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NPJ Schizophrenia

Elizabeth Scarr, Madhara Udawela, Brian Dean
Schizophrenia (Sz) probably occurs after genetically susceptible individuals encounter a deleterious environmental factor that triggers epigenetic mechanisms to change CNS gene expression. To determine if omnibus changes in CNS gene expression are present in Sz, we compared mRNA levels in the frontal pole (Brodmann's area (BA) 10), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9) and cingulate cortex (BA 33) from 15 subjects with Sz and 15 controls using the Affymetrix™ Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. Differences in mRNA levels (±≥20%; p < 0...
February 20, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
Vishnu P Murty, Rachel A McKinney, Sarah DuBrow, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Gretchen L Haas, Beatriz Luna
Contextual information is used to support and organize episodic memory. Prior research has reliably shown memory deficits in psychosis; however, little research has characterized how this population uses contextual information during memory recall. We employed an approach founded in a computational framework of free recall to quantify how individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP, N = 97) and controls (CON, N = 55) use temporal and semantic context to organize memory recall. Free recall was characterized using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R)...
February 15, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
Armando D'Agostino, Anna Castelnovo, Simone Cavallotti, Cecilia Casetta, Matteo Marcatili, Orsola Gambini, Mariapaola Canevini, Giulio Tononi, Brady Riedner, Fabio Ferrarelli, Simone Sarasso
Sleep spindles and slow waves are the main brain oscillations occurring in non-REM sleep. Several lines of evidence suggest that spindles are initiated within the thalamus, whereas slow waves are generated and modulated in the cortex. A decrease in sleep spindle activity has been described in Schizophrenia (SCZ), including chronic, early course, and early onset patients. In contrast, slow waves have been inconsistently found to be reduced in SCZ, possibly due to confounds like duration of illness and antipsychotic medication exposure...
February 9, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
Janna de Boer, Merel Prikken, Wan U Lei, Marieke Begemann, Iris Sommer
Recognizing the robust sex differences in schizophrenia prevalence, the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) raloxifene is a likely candidate for augmentation therapy in this disorder. Therefore, a systematic search was performed using PubMed (Medline), Embase, PsychInfo, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of raloxifene in schizophrenia spectrum disorders were included in the quantitative analyses. Outcome measures were psychotic symptom severity, depression, and cognition...
January 10, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
Paul R Ormel, Hans C van Mierlo, Manja Litjens, Miriam E van Strien, Elly M Hol, René S Kahn, Lot D de Witte
Genetic, epidemiological and post mortem studies have described an association between schizophrenia (SCZ) and the immune system. Microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the brain, not only play an essential role in inflammatory processes, but also in neurodevelopment and synapse refinement. It has therefore been hypothesized that aberrant functioning of these myeloid immune cells is involved in SCZ pathogenesis. Until now cellular research into the role of myeloid cells in SCZ has been limited to monocytes and functional assays are lacking...
November 14, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Julia H Harari, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Joost Janssen, Kenia Martínez, Bárbara Arias, Celso Arango
Evidence suggests that genetic variation might influence structural brain alterations in psychotic disorders. Longitudinal genetic neuroimaging (G-NI) studies are designed to assess the association between genetic variants, disease progression and brain changes. There is a paucity of reviews of longitudinal G-NI studies in psychotic disorders. A systematic search of PubMed from inception until November 2016 was conducted to identify longitudinal G-NI studies examining the link between Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)-based brain measurements and specific gene variants (SNPs, microsatellites, haplotypes) in patients with psychosis...
November 1, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Himani Pandey, Katia Bourahmoune, Takato Honda, Ken Honjo, Kazuki Kurita, Tomohito Sato, Akira Sawa, Katsuo Furukubo-Tokunaga
Originally identified at the breakpoint of a (1;11)(q42.1; q14.3) chromosomal translocation in a Scottish family with a wide range of mental disorders, the DISC1 gene has been a focus of intensive investigations as an entry point to study the molecular mechanisms of diverse mental dysfunctions. Perturbations of the DISC1 functions lead to behavioral changes in animal models, which are relevant to psychiatric conditions in patients. In this work, we have expressed the human DISC1 gene in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and performed a genetic screening for the mutations of psychiatric risk genes that cause modifications of DISC1 synaptic phenotypes at the neuromuscular junction...
October 27, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Brian Kirkpatrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Patrick Staples, John Torous, Ian Barnett, Kenzie Carlson, Luis Sandoval, Matcheri Keshavan, Jukka-Pekka Onnela
Sleep abnormalities are considered an important feature of schizophrenia, yet convenient and reliable sleep monitoring remains a challenge. Smartphones offer a novel solution to capture both self-reported and objective measures of sleep in schizophrenia. In this three-month observational study, 17 subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia currently in treatment downloaded Beiwe, a platform for digital phenotyping, on their personal Apple or Android smartphones. Subjects were given tri-weekly ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) on their own smartphones, and passive data including accelerometer, GPS, screen use, and anonymized call and text message logs was continuously collected...
