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Fungal Biology and Biotechnology

Tadashi Takahashi, Masahiro Ogawa, Atsushi Sato, Yasuji Koyama
Background: Translocated chromosomal duplications occur spontaneously in many organisms; segmental duplications of large chromosomal regions are expected to result in phenotypic changes because of gene dosage effects. Therefore, experimentally generated segmental duplications in targeted chromosomal regions can be used to study phenotypic changes and determine the functions of unknown genes in these regions. Previously, we performed tandem duplication of a targeted chromosomal segment in Aspergillus oryzae ...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Julian Brandl, Maria Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Paul Schäpe, Anders Noerregaard, Mikko Arvas, Arthur F J Ram, Vera Meyer, Adrian Tsang, Ronald P de Vries, Mikael R Andersen
Background: Aspergillus niger is an important fungus used in industrial applications for enzyme and acid production. To enable rational metabolic engineering of the species, available information can be collected and integrated in a genome-scale model to devise strategies for improving its performance as a host organism. Results: In this paper, we update an existing model of A. niger metabolism to include the information collected from 876 publications, thereby expanding the coverage of the model by 940 reactions, 777 metabolites and 454 genes...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Alice Rassinger, Agnieszka Gacek-Matthews, Joseph Strauss, Robert L Mach, Astrid R Mach-Aigner
Background: The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei ( T. reesei ) is a natural producer of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes and is therefore industrially used. Many industries require high amounts of enzymes, in particular cellulases. Strain improvement strategies by random mutagenesis yielded the industrial ancestor strain Rut-C30. A key property of Rut-C30 is the partial release from carbon catabolite repression caused by a truncation of the repressor Cre1 (Cre1-96). In the T...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Elena Geiser, Hamed Hosseinpour Tehrani, Svenja Meyer, Lars M Blank, Nick Wierckx
Background: Itaconate is getting growing biotechnological significance, due to its use as a platform compound for the production of bio-based polymers, chemicals, and novel fuels. Currently, Aspergillus terreus is used for its industrial production. The Ustilaginaceae family of smut fungi, especially Ustilago maydis , has gained biotechnological interest, due to its ability to naturally produce this dicarboxylic acid. The unicellular, non-filamentous growth form makes these fungi promising alternative candidates for itaconate production...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Qusai Al Abdallah, Ana Camila Oliveira Souza, Adela Martin-Vicente, Wenbo Ge, Jarrod R Fortwendel
Background: CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing is quickly becoming a powerful tool within the field of fungal genetics. Adaptation of CRISPR/Cas9 systems are allowing for rapid and highly efficient gene targeting within fungi. We recently reported the adaptation of a simple CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene deletion that is effective across multiple genetic backgrounds of Aspergillus fumigatus . This system employs in vitro assembly of Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) coupled with micro-homology repair templates for gene deletion...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Sonia Chadha, Sayaji T Mehetre, Ravindra Bansal, Alan Kuo, Andrea Aerts, Igor V Grigoriev, Irina S Druzhinina, Prasun K Mukherjee
Background: Cytochrome P450s form an important group of enzymes involved in xenobiotics degradation and metabolism, both primary and secondary. These enzymes are also useful in industry as biotechnological tools for bioconversion and a few are reported to be involved in pathogenicity. Trichoderma spp. are widely used in industry and agriculture and are known for their biosynthetic potential of a large number of secondary metabolites. For realising the full biosynthetic potential of an organism, it is important to do a genome-wide annotation and cataloguing of these enzymes...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Timothy C Cairns, Corrado Nai, Vera Meyer
In 1917, a food chemist named James Currie made a promising discovery: any strain of the filamentous mould Aspergillus niger would produce high concentrations of citric acid when grown in sugar medium. This tricarboxylic acid, which we now know is an intermediate of the Krebs cycle, had previously been extracted from citrus fruits for applications in food and beverage production. Two years after Currie's discovery, industrial-level production using A. niger began, the biochemical fermentation industry started to flourish, and industrial biotechnology was born...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Christoph Dattenböck, Doris Tisch, Andre Schuster, Alberto Alonso Monroy, Wolfgang Hinterdobler, Monika Schmoll
Background: Trichoderma reesei is one of the most frequently used filamentous fungi in industry for production of homologous and heterologous proteins. The ability to use sexual crossing in this fungus was discovered several years ago and opens up new perspectives for industrial strain improvement and investigation of gene regulation. Results: Here we investigated the female sterile strain QM6a in comparison to the fertile isolate CBS999.97 and backcrossed derivatives of QM6a, which have regained fertility (FF1 and FF2 strains) in both mating types under conditions of sexual development...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Alexander Eck, Matthias Schmidt, Stefanie Hamer, Anna Joelle Ruff, Jan Förster, Ulrich Schwaneberg, Lars M Blank, Wolfgang Wiechert, Marco Oldiges
Background: Expanding the application of technical enzymes, e.g., in industry and agriculture, commands the acceleration and cost-reduction of bioprocess development. Microplates and shake flasks are massively employed during screenings and early phases of bioprocess development, although major drawbacks such as low oxygen transfer rates are well documented. In recent years, miniaturization and parallelization of stirred and shaken bioreactor concepts have led to the development of novel microbioreactor concepts...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Monika Schmoll
Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina ) is the model organism for industrial production of plant cell wall degradating enzymes. The integration of light and nutrient signals for adaptation of enzyme production in T. reesei emerged as an important regulatory mechanism to be tackled for strain improvement. Gene regulation specific for cellulase inducing conditions is different in light and darkness with substantial regulation by photoreceptors. Genes regulated by light are clustered in the genome, with several of the clusters overlapping with CAZyme clusters...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Pedro F Souza Filho, Ramkumar B Nair, Dan Andersson, Patrik R Lennartsson, Mohammad J Taherzadeh
Background: Currently around one billion people in the world do not have access to a diet which provides enough protein and energy. However, the production of one of the main sources of protein, animal meat, causes severe impacts on the environment. The present study investigates the production of a vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-industry byproduct (PpB), using edible filamentous fungi, with potential application in human nutrition. Edible fungal strains of Ascomycota ( Aspergillus oryzae , Fusarium venenatum , Monascus purpureus , Neurospora intermedia ) and Zygomycota ( Rhizopus oryzae ) phyla were screened and selected for their protein production yield...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Simon Boecker, Stefan Grätz, Dennis Kerwat, Lutz Adam, David Schirmer, Lennart Richter, Tabea Schütze, Daniel Petras, Roderich D Süssmuth, Vera Meyer
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40694-018-0048-3.].
