ Schizophrenia
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