October 16, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Jose M Rubio, John M Kane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Erin Flaherty, Rania M Deranieh, Elena Artimovich, Inkyu S Lee, Arthur J Siegel, Deborah L Levy, Michael W Nestor, Kristen J Brennand
Variants in CNTNAP2, a member of the neurexin family of genes that function as cell adhesion molecules, have been associated with multiple neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability; animal studies indicate a role for CNTNAP2 in axon guidance, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis. We previously reprogrammed fibroblasts from a family trio consisting of two carriers of heterozygous intragenic CNTNAP2 deletions into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and described decreased migration in the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) differentiated from the affected CNTNAP2 carrier in this trio...
October 2, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Nikolai Albert, Marianne Melau, Heidi Jensen, Lene Halling Hastrup, Carsten Hjorthøj, Merete Nordentoft
The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to have an effect on outcome after first-episode psychosis. The premise of specialized early intervention (SEI) services is that intervention in the early years of illness can affect long-term outcomes. In this study, we investigate whether DUP affects treatment response after 5 years of SEI treatment compared to 2 years of SEI treatment. As part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effect of prolonged SEI treatment 400 participants diagnosed within the schizophrenia spectrum were recruited...
September 26, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Sinead M O'Donovan, Courtney R Sullivan, Robert E McCullumsmith
Altered glutamate transporter expression is a common feature of many neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are responsible for the reuptake of glutamate, preventing non-physiological spillover from the synapse. Postmortem studies have revealed significant dysregulation of EAAT expression in various brain regions at the cellular and subcellular level. Recent animal studies have also demonstrated a role for glutamate spillover as a mechanism of disease...
September 21, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
M Fournier, A Monin, C Ferrari, P S Baumann, P Conus, K Do
xCT is the specific chain of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, which is widely reported to support anti-oxidant defenses in vivo. xCT is therefore at the crossroads between two processes that are involved in schizophrenia: oxidative stress and glutamatergic neurotransmission. But data from human studies implicating xCT in the illness and clarifying the upstream mechanisms of xCT imbalance are still scarce. Low glutathione (GSH) levels and genetic risk in GCLC (Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Catalytic subunit), the gene of limiting synthesizing enzyme for GSH, are both associated with schizophrenia...
September 18, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Jennifer L McGuire, Erica A Depasquale, Adam J Funk, Sinead M O'Donnovan, Kathryn Hasselfeld, Shruti Marwaha, John H Hammond, Vahram Hartounian, James H Meador-Woodruff, Jarek Meller, Robert E McCullumsmith
Schizophrenia is a serious neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by disruptions of brain cell metabolism, microstructure, and neurotransmission. All of these processes require coordination of multiple kinase-mediated signaling events. We hypothesize that imbalances in kinase activity propagate through an interconnected network of intracellular signaling with potential to simultaneously contribute to many or all of the observed deficits in schizophrenia. We established a workflow distinguishing schizophrenia-altered kinases in anterior cingulate cortex using a previously published kinome array data set...
September 12, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
El Chérif Ibrahim, Vincent Guillemot, Magali Comte, Arthur Tenenhaus, Xavier Yves Zendjidjian, Aida Cancel, Raoul Belzeaux, Florence Sauvanaud, Olivier Blin, Vincent Frouin, Eric Fakra
Hundreds of genetic loci participate to schizophrenia liability. It is also known that impaired cerebral connectivity is directly related to the cognitive and affective disturbances in schizophrenia. How genetic susceptibility and brain neural networks interact to specify a pathological phenotype in schizophrenia remains elusive. Imaging genetics, highlighting brain variations, has proven effective to establish links between vulnerability loci and associated clinical traits. As previous imaging genetics works in schizophrenia have essentially focused on structural DNA variants, these findings could be blurred by epigenetic mechanisms taking place during gene expression...
September 7, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Joanne Voisey, Bruce R Lawford, C Phillip Morris, Leesa F Wockner, Ernest P Noble, Ross McD Young, Divya Mehta
Epigenetic aging is associated with several biological mechanisms and diseases. We assessed two brain data sets, one small (n = 48) and one large (n = 392), to test epigenetic aging in schizophrenia. DNA methylation age from frontal cortex was significantly correlated with chronological age but no significant differences in DNA methylation age acceleration between schizophrenia cases and controls were observed in both data sets. Our results were consistent with a previous study investigating schizophrenia and epigenetic aging in superior temporal gyrus...
September 4, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Lynn E DeLisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Suman Prasad, Triptish Bhatia, Prachi Kukshal, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Smita N Deshpande, B K Thelma
Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, heritable disorder. Genome-wide association studies, conducted predominantly among Caucasians, have indicated > 100 risk alleles, with most significant SNPs on chromosome 6. There is growing interest as to whether these risk alleles are relevant in other ethnic groups as well. Neither an Indian genome-wide association studies nor a systematic replication of GWAS findings from other populations are reported. Thus, we analyzed 32 SNPs, including those associated in the Caucasian ancestry GWAS and other candidate gene studies, in a north Indian schizophrenia cohort (n = 1009 patients; n = 1029 controls) using a Sequenom mass array...
August 30, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Chad A Bousman, Chenxing Liu, Ian P Everall
The introduction of the genome-wide association study transformed schizophrenia genetics research and has promoted a genome-wide mindset that has stimulated the development of genomic technology, enabling departures from the traditional candidate gene approach. As result, we have witnessed a decade of major discoveries in schizophrenia genetics and the development of genome-wide approaches to the study of copy number variants. These genomic technologies have primarily been applied in populations of European descent...
August 30, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
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