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Philipp Wiemann, Alexandra A Soukup, Jacob S Folz, Pin-Mei Wang, Andreas Noack, Nancy P Keller
Background: Sequencing of fungal species has demonstrated the existence of thousands of putative secondary metabolite gene clusters, the majority of them harboring a unique set of genes thought to participate in production of distinct small molecules. Despite the ready identification of key enzymes and potential cluster genes by bioinformatics techniques in sequenced genomes, the expression and identification of fungal secondary metabolites in the native host is often hampered as the genes might not be expressed under laboratory conditions and the species might not be amenable to genetic manipulation...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Simon Boecker, Stefan Grätz, Dennis Kerwat, Lutz Adam, David Schirmer, Lennart Richter, Tabea Schütze, Daniel Petras, Roderich D Süssmuth, Vera Meyer
Background: Fungal cyclodepsipeptides (CDPs) are non-ribosomally synthesized peptides produced by a variety of filamentous fungi and are of interest to the pharmaceutical industry due to their anticancer, antimicrobial and anthelmintic bioactivities. However, both chemical synthesis and isolation of CDPs from their natural producers are limited due to high costs and comparatively low yields. These challenges might be overcome by heterologous expression of the respective CDP-synthesizing genes in a suitable fungal host...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Zinnat Shahina, Amira M El-Ganiny, Jessica Minion, Malcolm Whiteway, Taranum Sultana, Tanya E S Dahms
Background: Cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extract exhibits potent inhibitory activity against Candida albicans but the antifungal mechanisms of this essential oil remain largely unexplored. Results: We analyzed the impact of cinnamon bark oil on C. albicans RSY150, and clinical strains isolated from patients with candidemia and candidiasis. The viability of RSY150 was significantly compromised in a dose dependent manner when exposed to cinnamon bark oil, with extensive cell surface remodelling at sub inhibitory levels (62...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Xiaomei Zheng, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Zhang Kun, Yanhe Ma
Background: U6 promoters have been used for single guide RNA (sgRNA) transcription in the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing system. However, no available U6 promoters have been identified in Aspergillus niger, which is an important industrial platform for organic acid and protein production. Two CRISPR/Cas9 systems established in A. niger have recourse to the RNA polymerase II promoter or in vitro transcription for sgRNA synthesis, but these approaches generally increase cloning efforts and genetic manipulation...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Graziella Chuppa-Tostain, Julien Hoarau, Marie Watson, Laetitia Adelard, Alain Shum Cheong Sing, Yanis Caro, Isabelle Grondin, Isabelle Bourven, Jean-Marie Francois, Elisabeth Girbal-Neuhauser, Thomas Petit
Background: Sugarcane distillery waste water (SDW) or vinasse is the residual liquid waste generated during sugarcane molasses fermentation and alcohol distillation. Worldwide, this effluent is responsible for serious environmental issues. In Reunion Island, between 100 and 200 thousand tons of SDW are produced each year by the three local distilleries. In this study, the potential of Aspergillus niger to reduce the pollution load of SDW and to produce interesting metabolites has been investigated...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Martin Weinhold, Edeltraud Mast-Gerlach, Vera Meyer
Filamentous fungi are fascinating microorganisms. One of the reasons why it is so worthwhile to take a closer look at them is their capacity to produce secondary metabolites. Some of these substances have the potential to be of great use for mankind, such as it was the case with penicillin and its discovery in 1928. Almost a century later, the situation in healthcare could possibly turn back to the state before the development of the first antibiotics. Due to an overuse of antibiotics we are facing a surge of multiresistant bacteria that are not inhibited by any of the currently known drugs...
2017: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Elena Geib, Matthias Brock
Background: Fungi are treasure chests for yet unexplored natural products. However, exploitation of their real potential remains difficult as a significant proportion of biosynthetic gene clusters appears silent under standard laboratory conditions. Therefore, elucidation of novel products requires gene activation or heterologous expression. For heterologous gene expression, we previously developed an expression platform in Aspergillus niger that is based on the transcriptional regulator TerR and its target promoter P terA ...
2017: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Alexander Idnurm, Andrew S Urquhart, Dinesh R Vummadi, Steven Chang, Angela P Van de Wouw, Francisco J López-Ruiz
Background: The dicarboximide fungicide iprodione has been used to combat blackleg disease of canola ( Brassica napus ), caused by the fungus Leptosphaeria maculans . For example, in Australia the fungicide was used in the late 1990s but is no longer registered for use against blackleg disease, and therefore the impact of iprodione on L. maculans has not been investigated. Results: Resistance to iprodione emerged spontaneously under in vitro conditions at high frequency...
2017: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
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